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ACTIVI T I ES TO THE TEXT 1. Look at the underlined words in the text and try to understand their meaning from the context. Then match them with their Russian/Estonian equivalents in the table. The words are in the same order as in the text. Purpose Research Contributor Perform Summary Concisely Findings Present Cite Relevant Means Data Figures Previous References

Выводы, leiud Выполнять, teostama Графическоеизображениеданных, joonised Данные, andmed Исследование, uurimistöö Кратко, sisutihedalt Представлять, esitama Предыдущий, eelmine Резюме, kokkuvõte Соответствующий,актуальный, asjakohane Списоклитературы, viide, kasutatud kirjandus Средстваспособ , ,vahendid, viis Участник, kaastöötaja Цель, eesmärk Цитировать, viitama

2. For each statement decide if it is True or False according to the text. Each part of an article has a clear aim. Namesof the contributors should be written in the alphabetical order. Abstract is usually at least 250 words. Abstract has the same function as summary. PubMed is an example of a key word. The aim of introduction is to list all the citations from the article. The section Materials and Methods will help you if you want to repeat the experiment described in the article. The section Results explains why the findings are important. The section Discussion presents author’s interpretation of the data. Before writing about your own discoveries you need to describe what other scientists did before you. The way Referencessection should be formatted depends on the journal you are writing for.

Article format Journal articles are divided into sections, each with a specific purpose. In general, a scientific article includes the following: •

Title : A well-written title gives information about the research. The names of all scientific contributors are usually listed immediately after the title. Usually the scientist who performed most of the work described in the article is listed first. Abstract : Some journals call this the “ summary” becauseit must concisely describe the experimental question, the general methods and the major findings and implications of the experiments. It is generally limited to 250 words becausethe text is typed into literature databases,such as PubMed. A well-written abstract will include “search words” or “key words” becausesearching databasesis a major way scientists find articles of interest. Introduction : The central experimental question and important background information are presented in this section. Relevant and established scientific knowledge is cited in this section and then listed in the Referencessection at the end of the article. Introductions lead the reader to understand the authors' hypothesis and means of testing it. Materials and Methods: All experimental procedures and reagents are described in detail so that another researcher could reproduce the findings and check that all discoveries are valid – true. Results: The data are presented in this section, giving other scientists an opportunity to decide how important the findings are. The findings are described with words and also illustrated using figures and tables. Discussion : In this section, authors may present a model or idea that they feel best fits their data. They also present the strengths and significance – importance of their data. Some journal articles put “Results and Discussion” into one section, but when they are separated it is easier for the reader to distinguish the data from the authors' interpretation of it. References: Scientific progress builds on existing knowledge, and previous findings are recognized by citing them in any new work. The citations are collected in one list, called “ References”. Different journals can have different formats for reference section. Somejournals ask that citations be listed alphabetically, while others require that they be listed by the order in which they appeared in the text.

Modified from:

Scientific articles