Page 1

#07. 2018

XIYU ZHANG

STUDIO:AIR

ABPL30048 STUDIO: AIR SEMESTER 2 TUTOR: ALLAN BURROWS

- BOUNDARIES


STUDIO : AIR

---}

TA B L E O F CO N T E N T PAR T A CONCEPTUALISATION A.0. INTRODUCTION

3

A.1. DESIGN FUTURING

4-9

A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION

10-15

A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

16-21

A.4. CONCLUSION

22

A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES

23

A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

24

PAR T B CRITERIA DESIGN B.1. RESEARCH FIELD B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 B.4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES B.6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL B.7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES B.8. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

PAR T C DE TAILED DESIGN C.1. DESIGN CONCEPT C.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS & PROTOTYPES C.3. FINAL DETAIL MODEL C.4. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

Page 2 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

INTRODUCTION

W E LCO M E TO MY PORTFOLIO My name is Xiyu Zhang, currently in my

my assignments all the night before the

third year of my environment undergrad-

due day. Also I can imagine, 10 years later,

uate degree for architecture major in the

I will also have no time to do myself if I

University of Melbourne.

become an architect.

I was born in Nanjing, CHINA, a city which

Collectively, I am very worried about

is fused the Chinese history and culture. It

my imagination and my professional

witnessed the experience of the time, the

knowledge. This is already level three

different destinies and the architecture

subject, but as my state, poor English and

evolution. I love my city, the atmosphere

specialized knowledge makes me feel

and the living style, especially the tradi-

hard during the study period.

tional and special food in China, is the

It is still a long journey.

most thing that I have missed in my study period in Melbourne. Comparing to design the building appearance, I consider I might more suitable to design the interior zoom or clothes. My mother is a constructor for more than 20 years, I had effected by her. But actually, I don’t like this career, working more than 10 hours a day, with no holidays, even need to answer the phone in the midnight. I never thought to learn architecture before until I went to university. Thinking of myself now, I also need to do

Project Portfolio 2018

XIYU ZHANG

Page 3 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

W E E K #01 / J U L _ 2018

DESIGN FUTURING We are now living in an age of rapid tech-

architecture aspect. In 1987, the world

nological development. In contemporary

commission on environment and devel-

society, is full of creative design that bring

opment (WECD), In its “ Our common

convenience to people.

future” report (The Brundtland Report)

To answer the Fry’s question of ‘How is

elaborated the concept of “ sustainable

the future being understood? And what

development” for the first time. ‘evelop-

is meant by design?’ , I believe that SUS-

ment that meets the needs of the present,

TAINABILITY is the most significant thing

without compromising the ability of

to be considered.

future generations to meet their own

01

needs’.03 ‘Whenever we bring something into being we also destroy something.’

02

To treat or observe the sustainable design needs look at from a system perspective

Page 4 of 80

Thus we need to maximize the thing

but not just from a single aspect.For

we lost to contribute the better future.

example, you chose bamboo to be the

Sustainability includes environmental,

material of the product, thinking it is

economic, social and cultural aspects. In

sustainable and natural, but if it is quickly

some cases, they are contradictory and

thrown into the garbage heap, it cannot

need to compromise.

be a sustainable design. In another way,

For instance, rapid economic growth

aluminium is a material that create heavily

is sometimes in the base of the expense in

polluting during processing, but it may

environmental degradation. But in some

be a relatively sustainable design if the

cases they are mutually reinforcing.

production is rich in aluminium and the

I prefer to make sustainable development

product has a very long service life and a

as a design concept and purpose in the

relatively high recycling rate.

01 Tony Fry, Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice , Oxford UK : Berg Publishers, 2009.pp.1-16 02 Tony Fry, Design Futuring, Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice , Oxford UK : Berg Publishers, 2009.pp.1-16

03 Brundtland, The Brundtland Report,WECD,1987

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

PA R T A CO N C E P T UA L I SAT I O N

In the face of this situation, the possibility of another kind of future begs to be articulated, as does the way to bring it into being by design. —Fry

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 5 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

W E E K #01 / J U L _ 2018

THAT HOUSE

Image 1 Ground floor plan

Image 2

Image 3 The wall can be moved according to the demand

Page 6 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

PR E C E D E N T 1

Austin Maynard Architects’ THAT House (2015) is a project which is an alternative way to think about the problem of Australia’s house areas. The actual living space of Australians far exceeds the demand lead to the negative influence in economic, healthy and environment aspects, thus the architects want a “just the right amount of space”.01 “We (Australians) tend to seek those things in a private space rather than going and seeking them in a public space or mingle with others in the community and I think that is a worrying trend,”02 —— Professor Stuart White The main concept of this house is “alone and together”. It was the radical thinking to cut half area to build the house. Instead of totally enclosing or opening rooms and separate the function, the architect tried to make the space connection comfortable and suitable. The ground floor seems to be an open space, but the arrangement allows the owner to be together, the family members can do different activities in a shared space. The owner also can be changed according to the mood, the weather, the time and usage. This is a creative thinking for the proper user of efficient space. The usage of upwards blinds can control the level of private and public, also control the light and view03. According to the reading, the sustainability also exist in this architecture, such as passive solar gain, double-glazed windows, insulations and rainwater tank. However, this is not a solution, just the new thinking. It still had challenge during the design. People always consider the decreased space means the demand cannot be achieved. In fact, even if the area of the house less than the others, the living quality and function did not decline because of the welldesign.

01 “THAT House / Austin Maynard Architects”, Archdaily, 2016 <https://www.archdaily.com/782890/that-house-austinmaynard-architects> [Accessed 29 July 2018]. 02 “THAT House / Austin Maynard Architects”, Archdaily, 2016 <https://www.archdaily.com/782890/that-house-austinmaynard-architects> [Accessed 29 July 2018]. 03 “‘That House’ In Melbourne By Austin Maynard Architects”, Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine, 2016 <https://www.designboom.com/architecture/austin-maynard-architects-that-house-melbourne-australia-02-18-2016/> [Accessed 31 July 2018].

Location: Melbourne, Australia

Architects: Austin Maynard Architects

Year: 2015

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 7 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

Location: Melbourne, Australia Year: 2016

W E E K #01 / J U L _ 2018

Architects: CallisonRTKL + The Buchan Group

CHADSTONE SHOPPING CENTRE

Chadstone Shopping Centre located in the south-eastern suburb of Melbourne. It has been developed by Novion Property Gro

It’s been considered as the biggest shopping centre in the Southern hemisphere01. The power consuming must be large due to

example of energy saver for the other architectures. The designer is clever to design the large arched window roof which prov

same time because the it will allow sunlight into the Centre and help to warm up in the winter. The design team relied on 3D p combination of video animation and computer rendering. The roof is the first of its kind on the continent02.

Meanwhile the designer removes the ground floor to the basement which can save extra energy because the soil will keep tem

ranged inner space like the streets in the indoor space, so that people will hard to get lost in the Centre. People can get almost

it has cinema there, the food court, the supermarket, the clinic. The Chadstone is more like a little indoor city, maybe it is the re

01 McCauley,Dana. Inside Melbourne’s new and improved Chadstone Shopping Centre. News.com.au, 2016 02 “Chadstone Shopping Centre / Callisonrtkl + The Buchan Group”, Archdaily, 2017 <https://www.archdaily.com/804275/chadstone-shopping-cen

Page 8 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

PR E C E D E N T 2 Image 4

Image 5 The standout feature of the design is undoubtedly Chadstone’s iconic gridshell roof. Its structure is based on a lattice framework which derives its strength from its double curvature.

oup and opened in 1960. After many times of extensions.

o large volume in the building. However, it can be the

vides the elegance looking and saving the energy at the

parametric modelling, refining the massing through a

Image 6 High powered linear LED lights are located end to end along the bulkhead that travels around the base perimeter of the grid shell ceiling01.

mperature in the whole year. Furthermore, the well-ar-

t everything in the Centre because for the entertainment

eason of why it can attract so many tourists to come.

01 “Electrolight — Chadstone Shopping Centre”, Electrolight, 2017 <http:// electrolight.com/project/chadstone-shopping-centre/> [Accessed 31 July 2018].

ntre-callisonrtkl-plus-the-buchan-group> [Accessed 31 July 2018].

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 9 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

A 2 B E G I N S ...

Page 10 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

W E E K #02 / AU G _ 2018

DESIGN COMPUTATION The age of Digital Architecture

models have more time to deal with other

With the development and progress of

problem.

society, we pay more and more atten¬tion

“Computation is redefining the prac-

to the digital architectural design, he is of

tice of architecture.”01 The appear of

great significance to real life.

the digital computation re-define the

“The arrival of the digital age enables ar-

design process - from logic form-finding

chitects to get rid of the academic bound-

to create new struc¬ture. The industrial

aries. They are now leading the whole

technologies can be blended better with

process, ranging from thinking pattern to

the construction. No matter how the form

design methodology and construction.”

of everything in the world is different, it

——YoungBirds

has its own generation logic, Logic is the

The building is two-dimensional, belong-

Principal of nature and also is the code of

ing to space art. The architect’s design has

form for architecture.

long been subject to two-dimensional

In the developing future, exploring the

drawing tools: drawing boards, arcs, and

truth of nature is the significant thing.

ruler. Architects for the two-dimensional

Each of us needs a unique life and a

space, the form of the image of no matter

unique existence. And designers as cre-

how rich, must be transformed into two-

ative workers of these objects, their need

dimensional graphics information. The

to change them to digital, like the growth

emergence of digital buildings, so that

of cane, grasp the big direction and law,

the architects get rid of the day of the day,

let the design results protean, with just

greatly reducing the drawing of the physi-

change the numbers and the points.

cal consumption of the map, while the liberation of the hands of the architect, in addition to the draft sketch and work

Project Portfolio 2018

01 Peters, Brady. ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 2013, pp. 08-15

Page 11 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

Image 7

W E E K #2 / AU G _ 2018

Computing helps the architects realize three goals of the works which are see, connect and activate. In this project, the students made good use of parametric modeling using the plug-in for the 3D modeling program Rhino and finally turned physical form-finding models into digital para-metric models. The application of computing in architecture industry would be a main trend in the ongoing and coming future. With the development of computer science, digital technology and virtual technology, the architecture design would surely become more fantastic. The architects can use computing to make virtual designs and enable people to experience their designs more vividly and directly. In this project, students integrated many different attempts together and showed them. With the support of computation, the combine the light effect and landscape can be designed01. This is evidence and performanceoriented. Computation has a crucial impact on the range of conceivable and achievable geometries. In a three-dimensional space, geometries become quite complex. To some extent, computing enables the complex geometries to be simple and visual, thus it makes them conceivable and achievable for both the creators and audiences. Undoubtedly computation contributed greatly to evidence and performance-oriented designing. What computation helps people do is show architectures in a vivid and direct way. Computation present brings unique opportunities and innovations to the architects and the development of architecture (Oxman, 2014)02.

01 Weergeven, Mijn, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Swoosh Pavilion At The Architectural Associationâ&#x20AC;?, Ud2tjardaderooij.Blogspot.Com, 2010 <http://ud2tjardaderooij.blogspot.com/2010/10/swoosh-pavilion-at-architectural.html> [Accessed 9 August 2018] 02 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp

Page 12 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

Location: London Year: 2008 Architects: Valeria García Abarca

PR E C E D E N T 1

SWOOSH PAVILION AT THE AA

Image 8

However, students also realized that a computer cannot instead of designing during this project. Because of the complex geometry, they need to design the details by themselves, then achieved a better project. This shows the Peters idea “Computation does not replace inspiration or an idea, nor the operation of a design model”01.

01 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Image 9

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 13 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

W E E K #02 / AU G _ 2018

Description: According to the ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15, it explores the potential of fabrication, simulation and digital design. The carbon fiber pavilion is inspired by water spider (Agyroneda Aquatica), which creates a reinforced air bubble for surviving under water,the process of this natural production attracts people to consider the brand-new structure that may efficiency with high strength and quality01. It is no double that this is a revolutionary thought with enough technical support, professional analysis and exquisite manufacture. In this Case, computational form finding method plays the significant role of creating the shell geometry and the main fiber bundle locations in the design and construction process by calculating. It showed how material, structure and forms were interrelated in a vivid and visual way. From designing, the geometry form is amazing, using the air bubble reinforced by fibers, as they do not need complex formwork but have capabil¬ity of adapting to the varying demands for individual constructions, and light enough. To achieve this, a computational agentbased design method has been developed, they can modify their designs easily in a short time with the help of computing. In this way, the architects were able to focus more on the continuous logic of design thinking and making02 (Oxman, 2014). As well as a new digital code for robot control had been exploited during the fabrication process. This research pavilion shows how computation helped architectures become beyond representation. This is the challenge for investigators, also is the giant leap for robotic construction processes, to give more opportunities in the future design.

01 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 9 August 2018] 02 Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp

PR E C E D E N T 2

ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 2014-15 Page 14 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

Image 10 Image 11

Image 12

Location: University of Stuttgart

Year: 2015

Architects: ICD&ITKE

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 15 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

COMPOSITION GENERATION W E E K #03 / AU G _ 2018 Architectures are experiencing the shifting from the composition to generation. The core of parametric design is “logic modelling”, is to use the logic of the object itself to establish the object. For example, we say: “Two points can be a straight line”, there is a logic in it: two distant coordinate points (parameters), connected to each other (relationship), can form a straight line (result). And the function of logical modelling is the decomposition of three factors in the process of modelling: parameter-relationship- model, and parameters and relationships can be the variable. In the past, due to the limitation of tools and technology, such as drawing tools, construction technology, the imagine in designers’ mind can not be realized in the process of creating, or they need more time to build it. However, the existence of computation increases the ability of solving problems and make the editorial work become efficiency. 01You can just put numbers (such as density, sunlight) or points(the locations, the slope) in it, the logic can help you create a best way for your project. The plugin software for calculating makes the complicated process in modelling software become easy, it builds the frame, which create relationship between factors. Such as grasshopper for Rhino. However, because there is no separation between design intent and computational technique while computation is a natural or unconscious way, the various results will impact the original purpose, “Computation does not replace inspiration or an idea, nor the operation of a design model”02. Comparing to the computation design, which computers and software are used as passive machine, generation design makes computers and designers have cooperation. Besides, the bottom up and top down are two different way of thinking. For me, I think that bottom-up architectures are based on piecing together with some input such as data, points and stimuli. It is more like there is an aim to design, to solve problems steps by steps or more realized. Besides, top down architectures are more like the formation of perceptions by using higher-level knowledge, imagine and beliefs. There is something special and can be magnified by people minds, to design a whole conceptual image first and consider the details then.

01 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2 02 Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15

Page 16 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

A 3 From Here... “Generative design systems are aimed at creating new design processes that produce spatially novel yet efficient and buildable designs through exploitation of current computing and manufacturing capabilities”

Project Portfolio 2018

– Kristina Shea

Page 17 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

W E E K #03 / AU G _ 2018

NATIONAL AQUATICS CENTER This is a famous example of generation design architecture. Square is the most basic form of architecture in ancient China. It embodies the social life rules represented by morality and ethics in Chinese culture. And this “ square box” can reflect the multifunctional requirements of the national swimming center, thus realizing the perfect combination of traditional culture and architectural functions. The architectural inspiration of “ water cube” comes from the research results on the shape and characteristics of soap bubbles. Soap bubbles always try to minimize their surface area to minimize their surface energy01. Thus, this “Artificial random growth” of the bubble could be the generation design, It can continuously breed and repeat growth. It has both randomness and controllability. The shape is not a cube or a sphere. It is an inorganic form, but it has its own logic. This is a top-down design, which I mentioned that the formation of perceptions by using higher-level knowledge, imagine and beliefs. The concept of this is quite amazing. However, the disadvantages are also obvious. The weight of the structure itself accounts for the proportion of the structural design load, which increases the weight of the building itself by 2 times. Besides, the flatten roof makes the rainwater difficult to be empty. Also, this project is just like created the facade and attached it to a square box. The logic behind it is only morphological, it cannot be convinced.

01 Liang, Shuang, “Post-Modernism Architecture In China: The Bird’s Nest, Water Cube And The CCTV’s New Building As An Example”, Pioneer Forum, TU-80 (2010), 4-6

Page 18 of 80

PR E C E D E N T 1

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

Image 13 Grasshopper process of the Water cube

Image14,15 The steel framing and ETFE cladding are the two main components in this project

Location: Beijing, China Time: 2007 Architects: PTW Architects, CSCEC & CCDI

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 19 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

PR E C E D E N T 2

---}

Location: University of Stuttgart Time: 2014 Architects: ICD & ITKE

This pavilion is a parallel bottom-up design project, the main propose was developed a winding technique for modular, double layered fiber composite structures, which reduces the required formwork to a minimum while maintaining a large degree of geometric freedom. Therefore, during the research, the Elytron, a protective shell for beetles’ wings and abdomen had been found, which is a suitable structure for the aim. Bottom-up means the generation of this project is based on piecing together input and data, which the differentiated trabeculae morphology and the individual fiber arrangements01. According to this data, the logic generated the main structure of the double-curved modules, which can bear stress enough. Comparing to the computation design, this project also likely to be the generation design. In this case, robotic fabrication technology also been used for the construction process. A robotic coreless winding method had been created for this project. Glass and carbon fiber reinforced polymers were the main material, suitable for this complex ‘nature’ architecture. The existence of this research pavilion is not only brought lightweight architecture with high performance and material efficiency, the logic of the main structure also explores new qualities and expands the construction possibilities of the architecture design in the future.

ICD/ITKE RESEARCH PAVILION 01 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2018 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart. de/?p=11187> [Accessed 9 August 2018]

Page 20 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


{---

STUDIO : AIR

W E E K #03 / AU G _ 2018

Image 15,16,17,18

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 21 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

---}

CO N C LUS I O N / AU G _ 2018

Part A is mainly consisted by three parts, design future with the core sustainability, digital computation which can solve the ability problems for designers and the composition with strong logic. It is also the process to create a project in contemporary, to have the design thinking and concept firstly, using technology to help us to find the perfect form, then modelling it. In this rapid world, the direction of architecture should be combined with human life, which impacts the culture, economy, environment etc. The architecture will not just be the shelter for people, but also the arts. However, when we achieve something, we will destroy the other thing, especially the resource in the earth. Thus, the sustainable buildings need to become the mainstream in the future. Meanwhile, based in the design thinking, the logic of the object makes the process of the modelling become easier in all aspects. In the past, architects design made architectural designs by visiting real architectures, forming the design in their minds and then drawing out the designs by hand. The architects in the past must use superb perspectives to show their designs directly including 2D plane pictures, vertical view pictures and sectional view pictures just like artists. Nowadays they can use computing to demonstrate their vivid designs directly after they have creative ideas rather than use hands. Besides this, they can modify their designs easily in a short time with the help of computing. In this way, the architects were able to focus more on the continuous logic of design thinking and making01. Computing can be used to re-define practice. Computing takes the place of hand drawing and picture modification. Simultaneously it supported the architects to create more ideal designs which show their ideas and creativity to the greatest extent.But people need to be cleared that the calculus can not instead of thinking, it is just the assistive tools which can realize the thinking. Designers should not be influenced by the various result but forget the original purpose.

01 Oxman, R. Theories of the digital in aechitecture, London and New York, 2014

Page 22 of 80

Project Portfolio 2018


STUDIO : AIR

{---

L E A R N I N G O U TCO M E S / AU G _ 2018

I did a lot of research when I do the part A precedents, I understand the sustainable architecture a lot. And I know that if I want to be a good architect, I should connect the architecture to the people, to imagine the experience of the people, but not just create a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;buildingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; itself. I also achieve some special thinking during othersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; presentation. During the investigation of computation design, I was aware of the smart of the computer. People utilize software to realize the image in the mind. For Generative design, I found that most of the design have their own logic but some of them can share the concept logically. Such as if someone design a logic algorithm about sunlight of a geometry, another people can still use this when they do another geometry if you have access, the computer can also create a better case for you as well as you just need to change the data. However, I also agree that pure parameterization does not have a logic practical meaning. Only when combined with performance-based design, it can be reliable support and provide a better method for the project. During these three weeks, I learnt the knowledge about rhino and grasshopper follow the tutor and video tutorial, such as lofting, contouring and bricking. When I saw a whole battery picture, I felt that is difficult for me. But when I extended the battery show full name, I can understand it. And also, one set of batteries could form various appearances, just need to set different points, lines and surface, It is convenience and efficiency.

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 23 of 80


STUDIO : AIR

Page 24 of 80

---}

Project Portfolio 2018


{---

STUDIO : AIR

A LG O R I T H M I C SK E TCH B O O K

Project Portfolio 2018

Page 25 of 80


R E FE R E N C E : 1. “THAT House / Austin Maynard Architects”, Archdaily, 2016 <https://www.archdaily.com/782890/that-house-austin-maynardarchitects> [Accessed 29 July 2018]. 2.“‘That House’ In Melbourne By Austin Maynard Architects”, Designboom | Architecture & Design Magazine, 2016 <https://www. designboom.com/architecture/austin-maynard-architects-that-house-melbourne-australia-02-18-2016/> [Accessed 31 July 2018]. 3. McCauley,Dana. Inside Melbourne’s new and improved Chadstone Shopping Centre. News.com.au, 2016 4.“Chadstone Shopping Centre / Callisonrtkl + The Buchan Group”, Archdaily, 2017 <https://www.archdaily.com/804275/chadstoneshopping-centre-callisonrtkl-plus-the-buchan-group> [Accessed 31 July 2018]. 5. Weergeven, Mijn, “Swoosh Pavilion At The Architectural Association”, Ud2tjardaderooij.Blogspot.Com, 2010 <http://ud2tjardaderooij.blogspot.com/2010/10/swoosh-pavilion-at-architectural.html> [Accessed 9 August 2018] 6. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp 7. Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 8. “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> [Accessed 9 August 2018] 9. Liang, Shuang, “Post-Modernism Architecture In China: The Bird’s Nest, Water Cube And The CCTV’s New Building As An Example”, Pioneer Forum, TU-80 (2010), 4-6 10.“ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2018 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=11187> [Accessed 9 August 2018]

I M AG E L I S T: Image 1,2,3 “THAT House / Austin Maynard Architects”, Archdaily, 2016 <https://www.archdaily.com/782890/that-house-austinmaynard-architects> [Accessed 29 July 2018]. Image 4,5 McCauley,Dana. Inside Melbourne’s new and improved Chadstone Shopping Centre. News.com.au, 2016 Image 6 “Electrolight — Chadstone Shopping Centre”, Electrolight, 2017 <http://electrolight.com/project/chadstone-shopping-centre/> [Accessed 31 July 2018]. Image 7,8,9 Weergeven, Mijn, “Swoosh Pavilion At The Architectural Association”, Ud2tjardaderooij.Blogspot.Com, 2010 <http:// ud2tjardaderooij.blogspot.com/2010/10/swoosh-pavilion-at-architectural.html>\ Image 10,11,12 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2014-15 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart.De, 2015 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=12965> \ Image 13 Cdntct.Com, 2018 <https://cdntct.com/tct/pic/city/beijing/attractions/beijing-national-aquatics-center-4.jpg> Image 14 “Fan Feng”, Moreaedesign, 2018 <https://moreaedesign.wordpress.com/author/fanfeng4arche/>\Image 15 Water Cube Beijing National Aquatics Center /Sports architecture forms in Beijing, China ,SML.20140502.6D.31820.P1 Flickr Image 15,16,17,18 “ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2013-14 | Institute For Computational Design And Construction”, Icd.Uni-Stuttgart. De, 2018 <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=11187>

Xiyu_Zhang_825886_PartA  
Xiyu_Zhang_825886_PartA  
Advertisement