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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The population in the United Kingdom is increasing. Proportionally, much of this rise is occurring in London. With rapid urbanisation and demand for transport services well on their way to reaching capacity, the government needs to address this ever growing problem as urban mobility is important for economic growth as well as London’s place as a world class city. The London Olympics in 2012 served as testament to this fact. For a limited time, London was able to pull together to offer the world an exemplary transport system. Evidently, policymakers are considering the future of mobility in London. However, these policies need to be more inclusive of all passenger groups. The United Kingdom population is ageing. In 2031, almost a quarter of the general population is forecast to be over 65 with a large proportion of these elderly choosing to reside in London. The Mayor of London’s transport strategy goal is “to improve the quality of life for all Londoners”. In order to meet this goal we need to realise that the needs of the ageing are more than just functional 2

and accessible transport. It is also about social isolation and connecting with community. London needs to consider the social isolation that in prevalent amongst the ageing and is set to become an even bigger problem. In this urban mobility project we have tried to explore the needs of the elderly as a starting point for improving mobility services in London. Our primary user research indicated behavioural differences in the current elderly (aged >80) and the future elderly or “baby-boomers (aged >60 who are now reaching retirement). There will be differences in challenges that the future elderly will face. We have tried to explore this in detail and also begin with this user group to design an inclusive mobility solution that is accessible to all. Project Sparks is a concept that combines an improved bus travel experience with social contact in your locality therefore promoting peer to peer value exchange and community.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Thank you. With thanks to all the elderly Londoners whom we interviewed and who kindly gave up their time to help with this project. We would also like to thank Paul Marchant, head of product design at TFL and Joe Kerr our humanities tutor for their expert advice. Another thank you goes to our tutors and mentors from the RCA MA Service Design course.



INTRODUCTION The face of London is changing. It is becoming bigger and older. More people are moving to London and the population is set to increase from 8 to 9 million by 2031 (see reference 1). The general population is also ageing. The proportion of elderly Londoners choosing to remain in the city post retirement is on the rise. This demographic change and rapid urban growth presents a challenge for London and a transport system that is already running close to capacity. The aim of the project is to assist Transport for London (TFL) by identifying opportunities for future service innovations and develop concepts for either a new service, or, a series of design interventions that enhance existing services, to improve urban mobility for communities that are most challenged by current systems of public and private transport provision (see appendix 1 for detailed brief) Urban mobility is a challenge that policymakers need to address urgently (see reference 2). 4

Ensuring that urban dwellers remain mobile is more than just about transport policy. It is about economic growth and London’s competitiveness as a world-class city. It is about social inclusion and promoting community in a city that is growing at an astonishing speed. This project seeks to address some of these issues and to consider the elderly as a starting point for designing a travel experience that will keep Londoners connected.


DESIGN RESEARCH Methodology The project commenced on the 19th of October. There were 4 people on the team from varying backgrounds. The research methodology included primary and secondary research. However, the secondary research component was continuous throughout the project and not a discrete entity. Initially we explored the brief whilst simultaneously trying to understand how urban mobility and public transport are defined in the way they are. It was then important to understand the main user groups and their access to transport services. Finally we considered the reasons or motivations for embarking upon a journey. Early on in the research process we identified the elderly as a particular group that are challenged by current mobility systems. Our primary user research was heralded by evidence that many there are many falls a day on buses and the elderly are most at risk. Consequently they are extremely anxious about using public transport to make a journey. 5


Kathleen, 88 year old pensioner

Street Interviews

Kathleen is hard of hearing, partially sighted and uses a walking stick. Her physical impairments restrict her mobility and her ability to connect with others around Surbiton. She uses a taxicard and is a member of dial-a-ride. She would like more flexibility with travel and for more people to be trained in dealing with physically impaired people.

The London suburb of Surbiton was chosesn as a location for street interviews as it is has many very good bus routes and was therefore thought to be an ideal location to observe and interview the large numbers of old aged pensioners that live there and mainly use buses.

Man, 67, retired civil servant His preferred mode of public transport is the bus but he thinks some bus routes are too complicated. This limits his ability to attend various leisure activities such as rugby matches, which he is passionate about. Hence he uses his car sometimes but wishes he could be even less dependent on it.

Surbiton (Travel zone 6) 6

Lady, age 62 pensioner

Man, 53, motor biker

This lady uses the buses all the time. because she likes the convenience. Particularly she likes the smaller Abelio buses as the drivers are very friendly and more flexible. She likes the social interaction — a lot of people on these buses know each other as they always get the same one.

This man very rarely uses public transport, usually after he has been out for an alcoholic drink. He likes the sense of freedom owning a motorcycle gives him. He doesn’t have to be reliant on someone or something else. However, he would love to have some sort of individualised reliable public transport system.

Man, 67, retired computer specialist He keeps himself active. This man uses buses mainly to get around. He likes buses because they are cheap and easy to access. He enjoys reading or being productive on the bus. His wife uses the car because she likes the sense of freedom it gives her. Man, 52, decorator This man likes the overall experience of buses. He uses the same bus every day and loves how affable the driver is. He thinks this is the fact that makes his journey better. 7

In-depth interviews and observations The followingly presented individuals were approached for a street interview but it was felt that further in-depth interviews and observations were needed. Observations were made whilst we shadowed their bus journey (except Tim) . At this second interview they were all given design probes and their journeys were mapped.

“I speak three languages but can’t handle technology, not even my basic mobile phone.“

Inner London (Travel zone 1) Ino, 80 Is a spanish immigrant. She has been living in Central London for 52 years and is widowed. She has 2 children and 3 grandchildren. Ino has arthritic joints, she uses a walking stick, and is mildly visually impaired. However, she has a young mindset and is fairly stoic.


“I have recently fallen and broke my hip on a bus but I won’t let that beat me, I will continue to take the bus.“

“I don’t use my car here in London. Sometimes I take it out „for a walk“ to keep the battery alive. I couldn’t sell it — it means freedom to me.“

Joan, 63 Joan lives in Clerkenwell and moved there from manchester 5 years ago. She works part time for NHS litigation and her office is in Victoria. She is a widow and has step children that live in America. “I can’t imagine a life without mobile technology like GPS anymore.“

Joan likes to experience the London life. She intends to always live in London and has adapted her house to her needs in case she becomes less physically able in the future. She is active and independent and likes going to art classes and sightseeing. She is a person who is most comfortable when she is in a routine. This translates to her bus routes — where and how she takes her coffee and even how she prepares her belongings for work. Joan mainly takes buses because she likes the experience even though she knows there is a faster alternative. 9

“Transport for me is about getting from A to B as quickly as possible.“

Harriett, 52 ° English teacher at the RCA

Tim, 55 ° Security guard at the RCA

Harriett regularly uses the few bus routes that she knows. She has a great zest for life and does many extra-curricular activities. She wants a big change in life before she retires. She intends to always live in central London.

He is dyslexic. He lives in Deptford and travels to the RCA everyday. He is widowed and has 3 children and 5 grandchildren.

“Living in London is like a marriage, you want to break out but you simply can’t.”

Tim is an avid motor biker and has no desire to ever use public transport. He prefers individuality and flexibility.. He has been taking the same route everyday for 21 years, since he has difficulties going on new journeys. His community is in Deptford and he sees no need to leave unless it involves travelling for work. His family always visit him once a week and he has set his life up so he knows he wont be alone in the future. “I am a man of order and routine.“


“People are important for people. They make a difference to their travel journey“

Expert Interviews Paul Marchant ° Head of product design for TfL Paul pointed out that there are many ongoing projects at TfL but these take time. Improving existing services is possible as TfL put a lot of their data out into the public domain so anyone can utilise it for developing technology solutions such as new apps. The Olympics for instance were a landmark event for TfL. It proved that a lot can be achieved in a short time if there is a common goal. The Olympics were also an opportunity to think of the transport system as an integrated service solution rather than just infrastructure. At TfL there is a 5-7 year incubation period for the implementation of new ideas. TfL is non-profit driven but is under significant amounts of political pressure . This is one reason why they invests more in rail services than surface services as the former generates a much bigger income. 11

Joe Kerr 째 London bus driver and RCA tutor in humanities During an interview and co-creation session Joe opened our eyes for how important information delivery is for people and the seamlessness of their journey. Regrettably the bus countdown system is being replaced due to cost by new technology which necessitates a smartphone or the internet to access up to date bus information.


SECONDARY RESEARCH Mobility in London Demographics London is the second largest region in terms of total population (after the South East), accounting for 15% of the England total. There were 7.8 million residents in mid-2010, an increase from 7.3 million in 2001, with the average annual increase working out at nearly 56,000. The 2008-based population projections suggest the population could increase by 15.8 per cent between 2010 and 2030 to 9.0 million by 2030. (see reference 3) The population is ageing. By 2031 the number of people aged over 65 (older people) in the United Kingdom is projected to increase from 9.7 million to around 15.8 million. The number of Londoners aged over 80 is projected to increase by 40 per cent over the next 30 years, rising to 352,000 by 2031 (see reference 4).

As London gets more and more crowded, the strain on current transport and mobility systems is increasing. We discovered that even though the population is forecast to age dramatically in the future, current government policy in transport is not in proportion to the number of elderly that are going to require a fully functional and accessible private and public transport system. Often the elderly are perceived as not contributing economically to societal growth and therefore there is a lack of funding in this area. Detailed research into Transport for London (TfL) was conducted including expert interviews with staff as previously mentioned. We identified the types of transport systems available and the modes frequented by elderly users including the taxi card system and Dial-a ride buses. TfL statistics indicate that the preferred mode of surface transport for the elderly was buses. The

reasons for this are multifactorial but are likely to include ease of use, accessability and the social experience. Our focus on elderly bus travellers was supported by research that showed there are over 800 falls on buses a day in the UK. Many of these are elderly and this results in increased anxiety levels and a decreased wiliness to travel. This leads to a disconnect from society and social isolation. Ageing Ageing is the accumulation of changes in a person over time. It is the multidimensional process of physiological and psychological change. It’s needless to say that everyone ages physically and becomes characterised by common impairments. During the course of our primary research we discovered that the behaviours and attitudes of the pre-war elderly are different to the post war elderly (baby boomers). The fact that the post war elderly will face different challenges in the future and given the long innovation implementation time at TfL we 13

decided to explore this group in detail. There are notable differences in ageing psychology of the pre-war compared to the post war generation (baby boomers). The baby boomers are defined by certain characteristics: s Their desire to stay and/or act young. s Their have an increased life expectancy and a more active lifestyle than the pre-war elderly. s They are a very affluent generation and have high expectations of living and a high quality of life. s They expect freedom and independence and a large proportion of them own cars. s As a generation they seem to be less concerned with environmental issues. Ageing and social isolation Loneliness and social isolation in the elderly is currently a big problem. According to Age Uk (a 14

leading UK charity for the elderly) over a third (34%) of people aged 65+ in Great Britain feel lonely. As the population ages, this has potential to become an even bigger problem especially as evidence suggests that this elderly Londoners are at an even bigger risk (see reference 4). A reduction in loneliness and social isolation promotes wellbeing and can be beneficial for the community as a whole. There have been many initiatives within London to address this problem but has been highlighted in a recent article in The Times newspaper - ‘A friendly face and a cup of tea takes the edge of loneliness’. ( timesappeal/article3626922.ece) There have been suggestions that strong social connections among the elderly can be promoted by providing places for social interaction, offering services built on relationships not transactions and providing ways of initiating contact with isolated people (see reference 5).

Other cities and emergent technology The future is cities as mega cities with smart interactive technology that connect its inhabitants e.g Seoul. The future of transport lays in multimodal mobility systems where transport is personalised with a mobility smart card e.g Hong Kong . Example: Personal RapidTransit (PRT) This mode of transport is in its infancy. It consists of individually hired electric pods carrying two to six passengers apiece that travel on fixed routes on guideways. Fully automated, they offer roundthe-clock availability and no congestion or parking issues.





COMMUNITY Family Friends Colleagues


Bus drivers Bus conductors Taxi drivers Cab drivers


COMPANY iBus System

Stakeholder analysis — Stakeholder map

13 percent of bus passengers are aged over 55. (2008) ° 30% LEISURE journeys ° Preferred travel time: off-peak hours

Bus Operators

TfL buses Arriva Abellio First Metroline etc.

Live Bus Arrivals

Online service Text message service Applications



INSIGHTS & PROBLEM DEFINITION Insights As a bridge from research to problem defintion insights were generated. All findings and key facts were summarised and can be found in appendix 2.

The future elderly will have the normal physical contraints associated with ageing but with young mindset and high expectations of life.


The journeys they undertake will change from need-to journeys (work, shopping) to want-to joureys (leisure).

They may be socially isolated as they age but will still want interaction, entertainment and community on their own terms.

They are ’creatures of habit’ and feel comfortable in travel routines. They feel reassured with familiar routes.

Problem Statement

With demographics in London changing rapidly, how can the elderly be encouraged to take new bus journeys as a means of reducing social isolation and inactivity in the future? 17


DESIGN DEVELOPMENT Persona Camilla is a fictive person that was developed following our primary user research. She is a composite persona that was used to develop our service proposition. In summary, she is a combination of the physical impairments that would normally be associated with ageing but psychologically has a young mindset. Camilla is 76 and lives alone in Fulham. She has two children and three grandchildren. She loves London and intends to live here till she dies. She leads an active lifestyle despite her mild osteoarthritis. She retired at 63 and since then she has been pretty active. In fact, she is out every day a week doing different activities but likes to stick to the same routine because she is in her comfort zone and feels that she’ll get stressed doing anything else. She owns a car and likes the feeling of freedom and independence owning gives her but she usually takes buses. Importantly, she uses a computer and owns a basic smartphone. 18

The circle concept In order to visualise the improvements being achieved with the following service proposition a circle graphic was developed. User researched showed bus travelers from the focus group tend to travel only on known routes, they go on routine journeys. The new service is an integrated approach to motivate them to embark upon new journeys in two different ways. For details see the blueprint on the next page and tht service proposition in chapter 04.






SERVICE PROPOSITION Project Sparks is a service concept focusing on road transport services delivered by Transport for London (TfL). We propose that the elderly who are reaching retirement now, will in 5-10 years have physical constraints that are part of ageing. However, they are likely to demand more from the transport service than basic accessible and functional travel. The new service experience should address needs such as social isolation, their sense of adventure and way finding as they embark upon different journeys. This is based on our discovery that the post war elderly as an ageing generation (babyboomers) are more tech savvy than the pre-war generation. They are also more demanding, adventurous and independent. It is important to note that although the service proposition is aimed at elderly users, it has been designed to accommodate users of all ages.


The service experience is focused around new bus stops — Spark stops — that are spread across London. The bus stops are re-imagined community centers instead of waiting points and are sparks that are designed to ignite the community through more and more people connecting. This idea is supported by a digital platform — OysterCircle — that recommends new journeys based on people’s interests and offers the opportunity to connect with likeminded users and perhaps embark upon journeys with them. The key elements of this integrated service experience are social engagement, local networking as well as suggested activities based on people’s interests. These elements are complemented by improvements of basic features like route planning and way finding as well as the overall service infrastructure.

Spark stops are unique and iconic

Spark stops mark a local community

Spark stops will be easily recognisable. They will keep the elements of the TFL brand. The colour red and the bulls eye but will have additional features. The implementation will be an incremental process. In order to innovate quickly but sustainably whilst at the same being economical, the existing shelters can be utilised as they are currently designed as modular pieces. By the time it becomes necessary to replace the old shelters, a new design would have been determined. This process may occur for example through a design competition as it worked so successfully when designing the new Routemaster bus.

The Spark stops will initially be localised in particular areas within a London borough. Example: Camilla lives in the Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham and therefore these bus stops will be placed in high frequency locations that may include places like the Hammersmith library or a shopping centre. By using these bus stops regularly and utilsing the services they provide, Camilla will forge relationships with people in her local area and will therefore feel confident about going on journeys recommended to her by people she actually knows.

An exemplary design concept of the Spark stops inspired by the Thomas Heatherwick bus design is shown in this report.

The implementation of these iconic bus stops would initially begin with a small number. Ten iconic Spark stops close to tourist attractions or high frequency places across central London. However as the Spark stops are intended to become tourist attractions in their own right, having them in non central locations may encourage travel to lesser known parts of London. 23

Spark stops are smart travel hubs The future of cities is smart — meaning that through digital technology an intelligent infrastructure of information is created. The Sparks concept suggests exploiting this interconnectedness for example by utilizing interactive smart screens. These bus stops will have interactive smart screens and users are able to get relevant, live and tailored transport information without the need for actively requestin them using a smartphone app. This is particularly relevant for the elderly if they forget to take their phone out with them. This means that they feel reassured about the whole of their journey as the screen displays arrivals and departures, disruptions on relevant routes as well as interesting information about the area. Passengers that desire further information can interact with the screen, i.e. demand the display of detailed route information or landmarks to be visited around the area. This all serves to reassure the elderly users that their 24

journeys will be accurate and convenient. Other ways of providing journey reassurance to the elderly may include consideration to safety and security. Illuminated interactive screens bring much needed light to the bus stop and therefore make them safer. Supporting the idea of making a journey more desirable to the elderly are smart Oyster touch-in points which will be integrated into the interactive screens. Old passengers often fall when buses move off before they are seated. Less able people sometimes have to wait standing for a seat being vacated. The existing communication technology between bus stops and vehicles can be utilised to make the boarding process quicker and safer. With the new smart touch-in point people who are waiting can touch-in with a registered Oyster card that holds information about special requirements. The approaching bus will receive a signal about less able people to board who will need a wheelchair

ramp or a priority seat. This information then will be communicated through a sound system, so that bus driver and other passengers are prepared.

Spark stops are local community centres The key element of a Spark stop is the replacement of conventional advertisement by a sponsored area that fosters social contact. The bus shelter is a modular construct of which one side wall can be creatively designed. This should be realised by local sponsors, that either represent something typically ‘British’ or that is well-known and widely appreciated. The sponsor pays for the space as they would for a conventional poster, the difference is that they are free to be creative with the space. Ideally, sponsors would set up small sales-areas or counters for information or action, so that they can directly benefit from it. The only requirement when bidding to TFL to sponsor a Spark stop is to provide an appealing space that supports social networking and community building.

public viewing. They would also need to ensure that these sponsored areas can be securely enclosed. Creating Spark stops that are more than a shelter and resting space but rather a community centre enable all passengers but especially older people with plenty of time to enjoy this time and make contact with others. Those that undertake particular journeys on a regular basis will now have a reason to extend their trip and spend more than the current 10-15 minutes waiting at a bus stop. Getting to know people in your locality would create the perfect start for motivating each other to try out new destinations and therefore new routes. In an ideal situation people will not only explore their neighborhoods on their own but will arrange new journeys together. Single Spark stops then will have started a firework of connections and new fun journeys.

Examples of sponsors may include Twinings with a tea lounge or Chelsea Football Club with a TV for 25

Concept sketches

Engineering drawing 26

Example Renders


For those not having the opportunity to benefit from Spark stops an alternative mode of social connectivity called OysterCircle is provided. OysterCircle is a digital platform for TfL users to get travel recommendations and related route planning as well as the opportunity to connect with likeminded people. How it works When registering their 60+ Oyster Photocard the elderly will automatically be registered with the platform if they are giving their permission. Having now a still fairly anonymous profile they have the option to add personal information like hobbies and interests. Based on the given information (age, borough, preferred routes and interests) users receive personalised recommendations for new destinations and journeys. The idea is that these suggestions correlate with interests and journeys from other users. 28

When interested in a suggestion a choice must be made. Either the user decides to try this journey all alone and hence will be redirected to a journey planner. Alternatively the user is curious about the user with related interests and decides to connect. A chat function connects both users giving the opportunity to get to know each other and eventually arrange an interesting journey together. According to destination, date and time discussed in the chat the smart journey planner displays a suggested route. It is safe to say that the OysterCircle is a platform only appropriate for open-minded people. However, future trends have shown that social contact in this form will become more conventional. Whilst Babyboomers have slowly adopted mobile technology, it is forecast that they will be likewise be more open to digital social networking. The platform suits the future elderly needs in so far that participation is optional and anonymous to a certain extent. The platform is limited to a private

circle of users (only registered 60+ Oyster card users within the same borough), furthermore it offers relevant but not too many functions and is easy to use. OysterCircle is the technological alternative to sparks of social connection in their borough. Suggestions — little sparks — motivate people to go on new journeys and networking opportunities based on those suggestions bring people together to break out of their isolation.




60+ Oyster Card Registration

No I don’t want to go there. Suggested Activity Yes But I want to go on my own.

Yes Connect me with other people who like this activity.

4 Route Planner


Smart Route Planner

New Journey to New Destination


Storyboard Camilla’s new journey experience 1



































BUSINESS MODEL Key partner and activities

Key resources

Value proposition

Transport for London (TFL) has the final say on location of bustop

Physical Spark stops and oyster circle platform

User Social networking and value exchange

London Boroughs (e.g Hammersmith & Fulham) joint decision with TFL as to which corporate community sponsor is responsible for the bus stop. Also responsible for maintainance of Oyster cirle platform

Intellectual brand patents, copyrights, data

TFL brand recogniton and revenue through tourism and from corporate sponsors of project sparks

bus stop maintainer (JC Decaux or Clearchannel) maintains spark stop Corporate community sponsors (e.g Twinings/Harrods etc.) responsible for financing and security of the spark stop module. Technology support from companies like Samsung 34

Human technical staff to maintain oyster circle and interactive smart screen. Spark stop module will be design so as not to require counter staff

Corporate community sponsor brand recognition and revenue in some cases Revenue streams

Financial High initial set up cost of physical spark stop

TFL Spark stop module rental by corporate community sponsor Corporoate community sponsor Advertising or sale of goods (e.g Twinings tea)

CONCLUSION Many people take public transport because they have an ultimate destination that they would like to get to as quickly and efficiently as possible. The needs that elderly Londoners have go beyond that. For them it is about feeling reassured whilst embarking upon a journey and also about the social experience making a journey brings them. We have tried to address some of these needs in proposing Project sparks. Although it has been designed with the elderly in mind, what if all Londoners thought of their transport journeys as a time to connect with community. London would certainly be a much more friendly city.




1 Hollis, John. London population and migration report 2010. Greater London Authority

1 Detailed design brief 2 Research visualisation

2 Wilhelm Lerner, Daniel Koob and Oleksii Korniichuk. How business can help solve the urban mobility challenge 3 Office for national statistics 4 Population ageing: statistics - United Kingdom Parliament ( 5 Jonathan Clifton. Social isolation among older Londoners report, Institute for public policy research


Appendix 1 First Term Project Brief 1: Urban Mobility Brief “Transport and mobility are integrally linked to independent living and again of crucial importance in the context of rapidly changing demographics. They also raise one of the most important challenges for the future: how can we maintain independence from youth to old age and at the same time reduce our dependence on the car. Transport for London and the existing infrastructure of the city is running close to capacity and its focus is on greater efficiency to handle growing capacity from both visitors as well as the changing demographics related to age, ethnicity, family unit size, socio-economic status of the local population. Goal: Assist TfL by identifying opportunities for future service innovations and develop concepts for either a new service, or, a series of design interventions that enhance existing services, to improve urban mobility for communities that are most challenged by current systems of public and private transport provision. Scope: Reflect on extremes of age, demographic, socioeconomic status and cultural challenges to deliver

a truly inclusive proposition. Identify specific communities whose needs you are seeking to address and identify the opportunity that such interventions might have to the broader community of customers. Using London as your starting point, explore a new service that might be offered at either a regional, metropolitan or highly localised district level. Such a service should ideally exploit existing infrastructure, refining the current service experience, e.g. Journey planning, way-finding, ticketing, access and security, rather than a radically new infrastructure such as the recent Barclay Cycle Scheme or Crossrail. However, if you believe there is a compelling case for a new infrastructure, do consider it and take advice from your tutors.

Optimizing travel choices: Travel information has both a practical and emotional role. It helps travellers to make efficient choices, but it also helps people feel empowered and in control. Good information can alleviate stress and improve the customer experience, while poor or inappropriate information has the reverse effect. Customer information has three key functions: s Journey planning s Way-finding s Reassurance These are not mutually exclusive but are interrelated; for example, effective journey planning creates greater reassurance.

Key considerations: A lot of the emphasis at TfL is squeezing greater efficiency from its existing infrastructure by empowering customers to make informed and better decisions about how to use public transport.

The guiding principles: Different customer groups have different needs and require different approaches to closing knowledge gaps. Many customers are less confident in using the network than may be expected. Hence, there is a need to provide reassurance at all journey stages. Whist there is a need to continue improving information provision at the ‘journey planning’ stage, attention must be paid to the ‘during journey’ stage

For example mobile phone apps allow people to tailor individual journeys through the city depending on their individual needs. Customers increasingly expect interconnectivity of services as well as constant updates and real time information as they go about their unique journeys.

The fundamental principles apply to all communications channels and modes of transport, both public and private; albeit with some variations (particularly for cars, cycling and walking) due to the nature and operating environment of the mode.” 37

Appemdix 2 ° Design Research Summary


MODES Road Transport


Cycling Taxi & Cabs Buses Coaches

Paddington is to close after 30 Nov 2012.

Rail & Tube Underground Overground National rail Trams DLR Crossrail

Air River River & buses Airline


It has 49,066members and high overall customer satisfaction, 91%. But, now it only operates




We want to help the current ageing generation who are fore– cast to increase to 20% of the general population in 2025. They will be in a similar physical state like the pre-war generation but have a younger mindset and higher demands of the future.

There are 13 percent of bus passengers aged

Double-decker bus, Heritage Routemaster There are



700 bus routes,

19,500 bus stops



6.4 million

approx 19,000. It creates bus passengers every day.


Improvement to infrastructure Quick innovation implementation Campaign to travel in off-peak hours Travel ambassadors Overnight deliveries and freight journey planner






Bus Operators TfL buses Arriva Abellio First Metroline



Website journey planner Telephone service Applications Station attendants

Maps Signage & Information Legible London

Oyster card Senior Railcard 60+Freedom Pass

Staff assistance Retractable wheelchair bus ramps

CCTV Passenger emergency alarm British transport police

ASSISTED TRANSPORT Physical level Operational level Behavioral level

Priority seating signs Easy to read signage system Wheelchair area on buses Stepfree tube station access Lifts to the tube platforms

Online service Text message service Applications


TfL: 5-7 years innovation incubation TfL invests more in rail services (e.g. tubes) than surface services (e.g. bus) “The solution for TfL should consist of incremental and tangible improvement rather than complete new services:“


UK in 2031 People aged over 65……

0 -4 5 -9 10 - 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29

15.8 Million 22% of Population

30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 - 84 85 - 89 90 - 94 95 - 99 100+

London is Big and the population is increasing London is the second largest region in terms of total population (after the South East), accounting for 15% of the England total. There were 7.8 million residents in mid-2010, an increase from 7.3 million in 2001, with the average annual increase working out at nearly 56,000. The 2008-based population projections suggest the population could increase by 15.8 per cent between 2010 and 2030 to 9.0 million by 2030.

2008 Addition by 2033

The population is ageing By 2031 the number of people aged over 65 (older people) in the United Kingdom is projected to increase from 9.7 million to around 15.8 million. The number of Londoners aged over 80 is projected to increase by 40 per cent over the next 30 years, rising to 352,000 by 2031.

Joe Kerr

Head of Programme Critical & Historical Studies School of Humanities



We chose the suburbs initially as we felt that there would be a higher proportion of the elderly living in London

Ageing is the accumulation of changes in a person over time. Multidimensional process of physiological and psychological change.

Also we felt that those living in the suburbs were a neglected minority in terms of accessibility and connection with inner London

Whilst everyone ages physically and becomes characterised by common impairments (hearing/sight/decreased mobility)

Initial research conducted in the suburbs suggested that the elderly preferred buses led us back to inner London. (She was visiting her daughter in Surbiton) Further interviews with the post war elderly indicated that they would never leave London therefore decided to focus on inner London It was evident from these interviews that the baby boomer generation had a different view of ageing to the pre-war generation and that their expectations were different.

Customized Space Personalized Public Service

How can others assist with them embarking upon new road transport journeys for leisure purposes?

There are notable differences in the ageing psychology of the pre-war compared to the post war generation (Baby boomers) characteristics: stay and/or act young.

MOBILITY Transport for London statistics indicates the elderly prefer walking > bus >train Most we interviewed preferred to take the bus. There are 800 falls on buses every day. This is a problem and a cause of anxiety for many older people. This was validated by our user interviews Actual falls and anxiety about the chance of falling are barriers to travel so we examined this in detail We also found that the elderly on buses were worried about being slow and the attitude of others to them (driver and other passengers)

They have an increased life expectancy and an active lifestyle

Many users we interviewed exhibited particular travel routines visiting the same places out of habit.

have high expectations of living and a high quality of life

We feel this may be a barrier to travel in the future. (less adaptability to changing travel plans and therefore higher stress levels. ).

They expect freedom and independence and a large proportion of them own card

Hence leading to a disconnection with the community and increased social isolation.



Preference for buses


Platform humps in some locations

Location Awareness Social Media Cloud Computing



Live Bus Arrivals

Commercial buses The Original Tour Golden Tours






Green Building Sustainable

COMPANY iBus System



Family Friends Colleagues


Bus drivers Bus conductors Taxi drivers Cab drivers

Countdown signs Text message service Announcements

over 55. (2008) purpose states 30 per cent the boarding time focuses on off-peak period. (10:00-16:00, 19:00-22:00)

Bus driver

Kathleen, 88 “The people need training to deal with impaired people.“

Man, 67, retired civil servant He prefers buses before driving a car and wishes he could be even less dependant from the car. But he wishes for having less complex routes.

Physical barriers Mental barriers


Man, 53, motor biker He never uses public transport. He would love to have some sort of individualised and unfailingly functional transport

Man, 52, decorator He likes the experience of the bus especially the personal bus drive ron his normal route.

Camilla, 76, in 2025 Born and lived in Manchester moved to London 5 years ago lives now in Fulham suffers from osteoarthritis short sighted, wears glasses

Joan likes to experience the London life, like going to art classes or sightseeing. She is a routine person since she like the same routes for her journeys and her life. Joan mainly takes buses because she likes the experience even though she knows there is a faster alternative.

Harriett, English teacher at the RCA She uses only the few bus routes that she knows but wants a big change in life before she retires. Routines vs. zest for life “Living in London is like a marriage.“ Man, 67, retired computer specialist This man likes buses because they are cheap and easy to access. He enjoys reading or being productive on the bus.


Joan, 63 lives in Clerkenwell works in Victoia (part-time) widowed has Stepp children living far away moved to London 5 years ago

Occupation previous PE teacher in primary school retired at 63 Ino, 80 spannish immigrant has been living in Central London for 52 years widowed 2 children and 3 grandchildren

Ino is physically old, she uses a walking stick, is slightly sight impaired and incontinent. However, she has a young mindset and is stoic. Altough she once fell on the bus and broke her leg, she does not give up using public transport.

“I will not let the fact that I have fallen beatm e. I will continue to use buses.“

Tim, 55 security guard at the RCA dyslexic lives in Deptford works in Battersea occasionally in Kensington Tim is a motor biker and has no desire to ever use public transport. He prefers


and he sees no need to leave only to interact with others.




Expectation of the future




What I can do walk slowly as she gets knee pain able to walk for up to one mile uses walking stick for longer journeys can swim 500 metres What I cannot do Walk up to and down stairs easily although it takes time Cannot stand for more than 5 minutes In damp weather I get knee pain Cannot follow several conversations at once as decreasing hearing A typical day Camilla wakes up at 9 am. She hates aarms but uses her natural body rythm. She feels a bit stiff but manages to shower and dress unaided. At 9.30 she eats breakfast. After tthe breakfast every day of the week holds something else for her to do, but the weeks are the same. Saturdays are her sightseeing days. She has lived in London for a while and still from Fulham by bus and sits on the bus observing people. She takes the same route every week as she likes the familiarity. She sometimes thinks about taking another route but she eels uncomfortable with the idea. Sundays are the days her family visits. Cooking for hem takes her a long time but she enjoys it. She often cooks a slow casserole but someone told her this uses a lot of gas. She is not really concerned with the environment, so she will continue to do this as her family enjoys her cooking.

TEAMWORK Collaboration | Problem Framing. Idea Creation. Design Development. Julia Schrot | User Research. Communication Design. Report Management. Vivienne Heyhoe | User Research. Product Design. Report Management. Myoung-Hwan Han | User Interface Design. Blueprint. Storyboard and Animation. Irene Yen-Hsuan Shih | Desk Research. Product Design. Storyboard and Animation.


A project for Transport for London (TfL) Oct 2012 - Jan 2013 Royal College of Art MA Service Design Julia Schrot Myoung-Hwan Han Vivienne Heyhoe Irene Yen-Hsuan Shih

Profile for Irene Shih

Project Sparks: Report  

With demographics in London changing rapidly, how can the future elderly be encouraged to take new bus journeys in 2025? Background The fa...

Project Sparks: Report  

With demographics in London changing rapidly, how can the future elderly be encouraged to take new bus journeys in 2025? Background The fa...

Profile for ireneshih