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ENCOUNTERS Graduate Architectural Design


01 Index

Digital Weaving

Simulation und robotische Herstellung von textilen Flächenstrukturen aus Flechtweide Monofil in der Architektur | Sommer Semester 2018 | Universität Kassel STUDIO MASTER Professor Philipp Eversmann TUTOR Zuardin Akbar TOOLDESIGN CONSULTANT Andrea Rossi STUDIO SUPPORT Michelle Reinwart Created by Irene Aguado Galarreta 35191908 Marina Timón Ribagorda 35206835


02 Index

Contents 01. Index

02

02. Thesis Statement Thesis statement

04

03. Research frame Objectives Research background Process steps Methology finding process

06 08 10 12

04. Material Wicker stripes Analysis Treatment Endless material Hot melting glue

16 17 18 20 22

05. Tooldesign and fabrication Tooldesign Simple gripper Blade and gripper Gear gripper Roller gripper Tool functionality

24 25 26 27 28 30

06. Design process Design process Original model Homogeneous density model Central density model Progressive density model Organic model Technique compilation model

34 36 38 40 42 44 46

07. Architectural proposal Exporting the system

48


03 Thesis Statement


04 Thesis Statement

Thesis Statement The aim of our research is to create a process that guarantees the precision and continuity between the phase of distribution of structural loads in the design of the panels and the materialization of the final result, through the previous study of the material, the structural design knowledge and industrial robotic arm technology. The conventional idea of a structural element, both in its horizontal arrangement and in the vertical of loads; and the space formed around it is challenged by the creation of architectural spaces without limits. Said unbounded spaces can be divided in part structurally and architecturally in an indistinct manner in any direction. Through the formations and variations that we set during this creative process, we started thinking more strategically, in a more effective way. Our goal is to create a system which could rule independently structure or skin elements in architecture. The following study focuses on the generation of panels as a roof or skin that consists of stressed stripes. In addition to the structural requirements, in the case of the organic structure can also be reinforced in the geometric structure in the logics of density and intersection.


05 Research frame


06 Research frame

Research frame. Objectives Density To achieve structural stability, computational structural analysis was applied to the design process. By analyzing mobile areas in the composition, the weak points were raised with additional stripes. In addition, by increasing the length of the strips, the structural scale could be achieved. Continuity This research on architecture was based on textile structures that could be connected, thus, a spool was used that allowed the endless arrangement of stripes. The endless production is a process appreciated in the current architecture as it gives the project the same language with architectural logic. Resistance The design of each of the proposals as a grid was criticized according to its resistance to traction and compression. The superposition of stripes improved its compression resistance allowing the grid to take smaller bending angles. Perpendicular to each mesh was also analyzed under compression as its viability was also investigated as a vertical structural support element. Lightness Depending on the accumulation of desidades the grids denoted a weight problem. Therefore, the design of the stripes distribution according to the previous structural knowledge was an essential stage. The combination of concepts such as weight, moment of inertia, moment to compression or index of elasticity were considered in the advanced design of the project.


07 Research background


08 Research background

Research background In order to obtain a deep understanding of the behavior of the material and the mobility of the robotic robot, as well as to develop a design methodology that allows the generation and variation of densities, several case studies will be taken. Extensive research was carried out on references and precedents, in relation to aspects of the project, from the material to the structural design processes in behavioral materials or similar provisions. Through the geometric or organic grid, the roof becomes lighter or more protected. The panel assembly allows the public to enjoy the permeable space that flows easily everywhere. The sequence of layers is based on an orthogonal grid x and y simple, which moves in parallel and exponential. However, additional stripes are added while overlaying the orthogonal grid. The grid design follows the correct distribution of fringes (perimeter) which is the correct composition to avoid excess material using only the area loaded on a beam or pillar. In the example of the architect Gion A Caminada, Aussichtsturm Reussdelta, we studied an observation tower for ornithologists composed of stripes that make up the armed structure of the building. They are combined as a textile design. Perhaps more interesting, we discovered the perimeter distribution of wicker that we see in the detail of the staircase. In the following example of Tadao Ando, the Komyoji Saijo Ehime Temple in Japan, we analyze the distribution of the material, in this case timber, which fully supports the weight of the roof. The superposition of layers and the variation of densities both in the ceiling and in the outer skin are elements that were interesting to analyze since from the same system it resumed an enveloping function that protects from external agents; and another purely structural function.


09 Process timeline

Process timeline In the beginning of the project we consider the superposition of stripes fixed by a metal wire and with an auxiliary structure as pillars. In addition we conceive the mesh as an adaptable surface at different heights. Later, the need arose to fix the intersections with a head that allowed the displacement of the stripe with the tool. In addition the tool no longer considered only the gripper but also the gluing with melting glue. The exhaustive search of the most suitable tool was developed in parallel to the endless material. Finally, it was concluded that the development of the system as a planar surface would facilitate the movement of the multi-task tool.

METAL WIRE JOINS

DEVELOP DIFERENTE SUPPOTS

AUXILIAR STRUCTURE CURVED SURFACE STRIPE MATERIAL

JOIN BY GLUE SUPPOR WHERE THE JOINS ARE HOLD

DEVELOP DIFFERENT JOINS MECHANICAL

DEVELOP THE GRIPPER


10 Process timeline

CHANGE THE SUPPORT CHANGE THE TOOL

CHANGE TO AN ENDLESS MATERIAL CHANGE THE TOOL

CHANGE THE SUPPORT USE HOT MELT GLUE

PLANAR SURFACE DEVELOP THE ROLLER + GRIPPER DEVELOP THE GLUE SYSTEM


11 Models


12 Models

Methology finding process I The first proposal investigates the feasibility of adapting the stripes mesh over a hierarchy of temporary pillars. In this case, the stripes layers were superimposed one after the other by continuing the orthogonal grids x and y; and the diagonals later. Each of the layers were fixed independently through a wire pin on the top of the support. However, the method of fastening was not effective.


13 Models


14 Models

Methology finding process II During the development of the project, the option of fixing the stripes by means of a head on the support was also considered. Said stripes would remain glued between them in the support until the end of the mesh. It was decided to move to a flat surface to modify it later.


15 Material research


16 Material research

Material: Wicker stripes The wicker is a material of plant origin therefore its internal structure is composed of cellulose fibers linked together by lignin, which are what define its main characteristics. The main features are: Hygroscopic: so it easily captures the humidity, so its behavior varies depending on weather conditions. Ortotropo: means that its elastic behavior, in particular between the applied stresses and the unit deformations is different for the dimensions. This is determined by the arrangement of the fibers in their intercellular structure. Polar: means that it is a material related to other polar products such as water varnishes and adhesives with aqueous bases. Light: due to the change of density that suffers in the drying process. Resistant: it is a material resistant to tensile forces in the longitudinal direction in which fibers are arranged.


17 Material research

Material analysis One of the necessary processes to find the balance between the tolerance of the material and the design and geometry of the tool.

We bend the wicker strip to find the curvature that supports the material.

After several tests, we find the optimal dimension of the smaller circumference that the material could tolerate.

If we continue to bend the strip and the diameter of the circumference is reduced, the material breaks in most of the tests.


18 Material research

Material treatment process

Lightly moistening the material before use makes it remarkably flexible and prevents it from fracturing.

Malearing and bending the material before use is also recommended so that the adaptation of the material is much better.


19 Material research

Endless material

First of all, its necessary a selection of the strips and cut the irregular parts of them and take the stright ones.

The extrems are cutted and are disposed over a surface in order to lime them with a sandpaper. We want to get an angle to ensure that the join was has homogeneous as posible.

Apply glue on the ends and let it dry until it is completely transparent.


20 Material research

After drying, the ends are selected to be as similar as possible, and to achieve a continuous material.

Heat is applied with a iron to activate the glue and join the stretches of material.

Finally the long strip of material is wrapped in a plastic coil that will be placed next to the tool on the head of the robot


19 Robotic fabrication


22 Material research

Material: Melting hot glue The hot melt glue is the adhesive type we use to carry out our project. After trying other types of products, we found in this material the best properties / characteristics that suited our main material, the wicker. Firstly, it is an adhesive that works even when the material is a little damp, which makes it possible to treat the wicker before using it. The viscosity of the glue when melted makes the strip, which is very porous, stick quickly to the amount of glue. The fast drying is probably the main characteristic, and it only requires approximately 3 seconds to start hardening, which allows that, in our case, the strip is quickly blocked and saves a lot of time in the manufacturing process. Glue sticks are manufactured in various diameters, in our case, 7mm. This polyester glue melts at a temperature of 120 ° C, which requires extreme care when the extruder is turned on.


23 Tooldesign


24 Tooldesign

Tooldesign The idea of transporting the stripes was fundamental in the methodology that we wanted to develop in the project, so the first tool acted as a simple gripper in a compact form, which, despite its manageability, did not allow for other functions. A cutter blade and a small gear by which the endless material slid were then incorporated into the tool. However neither the radius of disposition of the stripe nor the power of the cut of the blade were the adequate to our system. The flat gripper was transformed into a gear gripper that communicated with a larger gear but was not yet wide enough to prevent the fracture of the stripe. Finally, the set of gears was simplified to slide and press the material better. In addition, the melting glue arrangement was incorporated on the side.

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25 Tooldesign

Simple gripper

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26 Tooldesign

Blade and gripper

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26 Tooldesign

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FUNCIONALITY PRECISION COMPLEXITY ADAPTATION COMPACTNESS


28 Tooldesign

Roller gripper

FUNCIONALITY PRECISION COMPLEXITY ADAPTATION COMPACTNESS

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29 Tooldesign

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30 Tooldesign

Tool functionality Achieving the objectives established at the beginning of the project was a challenge, however, the design of the last tool allowed to achieve them. Three main states were contemplated in the design of the tool and its movement. The melting glue must first be arranged before the roll with the stripe. Second, the stripe had to be placed quickly before the glue lost its adhesiveness. Finally, the arm of the robot had to be lifted far enough away with the gripper open so that it would finally close in the point algido and it was possible to cut the material manually. The automatic cutting of the stripe would be a function to develop in a second future phase.

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31 Tooldesign

Melting glue system Previously, the glue is disposed thanks to the frictional thrust of the two toothed gears. One of them drives the movement through a 5v motor stepper. The step progression of which the thrust is composed is compiled in the arduino board so that it only advances when the tool is stopped at the intersections of our determined system design. During these intersections the adhesive arrangement is a fine filament that contributes to the fastening of the layer overlap.

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32 Tooldesign

Gripper system Once the glue is placed, the stripe goes directly aligned on the roller to be held after the step of this. Until the end of the material distribution, the mechanical gripper remains open.

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33 Design process


34 Design process

Design process The grid is base on a secuence of layering stripes which creates the crowded or spacious areas in the whole composition. Depeding on the example we found the concentration of stripes in the center of the panels or located in the boundaries areas. Each kind of situation links the structure with a constructive element. For example, the figure on the left side has the property of supporting huge amount of vertical loads like a beam, while the right one is related with the fuction of a pilar.


36 Design process

Original model X and Y main grid mixed with diagonal ortogonal extra grid.

It adapts perfectly to any shape thanks of its supports and low density. Easily removable due to the metal wires. It wasn‘t strong enough to support no simetrical loads. Metal wires restricts the possibility of enlargement.


38 Design process

Homogeneous density model X and Y in equidistant grid and in progressive expansion.

The densified grid definately helps to resist heavy loads. Also the surrounding distribution of loads lightens up the structure. Easy to continue the system and customize it. If is it too dense, it won‘t be light. If is it too dense, it won‘t be neither adaptative anymore.


40 Design process

Central density model X and Y main expanded grid with a secondary diagonal grid only in one corner and then rotated in every side. It follows a strong composition. Few further possibilities of enlargement. It is too rigid is not possible to adapt it to different levels. Couldn‘t be light because is really compact.


42 Design process

Progressive density model X and Y in equidistant grid and in progressive expansion.

The densified grid definately helps to resist heavy loads. Also the surrounding distribution of loads lightens up the structure. Easy to continue the system and customize it. If is it too dense, it won‘t be light. If is it too dense, it won‘t be neither adaptative anymore.


44 Design process

Organic density attractors model A whole organic grid converts into some points as attractors of density. The amount of stripes in some areas endow the panel enough flexibility for being adaptative. It use a stripe spool which turns possible the enlargement of the system. The density distribution collaborates with the light up of the structure. The possibilities of piling are endless, doing it totally customizable. Depending on the loads distribution might be stronger or weaker. The glue removal could become complicated because of the big surface.


46 Design process

Techniques compilation model X and Y main grid with a secondary diagonal which has partial double segments in order to increase the density in specific parts. Is it posible to increase the density by overlapping more segments. The grid has a high viability of being continued in a easy way. The flexibility of the most empty areas gives adaptativity but also a high resistance when you blend it. The density is unfortunately indirectly proportional to the lightness of the design of the system.


48 Proposal

Architectural Proposal The system has a wide variety of possible uses. Due to its light weight, resistance, permeability and flexibility the possibilities are endless. The patterns in the last slides shown represent the multiple characteristic this system could consider. It is easy to imagine a whole architecture project develop only with this system. From vertical or horizontal supports until thiner or thicker partitions.

Profile for Irene Aguado Galarreta

Encounters: Digital Weaving Project  

Simulation and robotic production of textile surfaces structures made of a timber filament.

Encounters: Digital Weaving Project  

Simulation and robotic production of textile surfaces structures made of a timber filament.

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