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Contents PREFACE 1 SESSION 1.4 INNOVATIVE CITIES 4 Innovative Cities Encourage A Modal And Mental Shift Towards A More Sustainable Environment - Fred Dotter....................................................................................5

SESSION 1.5 CHALLENGES FOR INTERNSHIP INTEGRATED UNIVERSITY PROGRAMMES

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Praxis: European Centre For Project/Internship Excellence - Nuno Filipe Escudeiro, Paula Maria Escudeiro...........................................................17 Mutw: A Local Project/Internship Granting International Experience - Nuno Filipe Escudeiro, Paula Maria Escudeiro ..........................................................29

SESSION 1.6 UNIVERSITY - ENTERPRISES COOPERATION: QUALITY IN PLACEMENTS AND INTERNSHIPS

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Quality And Quantity Of Placements For All? Exploring Synergies And Opportunities Of Cooperation Across Educational Sectors - Thomas Berger, Pauline Vandenbosch...........................................................................41

SESSION 1.7 MULTI-DISCIPLINARY STUDIES FOR UNDERSTANDING THE SEAMOUNTS IN THE LEVANTINE BASIN-EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

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Geology Of The Seamounts In The Levantine Basin - Christos Anagnostou..............................53

SESSION 1.10 FOR THE MARITIME CLUSTER IN EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN

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For a Maritime Cluster in Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea - Beate Gminder..................65 Developing A Regulatory Safety Framework For Offshore Oil & Gas Challenges And Lessons Learned - Zan Zschommler................................................................71 Maritime Tourism Cluster Anatomy. Policies Ahead? - Lekakou Maria, Stefanidaki Evangelia.......................................................................................85 Risk Assessment Of Offshore Oil And Gas Installations Under Cyber Threats - Constantinos Hadjistassou, Antonis M. Hadjiantonis ...........................................95

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SESSION 1.16 2BE CONNECTED: UNIVERSITIES LIAISING WITH ENTERPRISES: GOOD PRACTICES 102 The Operation Of An Industry Liaison Office At The Open University Of Cyprus - Gregoriou Elena, Savva Michalis, Dalosi Anna, Kalli Maria.........................103 Placement Mobility – As A Key To Unleash The Latent Entrepreneurial Mindset Among Students - Thomas Berger..............................................................................113

SESSION 1.18 SCIENCE THROUGH COMPUTATION BUILDING REGIONAL INFRASTRUCTURES AND THE LINKSCEEM PROJECT

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Linksceem-2 Linking Scientific Computing In Europe And The Eastern Mediterranean Phase 2 - Eleftherios Eleftheriou.......................................................................125

SESSION 1.19 ENTREPRENEURSHIP CARRIED OUT IN UNIVERSITIES

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Entrepreneurship In Universities Opportunities And Challenges - Leila Abboud.....................137

SESSION 1.25 CATALYX NOX CONTROL SYSTEMS: CURRENT STATE AND FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS

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The Influence Of Potassium And Sodium On W-Zrce Oxide Nh3 - Scr Catalysts - A. Väliheikki, T. Kolli, M. Huuhtanen, J. Huhtala, T. Maunula, T. Kinnunen, R.L. Keiski......................157 The Synergy Of Surface-Induced And Support-Mediated Promotion Routes On Pd-Based Catalysts For The Effective Lean Reduction Of Nox By Co+H2 Mixtures - V. Matsouka, G. Goula, M. Vrontaki, G. Avgouropoulos, M. Konsolakis, T. Ioannides, I.V. Yentekakis...................................................................................167 Recent Developments In Multifunction Reactors For Diesel Engine Emission Under Conventional And Advanced Combustion Conditions - Souzana Lorentzou, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos........................................177 Promotion Of Ammonia Formation On Lean Nox Trap System For Coupling With Scr Catalyst: A Spectroscopic Infrared Investigation - A. Kouakou, C. Dujardin, F. Fresnet, P. Granger...........................................................................195 Improvement Of Low-Temperature Activity And Thermal Stability Of Vanadate-Based Nh3-Scr Catalysts - Marzia Casanova, Alessandro Trovarelli ........................207

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Low-Temperature Industrial Nox Control Catalytic Technology Applications Using H2/Cxhy Gas Mixtures As Reducing Agents - Christos M. Kalamaras, Angelos M. Efstathiou...........................................................................219 Recent Research In The Field On Nox Reduction - Tanja Kolli..................................................227 A Novel Active, Selective And Stable Catalyst For The Reduction Of No To N2 With Ethanol Under Lean De-Nox Conditions - Giorgos Olympiou, Lilian Valanidou, Costas Costa......................................................................237 Understanding The Mechanism Of H2-Scr Through The Use Of Transient Isotopic Techniques - Angelos M. Efstathiou........................................................245 New Insights Into The Structure Of CeO2, ZrO2, CeO2-ZrO2 Nanoparticles Using Time-Resolved Emission And Excitation Spectroscopy - Carmen Tiseanu, Vasille I. Parvelescu..................................................................................................................255 Synergy Phenomenon In The Ceox-Au-Ai2o3 Catalytic System - D. Niakolas, C. Papadopoulou, H. Matralis................................................................................295 De-Nox In Rerovskite-Type Materials - Vassilis N. Stathopoulos................................................311 The Influence Of Potassium And Sodium On W-Zrce Oxide Nh3-Scr Catalysts - Ari V채liheikki, Tanja Kolli, Mika Huuhtanen, Teuvo Maunula, Toni Kinnunen, Riitta L. Keiki......................................................................................................327 The Synergy Of Surface-Induced And Support-Mediated Promotion Routes On Pd-Based Catalysts For The Effective Lean Reduction Of Nox By Co+H2 Mixtures - V. Matsouka, G. Goula, M. Vrontaki, G. Avgouropoulos, M. Konsolakis, T. Ioannides, I.V. Yentekakis..................................................................................335 Recent Developments In Multifunctional Reactors For Diesel Engine Emission Control Under Conventional And Advanced Combustion Conditions - Souzana Lorentzou, Dimitrios Zarvalis, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos....................345 Support Effect Towards Palladium Particles Stability During No+H2+O2 Reactions: Comparison Between Pd/Al2o3 And Pd/Lacoo3 Catalysts - C. Dujardin, J.P. Dacquin, P. Miquel, M. Trentesaux, P. Granger....................357 Understanding The Mechanism Of H2-Scr Through The Use Of Transient Isotopic Techniques - Angelos M. Efstathiou.............................................................................367 Low-Temperature Industrial Catalytic Nox Control Using H2/Cxhy As Reducing Agents - Christos M. Kalamaras, Angelos M. Efstathiou...........................................387

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Recent Research In The Field Of Nox Reduction - Riitta L. Keiski, Tanja Kolli,

Ari Väliheikki, Marja Kärkkäinen, Anna Valtanen, Mari Pietikäinen, Kati Oravisjärvi, Mika Huuhtanen.......................................................................................................................395

SESSION 2.1 MEDCONF 2012 7TH MEDITERRANEAN CONFERENCE ON MATHEMATICS EDUCATION: RESEARCH, CHALLENGE, CREATIVITY 404 Effective Communication In Teaching Undergraduate Mathematics And Its Impact On Producing Innovative Proofs - Marios Ioannou...........................................405

SESSION 3.1 INNOVATION 416 The 1St Summer School Of Youth Entrepreneurship At The University Of The Aegean: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation - Anastasia Constantelou, Vasilis Angelis.....................................................................................417 Semantic Informationsystem For Health Care - Peter Scholten ,Ji Jie.......................................427 User Profile Architecture - Konstantinos Agnantis, Konstantinos Kalogirou, Taxiarchis Tsaprounis, Evangelos Bekiaris....................................................................................441

POSTER SESSION 452 Telexetasis: A Multi-Modal Biometric System For Secure And Reliable E-Exams - A. Georghiades, M. Pavlou, G. Zaggoulos, and Ch. Pavlou...........................................................453 Monitoring Organ Transplant Patients For Skin Cancer And Other Skin Disorders - Eugenia Toumbis, Dimitri Rigopoulos.........................................................................................465 Empowerment for innovation – steering SMEs towards effective IT Service Management - Iva S. Walterova......................................................................................................................467

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Preface It is with great pleasure that I greet the proceedings of the EASTWEST 2012 Congress and Exhibition. This new Congress in the region marks the beginning of a new communication of researchers and the business world with a great potential that in the years to come it will become a great international event between EAST and WEST. The European Office of Cyprus, with an innovative spirit, has orchestrate this gathering of international experts from the scientific and business world, giving them an excellent opportunity to meet and create collaborations and synergies during the event, main goal of which was to promote cross-national collaboration between East and West, as a tool to overcome national limitations on knowledge, financial resources, technology and services. The European Office of Cyprus, with its very active network, focuses on the creation of a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation, where different actors work together and ideas and strategies are generated under the “triple helix” of multiple reciprocal relationships among institutional sectors. Since its foundation, it has undertaken many initiatives to promote synergies between academia and businesses and to create the right conditions for these collaborations to flourish. This event was one of these opportunities where innovative ideas can find their way to the global market. These proceedings are a collection of full presentations by many of the presenters at EASTWEST 2012 and provide a useful tool and documentation to several fields of interest. I would like to thank the presenters who contributed to this publication, which marks the quality of the Congress. The Euro-Mediterranean region with its history in the trade of goods could also make a history in the trade of ideas. Dr Gregory Makrides Executive Director, European Office of Cyprus Chairman of the Organizing Committee of EASTWEST 2012 Director of Research and International Relations Service– University of Cyprus

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CONFERENCE PROCCEEDINGS

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Session 1.4 Innovative Cities

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INNOVATIVE CITIES ENCOURAGE A MODAL AND MENTAL SHIFT TOWARDS A MORE SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT Fred DOTTER Austrian Mobility Research, FGM-AMOR Schönaugasse 8a 8010 Graz, AUSTRIA dotter@fgm.at

ABSTRACT

Old habits are hard to break, so considerable demonstration and testing is needed to see if urban dwellers are willing to embrace more sustainable forms of mobility. This is the impetus for innovative, sustainable and energy-efficient measures, which breathes life into cities by making them a place where people want to be! Innovative measures breathes life into cities by making them more vibrant, a place where people want to be and spend time! This, in turn, makes cities more attractive places for businesses to locate. A lot of European projects and initiatives renew the lives of residents by offering them viable alternatives to driving their cars with the promise of better health and quality of life.

WHEN LESS IS MORE? A great architect of the last century, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe is quoted as saying, “Less is more” when referring to his building designs. This concept can also apply to our cities. Fewer cars clogging streets and parking lots can make for a better urban environment. Fewer cars allow more use of urban spaces by people strolling, riding their bicycles, sitting in sidewalk cafes, playing or just standing watching the world go by. Fewer cars also means that the air is cleaner and we have fewer worries about energy resources. But, how can we reduce our dependency on cars and still do all the things we need to do? Get to work or school, shop or visit friends? The answer lies in the concept of sustainable urban transport. Offering travel options that rely on cleaner, better and co-ordinated forms of transport. This includes enhanced public transport, walking, cycling, sharing rides in cars, and new ways for moving goods and freight. Supporting these more sustainable forms of transport are

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the use of cleaner vehicles (alternative fuels) and new parking and planning policies and incentives for more sustainable travel behaviour. At the heart of cities is life – VITA means “life” in Latin. Innovation in sustainable mobility breathes life into cities by making them more vibrant, a place where people want to be and spend time! This, in turn, makes cities more attractive places for businesses to locate. Innovative sustainable mobility renews the lives of residents by offering them viable alternatives to driving their cars, getting them into buses, onto bicycles and sidewalks, with the promise of better health and quality of life.

DO WE NEED SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY IN EUROPE? A large majority of European citizens live in an urban environment, with over 60 % living in urban areas of over 10,000 inhabitants. They spend their daily lives in the same space, and for their mobility share the same infrastructure. Urban mobility accounts for 40 % of all CO2 emissions of road transport and up to 70 % of other pollutants emanating from transport. European cities increasingly face problems caused by transport and traffic. The question of how to enhance mobility while at the same time reducing congestion, accidents and pollution is a common challenge to all major cities in Europe. Congestion in the EU is often located in and around urban areas and costs nearly 100 billion EURO, or 1 % of the EU’s GDP, annually. Cities themselves are usually in the best position to find the right responses to these challenges, taking into account their specific circumstances. We have to consider reconsidering if it is “normal” to plan for machines instead of for our children and unfortunately, it happens too often that citizens in Europe have accepted this fact as “normal”.

WHAT ARE THE TRENDS OF A CITY OF THE FUTURE? The development of traffic and mobility reflects the social, economic and technical trends in our cities. These are influenced by ten mega-trends: 1. The population of our cities is constantly growing both for demographic reasons

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and owing to the continued rural exodus. 2. The cities are centers of economic growth and thus of individual prosperity which lead to a growing differentiation in lifestyles and mobility requirements. 3. The growing individualization of urban society coupled with a growing number of small households leads to more traffic. 4. Rising land prices and rising rents in the centers of conurbations have the consequence that rents for living space rise disproportionately, the lower and middle classes as well as families with children migrate from the centers, and the number of commuters constantly grows. 5. The cities are developing more and more into metropolitan regions within which the distances between homes, workplaces and recreational facilities increase. 6. An increasing geographic flexibility of employees (“modern nomadism”) makes the streams of commuters grow between cities too. 7. New forms of shopping by car, especially in large malls, and the use of recreational facilities on the verges of cities generate new streams of traffic. 8. Increasing e-Commerce, the use of the internet, and other forms of a mediabased shopping culture, for example meals on wheels, result in growing individual delivery operations. 9. The “just-in-time” delivery of physical products and services results in the growing transport of goods and people in our cities. 10. People’s increasing speed orientation leads to a high demand for mobility services on road and rail, on the water and in the air. As the consequences of these mega-trends, ever more people are moving ever more and ever faster. More and more goods are being delivered to more and more places just-in-time. The fast growth of transport services worldwide leads to higher consumption of resources, growing damage to the environment and global warming. Political structures, legal obstacles, lack of funds, and lack of awareness in the population prevent the changes required to organize the growing mobility in our cities in a way which is socially inclusive, healthy, safe, ecologically acceptable and economically efficient.

PLANNING FOR A SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY There are some advantages to work without overall planning: It is fast, investors like it and decision makers get the image of “enablers” and. But then, powerful lobbies

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will have more influence on decisions, alternative solutions to a problem are not transparent, some groups of citizens are not asked, built elements will not fit together, politicians try just to attract investors. The following four examples show what happens, when cities work without oerall planning, starting with a comparison of CO2 emissions between transport, power&heat, households, services and the industry.

Figure 1: Comparison of CO2-emission

On the basis of a study, carried out by the World Health Organisation and the UNESCO in Austria, Switzerland and France in 2003, 7000 deaths are caused by road accidents, 28.000 deaths are caused by traffic-caused emissions and 42.000 people dying because of a lack of physical activity.

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Figure 2: Traffic-caused deaths

A further example shows, that in Austria the mobility behaviour of children on the way to school in the age of 10-14 differ between the reality and desire. As the reality provides a modal share of 11%, the desired modal share lies three times higher. Children want to cycle and don’t want to sit on the back seat of mama’s or papa’s “car-taxi”. But parents are afraid of too many and too fast cars! So we cannot fulfil our children needs and wishes, we cannot provide them a chance to develop in a healthy way. This is definitely a sad example of UNsustainable urban mobility.

Figure 3: Reality and desire of Austrian children on the way to school

Finally, here we a comparison of four European cities: Groningen (NL), Zürich (CH), Bochum (DE) and Nicosia (CY). Simulating that people from these four cities are equal, both in terms of trips, activities and travel time, the inhabitant of Groningen needs 340 litres of fuel per year, the one from Zürich 440 litres, the person from Bochum 1010, and the person from Nicosia uses 1480 litres! These differences are a result of urban planning in these mentioned cities.

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Figure 5: Comparison modal share of Groningen, Z端rich, Bochum and Nicosia

All these examples show, that we need to plan a city our children and their children want to live in! Urban mobility planning and energy planning are not only enhancing the quality of life, but also provide an opportunity to save money for both, private and public organisations, and mainly for the citizens! If you imagine your city in 20 years, what would you like it to look like? A place where children can play safely? Where the air is clean? Where you can walk to do your shopping? With lots of parks and green space? Where businesses can prosper? But how do you realise such a vision? Sustainable urban mobility planning is planning for the future of your city with its people as the focus. Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans (SUMP) define a set of interrelated measures designed to satisfy the mobility needs of people and businesses today and tomorrow. They are the result of an integrated planning approach and address all modes and forms of transport in cities and their surrounding area. Different approaches to sustainable urban mobility planning exist throughout Europe. While some countries, such as France and the UK, may be considered forerunners, Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans are a new or yet unknown planning tool in other parts of the EU. The strength of Sustainable Urban Mobility Plans is that they build on existing planning activities.

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CHARACTERISTICS OF A SUCCESSFUL SUSTAINABLE URBAN MOBILITY IN RELATION TO THOSE OF A SMART CITY When we talk about characteristics of a successful sustainable urban mobility, we talk about six main points: 1. Involvement of all stakeholders and engagement of citizens 2. Commitment to sustainability (balancing social equity, environmental quality and economic development) 3. Looking “beyond the boarders” (an integrated approach between policy sectors and cooperation between authority levels and with neighbouring authorities) 4. Focus on achieving ambitious, measureable targets 5. Including all steps of the life cycle of policy makers and implementation 6. Cost internalisation (reviewing transport costs and benefits for society)

These characteristics are in a very close relation to the concept of smart cities.

Smart cities can be identified (and ranked) along six main axes or dimensions. These axes are: a smart economy; smart mobility; a smart environment; smart people; smart living; and, finally, smart governance. These six axes connect with traditional regional and neoclassical theories of urban growth and development. In particular, the axes are based - respectively - on theories of regional competitiveness, transport and ICT (Information and Communication Technologies) economics, natural resources, human and social capital, quality of life, and participation of citizens in the governance of cities. The concept of the smart city as the next stage in the process of urbanisation has been quite fashionable in the policy arena in recent years, with the aim of drawing a distinction from the terms digital city or intelligent city. Its main focus is still on the role of ICT infrastructure, but much research has also been carried out on the role of human capital/education, social and relational capital and environmental interest as important drivers of urban growth. That’s why, other definitions stress the role of human capital and education and learning in urban development. It has been shown, for example, that the most rapid urban growth rates have been achieved in cities where a high share of educated labour force is available.

WHAT CAN WE DO TO MAKE OUR CITIES SMARTER? The keystone to implementing cleaner and better transport in cities is developing integrated packages of strategies that can best meet local objectives for

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sustainable mobility. Clean fuels and vehicles The implementation of cleaner vehicles decreases air pollution which reduces the harmful effects from vehicle emissions and improves the quality of life for everyone. On a longer-term perspective, the implementation of cleaner vehicles can lead to greater energy independence (from fossil fuels) and relief from unstable oil prices. Collective transport The stimulation of collective passenger transport involves improved quality of service by means of introducing: clean and energy-efficient vehicle fleets; non-conventional public transport systems; innovative organisational, financing and management schemes; improved security and safety; and integration with walking, cycling and other modes. Particular attention is made to accessibility for people with reduced mobility. Demand management strategies Demand management strategies are based upon access restrictions or pricing disincentives to enter the inner city areas and other sensitive zones. Such measures include introducing access restrictions which permit access to only clean and energy efficient vehicles and to cycling and walking. It also includes the strategic management of parking to dissuade some car users from driving to highly congested places or during peak times and to encourage the use of more sustainable modes. Mobility management Mobility management is a concept to promote sustainable transport and reduce single occupancy car use by changing travellers‘ attitudes and behaviour. At the core of mobility management are „soft“ measures such as information, communication, and organisation of services and coordination activities of different partners. Such measures most often enhance the effectiveness of „hard“ measures within urban transport (e.g. new tram lines, new roads and new bike lanes). In comparison to „hard“ measures, mobility management measures do not necessarily require large financial investments and may have a high benefit-cost ratio. Safety and security Safety and security are core components in creating sustainable urban mobility, particularly in making roads safer and more secure for ‚vulnerable‘ road users. Improving the safety and security of modes can be an extremely important step in encouraging users to change (or even try) alternative modes, especially when they are perceived as ‚unsafe‘ (e.g. cycling in cities with little dedicated infrastructure, or taking public transport at night).

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Car-independent lifestyles The dependency on the private car needs to be reduced if cities are to achieve cleaner and better transport. This topic looks at measures which seek to make more sustainable use of the car through car pooling and car sharing, and through the use of non-motorised modes (cycling and walking). Urban freight logistics A significant amount of traffic in our cities is generated by the delivery of goods to shops, factories, offices, hotels, etc. These vehicles take up more space than cars and require space to load and unload. Overall strategies to create cleaner and better transport in cities requires the inclusion of goods vehicles by encouraging the use of cleaner vehicles and better coordination of logistics and deliveries to reduce congestion, free space for sustainable modes, and reduce emissions from idling trucks and vans. Transport telematics Transport telematics systems can help to coordinate traffic flow for all users, benefitting public transport with faster travel times and cyclists and walkers by making roads safer. Such systems allow better collection, coordination and use of traffic data to manage traffic, and tools to evaluate, visualise and warehouse this information can help solve bottlenecks and unsafe situations. Telematics systems can also support traffic operations through prioritisation to sustainable modes (particularly public transport), and also support parking information and management. Public participation When considering the quality of urban mobility decisions, cities involve a wide range of stakeholders in the measure development process. Through consultations, local communities are empowered and get a sense of ownership of results. At the same time, the level of interaction between decision makers and the target of their decisions is substantially increased, thus enhancing measure completeness, giving stakeholders a better understanding of the planned mobility measures and reducing later opposition to urban mobility. Integrated planning Integrated planning encompasses all themes related to sustainable urban mobility and looks at developing integrated strategies for sustainable urban mobility, including land use planning and the development of sustainable urban mobility plans (SUMPs).

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WHAT MAKES YOU SMART? • Think about if you can go by bike, by public transport or walk instead of taking the car. Most part of CO2-emissions are caused by cars and trucks. On average more than 2.5 kg CO2 are emitted for each litre of fuel combusted in an automotive engine. • Think about using the bike for short distances! Approximately nine out of ten drives amount less than 20 km and after all more than 50% are closer than 5 km. These short distances are really expensive. • Think about less motorised traffic! It is better for the energy and place requirement and, of course, for the climate. For example 75 persons could go by 60 cars or in only one single bus. • Think about to train your body and keep healthy! Just 30 minutes of biking or walking rapidly per day will improve your healthiness. The same it is if you walk up and down the stairs instead of using the elevator. • Think about biking, this is not only good for your health, but also for the environment! No fuel-consumption, no air-pollution and no noisiness at all. And: you save money! • Think about carpools! Take a minute and look around consciously: Almost every second employee drives to the place of work with his/her own vehicle. Thereof over 80 % sit alone in their cars, although there would be enough places for another two or three passenger. • Think about a change to alternative engines! Electro-bicycles, so called “Pedelecs” (Pedal Electric Cycle) become even more and more popular. Through an assistant engine they can cruise with a speed up to 25  km/h and also manage sharp increasing and longer distances without problems. Thus particularly older people get more mobile and independent again, joint biking tours can also be made by people with a lack of fitness.

REFERENCES Wolfgang Forderer and Jitlada Bender, Cities for Mobility - Agenda 21 for Urban Mobility, Landeshauptstadt Stuttgart, 2009 Fred Dotter, Karl Reiter, Eric Schreffler, CIVITAS II Final Brochure, CIVITAS GUARD and FGM-AMOR, 2010

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Session 1.5 Challenges for internship integrated university programmes

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PRAXIS: EUROPEAN CENTRE FOR PROJECT/INTERNSHIP EXCELLENCE1 Nuno Filipe Escudeiro*, Paula Maria Escudeiro** *Department of Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Porto, Portugal, nfe@isep.ipp.pt ** Department of Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Porto, Portugal; GILT - Graphics, Interaction and Learning Technologies, Porto, Portugal, pmo@isep.ipp.pt

ABSTRACT Project/Internship course units are particularly valuable to undergraduate degrees. It is through this type of courses that students have the chance to practice their technical skills in a real-world-like setting and experience soft skills that are a key factor for employability. There are many distinct flavors of Project/Internship courses throughout Europe. Nevertheless, there is a lack of foundation supporting innovation, development and dissemination of the field. The purpose of PRAXIS is to fill this gap and set a European dimension to this instructional paradigm. So far, the PRAXIS consortium is composed by 47 institutions from 28 countries. Its dimension and wide coverage of the European territory assures the critical mass that is required to set a virtual market for Project/Internships with global visibility and reach. In this paper we describe the PRAXIS concept, its development plan and the foreseen outcomes.

1. INTRODUCTION Project/Internship (PI) course units are particularly relevant to undergraduate degrees. It is through this type of courses that students have the chance to practice their technical skills in a real-world-like setting and experience soft skills and attitudes that are a key factor for employability. PI courses create an environment that is a unique cradle to forge students’ soft skills and attitudes, such as, team work, leadership, communication, initiative, focus. Addressing and improving these skills in students efficiently and efficaciously is seldom done by any other type of instruction. A PI is probably the most efficient way 1  This work has been funded with support from the European Commission under grant 518811-LLP1-2011-1-PT-ERASMUS-ENW. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

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to improve these skills in students since even a very short PI course unit has significant impact in students’ competences. It is the appropriate setting to improve students’ affective domain, an important domain in today’s society, in any study area. There are many distinct flavors of PI courses throughout the European Higher Education Area (EHEA): multinational teams of students working at their home institutions and communicating virtually, multinational teams working at a host institution, multidisciplinary teams, capstone project courses developed in a company or at a research lab, small project course units running at the end of each semester, simple projects accounting for low ECTS charge, complex projects accounting for high ECTS charge and many more. This type of instruction is very suited to the Bologna paradigm raising the interest of EHEA players into it. Despite the relevance and added value of this type of instruction, despite the high interest that it rises in higher education institutions (HEI), which we have observed in several contacts with other HEI during the last few years, despite the tribute that this field may add to the EHEA, there is no European cluster specifically addressing the field and there is no planned effort to improve and innovate in the field. The purpose of the PRAXIS network is to set a European dimension to PI instruction type. PRAXIS’ mission is to become recognized as the leading authority worldwide in the field of the PI instruction type by creating and maintaining an environment that promotes and supports innovation in the field aimed at improving students’ employability, soft skills and attitudes. Our goals are: (a) to promote a European Center for Excellence in the field of PI initiatives by leveraging common interests and promoting cooperation among stakeholders, bringing all of them together, creating an environment to discuss and to promote innovation in the field, joining efforts and exploiting synergies and results from each other; (b) set a European marketplace of PI maximizing students’ chances to find a project course matching their needs and, at the same time, setting a place to deploy innovative project course units by making them visible and available to students. The perception of this opportunity to contribute to the EHEA by providing foundation to support innovation in the PI field together with our strong convictions on these assumptions arose from our previous experience in PI related issues, from all the contacts and discussion around these subjects that we have been promoting in the last few years and from our former work on multinational project teams, mainly at the MUTW – Multinational Undergraduate Team Work, an Erasmus Multilateral Project,

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co-funded by the EU from October 2009 till December 2011[1][2]. In the rest of the paper we will briefly describe related work on PI initiatives, in Section 2, the motivations moving PRAXIS towards its goals, in Section 3, the methodology we are applying to deploy PRAXIS, in Section 4, and some final considerations, in Section 5.

2. RELATED WORK There are many distinct flavors of PI courses throughout the EHEA: - multinational teams of students working at their home institutions and communicating virtually (MUTW, multilateral CD Erasmus project coordinated by Instituto Politécnico do Porto) - multinational teams working at a host institution (European Project Semester from Copenhagen University College of Engineering) - multidisciplinary teams (project course at the University of Minho in Portugal and the International Integrated Project from the Fontys University in Netherlands) - capstone project courses developed in a company or at a research lab (most engineer universities) - small project course units running at the end of the semester (LAPR course unit at Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto in Portugal) - simple projects (accounting for 6 ECTS, for instance at the University of Iceland) - complex projects (accounting for 20 ECTS, for instance at the Technological Education Institute of Crete) - and many more... Some European projects and other initiatives focused on students’ skills show the interest motivated by the field: - FS-Biotech - Future Skills for Biotechnology “Skills to transform the future”; an Erasmus project, coordinated by Universidade Católica do Porto, that fosters cooperation between companies and Universities and the adaptation of curricula to companies needs in terms of valued skills - EUROPLACEMENT is another LLP project that focuses on the development of graduates’ transferable skills, and provides them with procedures for quality work experience, adapted to improve their own existing competence sets

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Although we have not found any direct competitor for PRAXIS – someone who is worried with a comprehensive study of the field and focused on innovation and on promoting students’ employability – there are some institutions that try to centralize internship offers to students, such as: - Placement Trust, www.placementtrust.com: find internships for students abroad - Indian Internship, www.indianinternship.com: internship job posting in India The actual relevance of the field is a worldwide concern. The ACM – Association for Computing Machinery and the AIS – Association for Information systems have recently revised a model curriculum for undergraduate degrees in Information Systems [http://www.acm.org/press-room/news-releases/2010/is-2010-curriculum-report]. This model identifies leadership, collaboration and communication as foundational knowledge and skills required from IS graduates. The interest in PI and students’ employability field is notorious. The issue is that there is no declared centralized hub to join all players together and to promote innovation and exchange of experiences in the field. PRAXIS will set such a facility with the aim of joining efforts, promoting awareness, taking advantage of synergies and encouraging innovation and dissemination of best practices.

3. MOTIVATION AND OBJECTIVES The lack of foundation to support innovation in the field of PI is the main motivation for PRAXIS. There is an opportunity to fill in this gap and to bring a European dimension to the field, empowering students, HEI, companies and the EHEA in general with an extended set of opportunities to grow and profit from this instructional paradigm. Establishing a center of excellence and a virtual marketplace for PI clearly marks a position and openly exposes this kind of instruction to all players assuring the European dimension that is required to empower the field. This European dimension will reach both students, who will have the chance to select the offer that is most suited to their needs, and teachers, who will have available the resources to discuss and bring to light their ideas in the field, a clear contribution to the development of EHEA. There are already several distinct flavors of PI courses (Section 2), with huge added value to the players, offered regularly in European HEI. However, these

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opportunities are not available neither known to all the students that might be interested in enrolling. Dissemination is a hard enterprise to take on one’s own for several reasons, such as lack of resources and motivation. The benefits of these initiatives are not exploited given their local scope. Having the means to expose them worldwide will certainly generate economies of scale and encourage innovation in the field contributing to the exploitation of best practices in the field. Student’s employability is improved by PI courses to an extent that is not easily achievable by other instruction types. PI courses force students to develop soft skills and attitudes while training technical competence. This mix produces good results fast. Nevertheless, there is no cluster developing the field. There is a window of opportunity to set the agenda and to promote innovation in the field in Europe that PRAXIS intends to take, thus, incorporating new qualifications into the EHEA. The frontend of both the European Center for PI Excellence and the PI market will be freely available online achieving a worldwide coverage. These facilities set a meeting point for players in the field. Operating them will enforce multilateral cooperation to discuss relevant issues and to organize mobility for students selecting PI courses abroad. This cooperation is of high quality since it has a concrete goal in mind: improving student’s value-to-labor-market. Both the PI marketplace and the European Center for PI Excellence, two innovative outputs of PRAXIS, will be deployed through the internet and supported by ICT technologies. The comprehensive resource on PI materials, to be gathered and maintained by PRAXIS, including content and teaching materials, mainly directed to students, and technical materials, mainly directed to staff from the higher education institutions, to employers and to other stakeholders, will also be supported by ICT. The PI instructional type, the focus of PRAXIS, is highly efficient; even a short PI course has high impact in students’ competences. The conditions under which students do their assignment in PI courses in unique, significantly contributing to improve students’ soft skills and attitudes and, as a consequence, their employability. From the productivity point of view, PRAXIS promotes the reuse of the best practices in the field by making the most effective PI courses widely available thus contributing to the Europe 2020 Strategy.

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3.1 Mission Our mission is to become recognized as the leading authority worldwide in the field of Project/Internship instruction type aiming to improve students’ employability and soft skills. Our activity, focused on achieving a widespread reputation and reach, will be based on the European Centre for Project/Internship Excellence and on the Project/Internship Virtual Market.

3.2 Goals

Our strategic goals are:

a) To promote a European Center for Excellence in the field of Project/Internship initiatives by leveraging common interests and promoting cooperation among stakeholders, bringing all of them together, creating an environment to discuss and to promote innovation in the field, joining efforts and exploiting synergies and results from each other. b) To set a European market of Project/Internships maximizing students’ chances to find a project course matching their needs and, at the same time, setting a place to deploy innovative project course units by making them visible and available to students.

3.3 Added value PRAXIS acts on a field closely related to the EU2020 flagships. The main outputs of PRAXIS, the PI market and the European Center for PI Excellence, provide means for students to take advantages of the global Europe wide offer by selecting the most appropriate PI course given their interests. This makes easier for them to get the right skills and competences. The main issues of Bologna 2.0 are also addressed. PRAXIS provides a widening access to state of the art initiatives, it brings a global dimension to the field and deploys transparency tools. Creating a cluster and the required framework to promote the PI instruction type and related issues will contribute to the EHEA in an area that can bring important benefits to all players at low cost. The PRAXIS vision is supported on the exposure of what already exists in the expectation that this exposure, in an appropriate scenario, will promote discussion and innovation. The PI market promotes reusing best practices. Reusing means saving, getting the benefits at low cost.

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European cooperation is a sine qua non condition for PRAXIS. PRAXIS goals are not achievable without a representative group that has the power to influence opinion and generate the mood. The bigger the consortium, the better chances we have to succeed.

4. METHODOLOGY

To achieve PRAXIS’ goals we have devised a set of strategic priorities, including:

a) Get a comprehensive knowledge on the state of the art of PI course units throughout Europe. b)

Specify a set of criteria, eventually a ontology, to map the field and to categorize PI initiatives.

c) Define a general model for PI courses that allows mapping and comparing distinct approaches unambiguously. d)

Define a quality evaluation procedure for PI course units and establish a method to identify the main benefits to students assured by a specific project course unit given its characteristics.

e) Identify the most appropriate formats for Projects/Internships courses that might satisfy employers needs in a given study area or scientific field and a given region. f) Design and create a consortium to offer several distinct types of PI courses at European level. g) Compile a resource of materials of relevance for the key actors (teaching materials for students and technical materials for teachers and other stakeholders). h) Identify base skills that might improve students’ experience and find effective ways of providing these skills to students. i)

Make PRAXIS become a renowned brand in the EHEA and abroad.

The work plan for the network, covering a three years period, is organized in 11 work packages. The focus of the project during the first year will be on the analysis of the field and design of the models and tools to describe and operate on it. During this first year we will map and model the target field of PRAXIS. When referring to the field we mean the broad area of project/internship and similar instruction types along with any initiatives related to them and to improving student employability. A detailed map of the field, clearly showing where we stand and what the market needs are, will allow us

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to identify opportunities for innovation and for improvement. The PRAXIS buzzwords for the first year of the project are exploring, mapping (Figure 1). The second year will be focused on setting up and deploying the center for excellence in the field and the virtual PI market (PI stands for Project/Internship). Designing the market and the center for excellence as well as setting them up targeted for the opportunities previously identified, while assuring the required critical mass, will be the main achievements of the second year of the project. Our second year will be guided by headings acting, innovating. The third and last year will be focused on exploitation and sustainability to assure the continuity of PRAXIS beyond funding. We will be focused on identifying opportunities for enlarging the consortium and on making PRAXIS a renowned brand in the EHEA and abroad. The third year of PRAXIS will be focused on exploitation, sustainability.

Figure 1 – PRAXIS buzzwords’ map

The focus of the project during the first year will be on the analysis of the field and design of the models and tools to describe and operate on it. During this first year we will map and model the target field of PRAXIS. When referring to the field we mean the broad area of project/internship and similar instruction types along with any initiatives related to them. A detailed map of the field, clearly showing where we stand and what the market needs are, will allow us to identify opportunities for innovation. The PRAXIS buzzwords for the first year are exploring, mapping. The second year will be focused on setting up the center for excellence in the field and the virtual PI market. Designing the market and the center for excellence as well as setting them up will be the main achievements of the second year which will be guided by the headings acting, innovating.

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The third year will be focused on assuring the continuity of PRAXIS beyond funding. We will be focused on identifying opportunities for enlarging the consortium and on making PRAXIS a renowned brand. The third year of PRAXIS will be focused on exploitation, sustainability. The project is organized in 11 work packages which have been carefully organized in the so-called PRAXIS architecture (Figure 2) to promote the efficiency of the network, to assure consequent effects on the target field, to assure a coherent and systematic interface within the consortium and with external players and to promote the quality of the network outcomes. The core features of PRAXIS are carried out by a group of three work packages: WP1 – Center for Excellence, WP2 – Virtual PI Market and WP3 – Student Competences. These work packages will act on the field to generate the main outcomes of the project and to assure that project goals are achieved and that a path for the continuity of PRAXIS and for its sustainability is set. These core work packages will involve all partners. Another group of three work packages is devoted to dissemination: WP4 – Branding, WP5 – Communication and WP6 – Events. To assure a homogeneous interface with external players and to promote the PRAXIS brand, all the communication from the network to the outside will be made through WP4 and WP5. This means that ordinary, daily communication will always use the channels and vehicles (such as email templates) provided by these work packages and extraordinary communication (such as disseminating and issuing calls for events) must be planned with the involvement of both these work packages who will be responsible for setting up the channels and vehicles for communication. Project management is guaranteed by a set of work packages including WP7 – Management, WP8 – Monitoring and Evaluation and WP9 – Reporting. These work packages have the responsibility to assure that the outcomes of the project are delivered on time and within budget. The WP10 – Quality work package is focused in the assessment of PRAXIS from the outside point of view, i.e., whether the center for excellence has visibility and is attracting stakeholders and whether the PI market is valuable to them. The WP11 – Sustainability work package seeks ways for assuring long term sustainability and exploitation.

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Figure 2 – PRAXIS architecture

5. CONCLUSIONS At the PRAXIS consortium, we are deeply convinced that it is possible to improve the quality of most current curricula of undergraduate degrees without demanding for structural changes that force institutions to apply huge resources and that are very costly and time consuming. We refer to improvements in students’ employability, in developing students’ soft skills and attitudes which are rather important in today’s economy and labour market as recognized by the EU. These are transversal to the majority, not to say all, of the study areas, so PRAXIS will be valuable to most study areas. The cost/benefit ratio of initiatives in PI course units is probably one of the lowest in curriculum development, requiring small changes to provide big improvements. Almost all undergraduate degrees contain a PI course unit in their curricula. All we need is to take advantage of these course units to make them provide to students, and also to their future employers and the society in general, all the benefits they can and which can be much more than those provided by today’s common PI course units.

Offering valuable training to students, on one side, and being recognized by the

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society as a valuable higher education provider, on the other, are among the general objectives of any HEI. The PRAXIS network moves towards these objectives since it will create new conditions to improve students’ skills at no additional cost and without requiring any structural changes in degrees’ curricula. From this point of view, all that PRAXIS is doing is providing a distribution channel for the best practices in PI that will become available for use by any HEI without additional costs of any kind. With PRAXIS anyone will be able to benefit from best practices and contribute to innovation in the PI field.

6. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The work and the outcomes described in this paper are due to the PRAXIS consortium and to the dedication of all partners involved in it (www.praxisnetwork.eu). This work has been funded with support from the European Commission under grant 518811-LLP-1-2011-1-PT-ERASMUS-ENW.

REFERENCES Escudeiro, N.F., Escudeiro, P.M., Barata, A.. “Multinational Undergraduate Team Work: collaborative learning in international teams”, Proceedings of the EAEEIE Annual Conference, 2009, pp: 1-5, 2009 Multinational Undergraduate Team Work – Excellence in International Capstone Projects, Escudeiro, N.F., Escudeiro, P.M. Eds, IOS Press BV, Netherlands, 2011

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MUTW: A LOCAL PROJECT/INTERNSHIP GRANTING INTERNATIONAL EXPERIENCE Nuno Filipe Escudeiro*, Paula Maria Escudeiro** *Department of Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Porto, Portugal, nfe@isep.ipp.pt ** Department of Computer Engineering, Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Porto, Portugal; GILT - Graphics, Interaction and Learning Technologies, Porto, Portugal, pmo@isep.ipp.pt

ABSTRACT Modern economy requires engineers to excel in soft skills. However, these are not usually addressed in most engineering curricula. In the Multinational Undergraduate Team Work course, MUTW, students develop their capstone project as members of an international team while working at their home institutions. This paradigm can be applied in any project/internship course unit to improve students’ soft skills without requiring extensive curricular changes. The initial evaluation of the course supports our initial hypothesis that MUTW significantly promotes students’ soft skills. Students recognize that team work and communication skills are improved mainly due to the academic outcomes of MUTW and the chance to profit from an intercultural exchange of experiences. This innovative capstone project paradigm can be applied to any internship allowing companies to benefit from an international setting where to promote their internships and assess students’ ability to work in international teams.

1. INTRODUCTION People and institutions produce and manage value in many new ways, distinct from the traditional hierarchical form of work organization. Many successful cases of peer-to-peer models of work organization arise and assume leading positions worldwide. Take the cases of Linux, Wikipedia, InnoCentive and the Human Genome Project, for instance [3]. A survey from the European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering network [1] points out that students complain about a big gap between what they would like to know and what is taught at school related to the ability to work in an international context.

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The Association for Computing Machinery and the Association for Information Systems have recently revised a model curriculum for undergraduate degrees in Information Systems [2]. This model identifies leadership, collaboration and communication as foundational knowledge and skills required from information systems graduates. People are developing and interacting within heterogeneous teams composed by members from different cultural groups and with distinct skills and backgrounds. We believe that in such a demanding and culturally diverse environment as the professional world is today, it is essential to promote team work and communication skills at an international and intercultural level. However, these skills are not usually addressed in undergraduate curricula. Developing curricular activities involving students from different countries, collaborating to complete projects that generate relevant outputs to the community might improve students’ enthusiasm as well as their teamwork and communication skills. The Multinational Undergraduate Team Work project (MUTW) (see http://www. mutw.eu) presents a proposal that might come to fill the existing lack in this area. By the end of their graduation, students have to develop some project within a generic project course unit; MUTW replaces that course unit for those students who decide to cope with the project. MUTW generally intends to prepare students for an emerging economy based on active (mass)collaboration while increasing their enthusiasm and motivation for schoolwork. The main results from the first edition of the MUTW course point out the benefits of this innovative project course unit. Students recognize that team work skills are improved mainly due to the academic outcomes of MUTW. The innovative aspects of the MUTW project as well as the chance to profit from an intercultural exchange of experiences both contribute to improve students’ communication skills in an international environment. In the rest of the paper we will briefly describe the MUTW methodology, in Section 2, we discuss the results from the first edition of the MUTW course, in Section 3, and the conclusions in the last section of the paper.

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2. MULTINATIONAL UNDERGRADUATE TEAM WORK The MUTW methodology [4] is devoted to create and manage international teams of students who will collaborate in order to develop an engineering problem. For the first editions of MUTW this was a software system. These teams are set up for a semester with the purpose of developing and presenting a solution to a given engineering problem. For the first editions, running during 2009/10 and 2010/11, students from 11 HEI from nine different countries have been organized in two teams: the Orange team has twelve students, two from each of six institutions, and the Blue team has ten students, two from each of the other five institutions. The problem specifications, its architecture, its main building modules and interfaces will be briefly described by the consortium – at this stage, only the central rules are provided; students have to interact and cooperate during the semester in order to agree on the other necessary specifications. At the end of the project all modules must be integrated and the fully operational system, a unique product, will be presented by the students as a team. Each team member will be responsible for: (a) developing a part of the whole solution, (b) justifying their technical options as an integrating part of the whole solution proposed by the team, (c) collaborating whenever needed with other team members, either from their own team or from another MUTW team, to guarantee that problems are solved in due time, and (d) that all parts integrate into a unique final solution. The team as a whole must: (a) guarantee that all parts integrate well to produce a unique solution for the problem, (b) produce a unique report describing the full solution and (c) present the full solution to the project jury. The project jury will be composed by a teacher from each partner institution. Partner institutions are responsible for: (a) selecting students for the team, (b) defining a supervisor and (c) following, guiding and evaluating students.

3. EVALUATION We have collected data from several distinct sources, during the first pilot edition of the MUTW course unit, held in the Spring semester of 2009/2010, including: students’ feedback form, students’ final grades and grading criteria, assessment questionnaires from the base competences seminars and usage statistics from the

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groupware platform. After attending the kick-off meeting students provided their comments on the meeting and filled in online questionnaires, through the MUTW Moodle platform, to evaluate both base competences seminars. These questionnaires were focused on the evaluation of the seminars’ quality and its relevance to students. The results from the analysis of this data were used to improve the content of the seminars and also to adapt the organization of the kick-off meeting to comply with the need to have students spending more time working in their team than in instructive activities like the seminars. Students’ grading in MUTW is performed by an international jury and is based on a set of criteria previously defined by the MUTW consortium. Students’ grades are, in part, due to the quality of the course and to the extent to which students feel keen on it. From this point of view, this data also contributes to evaluate the quality of MUTW as a course unit. The students’ feedback form is a questionnaire that students fill in, together with a peer evaluation form, at the end of the MUTW course just after their final presentation, while the jury is deliberating on their grades. The students’ feedback questionnaire has several multi-choice questions as well as open questions for students to provide their comments on MUTW. The peer evaluation form allows students to provide their opinion regarding the commitment of their team mates and on the global performance of their team. The core data used in the current study comes from these last sources: student feedback form, peer evaluation form and student grades. Twenty one students enrolled in the first edition of the MUTW project course unit. They were organized in two teams: the Blue team with nine students from five HEI and the Orange team with 12 students from six HEI.

3.1 Student grades Students from MUTW come from different HEI with different grading scales. The final grade that a student gets from the MUTW course is conforming to the scale in Table 1. The way these grades are then converted to their home grading scheme is a concern of each institution.

This final grade is a weighted mean of several criteria assessing several

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competencies that are promoted in MUTW courses. For the first edition of MUTW these criteria have been organized in two groups: one group, with four criteria, assessing the project as a unique product delivered by the team and another group, with two criteria, assessing individual aspects of student’s performance. Each of these groups stands for 50% of the student’s final mark (see Table 2). Mean students’ grades by team are presented in Table 3. It’s clear from Table 3 that students performed very well. This is an important observation supporting our hypothesis that the MUTW paradigm is attractive to students and motivates them. Although we have no control group to compare these figures, we can confidently claim that these grades are above the average in common Project/Internship courses at our own institutions. Table 1 - Students’ Evaluation Scale <40 Fail 40-50 Pass 50-60 Fair 60-75 Good 75-90 Very good 90-100 Excellent

Weight

10% 20% 10% 10% 25% 25%

Apply

Team Team Team Team Individual Individual

Table 2 - Assessment Criteria Evaluation criteria

(A) Base competences seminars (B) Product, process (C) Report (D) Presentation (E) Management competence within team (F) Supervisor opinion

Table 3 - Mean Grades Per Team Weight

Apply

Evaluation criteria

10% 20% 10% 10%

Team Team Team Team

25%

Individual

25%

Individual

(A) Base competences seminars (B) Product, process (C) Report (D) Presentation (E) Management competence within team (F) Supervisor opinion

33

Orange team 95 90 95 80

Blue team 95 98 85 90

83

84

82

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3.2 Peer evaluation After the end of the MUTW course, once the final presentations from both teams have been concluded, students filled in the peer evaluation questionnaires. The peer evaluation questionnaire has three parts: 1. One for studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; appreciation regarding the global team results, 2. One for students to provide a mark for each team member, including their own, and 3. An optional open question where students are free to give their opinion upon any team member.

Our analysis was based only on parts 1 and 2.

In part 1, students are asked to grade their own team results, on a scale from 0 to 100, on the following aspects: Analysis, Development, Integration and Test. Figure 1 compare both teams regarding their perception on their own work.

Figure 1. comparison of team performance as perceived by team members

The Blue team seems more confident on their performance than the Orange team. The fact is that the Blue team was able to present a product running online while the Orange team presentation didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t go that well.

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One of the main reasons for this fact is probably related to both teams’ dimension. The Blue team is smaller – there are 9 members in the Blue team and 12 in the Orange team – and, therefore, easier to manage, mainly taking into consideration the lack of previous experience from students in managing international project teams. Part 2 of the peer evaluation questionnaire is devoted to grade individually each team member, including the student who is filling in the questionnaire himself. Students are graded in two distinct indicators: percentage of participation in project, on a scale from 0 to 100, and motivation, on a scale from 1 to 5 (best). The aggregated results on participation for the Blue team members are presented in Table 4 while those for the Orange team are presented in Table 5. Table 4 Member Participation in Blue Team as Perceived by Peers

Student Mean % StdDev

B1 14,6 2,7

B2 10,3 2,6

B3 14,6 2,7

B4 14,6 2,7

B5 11,7 1,4

B6 10,0 2,9

B7 11,7 1,4

B8 0,9 2,3

B9 11,7 1,4

Table 5 Member Participation in Orange Team as Perceived by Peers

Student Mean % StdDev

O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 O6 O7 O8 O9 O10 O11 O12 4,0 10,7 3,9 12,4 6,7 10,6 10,6 3,5 6,7 12,9 11,4 6,5 2,9 1,8 2,7 3,6 4,0 3,2 3,6 3,3 3,9 3,8 2,9 3,3

Students’ motivation (Figures 2 and 3) is another indicator of the benefits of the MUTW paradigm. In the Blue team we observe a high level of motivation in the generality of the team members. In fact, six out of nine have been granted a maximum motivation level (5 points) unanimously. Only one student, the only one that failed MUTW first edition had a low level of motivation.

Figure 2. Blue team students’ motivation

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In the Orange team we can identify two groups (Figure 3), each one with six students that have clearly distinct motivation levels. This pattern was also obvious from students’ behavior during the last project meeting when students were concluding the final arrangements for their presentations. In the Orange team there was one group of students working hard to conclude their tasks while another group was not that enthusiastic. We have noticed that some of the MUTW students in the first edition were not being credited for their work in MUTW. Although this is a scenario that shall not happen in the future, it might have been one of the main reasons for low levels of motivation. Students that are moved by extrinsic motivations, highly indexed by their ECTS credits, need this incentive to feel committed. It was however interesting to notice that some students were moved by intrinsic motivations and that MUTW provides these incentives to students. Tables 6 and 7 reveal that, as expected, there is a very strong correlation between students’ motivation, their participation in the team and their final grade. This is particularly obvious in the Blue team.

3.3 Student feedback The student feedback questionnaire is the most informative and most relevant tool for the evaluation of MUTW. We have collected data from the 18 students who have filled in the questionnaire. This questionnaire collects students’ feedback on 33 variables each being evaluated by students from 1 (worst) to 5 (best).

Figure 3. Orange team students’ motivation

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Table 6 Correlation Between Student Participation, Motivation and Final Grade in the Blue team Participation Motivation Final grade Participation 1     Motivation 0,95 1   Final grade 0,97 0,99 1 Table 7 Correlation Between Student Participation, Motivation and Final Grade in the Orange team   Participation Motivation Final grade Participation 1     Motivation 0,97 1   Final grade 0,82 0,80 1

Students’ answers to this questionnaire were studied with linear regression which led us to conclude that: • MUTW improved team work skills due to Academic/learning outcomes of the MUTW • MUTW improved communication skills in an international setting due to the Innovative aspects in the project execution and the Chance to profit from an intercultural exchange of experiences.

3.4 Analysis of students’ expectations The subset of the questions asking students to rate their motivation degree and the degree of their satisfaction with the project (Table 8) were analyzed separately. The existence of four dimensions (Table 9) for which this happened simultaneously was verified. These dimensions are: academic, language, job and Europe. Table 8 Motivation/Evaluation Questions

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Table 9 Dimensions for which Students Were Asked to Rate Both Their Motivation and Satisfaction Degree with the Project

The comparison of studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; responses for each dimension of analysis has created three levels expressing the strength of the motivation and satisfaction with participation in the project â&#x20AC;&#x201C; mismatch, match, exceed. Mismatch means that the score given to the experience evaluation is worth less than the score given to the corresponding motivation; match means that the assigned values are equal; exceed occurs when the score given to motivation is lower than the score corresponding to the evaluation experience. Table 10 allows the identification, for each one of the analysis dimensions, of the proportion of responses corresponding to different levels of expectation. The data in Table 10 shows that the Job dimension has the highest mismatched expectations value. Europe dimension is the most common in the set of matched expectations. Concerning the exceeded expectations, there is evidence highlighting the language dimension. Table 10 Expectation Degree per Dimension

4. CONCLUSIONS One of the main concerns of the MUTW project is to tune up a methodology that might be used in the future by any HEI wishing to setup a MUTW-like course. Monitoring students and their progress throughout the semester and at their final evaluation is a main activity in the MUTW Multilateral Erasmus project providing very valuable information which is essential for tuning the MUTW methodology.

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The analysis of the data obtained through the students’ feedback form, allows us to conclude in general that the pattern of findings of MUTW evaluation is favorable. Our hypothesis – MUTW contributes to improve students team work and communication skills at an international level – is statistically supported by students’ answers. We may accept at a 5% significance level that MUTW improved team work skills due to the academic/learning outcomes of MUTW and also that MUTW improved communication skills in an international setting due to the innovative aspects in the project execution and the chance to profit from an intercultural exchange of experiences. Although not statistically supported, students’ comments on MUTW during the project lifetime and even one year after being involved in the project also reinforce the added value of such paradigm.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The work and the outcomes described in this paper are due to the MUTW consortium and to the dedication of all partners involved in it (www.mutw.eu). This work was co-funded by the European Commission under grant 503440-LLP1-2009-1-pt-Erasmus-ECDCE. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.

REFERENCES EAEEIE - European Association for Education in Electrical and Information Engineering, [http://www. eaeeie.org/], accessed in October 2008 ACM, AIS model curriculum for undergraduate degrees in Information Systems [http://www.acm.org/ press-room/news-releases/2010/is-2010-curriculum-report], accessed in June 2010 Tapscott, D., Williams, A.D., Wikinomics – How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Penguin Group (USA) Inc, 2008 Escudeiro, N.F., Escudeiro, P.M., Barata, A.. “Multinational Undergraduate Team Work: collaborative learning in international teams”, Proceedings of the EAEEIE Annual Conference, 2009, pp: 1-5, 2009

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Session 1.6 University â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Enterprises Cooperation: Quality in placements and internships

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QUALITY AND QUANTITY OF PLACEMENTS FOR ALL? - EXPLORING SYNERGIES AND OPPORTUNITIES OF COOPERATION ACROSS EDUCATIONAL SECTORS Thomas Berger*; Pauline Vandenbosch ** *Institut inter.research e.V. Heinrich-von-Bibra-Platz 1b, 36037 Fulda, Germany berger@inter-research.de **European Vocational Training Association Rue de la Loi 93-97 1040 Bruxelles Belgium, pauline.vandenbosch@evta.net

ABSTRACT Promoters of placement mobility used to stay within their sector – reflected by programmes such as ERASMUS placements, LEONARDO or GRUNDTVIG mobility. However new network initiatives such as the “Europemobility network” (funded by the EC Lifelong Learning Leonardo Networks Programme) attempt to cross the boundaries and work on a common objective: how to ensure both quality and quantity of placement mobility for all learners? A Europemobility (EUM) Thematic Commission brings representatives from vocational, adult/non-formal and higher education on one table to collect and study existing approaches on quality and to develop common measures to ensure the quality of practical training and to increase the number of learners, who benefit from it. In order to achieve this purpose a “Quality observatory and Toolbox” has been developed and a “Benchmarking Club on Quality in Mobility” has been established. The following paper will present interim results and aims to engage the readers into a cross-sector dialogue.

EUROPEMOBILITY – NETWORKING ACROSS EDUCATIONAL SECTORS The Europemobility Network (EUM) has been established with the aim to bring mobility coordinators from Higher Education, Vocational Education and Training and Informal and Non-formal learning providers together in order to establish a European online-community of coordinators of practical learning mobility across educational sectors. It reflects a development of the educational sector, which is described in research on lifelong learning with the term of dissolving boundaries (Kirchhöfer, 2004 and Freytag-Leyer/Berger, 2011). However beside the aspect of dissolution of

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boundaries of learning space, biography and institutions, on a practical level it makes sense to be aware on the developments of quality assurance concerning practical learning mobility in the different sectors of higher, vocational education and informal learning. Tools, methods and standards have been developed in the framework of European and national projects – often within the specific sectors without taking notice of what is going on in other sectors. Although practical learning mobility per se takes place outside traditional institutional settings. Its spans the worlds of education, work and social space and it even takes place beyond national and cultural borders. For this reason EUM offers support mechanisms to foster quality and quantity of participation in practical learning mobility. It carries out awareness raising campaigns such as the video contest (www.europemobility.tv) and it involves stakeholders in Thematic Commissions to discuss key issues of practical learning mobility. Those commissions are working groups, coordinated by network partners. The work consists of workshops and on-line collaboration in order to identify strategies and measures in given areas, such as • Recognition (Use of EU transparency tools) • Impact (Study on impact on learners and host organisations) • Funding Schemes (Development of a Guidebook on Economic models to support learning mobility) • Cooperation Models (Development of Guidebook on synergies between different educational sectors and business world) • Quality (see details below) Within this cross educational sectors network, a Thematic Commission on Quality Assurance with experts in practical learning mobility is set up. The objectives are the promotion of transparency among different methods and approaches for quality assurance and the creation of synergies between existing initiatives methods, tools and standards through a Quality Observatory and the use of this observatory as a reference for running Benchmarking exercises in the framework of a Bench­marking Club. The EUM community will furthermore use the quality observatory as a tool to define its own quality commitment of members of the EUM community.

MAPPING THE “QUALITY LANDSCAPE” IN EUROPE The need for transparency becomes obvious, when we look at the diversity of standards, tools methods, which are currently developed, applied and used by

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different stakeholders. The following categorisation is not exhaustive but can illustrate that diversity: • Ex-ante standards set by calls for proposals for mobility projects, e.g. in the framework of the ERASMUS Placements Mobility Programme and the LEONARDO Mobility Progamme (EU-Commission 2012) • Ex-ante standards (quality commitments) set by European quality charter for mobility (European Parliament and Council 2006a) • Ex-post Labels of excellence for sending/inter-mediate organisations, e.g. Erasmus E-Quality Label awarded by the German National Agency DAAD (DAAD 2012) and the Lifelong Learning Award awarded by the Austrian National Agency (OeaD 2012) • Ex-post Labels of compliance to standards for host organisations, e.g. the Q-PlanetLabel (Q-Planet 2010a) and the Euroapprenticeship label (Perfetti, 2012) • Standards of Accreditation of sending/intermediate organisations, e.g. Q-Planetnetwork of Quality Reference Centers (Q-Planet 2010b) and NETINVET-network of VET-providers (NETINVET 2012), EUMOVE!-agents-network (EUMOVE! 2012) • Providers of quality assurance tools, e.g. Internship2industry.eu

EUM QUALITY OBSERVATORY AND TOOLBOX The EUM “Quality Observatory & Toolbox” for practical learning mobility is an interrelated system of a quality assurance model and best practices, with its tools and methods. The following processes describe the development of the observatory: 1. Collecting and analyzing good practices 2. Defining a framework to map the good practices 3. Identifying and Illustrating Quality criteria to define quality in mobility 4. Identifying and Illustrating Methods to realize quality in mobility 5. Identifying and Illustrating Indicators to measure quality in mobility

COLLECTING AND ANALYZING GOOD PRACTICES It seems that a lot of practices in the field of quality assurance in mobility are focussing on different issues in quality in mobility forming a diverse “quality landscape”. Consequently a comprehensive analysis of existing initiatives and practises was carried out. This analysis allows a categorisation according to the following dimensions (see

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also Figure 1): • Object dimension – is it process or product oriented? • Level dimension – is it compliance to (minimum) standards or awarding of excellence/best practice • Method dimension – is it formative or summative? • Timing dimension – is it done Ex-ante or Ex-post? • Label dimension – does it lead to the award of a label?

Figure 1 Dimensions of Analysis of initiatives and practices of quality assurance of practical learning mobility

A fact sheet describes the initiative or practise in a standardised way, thus allowing comparisons and easy access to information.

A FRAMEWORK TO MAP THE DIFFERENT GOOD PRACTICES Another issue derived from the good practices was, that they were all focusing on one or more phases in quality assurance. In order to realize quality assurance and improvement, four steps have to be followed: Planning, Implementation, Evaluation and Review. These four phases are a “follow up cycle” and cannot be seen separate from each other. In practice, however, it is often not possible to cover all four phases. In most of the cases the initiatives and practises analysed are focusing on “planning and implementation” (the conditions and preparation for a good mobility period) and less on the evaluation and review. In order to improve the usability of the observatory and to turn it into a kind of meta-tool for quality assurance a model is used to map the different initiatives and practises. The existing “EQAVET framework” (the European

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Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training) was chosen as it is an established framework, which provides a structure which is of a general nature and thus not only relevant for the vocational education and training sector (European Parliament and Council 2009). Based on the analysis the criteria to define quality in mobility, the methods to realize and ensure quality in mobility and indicators to measure quality in mobility can be identified and mapped to the observatory (see figure 2).

Figure 2 Structure of the Quality Observatory

This means for each phase relevant quality criteria and tools and initiatives applying those criteria can be identified. An example for such a criterion is the settingup and signing of agreements between the parties involved in a practical learning mobility stay abroad.

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The same applies to the methods of quality assurance and data collection. For example it makes a difference if self-evaluation reports, random site visits or standardized interviews or questionnaires are applied to collect the data for assuring the quality. Finally indicators allow to measure whether the implemented actions where successful or not. The EQAVET framework provides already a list of potential indicators. However in general, quantitative indicators seem to dominate, so that our efforts focussed on deriving qualitative indicators from the analysis of existing initiatives and practises, which often do not provide such indicators explicitly. The following table provides an overview about potential qualitative and quantitative indicators. This list is offered as a “long list” of indicators as a starting point for benchmarking. Quantitative indicators for mobility

Qualitative indicators for mobility

• Participation rates in mobility and • Involvement of relevant actors; exchange programmes; • Sustainable relations between • Completion rates in training and sending and hosting organizations mobility programmes (networks for mobility) • Completion (success) rates in • Transparency and transferabliity of placement mobility qualifications (learning outcomes) between the hosting and sending • Placement rate (found placements) organization; in placement mobility • Placement rates of learners in • companies; • • Number of agreements with hosting organizations;

A culture for quality assurance; Relevance of quality assurance systems for placement mobility providers

• Number of certified placement • Organization (according to LLLAward and E-Quality) companies; • Recognition of the placement by • Quality of project management, aspects of innovation, results and sending organization benefits, sustainability by sending • Reintegration rates of learners in and /or intermediary long terms mobility

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• Existence of training agreement

• Unemployment rates

• Number of interns, which are hired • Enhancement of the participant’s line of study or occupation (an as permanent employee by the host integral part of the participants’ organization educational pathway) • Remuneration of learner: not below the EU poverty line of 60% median • Development of learners skills and competencies according to the income or national minimum wage, training agreement remuneration for overtime • Use of acquired competences during placement and training;

• Social security of learner

• Participation of vulnerable groups in • Length and tasks of the placement placement mobility corresponds to the learning outcomes

• Insight in intercultural competences (awareness) • Achievement, validation and recognition of intercultural competences as an added value compared to “national mobility” • Preparation (language, culture) and assistance (logistical, organizational) of learner • Investment in training of trainers and • Learners satisfaction mentor activities; • Companies satisfaction • Existence of training agreement • Methods to promote mobility in all sectors; • Increase in integration of intercultural competences in qualifications as • Schemes to promote placement a part of the standard training mobility programme • Mechanisms to identy the need for • Investment in quality assurance mobility (international experiences) acitivities in the labour market; • Mechanisms to identify placement offers abroad • Accessibility for vulnerable groups;

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The complete observatory enables users to select the elements which are relevant for their context and it creates awareness around the entire framework and its principles of quality assurance. Organizations who would like to set up mobility for learners can use e.g. the observatory as a toolbox and starting point to think about all the elements of quality assurance in mobility and allows them to be inspired by the identified and illustrated criteria, methods, indicators and tools.

EUM BENCHMARKING CLUB One way of deploying the observatory is to use it for benchmarking, which is the objective of the EUM Benchmarking Club for practical learning mobility (BMC). The BMC follows the definition of benchmarking as it is provided by the University Benchmarking Handbook: “Benchmarking is a comparative improvement process, and works by comparing one’s own organisation with other organisations operating in a similar kind of environment – who therefore face the same kind of external variations.” (Benneworth et. Al. 2010, pg. 16) This benchmarking club is a mutual learning experience between practitioners in mobility from different educational sectors. In the benchmarking club key areas of the added value of placement mobility for the students, university and enterprises will be addressed in confidential group of likeminded, assuming that the potential of placement mobility for the extension of cooperation between educational organisation and enterprises is not fully realized yet. As the club consists of representatives from different educational sectors, the group will compare their expectations, interests and former experiences in coordinating learning mobility. Defining common quality criteria, indicators and benchmarks will form the basis for having the chance to influence current and future mobility programmes and to understand better strengths and weaknesses of processes related to learning mobility. The aim is to measure “what counts” for quality of practical learning mobility instead of measuring what is “easy to be counted”. As a result of the first benchmarking club meeting, a first draft of a short list with priorities for indicators in quality in mobility is defined. In the coming sessions carried out mostly on-line, benchmarks, methods, solutions and processes to improve the practical implementation of mobility programmes of club members own organisations will be defined, with the focus on the defined indicators as a priority. Among those priorities are e.g. the acquisition of specific key competences of learners abroad and

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the development of strategic partnerships or knowledge alliances between sending, hosting and intermediary organisations. The benchmarking process is illustrated in the figure below.

Figure 3 Steps of the EUM bechmarking process

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Finally, we invite all practitioners of placement mobility to continue the discussion and the work on the increase of quality and quantity of placement mobility by joining the Europemobility network and On-line Community: www.europemobility.eu

REFERENCES Benneworth, Paul (et. al.), A University Benchmarking Handbook – Benchmarking in higher education, http://www.education-benchmarking.org/images/stories/esmu_ebi_ii_final.pdf (2010) DAAD, ERASMUS Qualitätssiegel – E-Quality, http://eu.daad.de/eu/e-quality/09253.html, last visit 31.10.2012 (2012) EUMOVE!, “EUMOVE Agents” in Europe, http://www.evta.net/eumoveportal/eumove_agents.html, last visit 31.10.2012 (2012) European Commission, Official documents on the Lifelong Learning Programme, http://ec.europa.eu/education/llp/official-documents-on-the-llp_en.htm, last visit 31.10.2012 (2012) European Commission, ERASMUS FOR ALL: The EU Programme for Education, Training, Youth and Sport, COM(2011) 787 final, http://ec.europa.eu/education/erasmus-for-all/doc/com_en.pdf (2011) European Commission, Public consultation on Quality Framework for Traineeships, http://ec.europa.eu/ social/main.jsp?catId=333&langId=en&consultId=10&visib=0&furtherConsult=yes (2012)

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European Parliament and Council, European Quality Charter for Mobility, Official Journal of the European Union 2006/L 394, http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/education_training_youth/lifelong_learning/ c11085_en.htm (2006a) European Parliament and Council, Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Reference Framework, Official Journal of the European Union 2006/L394, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/ en/oj/2006/l_394/l_39420061230en00100018.pdf (2006b) European Parliament and Council, Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council on the establishment of a European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education and Training, Official Journal of the European Union 2009/C 155/01, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/ LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:C:2009:155:0001:0010:EN:PDF (2009) Freytag-Leyer Barbara, Berger, Thomas, Conceptions of “Lifelong Learning” in the EU in Freytag-Leyer, Barbara, Alisch, Monika (eds.), Community Health Information in Europe, Kassel: university press, pg. 5972 (2011) Kirchhöfer, Dieter, Lernkultur Kompetenzentwicklung: Begriffliche Grundlage, Berlin: Arbeitsgemeinschaft Betriebliche Weiterbildungsforschung (2004) NETINVET, Quality Process, http://www.netinvet.eu/demarche-qualite, last visit 31.10.2012 (2012) OeaD, Lifelong Learning Award 2012, http://www.lebenslanges-lernen.at/home/nationalagentur_ lebenslanges_lernen/lifelong_learning_award_2012/, last visit 31.10.2012 (2012) Perfetti, Philippe, VET Business Forum, Brussels April 7th 2012, http://ec.europa.eu/education/vocationaleducation/doc/forum12/perfetti.pdf (2012) Q-PlaNet – Quality Placement Network, Quality standard for student placements, http://www.q-planet. org/D5.1.Q-PlaNet_quality_standard.pdf (2010a) Q-PlaNet – Quality Placement Network, Study: Establishment of the European Network of Quality Reference Centres and a network of networks, http://www.q-planet.org/D6.1.Establishment_of_the_ European_Network_of_Quality_Reference_Centres_and_a_network_of_networks.pdf, (2010b)

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Session 1.7 Multi-disciplinary studies for understanding the Seamounts in the Levantine Basin-Eastern Mediterranean

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GEOLOGY OF THE SEAMOUNTS IN THE LEVANTINE BASIN Christos ANAGNOSTOU Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) – Institute of Oceanography 46,7 km Av. Athens – Sounio, Mavro Lithari, 19013 Anabyssos – Attiki, Greece e-mail: chanag@hcmr.gr

ABSTRACT An overview of the geology of the seamounts in the Levantine Basin is presented. The evolution of the Levantine Basin in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea goes through the geodynamicaly extensional phase, from Late Permian (~250 Millions years ago), followed by the compressional phase since 80 Million years. This resulted to remarkable geological features on the sea floor (sea mounts, basins, troughs, trenches, thrusts, etc.) It is focused on the seamounts and especially on the Eratosthenes Seamount, an isolated structure, south of Cyprus. It forms a plateau at a depth of 800 -1000 m and slopes down to more than 2000 m depth. A multidisciplinary investigation of Eratosthenes Seamount is a challenge because of its special geological, sedimentological, geochemical and biological features.

1. INTRODUCTION The purpose of this presentation is to outline the geological dynamic of the Levantine Basin and to focus more on the formation of the seamounts, especially of the Eratosthenes Seamount. Seamounts are “hot spots” of the marine systems. The multidisciplinary investigation of the seamounts is a challenge. Eratosthenes Seamount has special geological, sedimentological, geochemical and biological features and is characterized by significant geo-diversity and bio-diversity. This work is based on existing information acquired from published references and attempts to build the basis to understand the recent dynamics of the Levantine Marine system. Also it contributes significantly to understand the complicated bio-geochemical processes in the water-seafloor boundary zone.

2. GEOLOGICAL HISTORY OF MEDITERRANEAN SEA - ITS EVOLUTION.

The geological evolution of Mediterranean Sea shows two important stages,

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one extensional phase from Late Permian (~250 Ma [Millions years] ago) to Late Jurassic (~150 Ma ago) and one compressional phase from Late Cetaceous (~80 Ma ago) till today (Fig. 1) (Stampfli, et al., 2001).

Fig. 1: The geological evolution of the Mediterranean Sea from the Permian time till today, differentiated in Eastern Mediterranean Area, Western Mediterranean and North Atlantic. A remarkable feature is the existence of the Eratosthenes Sea Mount (South of Cyprus) since the Permian time (Stampfli, et al., 2001).

In Late Permian (~250 Ma) a break-up of the Pangea supercontinent led to the formation of a new ocean, the Neotethys Ocean. The extensional phase resulted to the development of sedimentary basins, during which the Eastern Mediterranean Sea was born (Fig. 1 a). In the Late Jurassic (~150 Ma), the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, is further

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extended and subsided, leading to the formation of faulting systems and sedimentation basins. The sedimentation is dominated by shallow to deep-marine carbonates. In this period, we had the initial opening of the Atlantic Ocean, with its branch to NE, creating the Proto-Western-Mediterranean Sea (West and East Mediterranean were isolated systems) (Fig. 1b). The Palaeotethys is progressively “consumed”, due to convergence procedures and to the “collision” of the landmasses. Some relicts of the Palaeotethys Ocean remained. In the Late Cetaceous (~80 Ma) the opening of the South-Atlantic took place. This changed the tectonic setting in the “Pangea” system from the extensional state to a compressional dynamic, due to the convergence of the African and Eurasian plates. This dynamic resulted in the subduction of Africa plate beneath the Eurasian plate. At the central part of Europe the mountain belt formation namely the orogenesis process took place. The Western Mediterranean Sea separated from the Atlantic and formed an autochtonous system (Fig. 1c). The evolution in the Mediterranean area, which continued during the Early Miocene (~20 Ma) (Fig 1d), is characterized by a significant extreme natural phenomenon during the Late Miocene (~6 Ma), the so called “Messinian salinity crisis” (Fig. 1e) and ended with the formation of the Mediterranean Sea of today (Fig. 1f).

3. MAIN GEOLOGICAL FEATURES OF THE LEVANTINE SEA Detailed results of the work of Breman (2006) are mapped in Fig. 2. The most important tectonic features of the Levantine Sea, which are classified in categories, are presented in the table I. TABLE I - Anaximander Seamount Seamounts - The Eratosthenes Seamount - The Hecataeus Seamount Basins Troughs Trenches Thrusts Lineations

-Herodotus Basin -Levantine Basin -Latakia Trough -The South Cyprus Trench -Tartus Thrust -Cyprus Thrust - Larnaca Thrusts -Kyrenia Thrust zone -The Baltim - Hecataeus lineation

The Nile Delta Cone

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Fig. 2: The important tectonic features of the Levantine Sea (Breman, 2006)

The most important feature in the Levantine Sea is the Cyprus Thrust, which signalizes the subduction zone south of Cyprus. The Larnaca Thrust zone forms the continuation of the Cyprus Thrust system. The Eratosthenes Seamount forming an old continental fragment, blocks the northward motion of the African plate and enables the formation, or better the reactivation, of the Baltim Hecataeus Line as a transform fault (the eastern boundary of Eratosthenes Sea Mount). A trench, the south Cyprus Trench, is formed between two blocks, the Eratosthenes Seamount in the south and the Hecataeus Ridge in the north. Hecataeus Ridge is a potential similar structure compared to the Eratosthenes Seamount. The presence of Eratosthenes Seamount in the Levantine Sea separate the basin in the Herodotus Basin (west of Eratosthenes

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Seamount) and Levantine Basin (east of Eratosthenes Seamount). Seamounts are undersea elevations and have special geological and biological features. Additionally to the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Hecataeus Ridge in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea we have and the Anaximander Seamount, westerly of Cyprus. A remarkable geological feature of the Levantine Sea, the Nile Delta Cone, signalizes the recent and today sedimentation mechanism of an area stark influenced by the Nile river sediment supply.

4. THE SEAMOUNTS IN THE LEVANTINE BASIN 4.1. ANAXIMANDER SEAMOUNTS The Anaximander Seamounts are located between the Cyprus and Hellenic arcs (Fig. 3). The Anaximander Mountains are described as large faulted and tilted blocks.

Fig. 3: Generalized geotectonic map of the Eastern Mediterranean. The location of the Anaximander Seamounts is marked between Cyprus and Crete (From Lykousis et al. 2009, modified after MEDINAUT/ MEDINETH Shipboard Scientific Parties, 2000; Ten Veen et al., 2004).

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The Anaximander Seamounts comprise a group of three distinct seamounts: Anaximander in the west, Anaximenes in the south, Anaxagoras in the east (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Major morphological features of the Anaximander Mountains and the surrounding basins (from Lykousis et al. 2009, map acquired during the 1995 multibeam survey by R/V Lâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Atalante (Woodside et al., 1997, 1998). The area enclosed by the red frame was surveyed in detail using the multibeam of R/V AEGAEO during the Anaximander cruises. The contour interval is 100 m)

The Anaximander Seamounts are places of important geological features. Mud volcanoes, mud diapirism, fluid seeps have been discovered within the Anaximander Seamounts (Woodside et al., 1998). The Greek R/V Aegaeo and scientists from the Hellenic Center for Marine Research (HCMR) carried out the research cruises in the Anaximander Seamounts area (2003-2004) surveying with the seabeam a large part of the Anaximander Seamounts. The results of the surveys are important, including not only accurate topographic measurements but also detailed morphological characteristics of mud volcanos and mud diapirism (Lykousis et al. 2009).

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4.2. ERATOSTHENES SEAMOUNT The Eratosthenes Seamount is located ca. 60 nm south of the island of Cyprus and the Cyprus Arc. It is bounded to the West by the Herodotus Basin and to the East by the Levantine Basin (Fig. 2). South of the Eratosthenes Seamount extends the enormous Nile Delta Cone. The Eratosthenes Seamount is an important geological feature of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and can be identified as an isolated structure. It is a continental fragment of the former African-Arabian Plate. The Eratosthenes Seamount is rifted to its current position during the formation and evolution of the Neo-Tethys Ocean. The Eratosthenes Seamount shows a more or less elliptical configuration, forming a submarine plateau, at a depth of 800 to 1000 m, and slopes down to more than 2000 m depth (Fig. 3).

Fig. 5: (left) Multibeam map of the Levantine Sea. The African Plate is moving with ~1mm year-1 towards the Eurasian Plate. The solid red line marks the collision front between the African and Eurasian Plates; the red dots show the seismicity of the last decades. ESM: Eratosthenes Seamount, HR: Hecateus Rise. (right) Morphology of the Eratosthenes Seamount based on bathymetric data acquired during cruises MSM14-1 and MSM14-2. Important features are the west-east striking graben structures across the Seamount and the highly eroded slopes (Ehrhardt, et al., 2010).

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The Eratosthenes Seamount is affected by west-east trending normal faults, which build graben structures (s. Fig. 5). Cores from the Eratosthenes Seamount show that the geological formations of the area consist mainly out of various shallow and deep marine carbonates (Robertson, 1998).

4.3. HECATAEUS SEAMOUNT The Hecataeus Rise is located directly south of Cyprus and forms a broad ridge with a steep southern slope rising approx. 1800 m from the floor of the Levantine Basin. This feature is a part of the continental crust (Robertson, 1998). The Hecataeus Rise is separated from the Island of Cyprus by the Cyprus Basin, which is approx. 50 km wide and 2 km deep.

5. THE SEAMOUNTS AS INVESTIGATION AREAS â&#x20AC;&#x201C; FOCUSING ON THE ERATOSTHENES SEAMOUNT 5.1. WHAT IS DONE The Eratosthenes Seamount is a subject of investigation from different groups and different missions. Many data have been collected. The most important mission during the last years is the mission of the German RV MARIA S. MERIAN (Christiansen et al., 2012; Ehrhardt, et al., 2011) Important data have been collected during this mission: multibeam data, sediment echosounding data, refraction seismics data, marine multichannel seismic data, marine magnetotelluric measurements, magnetic and gravity data (Christiansen et al., 2012; Ehrhardt, et al., 2011). Hydrographic data have been collected from more or less all the areas of the Eastern Mediterranean basin, but with varying resolution. In 1996 the Eratosthenes Seamount and the Cyprus trench were the targets of the Ocean Drilling Project (leg 160). Four wells were drilled along a line from the Eratosthenes Seamount plateau to the Cyprus trench (Robertson, 1998).

5.2. SUBJECTS FOR FURTHER INVESTIGATIONS The slopes around the Eratosthenes Seamount are less investigated. It is a challenge to cover this knowledge gap. The regional geology is also a challenge for the high resolution seismic profiling and carbonate sedimentology.

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Eratosthenes Seamount is the only large seamount in the region, and a little is known about the faunal communities and their ecology. Seamounts as undersea elevations, in comparison to the deep-sea plains, have special geological, sedimentological, geochemical and biological features. They affect also the circulation of the water masses and show mesoscale variability in the water column and in the water/sediment interface. Some seamounts appear to be more productive than the surrounding sea, while others do not show any differences. The explanation for this phenomenon is still under investigation. Whether the Eratosthenes Seamount can be regarded as a biodiversity hotspot needs to be further investigated. In order to effectively utilize the natural resources of the seamounts, it is required to understand the processes of the seamount ecosystems.

REFERENCES Breman, E., 2006: Oil and gas plays in the eastern Mediterranian. 5th PESGB/HGS African Conference, London. Christiansen, B., Brand, T., Christiansen, H., Christiansen, S., Denda, A., Fischer, A., George, K.-H., Hayes, D., Hoffmann, S., Isaias, E., Kalogeropoulou, V. Kesselring, T., Lamont, P., Lampadariou, N., Martin, B., Montgomery, J., Peine, F., Schneehorst, A., Schuster, A., Sevastou, K., Solovyov, D., Stahl, H., Tiedke, J., Turnewitsch, R., Unger, K., Zodiatis, G., 2012: Structure and function of pelagic and benthic communities of the eastern Mediterranean in relation to physical drivers and bottom topography. -Cruise No.14, Leg 1, December 17, 2009 - January 14, 2010, Limassol (Cyprus) - Limassol (Cyprus), MARIA S. MERIAN-Berichte 12-1 - Leitstelle Deutsche Forschungsschiffe Institut für Meereskunde der Universität Hamburg Ehrhardt, G.A., Damm, V., Engels, M., Heyde, I., Lutz, R., Schnabel, M., Adam, J., Bargeloh, H.-O., Behrens, T., Demir, U., Kallaus, G., Pitschmann, D. Schröder, P., U. Schrader, U. 2011: Eratosthenes Seamount / Eastern Mediterranean Sea - Geophysical Investigations in the Area of the Eratosthenes Seamount - Cruise No. 14, Leg 2, 18 January – 25 February, 2010, Limassol – Limassol FS MARIA S. MERIAN-Berichte 11-4 -Leitstelle Deutsche Forschungsschiffe, Institut für Meereskunde der Universität Hamburg Lykousis, V., Alexandri, S., Woodside, J., de Lange, G., Dahlmann, A., Perissoratis, C., Heeschen, K., Ioakim, Chr., Sakellariou, D., Nomikou, P., Rousakis, G., Casas, D., Ballas, D., & Ercilla, G. 2009: Mud volcanoes and gas hydrates in the Anaximander mountains (Eastern Mediterranean Sea). Marine and Petroleum Geology 26 (2009) 854–872. MEDINAUT/MEDINETH Shipboard Scientific Parties: Linking Mediterranean brine pools and mud volcanism. -EOS, Transactions American Geophysical Union, 81 (51) (2000), pp. 625–631–633 (Aloisi, G., Asjes, S., Bakker, K., Bakker, M., Charlou, J.-L., De Lange, G., Donval, J.-P., Fiala-Medioni, A., Foucher, J.-P., Haanstra, R., Haese, R., Heijs, S., Henry, P., Huguen, C., Jelsma, B., de Lint, S., van der Maarel, M., Mascle, J., Muzet, S., Nobbe, G., Pancost, R., Pelle, H., Pierre, C., Polman, W., de Senerpont Domis, L., Sibuet, M., van Wijk, T., Woodside, J., Zitter, T.)

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Robertson, A.H.F., 1998. Tectonic significance of the Eratosthenes Seamount: a continental fragment in the process of collision with a subduction zone in the eastern Mediterranean (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 160). Tectonophysics, 298(1-3): 63-82. Stampfli, G. M., Borel, G., Cavazza, W., Mosar, J., and Ziegler, P. A., (eds.), 2001: The Paleotectonic Atlas of the PeriTethyan Domain (CD-ROM): European Geophysical Society (http://www.copernicus.org/EGS/ egs_info/book.htm). Ten Veen, J., Woodside, J., Zitter, T., Dumon, T., J., Mascle, J., & Volkonskaia, A. 2004: Neotectonic evolution of the Anaximander Mountains at the junction of the Hellenic and Cyprus arcs. -Tectonophysics, 391 (2004), pp. 35–65 Woodside, J., Ivanov, M., Limonov, A., 1997: Neotectonics and fluid flow through the seafloor sediments in the Eastern Mediterranean and Black Seas. Part I: eastern Mediterranean Sea -IOC Technical Series, vol. 48 (1997) pp. 1–128. Woodside, J., Ivanov, M., Limonov, A., 1998: Shipboard Scientists of the Anaxiprobe Expeditions. Shallow gas and gas hydrates in the Anaximander Mountains region Eastern Mediterranean Sea ,in: J.P. Henriet, J. Mienert (Eds.), Gas Hydrates: Relevance to World Margin Stability and Climate Change. -Geological Society of London, Special Publication, vol. 137 (1998), pp. 177–193.

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Session 1.10 For a Maritime Cluster in Eastern Mediterranean

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East-Meets-West on Innovation and Entrepreneurship Congress and Exhibition Monday, 3 September 2012, Nicosia, Cyprus SESSION 1.10 Maritime Cluster of Eastern Mediterranean For a Maritime Cluster in Eastern Mediterranean and Black Sea Mrs Beate Gminder, Head of Unit for Maritime Policy Mediterranean and Black Sea, Directorate-General Maritime Affairs and Fisheries, European Commission [Addressing the VIPs] [Introduction] Sustainable growth and employment through innovation is the way ahead for Europe’s maritime economy as it is for the entire European economy. A number of maritime sectors can lead the way and play a significant part in reversing the recent negative trends. Maritime economic activities are important for Europe, notably for its coastal regions, which are home to about 40% of the EU population. In view of the current economic, financial and social crisis, seriously affecting the maritime sectors, there is a need to prepare for the post-crisis period and move quickly towards delivering new growth potentials. The EU’s Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth reiterates the importance of the maritime sectors in the particular context of resource efficiency, competitiveness and climate action. We need to keep in mind these overall objectives but have to become as concrete as possible at the same time. The task at hand is very clear: • Identify the maritime value chains that are important for Europe and that fit into the overall Europe 2020 strategy; • Analyse sharply the positive drivers and the bottlenecks for each value chain and

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the related innovation needs; • Derive policies that reinforce the positive drivers while removing the bottlenecks to the maximum extent possible; • Get all hands on deck – from individual economic actors to EU Member States and Institutions – to implement these policies in the most pragmatic and timely way.

[The possible role of clusters] Clusters will have a major role to play here since they combine existing or emerging economic strengths in a region with an understanding of the policy and economic development instruments that are best suited for the individual situation. It may be useful to recall that the concept of clusters is generally taken to mean “geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and institutions in a particular field” or “geographically co-located end producers, suppliers, service providers, research laboratories, educational institutions, and other institutions in a given economic field”. Given the strong interdependencies between maritime industries, clusters are a useful tool to enhance the knowledge and skills base, notably for SMEs, to raise performance and further competitiveness. Clusters can be instrumental in strengthening the links between maritime enterprises and with research entities and educational institutes, and allow for more cross-sector labour mobility. Training and research centres, financial institutions, innovation and intellectual property consultants, local and regional development agencies and other support organisations are all key players in maximising firms’ creative business potential. Being part of a cluster can improve access to information and qualified workers and make it easier to source inputs and suppliers. And where they work best, they can become engines of value creation and innovation.

[Finding the maritime growth areas] We may all have a certain hunch where the highest potential in the maritime economy, the “Blue Growth” potential, lies. For example, offshore wind energy, blue biotech, cruise tourism or short sea shipping come to mind as these areas have been in the press as positive examples for some time. But we also need to think about the particular and unique strengths certain European regions may have.

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The Commission has since 2010 looked into the growth potential of the maritime economy through a major study. The study results are now available. We have identified eleven value chains which show growth potential now or in the foreseeable future. For each of the value chains, or maritime functions as we call them in the context of the study, the key parameters in terms of overall economic and specific regional importance, the global position of the EU, and the areas of possible and necessary policy action have been identified. Policy recommendations have been formulated and the Commission will present a consolidated view on this in a Communication foreseen for adoption in a few days. Much of the homework has been done.

[Regional dimension of Blue Growth] Increased regional specialisation is a symptom of greater globalisation and there seems to be link between cluster presence and regional economic performance. It is also true that innovation plays a pivotal role in delivering such increased prosperity in advanced economies. Innovation arises when a critical mass of like-minded, highly skilled and knowledgeable actors interact and share their insights. That is why innovation benefits from geographic proximity. Which maritime growth areas are most important for the Mediterranean and the Black Sea and where should clusters and innovation therefore be actively supported? For the Mediterranean, shortsea shipping, oil & gas exploitation, coastline tourism and cruise shipping are of particular importance. Here we can build on existing strengths and other speakers will certainly shed more light on some of these areas. Aquaculture and fisheries are other important economic activities, but fisheries are in decline and aquaculture, also for non-food applications such as algae for biofuel, needs to be developed more in order to compensate and offer alternative employment. Security and surveillance is a very important issue, although we should be aware that related investments will not be driven by the private sector. Here the push needs to come from governments and the Commission is particularly active through the development of the Common Information Sharing Environment which will bring crucial synergies and more efficiency. For the Black Sea region, in which the EU only has a limited share, again shortsea shipping, offshore oil and gas exploration and coastal tourism have been identified as

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areas to focus on. Aquaculture is developing in all Black Sea countries, but it has grown rapidly into an important activity in Turkey and Bulgaria. The Black Sea Region has undergone great socio-economic changes over the past 20 years with major social and environmental implications. Here we need to deepen the analysis further before we can develop concrete support measures. In addition we need the basic maritime governance and co-operation structures to be in place. In particular, with regard to clusters, developments are still in their infancy. The European Commission intends to pay more attention to this region in the future and I would call upon all stakeholders to get organised and seek the contact with other European maritime players for the exchange of best practice. Being a confined sea, I could imagine that lessons can, for example, be learned from the co-operation structures in the Baltic Sea Region. On the political level the European Neighbourhood Policy must be brought to bear also in the development of a sustainable maritime economy.

[Next steps] What are the next steps to deliver on Blue Growth and strengthen the role of maritime clusters? I already mentioned the Blue Growth Communication which is a first attempt to set the scene. For selected value chains such as ocean energy, seabed mining, blue biotechnology, modern aquaculture or maritime tourism we will come forward with more specific recommendations. We also intend to organize a series of regional and trans-regional events that can serve to discuss the specific strengths of coastal regions with regard to certain economic activities. Existing and new maritime clusters will have a crucial role to play in this. All of this will be done through an open and transparent process in which stakeholders are of utmost importance. Blue Growth needs to be a comprehensive and inclusive exercise, not something cooked up in think tanks with little connection to the economic reality.

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[Conclusion] Ladies and Gentlemen, Blue Growth as the economic pillar of the Integrated Maritime Policy and the maritime pillar of the Europe 2020 strategy has to be at the centre of our joint efforts in the coming decade. Europe as the most maritime of all continents must harvest the potential of oceans, seas and coasts to the benefit of the working people and society as a whole. Our future must be blue. This requires great efforts and new thinking beyond narrow sectoral policies. Every maritime region has strengths to build on. Clusters are the mechanism to identify these strengths, develop practical co-operation structures, increase visibility vis-Ă -vis policy makers and the public, and ultimately bring innovations to the market. I am confident that the East-Meets-West Conference on Innovation and Entrepreneurship will help in delivering on this ambition and give new impetus to the rise of sustainable maritime clusters in established and emerging sectors.

Thank you for your attention.

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Maritime tourism cluster anatomy. Policies ahead? Lekakou Maria* and Stefanidaki Evangelia** Department of Shipping, Trade and Transport, University of the Aegean 2a Korai str, Chios Greece, P.C. 82100 Tel. +30-22710-35200, Fax: +30-22710-35299 mlek@aegean.gr*, estefanidaki@stt.aegen.gr **

ABSTRACT The concept of cluster has been widely applied into the conduct of industrial policy process, especially in European level. Literature reveals the dynamic role of regional clusters, their contribution in creating economic value (Benito et al., 2003) and their importance in industrial and regional development (Doloreux and Shearmur, 2008). Indicative is the fact that regions with strong clusters tend to have higher income and employment levels (Danish Ship-owners Association Working Paper, 2010). Concerning maritime tourism cluster; the relevant literature is scant. Thus the aim is to analyze the maritime tourism industry from a cluster perspective and to focus on the content of EU initiatives for maritime tourism and the role of clusters as source of social innovation. Key words: cruise cluster, regional impacts, development policy

INTRODUCTION: THE CLUSTER CONCEPT Porter’s cluster concept is one of the most influential theories for local development (Isserman, 1998). Especially, nowadays where national economies face many challenges there is an apparent interest from the European Union and national governments to develop initiatives that enhance innovation, as the tool for dealing with current economic instability. In this context numerous funding programs and cluster institutions are created in order to support firms to overcome internal limitations (IKED, 2004).Cluster concept is not a new one since relevant references are found already in the 19th century from Marshall and its “industrial district”(Kim and Wicks, 2010). Since then there are many researchers who dealt with the partnership among co-located firms and their competitive advantages as sources of regional development (IKED, 2004)1. In the 90’s cluster concept started to rise again with the seminal work of Porter, “Competitive Advantage of Nations” (1990) while trying to explain industrial 1 For an analytical evolution of the cluster literature see IKED 2004.

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dynamics and to address the factors that contribute to the achievement of optimal competitiveness in regional and national development. According to Porter (1998) clusters “are geographic concentrations of interconnected companies and institutions in a particular field, linked by commonalities and complementarities”. This definition sets as critical condition for the existence of a cluster; this of geographic proximity or concentration. Co-location can provide access to specific natural resources, lower transaction costs, economies of scales, labor specialization, and stimulation of SMEs formulation. Clusters are found around a core activity with all the actors involved to this; but the existence of a large number of firms- complementary or supplementary- does not guarantee the formulation of a cluster. Involvement of multiple actors such as public authorities and academia is a critical parameter, since these can assist to technological and administrational innovation, raising local competitiveness (IKED, 2004). The new term emerged is this of “Coopetition”, since companies must not only compete its rivals but further must cooperate in specific fields such as research and technology. In the past cooperation among firms of the same industry was treated suspiciously. Nowadays, joint efforts have become common practice in many fields. Trust is crucial factor that enhance the exchange of information among firms and the development of common technological programs. It worth’s noticing that co-location does not guarantee clustering (Weidenfeld et al.,2011). As Rosenfeld (1997) argues clustering is often confused with networking and identifies the differences between the two concepts. Major difference is the reason that motivates firms for networking or clustering. In the networking case the reason is predominately derived from the necessity of companies to have access to recourses at a lower cost while in clustering interconnection of firms is based on common business goals. In networking, geographic proximity is not precondition. On the other hand clustering operates as an attraction pole for specialized services to a region. Alongside, in a cluster all members of local business community can take part unconditionally serving collective visions; while in networking the access is restricted to its members only. In many cases the establishment of a cluster was not a conscious choice of some policy makers but rather a random event which was favored form current conditions. Newlands (2003) suggest that clusters were the “accidents of history”. The evolution of clusters still remains subject under research (Ketels, 2003), while there are many reasons that can explain the formulation of regional clusters. The existence of natural resources in an area and initial institutions (companies or universities) can be two factors that can favor the creation of a cluster. The development and wide acceptability of clustering is grounded to the contribution of the clusters’ structure to

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the performance of its components and further that it operates as generators for local development (Hall, 2004). Literature reveals the dynamic role of regional clusters, their contribution in creating economic value (Benito et al., 2003) and their importance in industrial and regional development (Doloreux and Shearmur, 2008). Indicative is the fact that regions with strong clusters tend to have higher income and employment levels (Danish Ship-owners Association Working Paper, 2010). Of course the cluster concept while widely applied received criticism on the impact that it has to development (Ketels, 2003). Furthermore Martin and Sunley (2003) argue that the definition of the cluster is problematic while Weidenfeld et al. (2011) suggest that clustering “has passed from innovative theorization, through the stage of fashionability to late maturity and critical reflection”.

DEFINING MARITIME TOURISM There is not a single and widely accepted definition on maritime tourism. According to Lekakou and Tzannatos (2001) maritime tourism refers to specific forms of tourism activities combined with the sea. Respectively, Hall (2001) refers that maritime tourism is closely related to coastal tourism. Common point in most of the definitions is the direct relation of the tourist with the sea. On the other hand a major question is raised: do all activities on/by the sea constitute maritime tourism? (Diakomihalis, 2007). Wild and Dearing (2000) provides an alternative approach on maritime tourism definition: “maritime based leisure activity engaged in by people in their non-working time that may include an element of travel on, below or immediately above water’ and respectively “Maritime Tourism may be defined as any maritime based leisure activity engaged in by people in their non-working time involving an element of travel on, below or immediately above water”. Figure 1 presents schematically the relation among different markets of tourism and leisure. Figure 1: Market of Tourism and Leisure

Source: G.P.Wild International

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Figure 2 illustrates the multidimensional nature of the product of maritime tourism. The cluster of maritime tourism is a very complicate one, since it combines services and inputs from the sector of travel, transpot and tourism & leisure. Thus, it is crucial to identify the full range of actors involved in the process. Figure 2 illustartes the actors of maritime tourism cluster. Cruise companies and yacht companies are the core of the cluster since these are the companies that produce maritime tourism services. In the left side, there are the industries which provide inputs for the sector while on the right side are illustated the different industries that their products/services are necessary for the maritime tourism consumption in each destination. Figure 2: Maritime Tourism Cluster anatomy

Cruise shipping could be considered as a diversified maritime activity with organizational characteristics similar TO those of passenger shipping (Stefanidaki and Lekakou, 2012). This means that cruise shipping product is produced in terms of a maritime product (especially safety and security) and is consumed in terms of a tourism product on board and on shore. Thus the cluster combines the actors of shipping and tourism cluster respectively.

EUROPEAN CLUSTER POLICY The concept of cluster has been widely applied into the conduct of policy process, especially on a European level. Cluster based policies are thought as an alternative of policy intervention through subsidies as derived from the principals of industrial policies. While industrial policies favor centralized decisions at national level, cluster concept encourages initiatives at local and regional level, enhancing competition.

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Cluster policies can be classified in three major categories: 1) development policies for creating, mobilizing or strengthening a cluster, 2) leveraging policies used to increase the efficiency of a specific instrument and 3) facilitating policies for the creation of the appropriate business environment for the emergence of new clusters. (Europe Innova Cluster Mapping Project, 2008) In 2006 the Commission in its communication document expressed specific concerns about the competitiveness of Europe and furthermore the view that the future of the continent depends on innovation2. Among other goals there is a clear stated objective of promoting the cooperation between stakeholders through cluster policies. Thus European regional policy plans for 2007-2013 focused on the promotion of regional innovative clusters. Beyond that the development of regional cluster could be used to promote and improve trans-national European cooperation. Major objective of the policy was to generate world-class European clusters. In 2008 Commission’s communication aimed at the creation of a more efficient framework for cluster development and support in EU.3 Major finding was that Europe does not lack clusters but the performance and the mass of the established clusters was not sufficient enough to address the challenges of the new economic environment. In this context the aim of European policies was not to support such structures through subsidies but instead to create initiatives that could be based on the regional strengths and competences for ensuring long term viability. Alongside the European Cluster Observatory was established as a focal point for assisting policy makers on policy clusters. Major axes of European cluster policy are: support to SMEs and provision of better tools for enhance innovative SMEs. (Europe INNOVA initiative under Competitiveness Innovation Programme (CIP).

FROM TECHNOLOGIAL INNOVATION TO SOCIAL INNOVATION The development and sustainability of a cluster depends on the characteristics and degree of acceptability from the local society. The report of IKED (2004) is referred to the concept of social capital as “the intangible aspects of the social organization of a region or cluster that facilitate collaboration among economic actors. Social capital is a community-based asset shared in and by the cluster or region’.

Cluster, most of the times cross the border of a country since use inputs and

2  COM (2006), Putting knowledge into practice: A broad-based innovation strategy for the EU. 3  COM(2008), Towards world-class clusters in the European Union: Implementing the broad-based innovation strategy.

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resources from other locations (Enright, 1999). Maritime tourism is a typical example. The output of maritime tourism is produced in specific locations- where the cruise or yacht company is based- but is consumed on board and in the visited destinations. Thus the aim of a European cluster policy cannot be limited to a specific region but a wider framework approach of initiatives and directives is needed. The content of such a policy may have multiple dimensions such as development or reinforcement of the cluster and prevention of generated spillover effects. The general framework should be adjusted in a national context according to the characteristics, needs and the evolutionary phase of the sector or cluster. The development and the support of a cluster is one option of that policy. The other one is the treatment of negative externalities derived from the activity. This is the pro-active character of public policy measures and an important reason for state intervention. In most of the cases where cluster policies are applied the objective is to strength cluster structure. The prevention of negative impacts is not so far in the center of cluster policy interest. Economic activities apart from positives effects also produce externalities and side effects. A characteristic example is this of cruise tourism. Cruise industry is perceived as an important economic activity that generates income and enhances local development. This perception is amplified by current conditions of economic crisis. Under these circumstances policy makers press for the expansion of local sectors without having ensure the control of negative effects of the cruise shipping (Zapata, Aguirre and Brida, 2010). New trends in the market generate new challenges for the destinations. A contemporary trend in cruise industry wants ships to become bigger and bigger and thus there is a constant need for new infrastructures. In this context destinations invest heavily on infrastructures in order to attract more ships and maximize economic impacts. Many destinations – especially in the Caribbean but also in Europe- follow this pattern, ignoring their capacity limits and congestion phenomenon is appeared. Even if literature on the social impacts of cruise activity is limited there is increased evidence that cruise tourism impacts and disrupts the routines of host communities. As referred, when congestion is appeared local community starts to have negative attitudes. Alteration of physical environment and congestion in combination with community’s negative attitude eventually will lead to changes to the image of the destination. Consequently, image changing will affect the experiences of the visitors and their perception and preferences for the destination. When this is occurred one of the forces in Porter’s model- demand conditions- change leading to changes in the structure of the industry affecting cluster’s performance. These new conditions will modify the structure of regional clusters leading to gradually decline or alteration of its profile. When a regional cluster is in declining phase this can trigger multiple negative impacts for local economy and society.

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Thus clusters policies do not enhance only local economy but further contribute to social change and evolution. The development of an industrial cluster is correlated with social development. The acceptability of local society can have multiple positive impacts to the establishment of local clusters. The opposite can have a negative impact leading to the failure of any kind of cluster policy. Expanding the concept of social capital the cluster policy should move beyond that and should set within its initiatives societal priorities.

CONCLUSIONS- THE CONTENT OF EUROPEAN CLUSTER POLICY FOR MARITIME TOURISM INITIATIVES Cluster initiatives cannot be single dimensioned. Ketels (2003) refers that twothirds of all initiatives had six activity areas (research, policy lobbying, commercial cooperation, and education, training and investment attraction). Thus apart from the involvement of social actors for enhancing the trust in the business community, cluster policies must incorporate measures for mitigating side effects. Cluster initiatives for maritime tourism should prioritize sustainability and social acceptability. More specifically table 1 illustrates the content of initiatives Table 1: Content of European Cluster initiatives for maritime tourism

Society

Social Acceptability

Enhance human capital Training Education Research

Establish communication and involvement of community for cluster support & assessment

Enviro nment Enhance CSR concept within cluster Strengthening communication channels with NGOs and social institutions

Sustainability Destination Carrying capacity indices and directives

Training and education are core initiatives in most cluster policies. This way human capital is developed but that does not ensure social acceptability. Thus is a necessity thought cluster policy to establish communication and involvement of the community? Especially nowadays; many environmental concerns are raised; cluster policies should enhance the environmental responsible operation of the companies.

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Corporate Social Responsibility is a concept that could be strengthened within clustersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; members (Charitoudi et al., 2011). Also, in this context the establishment of communication channels with NGOs and social institutions can facilitate the transfer of knowledge and expertise into firms. The sustainability of the region is a crucial matter that becomes even more severe when it is for maritime tourism. The constant press for infrastructures force local or national Authorities to invest and construct facilities (terminals, piers and shore based infrastructures), intervening in natural and built environment, altering the image of the destinations. At the same time, the mass character of the cruise activity has as result congestion and competition between cruise passengers, tourists and locals for space. These observations indicate the side effects of the activity which till recently were not taken into consideration. Thus any future policy for maritime tourism and particularly cruise tourism should take into consideration the carrying capacity of the destinations (especially for small islands) as well as the local societies and their perceptions about the activity and their level of acceptability. Since acceptance from local societies, for measures or policy initiatives or certain works, could be used as an indicator of its success, then priority should be given to highly sustainable frameworks. This process facilitates the involvement of residents in the formulation of cruise policy. Furthermore, this helps to the resolution of potential conflicts among different stakeholders using integrated planning tools (e.g. Community Benefit Agreement between developer and community etc.).

REFERENCES Benito Gabriel R.G., Berger Eivind, Morten de la Forest, Shum Jonas, A cluster analysis of the maritime sector in Norway, International Journal of Transport Management, 1(4),203-215,(2003). Brida, G., J., & Zapata- Aguirre, S., Economic Impacts of Cruise Tourism: The case of Costa Rica. Social Science Research Network. (2010). Charitoudi G., Sariannidis N. and Giannarakis G.The Development Guide for Corporate Social Responsibility Programming. European Journal of Scientific Research. 65(1), 20-27, 2011. Danish Shipownersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association, The Economic Significance of Maritime Clusters. Lessons Learned from European Empirical Research, Working Paper (2010). Diakomihalis M. Greek Maritime Tourism: Evolution, Structures and Prospects. Research in Transportation

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Economics, 21, 419–455.(2007) Enright, M., Regional clusters and economic development: A research agenda, in U. Staber et al. (eds.), Business Networks: Prospects for Regional Development, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin (1996) Hall M.C., Rural Wine and Food Tourism Cluster and Network Development. In Hall R.D., Kirkpatick I. and Mitchell Morag (Eds),Rural Tourism and Sustainable Business, Walter de Gruyter: Berlin (2004). Hall, M., Trends in ocean and coastal tourism: The end of the last frontier? Ocean and coastal management, 44(9–10), 601–648, (2001). International Organization for Knowledge Economy and Enterprise Development, The Cluster policies Whitebook (2004). Isserman, A., What do we want from theory in rural development? Growth and Change, 29(3), 344-351, (1998) Jackson, J., & Murphy, P. (2006). Clusters in regional tourism An Australian case. Annals of Tourism Research, 33(4), 1018-1035, (2006). Porter, M.E., Cluster the New Economics of Competition. Harvard Business Review, 76 (6), 77, (1998). Ketels C., The Development of the cluster concept – present experiences and further developments, Prepared for NRW conference on clusters, Duisburg, Germany, 5 Dec (2003). Lekakou, M., & Tzannatos, E., Cruising and sailing: A new tourist product for the Ionian sea (in Greek), Volume in Honor of Emeritus Professor M. Rafael (pp. 475–496). Pireaus: University of Piraeus. (2001) Martin, R., & Sunley, P., Deconstructing clusters: Chaotic concept or policy panacea? Journal of Economic Geography,3(1), 5—35,(2003). Newlands, D., Competition and cooperation in industrial clusters: The implication for public policy. European Planning Studies, 11, 521-532, (2003). Namhyun Kim and Bruce E. Wicks, Rethinking Tourism Cluster Development Models for Global Competitiveness, International CHRIE Conference-Refereed Track. (2010). Stefanidaki .E and Lekakou M., Liberalization Assessment: The Greek cruise market, Tourism, 60, (2012). Stuart A. Rosenfeld, Bringing business clusters into the mainstream of economic development, European Planning Studies, 5:1, 3-23, (1997). Wild, G., & Dearing, J., Development of and prospects for cruising in Europe. Maritime Policy & Management, 27, 315–333, (2000). Weidenfeld, A. Williams. A.M and Butler, R. W., Why Cluster? Text and sub- text in the engagement of tourism development policies with the cluster concept, In Dredge, D.and Jenkins, J.M. (eds), Stories of Practice: Tourism Policy and Planning, pp. 335-338, Ashgate Publishing (2011).

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RISK ASSESSMENT OF OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INSTALLATIONS UNDER CYBER THREATS Constantinos Hadjistassou*, Antonis M. Hadjiantonis** University of Cyprus, KIOS Research Center for Intelligent Systems and Networks; School of Engineering, PO Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia *chatzis@ucy.ac.cy, **antonish@ucy.ac.cy

ABSTRACT Offshore oil and gas drilling and production systems are among the most high-tech energy assets in the industry. The complex mixture of systems and networks comprise a major critical infrastructure of the national and pan-European energy sector. It is, therefore, imperative to assess and address the risks for these infrastructures, especially under the light of emerging new cyber threats. In the context of two hypothetical cyber attacks one targeting the platform master control station and the other aiming to inflict damage to the reservoir formation we highlight the potentially catastrophic nature of malicious attacks and the need for multidisciplinary research and development efforts.

INTRODUCTION Herein we provide a high-level overview of operational control of offshore oil and gas installation, and overview the well-know Stuxnet malware incident and its importance and implications for the Energy Sector. In particular, we investigate the possibility of malevolent attacks against industrial control systems and software onboard an offshore production platform residing in Cyprusâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). In this context we investigate a scenario targeting the platform master control station and a second scenario aiming to inflict damage to the reservoir formation. Motives for such an assault may range from hackers seeking financial benefits, e.g. ransom, to bilateral State conflict. The Stuxnet incident has demonstrated that a determined and well-financed adversary can inflict severe damage even to seemingly isolated networked infrastructures. We therefore aim to raise awareness for the need to prepare and intensify R&D efforts for critical infrastructure protection.

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OPERATIONAL CONTROL OF OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INSTALLATIONS Field developments strive to maximize value by recovering hydrocarbons in a reliable, safe, uninterrupted, economical, and environmentally-friendly manner. Operational control of the different systems is customary subdivided in the top-side and subsea control elements. In essence, the primary purpose of the control system is to regulate the opening and closing of valves and chokes on subsea trees, manifold/ templates, and pipelines. Currently, most offshore hydrocarbons developments utilize the multiplex electrohydraulic control system. Taken together the Master Control Station (MSC), which acts as the interface between the operator and the subsea equipment, and the Subsea Control Module (SCM) constitute the “brain” and “nervous system” of the production system, respectively. However, like any other computerized system, offshore oil & gas floater systems are not immune to malicious cyber attacks. The recent discovery of malware (malicious software, virus) like Flame (2012) and Stuxnet (2010) targeting for the first time industrial control systems have highlighted the susceptibility of critical infrastructures to cyber threats, even if they are operating in private networks and in isolation from the Internet.

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL SYSTEMS: VULNERABILITIES AND THREATS The majority of Critical Infrastructure Systems are instrumented by special computerized systems, collectively known as Industrial Control Systems (ICS). ICS are command and control networks and systems designed to support industrial processes. These systems are responsible for monitoring and controlling a variety of processes and operations such as gas and electricity distribution, water treatment, oil refining or railway transportation. The largest subgroup of ICS is SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) systems. According to ENISA [1] in the last few years, ICS have passed through a significant transformation from proprietary, isolated systems to open architectures and standard technologies highly interconnected with other corporate networks and the Internet. Today ICS are often networked in local or wide area networks (LAN/WAN). In turn, these networks are either interconnected using private leased communication lines, or use secure tunnels (Virtual Private Networks) over the public Internet, creating a complex network of networks. In special cases, infrastructure networks remain locally isolated and disconnected from the outside world. The latter method, often referred to as “security via obscurity”, was considered a sufficient protection strategy for these networks. However, the latest generation of malware, with Stuxnet as its poster child

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has uncovered the severe vulnerabilities of industrial control systems, even in the case of network isolation. According to the aforementioned ENISA report, the biggest challenges in ICS security are identified and it is worth noting two of them in the context of this paper. The 1st Challenge is the lack of specific initiatives on ICS security: “At the EU level, there are policy areas addressing Critical Infrastructure Protection and Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP). However, none of them are addressing ICS specifically. A European Commission Communication [COM(2011) 163] recognizes that new threats have emerged, mentioning Stuxnet explicitly. However, new activities proposed by this Communication on CIIP do not include any specific to ICS. In this context, ENISA has already stated that after Stuxnet, currently prevailing on CIIP will have to be reconsidered.” Another challenge identified in ENISA’s report is the difference in the ruling security paradigms between classic ICT and ICS environments. “The ruling security paradigm in Classic ICT systems’ security is based on the CIA model (Confidentiality, Integrity, Availability), but in the ICS environment the SRA model (Safety, Reliability, Availability) is predominant, often referred to as AIC (the inverse of CIA) to emphasize the priority given to Availability. Although the incident of Stuxnet malware in 2009 raised the profile of cyber security and ICS vulnerabilities, the incident should be examined with caution as its continued examination has revealed that only a state actor could have financed and executed this kind of an attack. An article in Der Spiegel [2] refers to European intelligence agency statement that “it would have taken a programmer at least three years to develop Stuxnet, at a cost in the double-digit millions”. Nonetheless, it highlights the potential impact a determined attacker can inflict, which in the case of Stuxnet is amounted to the delay of Iran’s nuclear program due to extensive damage inflicted on six cascades containing 164 Iranian IR-1 centrifuges used in producing uranium-235 from uranium hexafluoride gas.

ATTACK SCENARIOS AGAINST OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS INSTALLATIONS In this context, we investigate two scenarios affecting the safe and uninterrupted production of hydrocarbons after a malicious attack on the MCS unit which, in turn, affects the operation of the SCM. Both scenarios examine the potential implications on personnel safety, equipment and environmental hazards and economic risks. The first scenario focuses on false water and hydraulic pressure, temperature, flow and other readings displayed on the computer interface of the MSC. The second scenario explores in detail the potential damage to the reservoir formation which constitutes

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the most valuable asset of the subsea development. Potential environmental matters such as the release of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in the sea and potential adverse effects on marine life are investigated. Before proceeding to present and analyze the two scenarios which arise from the action of the cyber attackers, we set the stage by epigrammatically presenting the principles of operation of the multiplexed electrohydraulic control system.

THE MULTIPLEXED ELECTROHYDRAULIC CONTROL SYSTEM The multiplexed electrohydraulic control system (MECS) is typically divided into the: (a) the topside (above the waterline fixed or floating installation) and (b) the subsea (at the seabed) control structures [3]. The topside control units consist of the electrical power unit, the topside umbilical termination unit, the hydraulic power unit, the topside junction box, the master control station, and other components. Below the free-surface, the subsea control components include: umbilicals, electrical and hydraulic flying leads, the subsea umbilical termination unit, the subsea control module, etc. Besides the control of the subsea development valves, the control system provides important chock control and vital diagnostics. Subsequently, we outline the two scenarios.

1. FALSE READINGS AT THE MASTER CONTROL STATION The Master Control Station (MCS) is an indispensable component of the multiplexed electrohydraulic control system. Located at the host (platform) facility the MCS serves as an interface between the operator and the subsea components. Communications between the topside unit and the subsea equipment is facilitated via electronic messages. The MCS interfaces with the host facility using a supervisory control (SCADA) network. Executions comprise various functions such as subsea well and manifold control, contingency shutdown, and data acquisition. A human/machine interface (HMI) relays commands from the operator to the subsea equipment. A monitor offers the visual means for observing subsea operations and controlling equipment while a keyboard interfaces with the user. Similar to a computer, the MCS presents vulnerabilities in terms of being inflected with malicious software. Even when the HMI is not connected to the outside world via the Internet acute risks could originate from the people working onboard the platform. Since the 1980s independent oil companies (IOCs) outsource to third party companies a large proportion of the non-core oil & gas operations such as measurements while

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drilling (MWD), the provision of drilling mud, or catering services. Therefore, different subcontractors which employ a large number of technical and scientific personnel, may gain access to the platform and its different control and operational systems. Mainly due its role of acting as the “nervous system” of the platform, the MCS may be perceived as an attractive system for inflicting damage to the platform, its personnel or the natural resource. Consequently, one should expect the MCS to be a popular target for potential hackers, terrorists, or state sponsored agents. Given the high stakes of accidents, hydrocarbon platforms offer a high degree of redundancy against equipment failures. This is attributed to the fact that hardware malfunctions may prove catastrophic both to the asset and/or the onboard personnel. Consider for instance the loss of the Piper Alpha natural gas production platform in the North Sea, in 1988, which resulted in the loss of 167 men and the rig itself. Notably platforms are armed with sophisticated subsurface safety valves capable of automatically closing down when sensors detect a drop in the pressure at the surface [4]. Manual shut-off switches also offer the possibility of ceasing hydrocarbon production from subsea wells and pipelines. In an attempt to overcome the automatic contingency mechanisms of the platform, a sophisticated malicious code can be programmed to provide false onscreen readings regarding the operation of the subsea wells. Hence, this is one of the ways to deceive the operator that the subsea wells operate according to safe practices. In the meantime though, compromising the MCS implies that cyber criminals can influence functions such as the: a) choke control, b) hydrate formation, c) tree valve control, (d) subsea sensor monitoring, etc. This type of “man-in-the-middle” attack was employed by Stuxnet, which recorded normal measurements during safe operation, and played those back during the time it was interfering with the safe operation of Iranian centrifuges. In other words, false readings were presented to the operator, while centrifuges were spinning out of control. The intelligent and intermittent use of this attack made its discovery extremely hard. In fact it was only discovered once heavy damage to centrifuges was inflicted. Manipulating the HMI readings while instructing the subsea control module to operate outside its safety envelope can prove hazardous for the equipment but more importantly for the offshore natural resource asset, the marine environment and the personnel. Of significant importance is the fact that most often than not the recovery of hydrocarbons cannot be interrupted. Clearly by any means the operator will be prepared to consent to any demands however bizarre in order to avoid a catastrophic failure of the offshore asset which is usually a multi-billion dollar investment. If the cyber criminal wishes to impose to a disastrous damage to the platform this is a very

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elaborate task requiring specialized coding intended to fool the automatic shut-down mechanisms. In the sequel, we investigate the scenario where cyber criminals damage the reservoir formation.

2. RESERVOIR DAMAGE FORMATION When the operator of an offshore hydrocarbons production installation detects a malicious attack, following a preliminary assessment of the situation and in accordance with the company guidelines, the natural reaction will be to halt production. This is not the optimum way for an active hydrocarbons system but given the degree of uncertainty it is a prudent decision especially if the accommodation block is located at the same platform. Yet this decision is not without its perils. Even in hurricane prone areas, such as the Gulf of Mexico, operators choose not to completely cease hydrocarbons extraction mainly due to various technical subtleties. Halting oil or gas production in deep or ultra-deep water could pose some grave risks to the reservoir which constitutes the most important asset of the subsea development. Depending on the water column temperature, the well pressure and temperature, and hydrocarbons composition, such as the presence of liquids, there is considerable risk of jeopardizing flow assurance. The formation of hydrates, for example, can clog flow lines, flexible and rigid marine risers. Understandably the costs of bringing the hydrocarbons system online again could be substantially high. Irrespective of the economic risks, safety considerations and environmental perils can outweigh damage to the subsea hardware and host platform notwithstanding the reservoir itself. Potentially the attacker might also damage the hydrocarbons reservoir. Formation damage is a term used to describe the impairment of the permeability of a petroleum or natural gas-bearing reservoir by various adverse processes. Usually formation damage may be caused by factors such as physic-chemical, chemical, biological, hydrodynamic, and thermal interactions of porous formations, particles, and fluids and the mechanical deformation of the reservoir under stress and fluid shear [5]. Exploration & production (E&P) experts acknowledge that for the efficient exploitation of hydrocarbon reservoirs, formation assessment, control, and remediation need to be successfully addressed [6, 7]. Subsea wells are routinely injected with chemicals whose primary purpose are flow assurance and corrosion inhibition. Some chemicals are typically administered on a small volume continuous basis. Therefore, if an attacker assumes partial control of the MSC this raises the specter that chemicals might be used to inflict physical

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damage to the hydrocarbons reservoir. For example injecting an inappropriate dose of solvents such as soaps and acids or diesel could endanger the health of the formation. Formation damage could result in a drop in productivity of oil and gas reservoirs raising also the possibility of non-economically viable operations [5]. It should be emphasized that formation damage is not necessarily reversible. Therefore, it is highly desirable to avoid formation damage in the first place that implementing remedial measures in at attempt to restore rock permeability.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS As demonstrated by the Macondo incident, in the Gulf of Mexico, and the Stuxnet episode, which targeted Iranian nuclear infrastructure, the stakes are high and potential economic/environmental costs could be massive. In spite the hype around the cyber threats and the rhetoric of cyber war, one should not underestimate the risks from coordinated cyber attacks to personnel safety, as well as to the valuable physical resources. Therefore, both States and companies ought to prepare against such emerging cyber threats and enhance their capabilities through continued R&D. To anticipate the emerging cyber threats to critical infrastructures and industrial control systems (ICS), an integrated approach is needed combining methodologies from Information Systems Security and ICS engineering. These technical tools may provide invaluable input to a holistic Risk Assessment framework employed by infrastructure operators.

REFERENCES [1] ENISA, “Protecting Industrial Control Systems - Recommendations for Europe and Member States “ 2011. [2] H. Stark. (2011, 08 Aug. ) Stuxnet Virus Opens New Era of Cyber War. Der Spiegel Online. [3] Y. Bai and Q. Bai, Subsea Engineering Handbook. Burlington, MA: Gulf Professional Publishing, 2010. [4] A. P. Institute, “Security Guidelines For the Petroleum Industry,” ed, 2003. [5] F. Civan, Reservoir Formation Damage. Burlington: Elsevier, 2007. [6] K. E. Porter, “An Overview of Formation Damage,” J.P.T., vol. 41, pp. 780-786, 1989. [7] N. Mungan, “Discussion of An Overview of Formation Damage,” JPT, vol. 41, p. 1124, 1989.

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Session 1.16 2Be Connected: Universities liaising with Enterprises: Good practices

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THE OPERATION OF AN INDUSTRY LIAISON OFFICE AT THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS Gregoriou Elena, Head, Students Welfare Services. Head of the project “Industry Liaison Offices” at the Open University of Cyprus Savva Michalis, Research Officer – Supervisor, Industry Liaison Office, Open University of Cyprus Dalosi Anna, Coordinator, Industry Liaison Office, GrantXperts Consulting Ltd and Open University of Cyprus Kalli Maria, Officer, Industry Liaison Office, GrantXperts Consulting Ltd and Open University of Cyprus

ABSTRACT Challenging social and economic European environment has resulted in a growing demand for measures towards smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Research and Innovation have emerged as the key factors of prosperity and sustainability. Creating an environment in which businesses (large and small- medium) can prosper is crucial to achieving the growth that Europe and the member- states need. The increasing importance of Research and Innovation has added a new dimension to the university’s role in society. The important part is the relationship between academia and industry in an interactive and collaborative way. Since March 2012 the Open University of Cyprus (OUC) is operating the Industry Liaison Office. OUC is a member of an EU funded project implemented by the 6 universities operating in Cyprus. Project Coordinator is the University of Cyprus. By participating at the Industry Liaison Office project OUC aims to promote and spread to the public the idea of lifelong learning. A strategic goal of the university is the creation of a Career Centre that will offer to its students and the public various useful and valuable services. Additionally, OUC aims to create links with the local industry in order to be able to offer them its know-how and other related services. All these objectives will be implemented through the: - Provision of consulting services to companies and organisations - Promotion of future joint projects - Student placements - Transfer of know-how from academia to the industry - Promotion of innovation and entrepreneurship culture to academia and industry

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1. R&D EXPENDITURE IN CYPRUS FROM 2000 ONWARDS AND OTHER STATISTICS The first official data for R&D expenditure in Cyprus were recorded in 1992. At that time the R&D expenditure was at the 0.18% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of the country. Since then a lot of progress and changes were occurred. At that time the country had only 3 private colleges offering high level education to the students. In 1992 the first public university was established. Through the years two more public universities were established and also the previously private colleges (one of them operated since 1960’) were transformed into universities. This transformation was not easy due to infrastructural, academic and curricula reforms necessary for this huge step. By 2009 all the changes were completed and all 3 private universities were accredited by the the local board, Cyprus Council for the Recognition of Higher Education Qualifications. The progress of R&D expenditure through the years is significant due to the changes mentioned above. However the total amount is still small and below the national target set in Bologna in 2002 (1% by the year 2010). Specifically, the progress of the expenditure in R&D though the years was: - 2000: 0.25% of the GDP - 2004: 0.40% of the GDP - 2008: 0.43% of the GDP - 2009: 0.49% of the GDP - 2010: 0.50% of the GDP - 2011: 0.51% of the GDP Cyprus is high in the use of Internet and other related ICT services both by enterprises and private households. Due to competition private and public internet service providers upgraded their systems and improved their coverage. Internet coverage of the island is almost 100% (98,5%) and DSL use was significantly increased. Cyprus is characterised as an “Innovation Follower” with big progress in the overall effort of the researchers and other support staff. It is a common belief that all indicators were improved. Some of these indicators are: Full Time Equivalent of the staff in R&D, the system of open and attractive research, the spectrum of the specialisation of our researchers. However and even though there was progress the last 5 years we

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still lack in the finance support of the researchers and filing new patents and products development. EU R&D GDP expenditure lacks that of its main competitors. R&D expenditure in Europe is less than 2% is relation to 2.6% and 3.4% of that of USA and Japan respectively.

2. TOWARDS THE HORIZON 2020 PROGRAMME Due to the economic crisis that affected almost all the world is more than demanding to focus on sustainability and growth. European policy makers the last few years explored the impact of research and innovation on contemporary business and academic environments. The need for changes is more than imminent in order to overturn the negative environment. In this context the President of the European Commission announced (March 2010) the launch of the Programme Horizon 2020 that will be implemented from 2014. The overall objective is to increase sustainability of EU, and help towards the improvement of competitiveness and job growth. The programme has five objectives (called flagships): 1. Increase employment The main objective is to increase employment with the EU up to 75% of the total working force. 2. Increase R&D expenditure The main objective is to increase the EU R&D expenditure by 3% of the EU GDP (currently 2%) 3. Tackling climate For this objective there are 3 main goals: i) Reduce gas emissions by 20% ii) Increase energy use efficiency by 20% iii) Increase energy use from renewable sources of energy by 20% 4. Poverty issues The main objective is to reduce poverty and social exclusion

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5. Other pan- European targets For this objective there are 2 main goals: i) Reduce school drop outs in levels less than 10% ii) At least 40% of the population between the ages 30 and 34 to complete third level education

3. THE LIAISON OF UNIVERSITIES AND THE INDUSTRY Industry is the productive partner of the society. Academia has the infrastructure and know-how to supply industry with technological and scientific resources. It is true that the links between academia and the industry are not to the level that they are supposed to be. As a result of this we can detect that graduates lack of experience and hands on experience when they graduate. In addition, university programmes of study most of the times are not in line with what the industry is capable to do or what is expected by their future employees to know. A link between academia and the industry is more than imminent and relevant in this content. The link will help both parties and increase competitiveness of the industry. Innovation ideas and experiences originated by both parties are the basis of this effort. The linkage between academia and industry may result in an increase of businesses to invest on research. The increase of interest in research funding will successfully lead to research growth and R&D sustainability. The role of liaising academia and industry is very promising. Successful implementation of this task will create a great impact to both parties and the society in general. The current economic situation and the fact that everybody wants to diversify and improve its processes in order to survive can be a “helpful hand” to promote the benefits of such cooperation. Taking in consideration all the above we can say that the creation of an industry liaison office at the universities is a priority.

4. THE PROJECT “DEVELOPMENT AND OPERATION OF ENTERPRISE LIAISON OFFICES IN UNIVERSITIES OPERATING IN THE REPUBLIC OF CYPRUS” The National Framework The project titled “Development and Operation of Enterprise Liaison Offices in

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universities operating in the Republic of Cyprus” (from now on referred as the project) is implemented under the “Operational Program for Employment, Human Capital and Social Cohesion, 2007-2013” (from now on referred as the program) which specialises the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF). The strategic objectives of this Program as they are presented in the context of a wider strategic framework include “full and quality employment, development of human capital and strengthening of social cohesion and equal opportunities conditions”. The project is implemented under the first priority axis of the Program with the title “Human Resources Development and Adaptability”. With a budget of more than 86 million euros (European Commission, 2012), this axis represents the general objective “Improvement of Human Capital and Increase of the Adaptability of the Private and Public Sector”. The first axis targets in the adaptability of administrative and productive operations of enterprises to the new market fundamentals. The aim is to redirect educational knowledge and skills towards skills of a higher level which are required by the wider economic framework. The Project The project “Development and Operation of Enterprise Liaison Offices in Universities Operating in the Republic of Cyprus” refers to the development and the operation of university- industry liaison offices (from now on referred also as liaison offices) in each of the six universities operating in the Republic of Cyprus in 2008. The project is funded by the European Social Fund and national resources with a budget of €3.104.793. A consortium of six universities with the University of Cyprus as the coordinating partner will implement the project for a five years period (2009- 2014). More than 18 qualified individuals are working exclusively on the project implementation. All sectors of the Cypriot economy, higher education institutions, researchers and university students are expected to benefit from the implementation of the project. The liaison offices aim at improving communication and cooperation between universities and businesses on issues such as: technology transfer, provision of solutions of specific problems in industry, student internship placements and the promotion of innovation and entrepreneurship in general. The main strategic objectives of the project consist on the development of a network of model university- industry liaison offices, the technology transfer from academic institutions to Cypriot businesses and the improvement of university students’ employability. The objectives include the investigation of the Cypriot industry’s need for technology transfer; the evaluation of the contribution of the academia in Cyprus to meet these needs; the promotion and development of practical

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methods of cooperation to bring mutual economic (and social) benefits to universities and businesses; the examination of alternative forms of students training to improve their employability; the promotion of an economy based on the concept of partnerships with local industry; the promotion of intellectual property protection the preparation procedures for patent registration; the active cooperation with stakeholders capable to support innovative/ technological entrepreneurship; the development of educational materials and finally the reinforcement of the entrepreneurial culture in general. The initiative is accompanied by dissemination measures so as to inform the Cypriot business community and the public regarding the work undertaken by the liaison offices and the subsequent benefit of funding by the European Social Fund (ESF) to the Cypriot society.

5. THE INDUSTRY LIAISON OFFICE OF THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF CYPRUS The Open University of Cyprus (OUC) is a state university and the only institution of higher education in Cyprus which offers recognised academic programmes at all levels (undergraduate, masterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s and doctorate) using the methodology of distance education. The OUC consists of three faculties: the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, the Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences and the Faculty of Economics and Management. The Open University of Cyprus is oriented both in the domestic and the international educational communities and their activities and goals. During the academic year 2011- 2012, the University has an enrolment of over 2500 students and has already developed ten, dynamic study courses. The Liaison Office team The project team of each liaison office consists of five people. Each university has appointed one person to be in charge of the project and to represent the university in the consortium of universities participating in the project. In the Open University of Cyprus, the person in charge is the head of the student welfare services. The project manager, the assistant project manager and the secretary of each liaison office were recruited by the procedure of public procurement. The company they represent has a contract with the University to provide specific services and deliverables for a period of three years (March 2012 to April 2015). Each university has also assigned one university officer to be responsible for the cooperation between the personnel of the liaison office and the university. In the case of the Open University of Cyprus, this role has been undertaken by a research & liaison officer.

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6. THE GOALS OF THE PROJECT The goals of the liaison office at the Open University are divided into short-term, medium-term and long-term according to the time schedule of the overall project.Shortterm goals included the planning of procedures, the creation of supportive template documents and the research of resources necessary for the office’s operations. More goals concern the preparation of information material regarding the functions of the liaison office of the OUC, the dissemination of these materials in the university community and the “mapping” of the university. The mapping of the university was accomplished by recording all information regarding faculty’s professional experience and research activity. Medium- term objectives are related to the actual liaison with the industry. Desk research will be completed prior to the meetings with managers and executives of companies and organizations. Extended databases will be updated with all related information. In parallel, the office will also support non- research activities such as the provision of continuing education training programs. The liaison office will also operate as the career center of the OUC. Long term, the liaison office will support the transfer of technological knowledge and innovative ideas and the provision of advisory services to the industry.

7. THE WORK OF THE OFFICE SO FAR As it was mentioned before, the office is operating since March 2012. The progress of the project is evaluated monthly on the basis of deliverables by each and every university and by the Coordinator to each partner separately. The ILO of the OUC worked hard and managed to finish on time all the set targets. The main deliverables of the first six months are: -Participation at an introductory 2 days seminar for all the project members -Establishment of a strong link between the office and the university -Interviewed all academic personnel and laboratories’ heads. Record their profiles and needs in order to be able to present them during the meetings with the industry partners. -Description of the programs of studies at OUC and preparation of informative material for the promotion of the work of the office -Creation of a sample CV and Instructions of how to fill it (Service that will be offered to the students of the university)

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-Creation of both electronic and physical archive -Creation of sample databases to store the data of all the organisations to be contacted by the project -Adoption of various documents created by the Project Coordinator and other partners (Cyprus University of Technology) to the needs of the University -Creation of detailed contact records of all media (newspaper, magazines, television and radio) in Cyprus with a focus on the journalists covering academic and European subjects Finally, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worth to mention than since the beginning of the month (September) the ILO of OUC started the visits to the industry and it managed to contact a number of companies and other semi-governmental organisations.

8. DISSEMINATION OF THE PROJECT The ILO of the OUC participated in the current Congress (East meets West International Congress) from the 1st until the 4th of September 2012 with a presentation. It is also been accepted to present the project at the international conference of EADTU (European Association of Distance Teaching Universities), which will be held in Paphos, Cyprus on the 27th and 28th of September 2012. The ILO of the OUC plans various dissemination and promotional activities. In October 2012 OUC will participate at the press conference organised by the Project Coordinator.

Other dissemination activities will be planned in due time.

REFERENCES Statistical Service, Republic of Cyprus, http://www.mof.gov.cy/mof/cystat/statistics.nsf/science_ technology_91main_gr/science_technology_91main_gr?OpenForm&sub=1&sel=1 European Innovation Scoreboard (2012), http://ec.europa.eu/news/science/120208_en.htm 7th Framework Program of the EU, http://cordis.europa.eu/fp7/home_en.html Horizon 2020, http://ec.europa.eu/research/horizon2020/index_en.cfm?pg=home&video=none

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Jones – Evans D., Klofsten M., Andersson E. and Pandya D. “Creating a Bridge Between University and Industry in Small European Countries: The Role of the Industrial Liaison Office”, 1999, R&D Management, Blackwell Publishers, pp.47-56. Fassin Y., “The Strategic Role of University – Industry Liaison Offices”, 2000, Journal of Research Administration Heinzl J., Kor A. L., Orange G., Kaufmann, “Austrian Higher Education Institutions’ Idiosyncrasies and Technology Transfer System”, 2008, European and Mediterranean Conference on Information Systems 2008, May 25-26 2008, Al Bustana Robana Hotel, Dubai (Leeds Metropolitan University Repository) Nelles J., Vorley T., “Constructing an Entrepreneurial Architecture: An Emergent Framework for Studying the Contemporary University Beyond the Entrepreneurial Turn”, 2010, Springer Science and Business Media (Published Online December 2009). Rossi F, “The Governance of University Industry Knowledge Transfer”, 2010, European Journal of Innovation Management, Vol. 13, pp. 155 – 171.

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PLACEMENT MOBILITY – AS A KEY TO UNLEASH THE LATENT ENTREPRENEURIAL MINDSET AMONG STUDENTS Thomas Berger Institut inter.research e.V. Heinrich-von-Bibra-Platz 1b, 36037 Fulda, Germany berger@inter-research.de

ABSTRACT While many educators agree that an internship or placement in a foreign country is a great learning environment to apply theoretical study knowledge in practice, to learn a foreign language and to develop intercultural competence, entrepreneurial skills get much less attention. However “sense of initiative and entrepreneurship” is regarded as a key competence for lifelong learning and European as well as national policies and strategies (e.g. EU2020 strategy and their national counterparts, Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education) and underlines the need for more efforts in University-Business cooperation and the development of a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation. In the framework of the EU-funded ERASMUS project Uni-Key, ten universities, research organisations, enterprises, enterprise associations, chambers of commerce and NGOs from seven European countries and from South Africa collaborate to unleash the latent entrepreneurial mindset in mobile students. According to this new approach, students/graduates are approached when they come out of their “comfort zone”, i.e. undertake an EU University-Enterprise mobility period, e.g. an Erasmus place­ment. Key situations during a placement period are identified and turned into key entre­preneurial learning situations, i.e. entrepreneurial skill training is situated in the practical situations each student experiences before, during and after being abroad. This shift of focus implies also a shift of the perceived roles of student interns, placement mobility promoters and supervisors at host organisations.

ENTREPRENEURIAL QUALITIES OF PLACEMENTS ABROAD European as well as national policies and strategies, e.g. EU 2020 New Skills new Jobs flagship initiative (European Commission 2010), the Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education (European Commission 2006), the Expert Group Report

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on Entrepreneurship in Higher Education 2008 (European Commission 2008) underline the need for more efforts in university-enterprise cooperation and the development of a culture of entrepreneurship and innovation. The report on new skills for new jobs provides a summary of the reasons for the identified need: “Increased global competition means that European countries will no longer be able to compete on cost and price, but need to produce higher quality and more innovative products and services, delivered by higher skilled people. Encouraging creativity and entrepreneurship throughout the learning process is fundamental for future growth.” (Campbell et. al. 2010, pg.4). This goes along with a changing job market. New skills are needed; the long-term job position is not so common anymore, a network of contacts is essential for good career development. A different approach is needed in order to find a job; here we will call it entrepreneurial behaviour in career development. The potential of practical training and study phases abroad (e.g. Erasmus and Leonardo placements) for the development of both entrepreneurial and intercultural skills for strategic career planning has however not yet been fully exploited. Entrepreneurial skills are addressed here as a “European key competence for life long learning – number seven out of eight key competences (European Parliament and Council 2006). Placements abroad have specific qualities, which can turn them into an environment for the attainment of entrepreneurial skills: • Mobile students go out of their comfort-zone and undergo a number of “key entrepreneurial and intercultural learning situations”, which most of the students are not fully aware of. For example students have to manage their finances, have to plan their stay, have to show flexibility, creativity and initiative at the workplace as well as outside the work environment, when seeking accommodation and dealing with unfamiliar daily challenges. All those situations require and train almost the complete range of skills mentioned in the definition of entrepreneurial competence • Mobile students have a certain distance from their usual peer group, social and academic environment – this distance is valuable to deal with the own personality, lifestyle, values, dispositions and expectations) and strategic career issues, i.e. it makes it easier to experiment with new roles and behaviours • Mobile students cross boundaries – both sectorial and cultural boundaries, which implies a potential for knowledge transfer and innovation in both directions from the university to the enterprise and from the enterprise to the university, when the student returns home • Mobile students undertaking placements in small companies have a greatly increased chance to interact directly with the owner, i.e. experience entrepreneurs

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as potential role models for their own career • Placements abroad thus provide a multitude of opportunities for informal and self-determined learning by students – however all parties involved have to seize those entrepreneurial learning opportunities.

THE “BOTTOM-UP APPROACH” OF UNLEASHING THE ENTREPRENUERIAL MINDSET OF MOBILE STUDENTS Although Universities have implemented incubators, start-up and business innovation centres, business plan competitions and courses which train business plan writing, there is still a wide gap between the potential of development of entrepreneurial skills and the number of students and graduates indeed taking advantage of those opportunities to date, because of a lack of the relevant mindset and awareness. UniKey turns students/graduates into latent entrepreneurs first. For this reasons the top-down strategy, i.e. measures at top-management and governance level need to be complemented with a more bottom-up approach. The “Bottom up approach” of Uni-Key means that students are “collected” when they come out of their “comfort zone”, i.e. when they undertake a University-Enterprise mobility period, e.g. an Erasmus placement. Preparatory or accompanying (online) courses are offered for this target group so far are focused on linguistic and intercultural skills or on organisational aspects of the stay abroad only. The Uni-Key approach however results in the identification of key situations during a placement period to turn them into key entrepreneurial learning situations, i.e. the entrepreneurial skill training is situated in practical situations each student (and to some extent his or her host) experiences before, during and after being abroad. This situated learning approach ensures that students recognize the learning content as relevant for them – especially when they do not have a business related study background. This is also a major difference from existing generic entrepreneurial training and assessment schemes. The identification of key situations followed the following methodology Involvement of stakeholders was ensured by participatory design approach, i.e. stakeholders are represented in the quality board and project consortium and reviewed interim results • Expert meetings, focus group interviews, surveys and literature research were

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used as methods of collecting data to justify the selection of seven key situations for students and to identify a key learning situation for the supervisor (host organisation) • A list of entrepreneurial skills to be addressed was extracted from the definition of entrepreneurial competence in the European Reference Framework of Key Competences for Lifelong Learning (European Parliament and Council 2006) The role of students in placements abroad is so far limited to a trainee, who applies theory to practice and provides a new socio-cultural background to the foreign workplace. The Uni-Key approach aims to valorise placement periods for universityenterprise knowledge transfer, research and innovation. Uni-Key turns students into “transfer agents”. The role of a transfer agent implies the following: • Encourage students to become ambassadors of their home university/region/ country and also of their EU-programme, when they go abroad • Encourage students to become ambassadors of their host organisation/region/ country, when they return home • Turn learning tasks into door openers, i.e. provide students with a reason to contact e.g. the regional Enterprise Europe network office, when they are abroad (or when applicable also back home) In order to increase the motivation of students to prepare for and perform this role a game based learning approach (Fox 2009) is followed. The “Uni-Key Mobile Challenge Game” can be regarded as a “Game with a purpose” (Borgmann et. al. 2011). Students receive regularly a certain input (a challenge) and need to return certain data (evidence of having completed a challenge). Depending on the complexity of the challenge they receive a number of points. The winners of the score list will receive a prize. However, the role of the supervisor of students at the host organisation changes, too - towards a role model of entrepreneurship. For this reason the Uni-Key project promotes placements in small and young enterprises, which allow direct interaction with owners and/or senior managers. Furthermore entrepreneurs and experts are involved as “on-line guest speakers” to the on-line learning course. A separate learning module prepares (potential) supervisors of international students for this role. The role of the mobility coordinator at the sending university also changes, as it involves also a training element of key competences (which can however be

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outsourced to external trainers) and it involves the element of being a broker to facilitate the potential knowledge and technology transfer between the university and host organisation/region of students. When mobility coordinators are working in international offices of universities they might wish to seek more cooperation and coordination with transfer units. The following figure illustrates the Uni-Key roles:

Figure 1 Uni-Key Roles

The underlying assumption of the Uni-Key â&#x20AC;&#x153;bottom-up approachâ&#x20AC;? is that if students develop more awareness of the need for entrepreneurial skills in starting a company as well as in regular jobs in a knowledge based and globalised working environment they will take more advantage of the variety of entrepreneurship courses and support schemes at many universities (which often do not reach students outside of business studies). The Uni-Key approach is illustrated in Figure 2.

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Figure 2 The Uni-Key approach of unleashing the entrepreneurial mindset of mobile students

KEY ENTREPRENEURIAL LEARNING SITUATIONS TURNED INTO LEARNING MODULES Following the methodology described above the following key learning situations were selected and turned into on-line learning modules: 1. Situation: Planning an internship abroad -> turned into a career development exercise 2. Situation: Self-organisation during internship, including financial issues -> turned into a problem solving and financial management exercise

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3. Situation: Confidentiality and ethical challenges -> turned into a good governance exercise 4. Situation: Interim evaluation -> turned into an opportunity seizing and intercultural networking exercise (“home ambassador exercise”) 5. Situation: Underchallenged and overstressed -> turned into a self-organisation and goal setting exercise 6. Situation: Reluctance and related conflicts -> turned into a strategic selfdevelopment and creative thinking exercise 7. Situation: Reporting on internship activities -> turned into a valorisation and effective communication exercise (“host ambassador exercise”) The seven on-line course modules are accompanied by an introductory (“Welcome”) and follow-up (“Feedback”) module. The seven modules follow the process of practical learning mobility and run under the course title “Discover your business potential”. Figure 3 illustrates the structure of the On-line course (as it is communicated to students).

Figure 3 Uni-Key on-line course outline

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For the target group of supervisors of students at host organisation the situation of hosting an international intern is turned into a human resource and cultural diversity management exercise. A learning module follows a standard structure, consisting of an introductory text and video, a “warm-up-task”, one or two main tasks (including references and material for further reading), a self-evaluation task based on attainment levels (learning outcomes formulated from the perspective of students as “can do” statements connected to a learning diary) and an expert forum connected to a video recording of entrepreneurs and experts, who share experiences related to module topics (the forum allows interaction with the expert/entrepreneur). Additionally each module provides an “extra challenge”, as part of the mobile challenge game. For example the extra challenge for Module 3 is the following: “Our extra challenge this time has something to do with ethics just like in the module! I hope you are all ready for it. As usual we are really looking forward to your contributions! Search for and describe an institution in your host environment that displays social entrepreneurship (see also the background document below on the concept of social entrepreneurship) attributes or has a widely known ethical conduct. Try to identify good practices of promoting social entrepreneurship (e.g. activities that encourage the creation of new business / social enterprises, activities fighting against discrimination of minorities or activities that boost gender equality, etc). If you are already doing your internship start looking in your host institution and then search for others, if you don’t find any noticeable example in your host organisation. Report your findings and highlight/name 2 examples of business or work ethics you liked (think of what Ilona said in her video) and include evidence (newspaper articles, online articles, website of the institution, testimonies of those involved, etc) in the Extra challenges area below….” The following screenshot (figure 4) provides an impression of the design of Uni-Key learning modules.

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Figure 4 Screenshot of a Uni-Key on-line course module

CONSEQUENCES FOR THE DESIGN OF MOBILITY PROGRAMMES The international Uni-Key consortium consisting of universities, research organisations, chambers and enterprise associations as well as small and medium enterprises also drafted policy recommendations and contributed to the 2012 public consultation on a quality framework for traineeships based on interim results and stakeholder workshops of the project. The following consequences for the design of (future) mobility programmes are recommended: â&#x20AC;˘ Practical learning mobility as part of European Mobility Programmes needs to provide a framework for the development of horizontal skill and competences of learners such as linguistic skills, intercultural competences (e.g. ability to understand oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own and foreign cultures and to use intercultural communication

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in an effective and efficient way), entrepreneurial competences (e.g. ability to manage challenges and recognise one’s own strengths, weaknesses, and chances and using them for own advancement), European competences (e.g. ability to act as an ambassador for the European Union and for the values and concepts of European integration) • The acquisition of skills and horizontal competences does not happen automatically abroad, appropriate funding needs to be provided for the preparatory and monitoring actions preceding and accompanying a placement abroad • A European Quality award or label shall highlight best practice on both the educational (sending) organisations side and on the side of host organisations (a multitude of quality labels at national and sector level does not have the same visibility as a European label) • Students should not only be regarded as beneficiaries of EU-funding, when they participate in EU mobility programmes but as ambassadors for their home university and region, when they go abroad and for their host organisation and region, when they return home – and in general as ambassadors for the European Union and the “European idea”, which means they need to be equipped to perform those roles by their educational organisation and by their host organisation with support from European Mobility Programmes In any case the increase of quantity, as foreseen by drafts of future programmes (European Commission 2011) , shall not happen at the expense of funding of quality – the contrary is true: if quantity in European programmes is promoted at the expense of quality the whole system of quality assurance of traineeships will be undermined.

FUTURE WORK The Uni-Key consortium is undertaking pilot runs of the on-line course “Discover your Business Potential” in 2012 and 2013 and invites potential pilot participants (students and potential supervisors of international interns) to register on the project website: www.uni-key.eu. The results of the evaluation and the project in general will also be published at the same web address. A “business plan” will be developed to allow the implementation of the UniKey course on a wider scale. Furthermore more research needs to be done on the mid- and long term impact of the approach of the Uni-Key course on the entrepreneurial attitude of

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course participants. Research questions include e.g. if course participants are more likely to participate in business plan and business idea competitions and if they are more likely to work in a start-up company or start an enterprise themselves than a student not participating in such a course. However this long-term research approach is unfortunately outside the scope of the Uni-Key project.

REFERENCES Borgmann, Elmar-Laurent, Berger, Thomas, Fessler, Marcus, Introducing Games with a Purpose to Online and Blended Learning Environments in Poulsen, Mathias, Køber, Ebba: The GameiT Handbook – A framework of game based learning pedagogy, http://www.projectgameit.eu/project/gameit-handbook. html (2011) Campbell, Mike (et. al.), New Skills for New Jobs: Action Now - A report by the Expert Group on New Skills for New Jobs prepared for the European Commission, European Commission, http://ec.europa.eu/social/ BlobServlet?docId=4505&langId=en (2010) European Commission, Oslo Agenda for Entrepreneurship Education, http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/ policies/sme/files/support_measures/training_education/doc/oslo_agenda_final_en.pdf (2006) European Commission, Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, especially in Non-Business Studies, http:// ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newsroom/cf/_getdocument.cfm?doc_id=3581 (2008) European Commission, An Agenda for new skills and jobs: A European contribution towards full employment COM(2010) 682 final, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/ LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=COM:2010:0682:FIN:EN:PDF (2010) European Commission, ERASMUS FOR ALL: The EU Programme for Education, Training, Youth and Sport, COM(2011) 787 final, http://ec.europa.eu/education/erasmus-for-all/doc/com_en.pdf (2011) European Commission, Public consultation on Quality Framework for Traineeships, http://ec.europa.eu/ social/main.jsp?catId=333&langId=en&consultId=10&visib=0&furtherConsult=yes (2012) European Parliament and Council, Key Competences for Lifelong Learning – A European Reference Framework, Official Journal of the European Union 2006/L394, http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/site/ en/oj/2006/l_394/l_39420061230en00100018.pdf (2006) Fox, Anne, Fun and Games in professional development in Keegan, Helen, Fox, Anne (eds.): Mentoring for 21st Century Skills – It’s all about Learning, University of Salford, pg. 95-107 (2009)

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Session 1.18 Science through Computation. Building regional infrastructures and the LinksCEEM project

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LINKSCEEM-2 LINKING SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING IN EUROPE AND THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN PHASE 2 Author: Eleftherios Eleftheriou Scientific Project Officer The Cyprus Institute - CaSToRC P.O. Box 27456 Nicosia 1645, Cyprus E-mail: e.eleftheriou@cyi.ac.cy Tel: +357 22208694, Fax: +357 22208625 www.cyi.ac.cy

ABSTRACT The LinkSCEEM-2 project aims at the establishment of a high performance computing (HPC) eco-system in the Eastern Mediterranean region by interlinking and coordinating regional compute, storage and visualization resources to form an integrated e-infrastructure. The main project objective is to enable scientific research in the region by engaging and supporting research communities with an initial emphasis in the fields of climate research, digital cultural heritage and synchrotron applications. To achieve its mission, the project links e-resources, provides user support and training, carries out targeted networking activities, and, develops and implements a wellstructured HPC resource allocation mechanism.

OBJECTIVES The FP7 Support Action LinkSCEEM has initiated the development of a network of users in various fields who will benefit from the development and integration of HPC facilities. LinkSCEEM-2 is the follow-up and implementation phase of LinkSCEEM; it adopts a three- fold approach structured as follows: 1. Optimally integrate computational resources contributed by HPC centers in the Eastern Mediterranean region, while in parallel establishing links with established lead HPC centers, and thus developing and sharing best practices for managing these resources

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2. Create user support and training programs, in parallel to an active networking process, that will engage and integrate research communities and enable scientists in the region to utilize HPC for addressing complex scientific and engineering problems, thus diminishing the digital divide. 3. Develop a subset of the HPC relevant research topics identified by the HPC in Europe Task Force (HET), namely climate science, cultural heritage and synchrotron applications, that are of particular relevance to region, and provide the links to leading groups in these fields enabling research of the highest standing. Thanks to the participation of world lead HPC Centers and research teams, core expertise of the highest level will be brought to the region both in terms of the service provided and the spectrum of research that will be enabled.

ACTION PLAN Several lines of activities are developed in parallel and in a coordinated fashion in order to achieve the objectives described above. Networking activities are organized to facilitate the engagement of user communities in computational science and monitor their needs, so that training and user support programs are developed and adapted accordingly. A resource allocation mechanism based on a well-established peer review process is implemented in order to grant access to integrated computational resources contributed by the regional HPC centers at CaSToRC, NARSS and BA. To facilitate collaborative activities in the region, and in particular the analysis of synchrotron radiation data produced at SESAME, the project will also undertake activities for upgrading network connectivity between the academic and research networks of Cyprus and Jordan. LinkSCEEM-2 instigates cooperation between the HPC centers at CaSToRC, NARSS and BA and expert groups in Western Europe and the US to implement a largescale computational platform integrating compute, data and visualization resources. The integration of resources is founded on the implementation of a data management infrastructure environment at CaSToRC, NARSS and BA, and on the development of software tools linking distributed software applications and hardware resources. Cross-disciplinary research is pursued in collaboration with partners such as JSC and NCSA to develop and adapt software for the support of the optimization of parallel applications, data management and visualization technologies. Cross-disciplinary research contributes to advanced user support initiatives aimed at enabling the user

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communities in the region to effectively use HPC in their thematic research objectives. Joint thematic research activities are undertaken in climate change, digital cultural heritage and synchrotron applications that leverage the expertise of groups at partners such as MPI, NCSA and ESRF.

NETWORKING ACTIVITIES LinkSCEEM-2 pursues a variety of networking activities including the organization of user meetings and workshops at regional institutions, the development of online tools for the enrichment and support of user communities, and the establishment of a resource allocation mechanism to coordinate access to the integrated simulation platform. The project also undertakes work for the development of a tiered HPC training program adapted to the changing user needs, compiling basic and advanced course material, and making it available via workshops and online tutorials. A dissemination and outreach program is implemented to publicize the project to the HPC and computational science communities in Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean, which includes an international conference in computational science, as well as programs targeting young talent in the region.

SERVICE ACTIVITIES Service activities engage in the creation of an integrated simulation platform through the linking and coordination of compute, data and visualization recourses available at CaSToRC, NARSS and BA. LinkSCEEM-2 implements an interactive scientific process management environment based on the Cyberintegrator application developed at NCSA. Software tools linking distributed software and hardware are developed and remote access to the integrated resources is given to scientific users. To provide adequate user support related to effectively using the Teraflop scale machines and the scientific workflow software application exposing the regional data repositories, a user support program has been developed. User support activities also focus on providing assistance for the visualization of results and the generation of visual simulations for climate and cultural heritage data, and the support of SESAME activities in synchrotron radiation, via an upgrade of network connectivity between Cyprus and Jordan.

JOINT RESEARCH ACTIVITIES LinkSCEEM-2 engages in two categories of research activities: cross-disciplinary and thematic. The general goal of cross-disciplinary research is the development

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of software to support the optimization of parallel applications on large- scale systems. Cross-disciplinary research activities focus on: 
 1. Performance analysis implementation


and

best

2. Mathematical analysis and algorithms
 3. Data management and scientific workflow software optimization
 4. Visualization research in the deployment of visualization software for enabling collaborative virtual spaces Thematic research activities include: 1. Research in climate modeling with an emphasis on scientific code porting and 
optimization for regional HPC infrastructure led by MPI with the participation of 
CaSToRC. 2. The use of scientific computing and visualization as a research framework in Cultural 
Heritage, with the participation of groups from CaSToRC, NCSA and BA. 3. Synchrotron data analysis and modeling aimed a porting existing and new algorithms to Graphical Processing Units (GPU). Research mainly focuses on the methodology and tools for analysis of measurements from SESAME and leverages the high-level 
expertise of ESRF.

USER COMMUNITIES

One of the primary goals of the project is to promote the creation of virtual research communities in the Eastern Mediterranean and their integration with the HPC resources offered within the scope of the project. The first phase project LinkSCEEM has paved the way for this, and LinkSCEEM-2 will build on its initial accomplishments through networking and service activities targeted at the emerging user communities in the region.

INTERNATIONAL ASPECTS

LinkSCEEM-2 does not only provide an integrated HPC infrastructure in the region, but also strengthens the expertise and support the integration of scientific communities in the Eastern Mediterranean. In agreement with the rationale and

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objectives of the European Neighborhood Policy, LinkSCEEM-2 activities enables scientists in the European Research Area periphery to produce new knowledge and contribute to the world research output in fields that can greatly benefit from advances in large-scale computation.

EAST MEETS WEST CONGRESS - LINKSCEEM-2 SESSION MONDAY 3rd OF SEPTEMBER 2012 The infrastructure, training and research activities of LinkSCEEM contribute significantly to the development HPC knowledge in the Eastern Mediterranean. The session of LinkSCEEM presentations during the conference enabled a broad overview of the project itself and detailed insight into some of the applications related to HPC. The nine speakers coming from LinkSCEEM-2 partners covered a variety of research areas. A brief summary of the talks given during the session is presented below. 1. Constantia Alexandrou (CYI): Welcome speech and general introduction to LinkSCEEM-2 The presentation gives a general overview of developments in Computational science in the Eastern Mediterranean region. The situation is compared to the rest of the world. It is highlighted what needs to be done to develop HPC in this region and the role that the Cyprus Institute can play. The central goal of the institute is to develop world-class research and education in computational

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science serving the Eastern Mediterranean in collaboration with other regional institutions. The approach of LinkSCEEM towards community building and knowledge transfer into the region is outlined. The general LinkSCEEM objectives are discussed in detail also in view of the future development of the Eastern Mediterranean. 2. Michel Menu (CYI): A laboratory for the museum - Heritage science in progress: application to paintings The presentation focuses on digital techniques used for the preservation and restoration of paintings. Many examples on the application of these techniques were given. 3. Noha Adly (BA): Using 3D Visualization for Cultural Heritage The presentation focuses on VISTA (Virtual Immersive Science and Technology Applications) used in visualizing results of scientific simulations and heavy numerical computations. The CAVE (Computer Aided Virtual Environment) system is described in detail. This is a 3-D environment consisting of a 10x10x9 foot room with three rearprojection screens for the walls, and a down-projection screen for the floor. The projectors use the DLP technology The images inside the CAVE are stereoscopic: • On each of the screens two images are projected simultaneously - one for the left eye and one for the right. • The system ensures that each of these images are separated back to the intended eye. • Infrared emitters that are positioned around the CAVE, provide the synchronization of the stereoscopic images. The walk-in virtual reality system enables interactive work within 3-D computergenerated models and environments. Researchers are able to experience simulations of natural or human-engineered phenomena in a way that provides new insights and understanding. Additionally, 3-D visualization often results in eliminating the need for physical models. Work within virtual environments has already been shown to save time and resources in both commercial and

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scientific research. Details on how deploying Digital Technology to Preserve the Great Sphinx are given. 4. Nikos Bakirtzis (CyI): Developing a Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) Facility for Cultural Heritage in the Eastern Mediterranean This presentation introduces the development of an advanced imaging facility for Archaeological and Cultural Heritage research at the Cyprus Institute. This imaging center is made possible within the framework of the European project LinkSCEEM-2 and in collaboration with the Universities of Illinois and Southern California. Available technologies include Polynomial Texture Mapping / PTM & 360-degree Large Format Imaging, which offer remarkable visual results in the digital photographic documentation of he surfaces of a wide range of artifacts and works of art. Preliminary workshops and pilot projects in collaboration with the Department of Antiquities and local institutions like the Bank of Cyprus Cultural Foundation and the Leventis Museum have demonstrated the great capabilities of the new facility. An overview of the available technologies is followed by a short summary of the new CyI Imaging Center’s first pilot projects in the aforementioned museums, and, at archaeological sites like the UNESCO site of the monastery of St. John Lambadistis at Kalopanayiotis on Mt. Troodos, have offered some valuable insights into the application of the imaging center’s applications and preliminary results in archaeological research. The imaging facility will be developed along two paths: one focusing on the advancement of its technological capacity and the second engaging an array of fieldwork applications for research in archaeology, art history and architecture 5. Rudolf Dimper (ESRF): X-rays meet IT Synchrotrons are large multidisciplinary research infrastructures producing many beams of extremely bright X-rays to probe condensed matter. Each beam is guided through a set of lenses and instruments called a beamline, where the X-rays illuminate and interact with samples of material being studied. Many countries operate synchrotrons—there are 10 in Europe—but only four worldwide are similar in design and power to the ESRF. The preseanation covers the principles of synchrotron radiation research and several examples of research on societal challenges in life sciences - the structure of ribosome (Nobel prize in Chemistry

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2009) - and energy and material sciences - catalysts, bio-catalysts, insights into the glas melting process. Information Technology (IT) is a key enabling technology of this research allowing to control the instruments, read data from high resolution imaging detectors, and process the data on CPU/GPU clusters in quasi real-time. The presentation concludes with the results obtained in the frame of the LinkSCEEM collaboration, where ESRF and SESAME have worked on code optimisation for GPUs, currently an essential element for high-performance data analysis allowing to stay abreast of the data avalanche experienced. 6. Hendrik Merx (CyI): Load Balancing in ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry This talk introduces the load balancing problem in the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) application developed at the Max Planck Institutes for Meteorology MPI-M in Hamburg and Chemistry MPI-C in Mainz and now maintained at the German Aerospace Centre DLR. Starting from a description of the underlying climate and atmospheric chemistry simulation the load-balancing problem caused by stratospheric photochemical reactions at sunrise and sunset is explained and approaches to its solution are outlined. These implement a non-local implicit load-balancing scheme that maps a local physical imbalance onto a non-local computational load distribution. It is implemented using the UNITRANS library developed at MPI-M, IBM Germany, and MPI-C and achieve a total-application speed-up of one third as shown in the benchmarks. 7. Basman El Hadidy (NARSS): Ensemble forecasting and data assimilation in numerical weather modeling for Egypt In this presentation, the data assimilation in numerical models is implemented, tested and validated for a numerical weather prediction model in Egypt. Numerical models in general require high resolution to correctly predict the temperature and velocity field. Furthermore, the chaotic nature of the flow requires the use of ensemble averages and data assimilation. This further requires the use of HPC platforms. The data assimilation models and ensemble averaging are then validated by comparing the numerical results to the measurements at a weather station in Luxor. 8. Amihai Silverman (TECHNION): Remote visualization of results from atomistic HPC simulations

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It is very easy to generate a large amount of data when running simulations on many parallel nodes. Since the parallel machine is not the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s personal desktop, the data may need to be sent back there for processing. Storage at the supercomputer facility may be limited and return of large data sets is often difficult, especially when accessing a machine in a different country with limited bandwidth. In an ideal world the post processing would be done as part of the batch parallel simulation. In reality, especially if visualization is involved, some interactive access is desirable. It is not good that this should be done on the master node, as it can be quite heavy CPU wise. In the proposed solution a second node accessible from outside is connected to all the disks containing the full set of results. On this node visualization and other analysis routines are installed. Files can be accessed there, preliminary analysis and organization carried out and data either visualized, or prepared for return. This does not add a heavy load to either the master node or communication switch and may also avoid the need for multiple node licenses for visualization codes. Some examples are given of this approach and of movies created in this manner from physics/materials research. 9. Charlotte Hoppe (Juelich): Lagrangian Modeling of Atmospheric Trace Gases in Climate Simulations Trace gases distributions in the stratosphere and in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere play a decisive role in climate change. One example is stratospheric water vapor, which is an important driver of surface climate change on decadal scales. In the case of water vapor, the transport representation is particularly important in the tropical tropopause layer, the main region for stratosphere-troposphere exchange. This study is motivated by the problem, that in many cases trace gas distributions cannot be represented properly in a classical Eulerian model with a fixed model grid, especially in regions where strong gradients occur. To overcome this problem, we present the implementation of a Lagrangian transport core in a chemistry climate model (CCM). The Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS) is coupled with the ECHAM/MESSy

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Atmospheric Chemistry Model (EMAC). Tracer experiments show remarkable differences between Eulerian and Lagrangian transport scheme.

EXHIBITION The Cyprus Institute also participated at the exhibition and brokerage events of the East meets West Congress. All aspects of the research (Climate, HPC, digital cultural, heritage) performed by the three institutes (EEWRC, CaSToRC, STARC) of the CyI were presented with more emphasis given on the LinkSCEEM-2 project. More details on the Cyprus Institute can be found at the following website: www.cyi.ac.cy.

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Session 1.19 Entrepreneurship carried out in Universities

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN UNIVERSITIES OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES DR. LEILA ABBOUD Center For Entrepreneurship-BAU Beirut Arab University- P.O.Box: 115020, Beirut-Lebanon leila.aboud@bau.edu.lb or cfe@bau.edu.lb

ABSTRACT The recession has taken a horrific toll on this world and continues to be all too real for millions unemployed youth. Is there a magic solution to this? This is the hope and power of entrepreneurship that consists of “normal people doing abnormal things”. Entrepreneurship doesn’t mean innovation, but high aspiration of entrepreneurship is often the root cause of innovation and competitiveness, and only secondarily its result. Entrepreneurship has to be in the government, in non-profit, in universities gathering the resources to exploit them. Schools and universities are attempting to integrate entrepreneurship across disciplines and campuses. Entrepreneurship is becoming more universal and that it is not something just to put into a business school and then forget about it. It could be a CENTER that can be of use to the entire university. The purpose of this paper is to find a model for Entrepreneurship Program in universities as Center For Entrepreneurship at Beirut Arab University: challenges and opportunities in Lebanon and verify whether the challenges are caused more by internal or external factors. Different models of countries at varying degrees of development were reviewed and used for generating the country-specific model developed here. The data for the model came from surveys that were filled out by individuals with relevant experiences in the industry or with an equivalent high degree of education. The paper concludes with the results of the analysis and the possible remedies, recommendations and future enhancements.

1 INTRODUCTION The economic, social and political conditions, in Lebanon, bring deadlock and absence of hope for youth, necessitating greater effort at both national and regional levels to create new job opportunities and prevent migration and the associated negative socio-economic effects.

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As a consequence, in recent times there has been much concern amongst policymakers and others to re-orient education and training systems to put entrepreneurship on their educational agenda to prepare learner for a situation where formal wage employment may not exist. This paper starts with a literature review as the successful experiences of international entrepreneurship centers showing the key factors, both external and internal, and the critical factors to establish the SMEs in general and in Lebanon, in particular. A survey questionnaire was developed and distributed to collect information from banks, facilitators (Entrepreneurship Program), professors, graduates, and SMEs owners. The paper concludes by elaborating on the analysis and results and presenting recommendations for future improvements.

2 LITERATURE REVIEW Entrepreneurship is a process of creating something new with value by devoting the necessary time and effort, accompanying financial, psychic, and social risk, and receiving the resulting rewards of monetary and personal satisfaction and independence. As this process unfolds, jobs are created, value is added, and supply and demand chains are created. Entrepreneurs have the ability to spark new ideas and develop new products and services that create new businesses. They have the ability to identify needs within their environment in which they live, gather appropriate resources and implement action to satisfy these needs. Given that small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) constitute an essential foundation for the economic structure of a country, both in terms of employment opportunities they offer to young people and their contribution to the gross domestic product GDP, it is clear that national development programs should focus efforts on developing and empowering such companies.1

1窶オn GCC countries, a range of programs the HRDF in Saudi Arabia, KHALIFA fund in UAE, QATAR program provide services and support to SMEs and may include seed capital, loans, and nonfinancial services include training technical and legal advice. These services are provided directly through the institutions implementing SMEs development programs (banks, NGOs, Universities and ministerial agency) or through associated specialized institutions.

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2.1 ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Whatever one thing of as factors of growth and development, the human factor-human intelligence and creativity- is the most important source. Abundance of capital and natural resources certainly helps, but it still takes people to turn such resources into their most productive use. Markets don’t automatically generate efficient allocation of resources. It is people who make investment decisions and find the most appropriate mix of resources for economic activities. Graduates are seen as key to national growth. Inspired, self-confident, talented graduates are more likely to found and lead dynamic new organizations and social ventures and to have the capacity to transform the organizations they lead and manage. Through entrepreneurship education programs, universities can expose students to environments that foster entrepreneurial mindsets, behaviors and capabilities to deal with an increasingly complex and uncertain world. The university should organise knowledge around solving problems not around functional paradigms, practice learning from different sets of people and transfer the learning into reality of life. It should be more relevant to business community to contribute to growth in the economy, employment and productivity through embedding the spirit of enterprise; a mindset that strives for ‘can do solutions’ rather than ‘can’t do excuses’. Introducing entrepreneurship into universities and training programs prepares learners for a self-employment situation at a time where formal wage employment may not exist. It may also stimulate more youth to establish their own business where the number of unemployed people should decrease. In this regard, SMEs have a clearly demonstrated capability when they play a key role in the development and transfer of appropriate technology, creating a stable local/regional economy and industrial diversification while large-scale businesses are only necessary in particular industries.2 One sobering factor with which those with responsibilities for SME development have to come to terms is the generally high failure rate of businesses. These failures could have been avoided by proper education and training before the business was initiated. If graduates and young people are aware of the issues as well as the challenges of becoming an entrepreneur they will be better prepared not only with regard to choosing entrepreneurship as a career option, but also to working productively and

2 SMEs account for over 80% of enterprises in virtually all countries.

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succeeding in SMEs.3

2.2 ROLE OF FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP Functional, productive financial systems allocate resources efficiently to spur economic development, improve income distribution, and equalize opportunities. Deficiencies in the financial sector result in missed growth opportunities, worsening poverty and widening inequality, while improved SME access to domestic and foreign financing generates more employment and helps close the gap with large companies. The private sector tends to be involved more significantly in programs. The involvement of private banks in the delivery of financial services can have positive effects on entrepreneurship programs. However, their involvement needs to be paralleled by technical support to develop the loan screening and monitoring capabilities required for successful micro and small business lending. In Practice, financial institutions commonly evaluate investment projects, mobilize resources to finance promising ones, and facilitate risk management. Better financial services expand the scope and improve the efficiency of innovative activity; they thereby accelerate economic growth. Yet, the efficiency of financial institutions would affect innovative activity, since the rewards to successful innovation depend on actually bringing new or improved products to market. The financial institutions contribute a lot towards the promotion of small and medium enterprises especially in the various functions they carry out in their day to day operations. The potential entrepreneurs are therefore to benefit from the functions and assistance rendered by these financial institutions.

2.3 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT IN ENTREPRENEURHSIP As comparative advantage has become increasingly based on new knowledge, public policy has responded in fundamental ways focus away from the traditional triad of instruments that constrained the freedom of firms to contract-regulation, antitrust, and public ownership of business. Globalization has shifted the comparative advantage away from land, labor, and capital toward knowledge. 3窶イertain studies indicated that up to 90% of the SMEs failures can be attributed to internal factors, which include management inefficiency, manager behavior and management inadequacy (Berryman, 1983; Williams, 1986; Perry and Pendelton, 1983).

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Public policy and governance can shape virtually the contextual determinants of the demand for entrepreneurship, and over a longer time scale, the supply of entrepreneurship as well. Not all public policy is entrepreneurship policy. As Macroeconomic policy that affects only short-term capital availability and the conditions of international trade. While an industrial policy is needed to establish a course of action to support the achievement of development goals that depend upon the performance of the manufacturing and industrial sectors. Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) should be considered when designing industrial policies as they constitute over 95 per cent of firms in the region and support socioeconomic welfare. The importance of SMEs resides in their ability to contribute to improving income, employment creation and poverty reduction, supporting rural development. An ESCWA review of goods and services and SME development opportunities points out that SMEs are generally found in traditional sectors of light industry including food processing, textiles, furniture making, minerals and metals, and in construction, all of which are relevant to the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s rural communities. SMEs are the biggest source of employment providing livelihood to over 90 per cent of families in rural areas (outside of agriculture). Education, for instance, may influence the legitimacy of entrepreneurial ventures and the knowledge, skills, and networks possessed by individuals and social groups. The role of universities in developing entrepreneurial and innovative individuals in the context of structural change depends on the government recognition that lead to support and extra funding enabling the universities to increase their engagement with the wider community. Consequently, universities will become more involved in regional economic and social development and activities such as the commercialization of intellectual property. All these policies outcomes contribute to the context of entrepreneurship. Therefore, designing a comprehensive, coherent and consistent approach of Council of Ministers and entity governments to entrepreneurship and SMEs in the form of government support strategy to entrepreneurship is an absolute priority. It would provide for a full coordination of activities of numerous governmental institutions and NGOs dealing with entrepreneurship and SMEs.

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3 THE LEBANESE CONTEXT 3.1 PROFILE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP If culture refers to the learned and socially transmitted set of behavioral standards which are displayed in personal values and attitudes, the Lebanese culture is responsible for its habitual entrepreneur. From this, along with being diverse, multilingual, and sectarian, an addition to the Lebanese identity should include, entrepreneurial. The Lebanese who have had a long history of emigration simply become ―INTRAPRENEURS, who basically apply the same entrepreneurial skills learned in the culture to a corporate setting.4 Given the small and saturated market of Lebanon, the entrepreneur is worried more about survival than developing the economy. The Forty-nine years that have passed has witnessed a grueling 15 year civil war, damage to infrastructure, and further social fragmentation. These events, although destructive, have produced a character trait in today’s entrepreneur that enables them to start over again regardless of the circumstances. In Lebanon, with limited natural resources, a developing infrastructure, and being a trade based economy, tradition definitions that incorporate innovation don’t apply, whereas opportunity recognition does. Just a short walk along any city street, a drive out to a sub-urban neighborhood or a further trip into Lebanon’s many villages, and one finds the ever present family owned business. The small to medium sized enterprises not only mark the landscape of the country but they account for 98% of the business environment and employ 72.4% of the population. Both the economic structure and the labor market appear to be divided into a broad segment of micro 96.9% and small-sized enterprises 2.9%, some highly productive firms which contribute the largest shares in GDP and a limited number of medium-sized 0.3%, modern, competitive enterprises. Several studies on small business bankruptcy and liquidation have been made in Australia, the USA and the UK, which showed that around 80%–90% of SMEs fail within five to ten years. Others studies, in Lebanon, showed that internal factors contribute more to the failures of SMEs than external factors do. The most critical 4 In absolute number, Lebanon is one of the top countries for emigration where the total emigration rate is 12,6% (OECD database on immigrants 2010). Studies in Lebanon have found that the majority of highskilled emigrants were in employment before leaving (European Commission 2010).

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internal factors are the lack of innovation and flexibility, inferior product quality, the lack of experience of owners/managers in the sectors, an unfavorable personality, conflict between business partners, and the failure to establish a market niche, the excessive withdrawal of cash by owners, inventory problems and bad communication skills. The most critical external factor impacting SMEs is economic downturns, and the political instability; nonetheless, all of our identified factors constitute a barrier against the development and progress of SMEs and entrepreneurship.

3.2 PROFILE OF YOUTH The youth population is currently growing in Lebanon and it is projected to continue to grow in the coming years. Of the millions Lebanese people of working age, only about 50% are currently participating in the labor force market including unpaid and contributing family work. The unemployment rate in Lebanon is about 6.5-9% (National survey of household living conditions 2004-2009) while the female unemployment rate is about 9.6-10.2%(National survey of household living conditions 2004-2010, Lebanon central Administration of Statistics and UNICEF). Both monetary and non-monetary returns to investments have driven families in Lebanon to invest in their children’s education, particularly at the higher education level, regardless of the family’s socio-economic status. In the past these investments have paid off as most of the educated youth were able to secure a job in the government or abroad. However, this investment has been challenged in today’s economic climate, where expected returns are, most of the time, not being yielded through families’ investments in their children’s education. Lebanon has one of the highest literacy rates and one of the highest higher education participation rates in the Arab world. It is thus essential to raise awareness of the existing issues of youth unemployment, and to bring this issue into the higher education policy arena. The future of Lebanon needs to make better use of its youth in order to ensure development in a fast paced and globalized world.

3.3 ROLE OF HIGHER EDUCATION Higher education in ESCWA member countries has undergone major development in recent decades. From a few national universities in the 1970s and 1980s, it has expanded today to include numerous national and international higher-

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education institutes providing graduate studies in various disciplines and graduating large numbers holding advanced degrees. In the first decades, graduates of national universities did not face any difficulties in obtaining jobs. However, in recent years, graduate unemployment multiplied for several reasons: the shortage of available employment; the structure and content of higher education; and the dominance of traditional disciplines, such as education, humanities, and law and general studies. These disciplines do not meet the new requirements of local and regional labor markets. Moreover, national higher-education institutions persist in using traditional educational methods that create a disparity between the outcomes of the higher education system and labor market requirements. Higher education institutions can play a significant role as Lebanon struggles to create economic and social opportunities for young citizens that match their education and expectations. There is a need for both the institutions and the government to work closely together to solve the youth unemployment crisis, as, along with political instability, it is one of the most critical dilemmas facing the youth of the nation today. As a result, in an attempt to increase their chances of economic integration, many high school graduates enroll in international universities that have sprung up in various countries of the region, or if they can afford to pursue their studies abroad. The rapid growth of the higher education sector in Lebanon in the past decade, through the mushrooming effect of private universities, resulted in an accrued human capital in the country in which there is one public university, 28 private, and a total of 8 private institutes officially recognized and granted a license from the ministry of education.

3.4 ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROGRAM

Importantly, it reveals that programs through the region tend to have a low coverage: they indeed generally cater to a very limited share of the unemployed. While the vast majority of programs in the region cater to very limited beneficiariesbetween a few dozens and one thousand- only a very limited of the programs has a higher number of beneficiaries; after the end of the programs, none appear to provide information on the impact of the programs on long-term employment and wages.5 5窶アccording to the International Labor Organization, the Arab world has one of the highest rates of youth unemployment in the world and will need to create an additional 74 million jobs in the next fifteen years in order to absorb new entrants to its job market. This is equivalent to a 75 per cent increase in its workforce. Most of these new jobs are expected to be created by SMEs. However, these SMEs are still facing numerous challenges.

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In most universities, the programs are not involved in the mainstream; therefore, entrepreneurship is not represented at meetings of associate deans or chairmen. Entrepreneurship is not considered during budget decisions or during curriculum revisions. A few schools are changing this. They are attempting to integrate entrepreneurship across disciplines. In the last decades, private education was a strong factor in Lebanese entrepreneurship. Although education, especially language ability, was a factor in promoting entrepreneurship, it did not present itself as a significant influence. However, very few university programs offer a degree dedicated to the field of entrepreneurship. A substantial proportion of the training programs in the region are focused on young people, providing evidence that policymakers and donors are seeking to address the problem of youth unemployment through targeted intervention. A public accelerated Vocational Training Program in Lebanon, specifically targeted low-skilled and otherwise disadvantaged young people. The programs in low and low-middle income countries tend to cater to the poor. In Lebanon, similar support to MSMEs is mainly applied as a poverty alleviation tool, with targets poor, marginalized and informal workers to generate income through self employment, while in middle and high-income countries programs tend to provide support and services to MSMEs with a view towards supporting private sector growth and the creation of opportunities for the labor force. A limited number of private programs have set up â&#x20AC;&#x153;business incubatorsâ&#x20AC;? to potentials, which provide a combination of different types of non-financial services. In addition, though more than half of the programs provide both financial and nonfinancial services, small share of beneficiaries benefit from integrated programs. Only one third of all programs sampled exclusively provide financial services.6

3.5 ROLE OF GOVERNMENT To enhance the competitiveness of Lebanese SMEs and increase their export potential, Lebanon is no stranger to industrial policy. The macroeconomic climate has not been favorable in the face of an uncertain political and security environment. Recent economic performance has not been promising; with gross domestic product (GDP) growth rates either stagnating. Despite these difficulties, structural economic reforms 6â&#x20AC;&#x192;It is estimated that region needs 50-75 million new jobs over the next decade to ensure social and political stability and the model predicts that those jobs could be created with US$241.65 billion to US$362.48 billion in new SME financing (E/ESCWA/27/4 part III)

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to improve the Lebanese business environment continue. Free trade agreements have been signed and an ambitious legislative reform agenda was adopted to modernize the legal infrastructure and associated policy framework: the Association Agreement between Lebanon and (EU) for accessing business networks within the EU and encouraging the development of SMEs; signed a plan including projects to increase the delivery of financial and technical assistance to Lebanon through mechanism designed. The Government of Lebanon also put forth a socio-economic plan entitled “Recovery, Reconstruction, and Reform” that was presented at the International Conference for Support to Lebanon (Paris III) on 25 January 2007 including strategic objectives to promote and support individual initiatives; Lebanon signed a free trade agreement with the European Free Trade Association (EFTA); Lebanon is also a member of the Greater Arab Free Trade Area (GAFTA) and signed a preferential trade agreement with the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). These policies, plans and programs articulate the Government of Lebanon’s commitment to strengthen the SME sector. In an increasingly globalized world where production and trade are closely linked, accessing information and complying with domestic standards and technical regulations is as important as conforming to standards preferred in the international marketplace or required by foreign countries. However, access to information on standards remains cumbersome, complex and incomplete. Urbanization rate is 54 per cent for the ESCWA region. However, the urbanization rate is over 70 per cent in Lebanon. Small and medium enterprises (SMEs) fit well into this new paradigm and into the rural economy. If rural SMEs are to compete successfully, infrastructure in rural areas will have to be substantially improved. A very different system pertains in Lebanon due to the country’s unique system of government based on confessional representation and its challenges in terms of local constituency interests. Rural innovations are often quite localized and many involve NGOs and donors working with the Ministry of agriculture or other ministries on various programs. Although the Arab region has an advantageous liquidity position but yet there is a light of scarce funding for SMEs that led to the emergence of specialized credit entities and guarantee mechanisms that have been set up to facilitate access to financing that the market did not provide. KAFALAT foundation that started on 1999 with $50 million (shareholders: 37.5% for government and 62.5% for private banks) in collaboration with the Central Bank and the strong banking institutions play an important role as loans providers. But beneficiaries of the KAFALAT loans under the integrated support for SME program in Lebanon appear to be concentrated in METN

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region and in BEIRUT.7

4 SURVEY METHODOLOGY The purpose is to provide with main personal interviews with the facilitators who run the entrepreneurship program as well as with private banks that provide facilities to financing SMEs in Lebanon. A first step for many of the facilitators and banks is to contact established programs and request brochures, syllabi where the interview questions were developed based on input by the respondents who were asked about the key factors and the barriers to growth both for the start-up or the facilitators. Interviews were made with 40 professionals, ranging from bank managers, university professors, facilitators directors, graduates, and SMEs owners. Each participant was handed a survey to fill out during the interview. The survey is divided into three main sections. The first section consists of demographic information, which is to seek information about the participant’s gender, age, industry experience and educational level. The second section is related to the factors (external and internal) in starting, directing, funding, managing a center or a program in entrepreneurship. The last section is related to the factors (external and internal) in starting, directing, funding and managing a start-up business. A Liker-type scale ranging from 1 (not at all) to 5 (great extent) accompanied the majority of the questions, while the rest were bound by a Yes or No-type response. The identified country models of the facilitator’s factors of challenges and opportunities ranged from transitional countries to highly developed ones. In order to eliminate facilitator-specific items from the factors identified in the literature search, only those that were common to at least two facilitator models were included in the survey.

5 SURVEY RESULTS AND ANALYSIS 5.1 ANALYSIS OF SECTION 1 The majority of the respondents (80%) were males, while only 20% were females. About 10% were in the age range of 24–34 years, 30% were in the age range of 35–44 years, 30% were in the age range of 45–54 years, 20% were in the range of 55–64 years and 10% were above 64 years old. The majority of the respondents (60%) have experience in their respective industries in excess of ten years and 30% 7 Available figures, in middle-high and high income countries show that MSMEs programs provide considerable support to manufacturing and industrial projects. In Lebanon, in recent years, industrial projects received 61% of loan guarantees provided.

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have industry experience of between six to ten years, while only 10% have industry experience of between three to five years. Approximately 60% of the respondents hold a Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s degree, 10% hold a Master degree and the remaining 20% hold a PhD. The participants with a professional training degree or no formal education formed only 10% each. Around 70% of the participants were split equally between engineering and finance and business degree holders. The participants with other forms of degrees accounted for 30% of the respondents. Directors of banks and facilitators were the majority, forming 30% each. Other sectors formed 5%â&#x20AC;&#x201C;10% each.

5.2 KEY FACTORS TO ENTREPRENEURIAL PROGRAM 5.2.1 EXTERNAL FACTORS The table below shows the results of the key factors. As external factors, gathering information to build database of industries, with which the program or center can assist the potentials to build his start-up and the networking were rated as the most important factors that affect the program success. Matching the angel investors with entrepreneurs who need capital to start up or to move forward was ranked the last. These results indicate that the governmental policies to provide data and to link all the stakeholders together are needed to modernize the Lebanese entrepreneurship ecosystem. Media engagement is identified as the third major success factor for entrepreneurship program where Lebanon has ten national television channels, while raising money and extra-curricular were the forth since 100 per cent of extra-curricular entrepreneurship education activity is funded from private money (endowment, grants and outreach program) that is an important part of the entrepreneurship activities. These activities are strong reliance on short-term funding making such initiatives inherently fragile.

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The summary of the resultsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; overall means

5.2.2 INTERNAL FACTORS Method of teaching, program dominant, and skills of director were rated as the most important factors that affect the program success and failure. The traditional method of entrepreneurship education and its narrow focus on the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;business planâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; is alienating for many non-business students and academic faculty. So academic entrepreneurs can serve as influential role models and provide useful ways to demonstrate the relevance of entrepreneurial action in different subject areas through international examples of inspiring practice. The majority of the respondents considered another important factor is to recruit a director as a champion who can negotiate the academic bureaucracy and connect with the entrepreneurial constituency. The center or program dominant was rated the third major factor. All the respondents of entrepreneurship programs in universities are subject to Business School with limited provision in other departments and faculties; less number of universities is attempting to display a range of key entrepreneurial characteristics,

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and need to transform radically the culture of higher education. They attempt to raise the relevance and profile of entrepreneurship across all academic departments that require to be placed at the heart of all university practices so the program can catch more students and expand more rapidly since the average level of student engagement in entrepreneurship education, in Lebanon, is still less than 5%.

5.3 KEY FACTORS TO POTENTIALS 5.3.1 EXTERNAL FACTORS Financial support, interest rates, and youth policy are the most rated factors that affect the motivation of the potentials. The banking institutions, main providers of credit, are generally reluctant to expand credit to individuals and businesses because deficiencies in financial infrastructure and regulatory frameworks make expanding access to finance costly and risky for banks in addition to the weak credit information systems and existing collateral regimes that are unreliable and not readily enforceable. Relative to larger firms, SMEs are financially constrained, which limits their capacity to increase employment and produce sustainable growth. According to the International Finance Corporation, small firms find it difficult in proving credit-14 worthiness due to inadequate credit history and absence of past performance records and they may be required to pay high risk premiums and transaction costs because of insufficient cash flow.8 These results indicate that a large relationship exists between credit, high interest rates, and lack of credit information of SMEs. Government regulations and taxes were rated the last. That could be due to the lower overall tax rate in Lebanon, compared to North American or European countries. Government regulations and slow and inefficient procedures don’t affect the motivation, since they don’t directly impinge on the relatively small business deals of SMEs. The third rate of youth policy indicates that a well-established coordination mechanism between government and youth is required. A mechanism is needed to make governmental tangible efforts aiming at the assessment of needs and priorities of youth at the national and internal levels (urban and rural), at building capacities.

8 Only one in five SMEs having a loan or a line of credit and with as little as 10% of SME expenditures financed by a bank loan and the share of SME lending is only 6.29% (E/ESCWA/27/4 part III)

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5.3.2 INTERNAL FACTORS Course knowledge, experience, and management and planning skills were rated the most important factors that affect the potentials where low level of education were the last. Many students graduate having accumulated whatever number of course is required, but still lacking a coherent body of knowledge or any inkling as to how one sort of information might relate to others. And all too often they graduate without knowing how to think logically, write clearly or speak coherently. The University has given them too little that will be of real value beyond a credential that will help them get their first jobs. Most of the respondents believed that work experience compensates for a low education level. This could be due to the fact that many uneducated SME owners hire educated people to run their business. The majority of the participants considered a business plan, financial plan, and marketing plan are essentials for business operations.

6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS This study showed that internal factors, that affect the potentials, contribute more to the success in Lebanon than external factors do. The most critical internal factors are the courses knowledge, and management and planning skills. The most critical external factors impacting potentials are financial support and youth policy and collecting data base. While the external factors affecting the entrepreneurial program contribute more to the success than internal factors do. The most critical external factors are collecting data and networking. The most critical internal are director skills and method of teaching entrepreneurship. In order for entrepreneurship program and potentials to thrive and contribute to the economic development and growth in Lebanon, many changes are needed. A strategic shift is needed in our understanding of entrepreneurship today to reposition its role and contribution to the student experience in a region with the majority of the population is under the age of 24. In order to ensure successful results, it is important to have all the parties concerned in the development of Lebanon work together and be involved in the decision-making process. This is where a strategic interaction among the educational sector and the government to improve the entrepreneurship in higher

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education.

6.1 GOVERNMENT As showed, data base to industries, networking, financial support, and youth policy represent the most important factors, belonging to the government, affecting the entrepreneurship program and the potentials as well. These factors are needed to be moderated by government. A national youth policy is needed to develop the spiritual, moral, intellectual, professional and physical potential of young people who are to grow into good citizens, leaders and guardians of the cultural heritage; encourage youth participation in economic and social development and decision-making at all levels; protect the rights of young people and develop their sense of responsibility so that they can become active members of the society, especially those living in difficult conditions and within economically disadvantaged families, juvenile adolescents, indigenous youth and victims of racial discrimination. A new development paradigm is needed for the region whereby greater efforts would be exerted towards improving the livelihood conditions in rural areas through promoting a culture for development and entrepreneurship among rural populations. Influence government agencies such as the funding councils, ministry of economy and trade, Chambers of Commerce agencies and regional development agencies should provide the required data to further enhance their support for entrepreneurship programs. The government should take the leadership role in creating a competitive business environment for SMEs. This could be done through the provision of a new set of programs through various ministries and agencies and work on reducing the factors that deter the establishment of new SMEs and complicate the formalities associated with running them. Special governmental programs should provide incentives by the Central Bank to financial institutions for SME lending such as reserve requirements exemption, credit subsidies, and partial credit guarantee schemes.

6.2 EDUCATIONAL SECTOR As showed, method of teaching, director skills, course knowledge, management skills, and program dominant are the most important factors, belonging to the educational sector, affecting the potentials and the entrepreneurship programs as well.

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Successful entrepreneurial programs should have the support of the academic community, specifically of faculty throughout the school and across various areas of the university. An enabling institutional environment is needed to develop a wholecampus approach, reaching students in all subjects and at all levels of learning and experience. Accordingly, the facilitators should be responsible to the vice president to cut through red tape and bureaucracy. The development of entrepreneurial pedagogic approaches in teaching, learning and support practices is a clear need to shift from transmission models of teaching (learning ‘about’) to experiential learning (learning ‘for’), where students can learn entrepreneurial techniques that can be applied in a broad range of settings. In particular, case studies and examples drawn from the local community should be used wherever possible. The involvement of local successful entrepreneurs (men and women), banks, accountants, lawyers and NGOs as guest speakers should also be encouraged, as well as visits to enterprises in the community for interviews which could serve as role models. A facilitator presentation, or lecture, is the most commonly used method of teaching. It can be very useful to arouse interest among learners. It involves a transfer of information from one person to a group. Ideally, presentations should be kept short and teachers should be the best. Teachers/trainers who have been self-employed or have experience in starting or running a small business might be expected to be the best persons to teach entrepreneurship. The facilitators need to be trained first, as they need certification before they can run the game. They need to be able to relate activities to the needs, circumstances and profile of the learners. They should employ interesting and varied teaching methods to capture and hold attention (audio-visual aids, technology, group exercises...). Enterprise education is about doing just as much as it is about learning. It is in fact learning by doing. Young people learn about enterprise but also through enterprise. One way of implementing learning by doing is by encouraging and assisting learner to set up micro and small businesses operated from their educational institutions. Ideally, the business idea would come from the learners themselves, who would organize themselves, register and operate the business.9

9 A learner of entrepreneurship module 1 did set up “HOUR CANTEEN” cafeteria, a healthy canteen at Beirut Arab University, Beirut-Campus and operated by the CFE. It provides students, staff and employees with the opportunities that lead to permanent solutions to struggles with weight, healthy eating, body image and fitness awareness

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REFERENCES 1- Ben Wildavsky And Robert E. Litan, Ewing Marion; College 2.0: An Entrepreneurial Approach to Reforming Higher Education, Overcoming Barriers and Fostering Innovation; By the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation; June 2012. 2- Bob Handscombe; Science Enterprise Challenge; Changing the Culture at UK Universities, UKSE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; The National Network of Enterprise Centers 3- CIHE, NCGE, NESTA; Developing Entrepreneurial Graduates, Putting entrepreneurship at the center of Higher education; Published by NESTA; September 2008 4- Colin Barrow; venture capitalist and entrepreneur; Starting a business for Dummies; Wiley; 3rd ed; 2011. 5- Consultation and Research Institute, Ministry of Economy and Trade; SMEs Business & Market Review; Lebanon; August 2006; p 205 6- Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA); Technology Transfer to Small- and MediumSized Enterprises, and Identifying Opportunities for Domestic and Foreign Direct Investment in Selected Sectors, The Case of SME Clusters in the Agro-Food, and Apparel Industries; 30 September 2005. 7- ESCWA; Increasing the Competitiveness of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises through the Use of Environmentally Sound Technologies: Assessing the Potential for the Development of Second-Generation Biofuels in the ESCWA Region; 09-0483, Distr. General, E/ESCWA/SDPD/2009/5, Original: English, United Nations, New York; 12/11/2009 8- ESCWA; Active Labor Market Policies in Arab Countries; United Nations, 12-0046, Distr. General, E/ ESCWA/SDD/2012/1, and Original: English; 26 March 2012 9- ESCWA; Impact of Industrial Policies on the Competitiveness, of Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises; United Nations, 07-0488; 2007 10- ESCWA; Integrated Social Policy Report IV, Labor Markets and Labor Market Policy in the ESCWA Region; United Nations, 11-0322

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Session 1.25 Catalyx NOx Control Systems: Current State and Future Developments

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THE INFLUENCE OF POTASSIUM AND SODIUM ON W-ZrCe OXIDE NH3-SCR CATALYSTS Ari V채liheikki*, Tanja Kolli*, Mika Huuhtanen*, Teuvo Maunula**, Toni Kinnunen**, Riitta L. Keiski* * Mass and Heat Transfer Process Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland. Ari. Valiheikki@oulu.fi, Tanja.Kolli@oulu.fi, Mika.Huuhtanen@oulu.fi, Riitta.Keiski@oulu.fi ** Ecocat Oy, Typpitie 1, FI-90650 Oulu, Finland. Teuvo.Maunula@ecocat.com, Toni.Kinnunen@ecocat.com

ABSTRACT The impact of potassium (K), sodium (Na), water (H2O) and hydrothermal aging on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst was studied. The W-ZrCe oxide catalyst was prepared and poisoned using a wet impregnation method. The catalytic activity of fresh, and K and Na poisoned catalysts were examined in a laboratory scale reactor in model NH3-SCR reaction. The addition of W on ZrCe oxide resulted in over 50% NOx conversion at the temperature range of 350-530째C. However, the NOx conversion over the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst was only 15% at 600째C. The addition of K and Na on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst caused a complete deactivation of the catalyst.

INTRODUCTION Vanadium-based catalysts are commercially used for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx by NH3. These catalysts have proven to be efficient in NOx reduction by NH3 [1-3]. Unfortunately, vanadium-based catalysts have a few major disadvantages e.g. low resistance to alkali and alkaline earth metals [4-9] that can originate from bio-based fuels [10-12], high activity in the oxidation of SO2 to SO3 [13] and the toxicity of vanadium compounds [14]. Some countries (e.g. Japan) have already restricted the use of these kinds of catalyst materials [15]. Thus, the use of vanadiumbased catalysts may decrease in the future. Therefore it is important to study and develop vanadium-free catalysts for NH3SCR process. W-ZrCe oxide catalysts have shown promising results in NOx reduction by NH3 [16]. Nevertheless, the activity of W-ZrCe oxide catalysts have not been tested widely and more studies are still needed. The use of the bio-based fuels in the transport sector will increase in the future due to the EU legislation [17]. Thus, in addition to high

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activity in the NH3-SCR process, the catalyst has to be resistant to poisons originating from biofuels. However, the effect of biofuel impurities on the activity of W-ZrCe oxide SCR catalysts has not been reported, yet. In this study, the impact of potassium (K) and sodium (Na) as biofuel impurities on the activities of W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support were prepared and investigated. In addition, the treatments by water both at room temperature and 400°C (hydrothermal) was done to understand the deactivation phenomenon better. All the prepared catalysts were studied in activity tests using NH3-SCR as a model reaction.

EXPERIMENTAL PREPARATION The tungsten based zirconium-rich ZrxCe1-xO2 oxide catalyst (W-ZrCe) was prepared by a wet impregnation method. The aim was to have 3 wt.% of tungsten metal on the ZrCe oxide support. First, the precursor material ammonium metatungstate hydrate ((NH4)6H2W12O40 · x H2O, 99.99%, Sigma Aldrich) was dissolved in a small amount of water and then the solution was mixed with the zirconia-ceria support material (from Alfa Aesar). After that, the mixture was stirred for 30 minutes with a magnetic stirrer at room temperature. Thereafter, water was evaporated from the solution at 80 °C. After evaporation, the catalyst sample was dried overnight at 120 °C. Dried catalysts were calcined in a muffle oven using the temperature ramps of 1 hour at 150 °C, 2 hours at 350 °C and 1 hour at 600 °C.

POISONING The prepared W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support were poisoned by a wet impregnation method. Potassium nitrate (KNO3) and sodium nitrate (NaNO3) were used as poisoning agents. The target content of potassium or sodium on the catalyst was 1 wt%. First, the KNO3 or NaNO3 poisoning agent was dissolved in a small amount of distilled water. The W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support samples were also wetted in a small amount of water. Both, K- or Na-poisoning agents and catalyst solutions were blended together and mixed with magnetic stirrers for 5 hours. Thereafter, both K- and Na-poisoned catalysts were dried overnight at 110 °C. Dried samples were calcined in a muffle oven for 1 hour at 105 °C, 2 hours at 375 °C and 10 minutes at 600 °C.

The effect of water on the activity of the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide

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support was also tested. Two grams of the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst or ZrCe oxide support was wetted in approximately 6 ml of distilled water. Mixing, drying and calcination procedures were done in the same way as for the K- and Na-poisoned catalysts.

HYDROTHERMAL AGING The impact of hydrothermal aging on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support was also studied. The studied catalyst and support were hydrothermally aged for 5 hours at 400 °C. The compositions in the reaction gas mixture are as follows: 10 vol.% H2O, 10 vol.% air and 80 vol.% N2.

CHARACTERIZATION Concentration of W in the fresh W-ZrCe oxide catalyst was analyzed by Perkin Elmer Optima 5300 DV inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICPOES). Before analyzing the W content, catalysts were digested by hydrogen fluoride and nitric acid. The K and Na contents on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support were analyzed by Perkin Elmer AAnalyst 400 Atomic adsorption spectrometer (AAS) using the flame method. Before the analyses by AAS, catalysts were digested by aqua regia. The BET surface area, pore size and pore volumes of fresh, K- and Na-poisoned W-ZrCe oxide catalysts and ZrCe oxide support were determined by N2 physisorption by the Micromeritics ASAP 2020 analyser. The surface areas and pore sizes as well as pore volumes were determined according to the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and BarrettJoyner-Halenda (BJH) theories, respectively.

CATALYTIC ACTIVITY MEASUREMENTS Fresh, K- and Na-poisoned, water treated, and hydrothermally aged W-ZrCe oxide catalysts and parent ZrCe oxide support were tested in activity tests. Catalyst powder (250 mg) was tightly packed inside the reactor as zebra stripes with quartz wool. The reaction gas mixture consisted of 900 ppm NO, 100 ppm NO2, 1000 ppm NH3, 10 vol.% O2, 10 vol.% H2O and balance N2. The gas flows were controlled by mass flow controllers (Brooks 5850s). The inlet gas flow was 1000 ml/min during the whole experiment. The catalytic activity was studied at the temperature range of 150 °C to 600 °C. Outlet flows (NO, NO2, N2O, NH3 and H2O) were analyzed by the Gasmet FT-IR gas analyzer. The volume of oxygen was analyzed by using a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer (ABB Advanced Optima). Labview based software was used to control the equipments

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and for data collection. The conversions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia (NH3) were determined in activity results.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The ICP-OES and AAS results for the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and ZrCe oxide support are shown in Table 1. It can be observed from the ICP-OES results that the catalyst preparation procedure was successful enough to obtain the desired amount of W (3 wt.%) in the ZrCe oxide support. According to the AAS results, 0.9 wt.% of K or Na was adsorbed on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst. The amount of K and Na was not so high on the ZrCe oxide support, only 0.6 and 0.7 wt.%, respectively. Thus, the poisoning is not selective since both support and active metal can adsorb K or Na. However, most of the impurities are adsorbed on the active metal (W), thus inhibiting the SCR reaction. Table 1 Amount of W (by ICP-OES) as well as K and Na (by AAS) on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and the ZrCe oxide support material.

Analyzed compounds

W-ZrCe oxide

ZrCe oxide

W [wt.%]

2.8

-

K [wt.%]

0.9

0.6

Na [wt.%]

0.9

0.7

The addition of W on the ZrCe oxide support caused a decrease of around 15% in the specific surface area. The adsorption of K and Na impurities caused around 14-17% decrease in the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst and 32-36% decrease in the ZrCe oxide support in their specific surface areas as can be calculated from the results in Table 2. Table 2 The specific surface areas (BET), pore volumes, and pore sizes of fresh, K-, and Napoisoned catalysts.

Catalyst

W-ZrCe oxide Fresh K Na

ZrCe oxide Fresh K Na

BET surface area [m2/g]

11.6

9.6

10.0

13.4

9.1

8.5

Pore volume [cm3/g]

0.031

0.026

0.027

0.032

0.027

0.026

Pore size [nm]

11.0

11.2

11.4

10.0

12.1

12.3

The reason for decrease in the surface area after any treatments for the ZrCe oxide support may be due to the calcination procedure at 600째C. The changes in pore

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volumes are relatively small, thus the calcination temperature was low enough not to cause sintering. In addition, only a small increase in pore size was observed in the studied samples. Figure 1 presents the NOx conversions over fresh, K- and Na-poisoned, water treated and hydrothermally aged W-ZrCe oxide catalysts. The fresh W-ZrCe oxide catalyst achieved approximately 55% NOx conversion at temperatures of 350-530 째C. The NOx conversion over the fresh catalyst was lower than expected in comparison with the study made by Li et al. [16]. However, NOx conversion over the fresh catalyst started to decrease rapidly when the temperature was higher than 530 째C. At the temperature of 600 째C, the NOx conversion was only 10 %.

Figure 1. NOx conversions over the fresh, K-, and Na-poisoned as well as water treated and hydrothermally aged W-ZrCe oxide catalysts as a function of temperature.

The NOx conversion curves clearly show that the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst deactivated completely after the addition of K and Na. Since, the water treated W-ZrCe oxide catalyst achieved almost as high NOx conversion as the fresh W-ZrCe oxide catalyst, it can be concluded that the deactivation was purely due to K and Na impurities on the catalyst active sites and on the support.

The NOx conversion over the hydrothermally treated W-ZrCe oxide catalyst

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followed the water-treated and fresh W-ZrCe oxide catalysts up to 350 째C. Then the NOx conversion curve decreased more rapidly than in the case of water treated and fresh W-ZrCe oxide catalysts. Thus, high temperature in the presence of water is causing some damages to the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst. More studies are needed to find out the reasons for this phenomenon. Contrary to NOx conversion over the fresh, water treated and hydrothermally aged W-ZrCe oxide catalysts the NH3 conversions were relatively high, around 70% at 600째C, as can be seen in Figure 2. The plausible reason for the high ammonia conversion is that ammonia is consumed at higher temperatures (above 400째C) in unwanted side reactions. According to Ham et al. [18] ammonia can be oxidized to N2, NO, and N2O. After the addition of K and Na on the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst, the NH3 reactions did not occur at all.

Figure 2. NH3 conversions over the fresh, K-, and Na-poisoned as well as water treated and hydrothermally aged W-ZrCe oxide catalysts as a function of temperature.

Activity of the ZrCe oxide support material was also tested. The ZrCe oxide support material was not active at all in NOx reduction, as expected. However, NH3 conversion was higher than NOx conversion indicating that ammonia is again consumed

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in unwanted side reactions.

CONCLUSIONS

Fresh, K- and Na-poisoned, H2O-treated and hydrothermally W-ZrCe oxide catalysts and ZrCe oxide supports were prepared, characterized and tested in activity tests. The main result of this study was that the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst deactivated completely due to the addition of K and Na on its surface. However, additional studies are still needed to understand how the chemical nature of the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst has changed because of K and Na. Water treatment and hydrothermal aging did not have as significant effect as K and Na on the activity of W-ZrCe oxide catalyst. According to these results, the use of the W-ZrCe oxide catalyst in SCR applications would not be recommended if a high alkali metal content (K or Na) in flue gases originating from biofuels was expected.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors acknowledge the financial support of Tekes, the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation, via the Cleen Ltd’s Future Combustion Engine Power Plant (FCEP) -programme.

REFERENCES [1] Alemany LJ, Lietti L, Ferlazzo N, Forzatti P, Busca G, Giamello E, Bregani F. Journal of Catalysis, 155:117130 (1995) [2] Choo ST, Yim SD, Nam IS, Ham SW, Lee JB. Applied Catalysis B, 44:237-252 (2003) [3] O. Kröcher and M. Elsener. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 47:8588-8593 (2008) [4] Klimczak M, Kern P, Heinzelmann T, Lucas M, Claus P. Applied Catalysis B, 95:39-47 (2010) [5] Kröcher O, Elsener M. Applied Catalysis B, 75:215-227 (2008)

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[6] Putluru SSR, Jensen AD, Riisager A, Fehrmann R. Topics in Catalysis, 54:1286-1292 (2011) [7] Kamata H, Takahashi K, Odenbrand CUI. Journal of Molecular Catalysis A, 139:189–198 (1999) [8] Tang F, Xu B, Shi H, Qiu J, Fan Y. Applied Catalysis B, 94:71–76 (2010) [9] Zheng Y, Jensen AD, Johnsson JE. Applied Catalysis B, 60:253–264 (2005) [10] Cuiping L, Chuangzhi W, Yanyongjie, Haitao H. Biomass and Bioenergy, 27:119-130 (2004) [11] Obernberger I, Brunner T, Bärnthaler G. Biomass and Bioenergy, 30:973-982 (2006) [12] Monti A, Di Virgilio N, Venturi G. Biomass and Bioenergy, 32:216-223 (2008) [13] Busca G, Lietti L, Ramis Ga, Berti F. Applied Catalysis B, 18:1-36 (1998) [14] Domingo JL. Reproductive Toxicology, 10:175-182 (1996) [15] Deutschmann O, Konstandopoulos AG. Handbook of Combustion Vol.2, 465-509, Wiley-VCH (2010) [16] Li Y, Cheng H, Li D, Qin Y, Xiec Y, Wang S. Chemical Communications 1470–1472 (2008) [17] Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. [18] Ham SW, Nam IS. Catalysis, Volume 16. Royal Society of Chemistry (2002)

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THE SYNERGY OF SURFACE-INDUCED AND SUPPORTMEDIATED PROMOTION ROUTES ON Pd-BASED CATALYSTS FOR THE EFFECTIVE LEAN REDUCTION OF NO x BY CO+H2 MIXTURES V. Matsouka*, G. Goula*, M. Vrontaki*, G. Avgouropoulos**, M. Konsolakis*, T. Ioannides** and I.V. Yentekakis* *Laboratory of Physical Chemistry & Chemical Processes, Department of Sciences, Technical University of Crete, 73100 Chania, Crete, Greece **FORTH/ICE-HT, Rion, Patras, Greece Corresponding author: yyentek@science.tuc.gr (I.V. Yentekakis)

ABSTRACT Two different methods of promotion were imposed separately and together, in order to investigate the feasibility of their synergy to enhance the lean de-NOx efficiency by CO+H2 of low loading (0.5wt%) Pd based catalysts. To this turn, the Pdcatalysed NO+CO+H2+O2 reaction was gradually studied over: (i) Pd/Al2O3-(TiO2) catalysts (support-mediated promotion by modifying the Al2O3 support with TiO2), (ii) K-dosed Pd(K)/Al2O3 catalysts (surface-induced promotion by modifying the Pd surface with the addition of K), and (iii) doubly-promoted Pd(K)/Al2O3-(TiO2) catalysts. Both (i) and (ii) methods of promotion were found to significantly promote the system. However, the de-NOx efficiency and N2-selectivity of the doubly-promoted Pd(K)/Al2O3(TiO2) catalysts were found to be better than the other two cases, indicating a synergy during the simultaneous imposition of the two methods of promotion.

1. INTRODUCTION Nitrogen oxides removal from lean burn gasoline and diesel engines consists nowadays a serious environmental aspect. Although lean burn engines offer significant benefits; fuel economy and therefore lower CO2 emissions per Km compared to conventional gasoline engines, the presence of excess oxygen makes NOx removal an extremely difficult problem [1-4]. This fact along with problems concerning mainly the slip and storage of ammonia (which is widely used for the SCR of NOx at stationary sources), create applicability limitations to the use of these engines in automobiles.

As a result, lean NOx reduction by hydrocarbons has been extensively

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investigated as a promising method for the removal of hazardous NOx emissions generated under lean conditions. Among the catalytic systems tested, noble metalsupported oxide catalysts appear to be favorable for the lean NO reduction, mainly due to their hydrothermal stability and enhanced resistance to SO2 poisoning. Moreover, it is widely known that noble metal based catalysts display enhanced NO reduction activity at low temperatures [2-4]. In this study we investigated the effect of support-mediated and surfaceinduced promotion routes, separately and simultaneously, on the lean NOx reduction by CO + H2 over Pd/Al2O3 catalysts.

2. EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 2.1 CATALYST PREPARATION Pd/Al2O3 or Pd/Al2O3–(TiO2) catalysts used as basis in this study were prepared by impregnation of the Al2O3 or Al2O3– TiO2 supports with an aqueous solution of Pd(NO3)2∙2H2O (Fluka) in order to yield 0.5 wt.% Pd loading. The impregnation was followed by drying in air at 110 oC. Then, batches of these catalysts were subsequently impregnated in solutions containing various concentrations of KNO3, in order to yield a range of potassium loading from 0 to 3 wt.%. The batches were dried at 110 oC, calcined in air at 500 oC for 6 h and finally reduced with 15% H2 (in He) flow at 200 oC for 1 h. All catalysts produced and investigated in this study and their constitutions are listed in Table 1. The Al2O3 and Al2O3–(10 wt.% TiO2) supports used in this study, were prepared by the sol–gel method as follows: Al(NO3)3∙9H2O precursor was added into hot distilled water (80 oC) under stirring and kept at this temperature for 1 h. Then, NH3 was added and the gelation took place. The relative molar amounts of Al(NO3)3, distilled water and 25% (v/v) NH3 of the mixture were 1:33:3, respectively. The formed gel was dried at 110 oC for 24 h and then calcined in air at 600 oC for 2 h. The produced Al2O3 sol–gel had a BET surface area of 173 m2/g, as determined by N2 adsorption at -196 o C. In order to produce the TiO2-modified Al2O3 with 10 wt.% TiO2, the sol–gel Al2O3 was added in a solution of titanium isopropoxide (Aldrich) and propanol-2 (volume ratio Ti(OC3H7)4:propanol-2 = 1:10) at 70 oC under continuous stirring for 6 h. After vaporization of the solvent, the remained gel was dried at 110 oC for 12 h and calcined in air at 500 oC for 6 h.

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Table 1. Constitution of Pd based catalysts produced and tested in this study.

Catalyst Code Pd/Al Pd/Al-Ti Pd(K)/Al Pd(K)/Al-Ti

Catalyst Constitution 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2)

2.2 CATALYST TESTING Catalyst testing experiments were carried out in a fixed-bed, single-pass, plug flow reactor consisting of a 0.4 cm i.d. quartz tube loaded with 70 mg of catalyst, which was retained between two plugs of quartz wool. The catalyst temperature was measured by a K-thermocouple located at the centre of the catalyst bed. Air liquide certified gas mixtures of 7.83% NO, 10.1% CO, 20% H2 and 20.7% O2, all diluted in He, were used. These were further diluted in ultrapure He (99.999%) and supplied to the reactor at one bar through a series of independent mass flow controllers (MKS type 247). The feed composition employed during light-off catalyst testing was He balanced 1000 ppm NOx + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2. The total gas flow rate was 280 cm3/min, corresponding to a reciprocal weight space velocity of w/f = 0.015 g s/cm3. The reactor inlet and outlet were analyzed using a Thermo Environmental Instr., 42C chemiluminescence NOx analyzer for the analysis of NO and NO2 and on-line gas chromatography (Shimatzu-14B) for the analysis of CO, CO2, O2, H2, N2 and N2O. Chromatographic separation of H2, N2, O2 and CO was achieved in a molecular sieve 5A column, while CO2 and N2O were separated using a porapak-N column, both operated at 80 oC. NH3 was not detected in the reactor effluent gas in the overall temperature interval for all catalysts investigated. Since there is a small conversion of NO to NO2 (~15%) at temperatures <130 oC, due to a gas phase reaction between NO and O2, the NOx conversion rather than the NO conversion was chosen in order to characterize the de-NOx efficiency of the catalysts. The inlet composition and flow rate were kept constant during the catalyst testing experiments, while the temperature was increased stepwise from 30 to 400 oC and held constant at each temperature for at least 30 min prior taking measurements. All catalysts were also studied by in situ DRIFTS experiments at certain reaction conditions (1000 ppm NOx + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2, He balance; T = 200 oC and total flow rate of 60 cm3/min). Diffuse reflectance IR spectra were collected using an Excalibur spectrometer FTS 3000, equipped with a MCT detector cooled by

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liquid nitrogen and an IR chamber (Specac, Environmental chamber DRIFT model) of ~1 cm3 volume. Considering the total flow rate of 60 cm3/min used in FTIR measurements, a space velocity value of 1 s-1 is calculated. Infrared spectra were obtained with resolution of 2 cm-1 and accumulation of 64 scans. During IR measurements the external optics were continuously purged by CO2-free dry air generated in an air purifier system (Claind Italy, CO2-PUR model). About 80 mg of the catalyst sample in a powder form was loaded into the IR chamber. Its surface was carefully flattened in order to optimize the intensity of the reflected IR beam.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.1CONVERSION AND N2-SELECTIVITY PERFORMANCE OVER SINGLY AND DOUBLY-PROMOTED Pd/Al2O3 CATALYSTS Figures 1 and 2 illustrate the total NOx conversion and the corresponding selectivity to N2 versus temperature, for the basic Pd/Al2O3, the singly promoted Pd/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) and Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3, and for the doubly-promoted Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) catalysts. It should be mentioned that the singlypromoted by surface induced effects Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3 was found to exhibit the best de-NOx performance from a series of singly-promoted (by only K addition at several loadings between 0-3 wt.% K) Pd(K)/Al2O3 catalysts tested, thus for clarity’s sake the representative best of its series is compared to the un-promoted and the singly-promoted with the support mediated effects (TiO2) catalysts. Focusing firstly on the support-mediated and surface induced effects separately, on reactants’ conversion and N2-selectivity performance, we can mark the following: (i) the support-mediated promotion, by itself, offers a substantial enhancement in NOx-conversion activity of Pd but its selectivity towards N2 remains practically unaffected, (ii) the surface-induced promotion (by K addition), by itself, offers a moderate enhancement in NOx conversion activity of Pd but a substantial improvement of selectivity towards N2, (iii) all catalysts achieve 100% CO and H2 conversion (conversion profiles are practically the same; very sharp ignition leading to 100% CO and H2 conversion, and for brevity’s sake not shown here), but modification of Al2O3 support with TiO2 causes a depression of the temperature required for full CO and H2 conversion of only 5oC, while the corresponding depression in the case of potassium addition comes up to 25oC (figure 3). Focusing now on the performance of doubly-promoted catalyst Pd/(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) (figures 1-3), we can observe that the elevated de-NOx efficiency

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of Pd/Al2O3-TiO2 is retained (fig. 2), while the selectivity to N2 is further enhanced varying between 55 and 85% in the temperature interval investigated. Regarding CO and H2 conversion activities, as observed in figure 3, K addition to Pd/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) causes a significant decrease in the temperature required for 100% conversion of CO and H2; 35oC compared to that obtained with the reference catalyst Pd/Al2O3. It is worth mentioning that Pd/(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) along with Pd/(0.10wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) exhibited the best de-NOx and N2-selectivity performance from a series of doubly Pd/(0-3wt.%K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) (for brevityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s sake not shown here).

Figure 1. Total NOx conversion as a function of temperature for the 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3, 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3(10wt.% TiO2), 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3 and 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) catalysts. Feed composition: 1000 ppm NO + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2, balance He, total flow rate of 280 cm3/min, catalyst weight = 70 mg.

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Figure 2. Selectivity to N2 as a function of temperature for the 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3, 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3(10wt.% TiO2), 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3 and 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) catalysts. Feed composition: 1000 ppm NO + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2, balance He, total flow rate of 280 cm3/min, catalyst weight = 70 mg.

Figure 3. Effect of catalyst constitution on the temperature for 100% conversion of CO and H2, for the 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3, 0.5wt.% Pd/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2), 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3 and 0.5wt.% Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.% TiO2) catalysts. Feed composition: 1000 ppm NO + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2, balance He, total flow rate of 280 cm3/min, catalyst weight = 70 mg.

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3.2 IN SITU DRIFTS STUDIES Figure 4 depicts the DRIFT spectra of adsorbed species formed under reaction conditions on the surface of (i) the original unpromoted Pd/Al2O3 catalyst, (ii) the Pd/Al2O3–(10wt.% TiO2) catalyst promoted by only support-mediated effects, (iii) the Pd(0.25 wt.% K)/Al2O3 catalyst promoted by only K addition and (iv) the doublypromoted Pd(0.25 wt.% K)/Al2O3–(10 wt.% TiO2) catalyst, at 200 oC; this temperature was chosen because significant differences in both the activity and selectivity of the catalysts are observed (Figs. 1,2). All spectra were obtained 90 min after the introduction of the gas mixture into the IR chamber. Several overlapping bands can be observed for all samples in the 1650–1250 cm-1 region, which are assigned to various nitrite/ nitrate, carbonate and bicarbonate species [4-7]. The band at 1613 cm-1 is attributed to bridging nitrates whereas the bands in the 1600–1540 cm-1 region along with the peak at 1305 cm-1 to different modes of bidentate nitrates [5,6]. Under the present conditions, carbonate and/or bicarbonate species are also expected to contribute to the intensity of the bands observed in the region below 1650 cm-1. However, a precise assignment of these species is difficult, due to the significant overlapping of the bands associated various adsorbed species. Thus, the bands at 1585 and 1394 cm-1 can also be due to the νas(COO-) and δ(CH) adsorbed formate species, respectively [4,5,7]. Additionally, the overlapping bands at 1613 and 1305 cm-1, can be further assigned to the deformation modes of adsorbed NH3 [5]. This assumption is further supported by the appearance of a wide band at 3245 cm-1, which is characteristic of a N–H stretching vibration [5]. The shoulder at 2823 cm-1 as well as the band at 1424 cm-1 is consistent with the appearance of NH4+ species [5]. The overlapping bands in the region (2100– 1900 cm-1) can be assigned to various carbonyl species coordinated to Pd sites [4,5,8]. Based on the above assignments, it can be considered that NH3 is formed on the surface of all samples. It is worth emphasizing, however, that the broad band at 3245 cm-1 (N–H stretching mode) is more intense on Pd/Al2O3–(TiO2) and Pd(K)/Al2O3– (TiO2) samples, indicating that the formation of NH3 is substantially more pronounced in samples that have been modified by TiO2 addition in the Al2O3 support. An interesting feature observed in all spectra, is the absence of isocyanate species (NCO), which are considered as intermediates for NH3 formation. This fact simply reflects the rapid hydrolysis of NCO species, by the formed water or hydroxyl groups, as has been considered in similar in situ FTIR studies [4,5,9].

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Figure 4. In situ DRIFT spectra at 200oC for the basic unpromoted Pd/Al2O3, the K promoted Pd(0.25wt.%K)/Al2O3 (Pd(K)/Al2O3), the TiO2 promoted Pd/Al2O3-(10wt.%TiO2) (Pd/Al-Ti) and the optimally doubly-promoted Pd(0.25wt.% K)/Al2O3-(10wt.%TiO2) (Pd(K)/Al-Ti) catalysts. Feed composition: 1000 ppm NO + 2500 ppm CO + 7500 ppm H2 + 6% O2, balance He, total flow rate of 60 cm3/min.

4. DISCUSSION Focusing firstly on the substantial enhancement of NOx reduction activity achieved by the modification of the Al2O3 support with TiO2 and based on our in situ spectra (fig.4) which clearly show the appearance of a sufficiently higher amount of NH3 on Pd/Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst compared to Pd/Al2O3 catalyst, it can be proposed the in situ adsorbed NH3 generation, which is considered as a powerful NOx reductant. So it can be concluded that NH3 plays a key role in the de-NOx process over these two catalysts. According to Lambert and co-workers the formation and subsequent hydrolysis of isocyanate species is considered as the most likely route in NH3 formation at low temperatures (<180oC), while at higher temperatures the NH3 formation is

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attributed to the direct reaction between NO and H2 [5], confirmed in our case by the absence of ammonia in the reactor effluent gas. In complete contrast to the case of TiO2 promoted Pd/Al2O3 catalyst, K addition does not cause any detectable influence on the amount of NH3 formed on Pd(K)/Al2O3 catalyst. This fact along with the superior N2-selectivity performance of the latter catalyst, imply that in this case, most likely another SCR-driven channel is promoted. According to a theoretical model, alkali co-adsorbed with NO on Pt-group metal surfaces, induces: (i) strengthening of the metal-NO bond which is accompanied by a (ii) weakening of the N-O bond in the adsorbed molecule, resulting in an extended NO dissociation [10]. The resulting decreased surface NOad population accompanied by the increased Nad species explain the improved NOx conversion activity and especially significantly enhanced the N2-selectivity of Pd(K)/Al2O3 catalyst. Potassium addition to Pd/Al2O3-TiO2 catalyst causes a slight depression in NOx conversion and a significant enhancement in N2-selectivity. Two different NOx SCR-driven channels are most likely to operate in parallel over this catalyst: (i) the NH3-formation channel that has its origin on the Pd and Al2O3 combined chemistry, which in the present circumstances is further enhanced by TiO2, and (ii) the NO dissociative chemisorption channel that has its origin on the electronic modification by K of the Pd surface. The former channel provides high NOx reduction activity but not significant changes in N2-selectivity. The latter channel provides lower NOx reduction activity enhancements, due to the competitive role of the Pd-CO bond strengthening, but higher N2-selectivity values due to the extended NO dissociation on Pd surface. As a result the doubly-promoted catalysts combine the high activity offered by the support-mediated promotional effects of TiO2 and the elevated selectivity offered by the surface-induced promotional effects of K. In fact, the retained relatively high intensity of surface ammonia intermediate, recorded on the doubly-promoted Pd(K)/ Al2O3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;(TiO2) catalyst, confirms that NH3-formation still plays a key role in the catalytic mechanism of the doubly-promoted catalysts.

5. CONCLUSIONS In the present study the lean NOx reduction by CO+H2 over new formulations of singly and doubly-promoted Pd(K)/Al2O3-(TiO2) catalysts was investigated. It was found that the de-NOx activity and N2-selectivity of Pd based catalysts can be significantly promoted either via support-mediated effects (TiO2 modification of Al2O3 support), or via surface-induced effects (K addition on catalyst surface) during the lean NOx reduction by CO+H2. Doubly promoted catalysts Pd(K)/Al2O3-(TiO2) exhibited superior de-NOx

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performance compared to that achieved by individually promoted catalysts, combining the high activity obtained by support-mediated effects together with the improved N2-selectivity obtained via surface induced promotion by K. This result derives from the synergy of two different SCR channels∙ the support-mediated promotion (by TiO2) operates through the NH3-formation channel, whereas the surface induced promotion is governed by an extended NO dissociation caused by the electropositive promoter (K). Acknowledgements: The authors acknowledge financial support of this work by the research project ‘Development of novel catalyst composites via the synergy of structure and surface promoters for the simultaneous abatement of nitrogen (NOx) and nitrous (N2O) oxides’, implemented within the framework of THALES Program and co-financed by the Ministry of Education of Greece and the European Union.

REFERENCES P. Granger and V.I. Parvulescu, Catalytic NOx abatement systems for mobile sources: From Three-Way to lean burn after-treatment technologies, Chem. Rev. 111, p. 3153, (2011). S. Roy, M.S. Hedge and G. Madras, Catalytic NOx abatement, Appl. Energy 86, p.2283, (2009). A.A. Nikolopoulos, E.S. Sergioula, E.A. Efthimiadis and I.A. Vasalos, Selective catalytic reduction of NO by propene in excess oxygen on Pt- and Rh—supported alumina catalysts, Catal. Today 54, p. 439, (1999). N. Macleod and R.M. Lambert, An in situ DRIFTS study of efficient lean NOx reduction with H2 + CO over Pd/Al2O3: the key role of transient NCO formation in the subsequent generation of ammonia, Appl. Catal. B 46, p. 483, (2003). N. Macleod, R. Cropley, J.M. Keel and R.M. Lambert, Exploiting the sunergy of titania and alumina in lean NOx reduction: in situ ammonia generation during the Pd/TiO2/Al2O3-catalysed H2/CO/NO/O2 reaction, J. Catal. 221, p. 20, (2004). K.I. Hadjiivanov, Identification of neutral and charged NxOy surface species by IR Spectroscopy, Catal. Rev. -Sci. Eng. 42, p. 71, (2000). F.C. Meunier, J.P. Breen, V. Zuzaniuk, M. Olsson and J.R.H. Ross, Mechanistic aspects of the selective reduction of NO by propene over alumina and silver-alumina catalysts, J. Catal. 187, p. 493, (1999). V. Pitchon, M. Primet and H. Praliaud, Alkali addition to silica-supported palladium: Infrared investigation of the carbon monoxide chemisorption, Appl. Catal. 62, p. 317, (1990). D.C. Chambers, D.E. Angove and N.W. Cant, The formation and hydrolysis of isocyanic acid during the reaction of NO, CO and H2 mixtures on supported Platinum, Palladium and Rhodium, J. Catal. 204, p.11, (2001). N.D. Lang, S. Halloway and J.K. Norskov, Electrostatic adsorbate-adsorbate interactions: the poisoning and promotion of the molecular adsorption reaction, Surf. Sci. 150, p.24, (1985).

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RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN MULTIFUNCTIONAL REACTORS FOR DIESEL ENGINE EMISSION CONTROL UNDER CONVENTIONAL AND ADVANCED COMBUSTION CONDITIONS Souzana Lorentzou*, Dimitrios Zarvalis*, Athanasios G. Konstandopoulos*,** *Aerosol & Particle Technology Laboratory, CERTH/CPERI PO Box 60361, Thermi 57001, Thessaloniki, Greece **Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University, PO. Box 1517, Thessaloniki 54006, Greece

ABSTRACT A relatively simple way of reducing NOx emissions in Diesel engines is exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Recirculation part of the exhaust gas reduces NOx, but on the other hand can negatively affect soot particle emissions especially at high engine loads, the well-known trade-off between NOx and soot emissions. Hence, advanced Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) technologies have an obvious positive effect also on NOx emissions enabling more efficient usage of EGR. Moreover, currently researched, advanced Diesel engine technologies such as Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) offer substantial advantages to the reduction of both NOx and Particulate Matter (PM) emissions but will most probably not succeed to make the application of Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) dispensable in the future. In this work the research and development efforts for the realization of a Multi-Functional catalyst Reactor (MFR) for the exhaust of the current and upcoming diesel engines is presented.

INTRODUCTION Advances in Diesel Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) technologies such as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) for passenger cars could potentially be beneficial due to low soot particulate and NOx emissions, however exhibit a difficulty in the control of the combustion at medium and high engine loads [1- 8]. Hence a limited operating window exists, where NOx and particulate emissions are at a very low level. To broaden the operating range of future Diesel engines a combination of a variety of loading areas (e.g. HCCI at low load with partial homogeneity at part load and conventional Diesel combustion at high and full load) has to be applied [1- 8]. The application of HCCI engine conditions results in quite different exhaust conditions compared to conventional diesel engine operation [9, 10]. Under HCCI conditions the

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concentration of CO and HC emissions is typically increased. On the other hand, the NOx concentration is generally decreased. In addition, differences exist regarding the concentration and maybe the morphology and the chemical composition of the emitted particulate matter. The soot particles concentration is decreased but still this decrease is not sufficient enough to make the Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) unnecessary for the future applications. In contrast, the low NOx to soot ratio inhibits the NO2-assisted (indirect) soot oxidation bringing significant difficulties to the regeneration of the filter. Advanced direct soot oxidation catalysts have to be engaged. The increased HC and CO concentration necessitates the incorporation of noble-metal-based catalysts in the filter catalytic coating. In this work the development and performance assessment of a novel MultiFunctional Reactor (MFR) for the diesel engine exhaust is presented. The novelty of this system relies on two aspects: 1. A system design which exploits internal heat recovery. 2. A multifunctional catalyst able to enhance the direct soot oxidation rate (i.e. through oxygen transfer), promote CO and HC oxidation and also promote the indirect (NO2-assisted) soot oxidation. The work is presented in three parts. The first part describes the work towards the attainment of heat recovery and the advantages of the novel design with respect to the filter thermal response and thermal behavior. The second one describes the synthesis and application of the different catalytic functionalities on the filter substrate. The third one presents the results obtained form the performance assessment of a full-scale MFR prototype. This assessment was performed with respect to the filter pressure drop, filtration efficiency and regeneration efficiency under steady state and transient conventional diesel engine conditions as well as under HCCI engine operation conditions. The performance of an aged MFR was also assessed. During the MFR development, the MFR performance was benchmarked against the performance of a State-of-the-Art catalyzed wall-flow DPF (SiC, 5.66 in x 6 in, 300 cpsi, wall thickness 0.25 mm), that represents a current technology under evaluation for a light duty OEM application, hereafter referred to as SA DPF.

ADVANCED FILTER DESIGN WITH INTEGRATED HEAT RECOVERY FUNCTION The target was to recover part of the energy released during the exothermic soot oxidation reaction. Due to the exothermic soot oxidation the downstream of the

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filter temperature is higher than the inlet temperature. The energy corresponding to the difference of the outlet and inlet temperatures is defined as the total recoverable energy (total heat released in the DPF as a result of exothermic soot oxidation reaction).To achieve internal heat recovery several types of designs were considered. As the incorporation of an external heat exchanger would require increased space and would add significant complexity to the manufacturing of the system, it was chosen to proceed with an Integrated Heat Exchange design (IHE, where the exchange and the filtration functions are integrated). The IHE prototype was tested on the engine test bench under fast regeneration conditions. The same test was performed for a conventional uncoated SiC wall-flow DPF for comparison. Both the IHE prototype and the conventional uncoated SiC wallflow DPF were preloaded with 5 g/m2 (â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 5.75 g/L) of soot at steady state engine operation conditions (1500 RPM and 3 bar) corresponding to an exhaust temperature of 230oC. The inlet filter temperature was raised to 770oC by means of HC exhaust port injection upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC). By the time the inlet filter temperature reached 770oC the engine operation dropped to idle. The high filter temperature and the high O2 content of the exhaust forced a fast filter regeneration that took approximately 4 minutes to completely clean the filter. Figure 1 presents the inlet and outlet filter temperatures during the fast regeneration test for the IHE prototype and the conventional uncoated wall-flow SiC DPF. The inlet filter temperature is approximately the same in the two experiments. The outlet filter temperature is raised significantly faster in the case of the IHE prototype than in the case of the conventional filter. For example, after two minutes from the start of the regeneration (t=1920 s) the outlet filter temperature is 670 and 430 oC for the IHE prototype and the conventional filter, respectively. This difference in the thermal response can be attributed to the internal heat recovery capability of the IHE prototype.

Figure 1: Thermal behavior of the uncoated IHE prototype and the conventional uncoated SiC wallflow DPF during the fast regeneration test

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THE MULTI-FUNCTIONAL CATALYST The catalyst incorporated a direct soot oxidation catalyst (base metal mixed oxide catalyst), a noble metal and Barium oxide (BaO). The doped mixed oxide catalyst was used for the enhancement of the direct soot oxidation rate. The noble metal (Pt) was used for the enhancement of the indirect soot oxidation rate and the CO and HC conversion. Finally, BaO was included mainly to improve the local availability of NO2 and “active” oxygen compounds for enhanced soot oxidation rate. The addition of the BaO was optimized towards this target and not the NOx reduction due to the very low NOx concentrations under HCCI operating conditions. The direct soot oxidation catalyst The Aerosol Based Synthesis (ABS) and the Aerosol Based Deposition (ABD) of catalysts for the direct oxidation of soot as well as the investigation of the effect of doping on the catalytic activity of metal oxides has been the subject of previous works [11, 12] where extensive references to past soot oxidation catalyst literature may be found. For the MFR development the ABS method was employed for the synthesis of three advanced formulations of Mixed Oxide Catalysts (MOC). Aqueous solutions of metal nitrate salts, with addition of citric acid -to avoid precipitation of the reactantsand ammonia were used as precursor solutions. These solutions were atomized into micron-sized droplets (~2 μm mean diameter) that passed through a heated tubular reactor. The MOCs were synthesized and deposited in one step on small-scale filter samples via ABD, to be tested on the engine exhaust with respect to their soot loading under real engine exhaust conditions and regeneration behavior under synthetic exhaust conditions (small-scale filter tests). All the small-scale filter samples were of square cross section (35 mm x 35 mm) and had a length of 50 mm. The filter material used was SiC, 300 cpsi, with 42 % porosity and 11 µm pore size. This type of material structure was used throughout the present study as well as the manufacturing of the full-scale MFR prototype. The coated filters developed a lower pressure drop during soot loading than that of the uncoated filter. Although, this behavior is unusual for coated filters, since one would expect that a coated monolith should develop higher pressure drop than that of the uncoated filter, it is, however, typical for the ABD catalytic coatings on this type of monolithic segments [13]. The overall pressure drop across a filter derives from the pressure losses due to the gas flow through the clean porous medium and the additional pressure drop caused by the catalyst and the soot deposits. The latter contains contributions from the filter pore blockage during the deep bed filtration mode as well as contributions from the layer of particles on its surface generated

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during the cake filtration mode. A catalyst layer basically affects depth filtration, by reducing it, in favor of cake filtration, altering the microstructure of the filter wall. So the pressure drop of the ABD coated filter arises from the resistance that develops due to the filter wall, the soot/catalyst cake, and the soot inside the filter wall. However, the catalyst layer operates as a “cake filter” and the majority of the soot is deposited on that “filter” and not inside the wall pores. In this way the pressure drop that would derive from the deposition of soot particles inside the pores of the filter is eliminated and the overall pressure drop is reduced. The regeneration experiments involved exposure of the pre-loaded with soot filters (2 g/m2) to a synthetic exhaust (10 % O2 in N2) of a constant volume flow rate. A decrease in the soot oxidation temperature of about 65oC conditions was achieved by the best MOC formulation (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Comparison of the direct soot oxidation behavior of the MOC coated small-scale SiC wall-flow filters.

The Pt catalyst The Pt was incorporated into the catalyst layer upon the filter by the application of a washcoat and using a wet-chemistry technique, where the filter is impregnated into a solution of an appropriate Pt precursor. To optimize the performance of the catalyst a number of different washcoat materials, washcoat amounts and Pt loadings were used. Five catalyzed small-scale filter samples have been produced each with a different combination of washcoat material, washcoat amount and Pt loading. The candidate samples were evaluated with respect to the CO and HC conversion and NO to NO2 oxidation. The sample which exhibited the higher NO to NO2, CO and HC conversion was chosen in order to fix the type and amount of washcoat as well as the

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amount of Pt in the final recipe. This catalyzed filter sample contained 1 g/m2 (â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1.15 g/L) Pt. The barium oxide (BaO) The BaO was added to the MOC precursor solution and synthesized and deposited simultaneously with the MOC. Two quantities of the BaO were used: a moderate and a high one. The small-scale filter samples were loaded with soot up to 2 g/m2. The effect of the BaO quantity was not significant on the soot loading behavior. Subsequently the filters were tested regarding the soot oxidation activity in the presence of NO in the feed gas (indirect soot oxidation). A clear increase in the soot oxidation rate was maintained with the moderate quantity of the BaO. The high BaO loading resulted in a decrease in the soot oxidation rate compared to the sample without BaO. The advantage in the indirect soot oxidation rate caused by the increase in the NO2 availability by the BaO is lost in this case. A part of the direct (MOC) and the indirect (Pt) catalytic activity is lost due to the high amount of the BaO. Therefore a moderate amount of BaO was decided to be included into the final catalyst recipe. Small-scale MFR performance The performance of a small-scale filter sample catalyzed with the previously mentioned catalyst (labeled as Pt-MOC-BaO) was compared with the performance of a same size filter sample obtained from the SA DPF. The comparison was performed with respect to the soot loading behavior, the direct and the indirect soot oxidation rate and the clean filtration efficiency. The Pt-MOC-BaO catalyzed sample demonstrated lower pressure drop than the SA DPF sample. The evolution of the filtration efficiency as a function of the soot mass load for the catalyzed small-scale samples was also measured. Both filters attained excellent (>99%) filtration efficiencies after the first deep-bed filtration stage. Due to the fact that the deep-bed filtration mechanism is very limited for the Pt-MOC-BaO coated sample it attained >99% filtration efficiency more quickly than the SA DPF sample. The soot oxidation behavior of the Pt-MOC3-BaO coated filter was improved compared to the SA DPF sample, with the soot oxidation rate curve shifted to significantly lower temperatures (Figure 3). The regeneration tests were also performed in the presence of NO in the synthetic exhaust stream (indirect soot oxidation). The soot oxidation rate was significantly increased for the Pt-MOC- BaO catalyzed sample only at temperatures higher than 450oC where the direct soot oxidation mechanism dominates.

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Figure 3: Direct soot oxidation behavior of the Pt-MOC3- BaO coated SiC wall-flow small-scale filter and of a same size SA DPF sample.

The Full-Scale MFR Based on the above developments full-scale emission control prototypes (Multi-Functional Reactors, MFRs) were realized combining: filtration, internal heat recovery, soot and gas oxidation functions (Figure 1). Due to the internal heat recovery capability, the developed MFR demonstrated faster thermal response and more even in-filter temperature distributions during regeneration conditions compared to a standard filter designs. The employed catalyst synthesis and application technology consisting of a combination of aerosol based and wet chemistry techniques enabled the increase in the soot oxidation activity and filtration efficiency with respect to a reference state-of-the-art catalysed filter (SA DPF) without any adverse effects on the filter pressure drop. Moreover, the MFR demonstrated significant HC/CO oxidation activity while minimizing the NO2 emissions. Aging procedures applied on MFR prototypes did not result in losses in their catalytic activity and filtration efficiency. When compared to the SA DPF, the MFR indicated that significant economy can be achieved with respect to the fuel consumption related to filter operation (up to 45.2 % during NEDC driving conditions, Zarvalis et al., 2011, Figure 4). This gain comes from the fact that the developed catalyzed filter can be sufficiently regenerated at lower temperatures (e.g. 550 oC) than the SA DPF. Besides the fuel consumption gain, it is anticipated that additional advantages maybe realized such as less engine wear due to in cylinder oil-dilution during fuel post injection as well as enabling filter regeneration at lower engine load conditions.

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Figure 4. Left: the MFR prototype installed on engine bench. Right: Comparison of fuel penalty associated with the operation of the developed MFR and a state-of-the-art catalyzed DPF under different driving conditions.

MFR performance â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Alternative combustion(HCCI) In order to evaluate the MFR performance under HCCI exhaust conditions, the MFR was placed in the exhaust of a prototype engine within the framework of the project IPSY [18]. The engine was based on a conventional 4 cylinder, 2.2 L, Euro 4 Diesel engine. To achieve HCCI combustion (based on the Narrow Angle Direct Injection, NADIâ&#x201E;˘ concept), a new combustion chamber was realized with narrow injector cone angle, a prototype EGR circuit was used for high amount of recirculated gas and the compression ratio was reduced. The engine was operated at steady state HCCI conditions (2000 RPM and 2 bar). The evolution of the pressure drop with the soot mass load is shown in Figure 5. In the same graph the pressure drop of the MFR under equivalent conventional combustion conditions is also shown. Both tests have been performed under the same inlet filter temperature (230 C) and exhaust mass flow rate (65 kg/hr). The pressure drop curves perform differently in the first part of the graph (shaded part) because the initial conditions of the tests (engine warm-up) were different. For the rest part of the test, it can be seen that in both cases the filter demonstrated equivalent pressure drop behavior. The MFR demonstrates approximately the same slope in the pressure drop during the latter part of the soot loading test (cake filtration). It is well known that filter pressure drop is a function of the soot cake microstructure, which is sufficiently described in terms of the soot cake permeability ksoot and packing density

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ρsoot (or equivalently its porosity, ε) [16,17]. The slope of the linear (cake filtration) is determined by the flow resistance properties of the soot cake characterized by the product (ρ x k)soot . From Figure 5 it is evident that the product (ρ x k)soot is the same in both cases.

Figure 5: Comparison of MFR pressure drop behavior under HCCI and conventional combustion engine conditions

For the evaluation of the regeneration behavior the MFR was preloaded with 5 g/m2 of soot under the HCCI conditions described in the previous paragraph. After that, it was regenerated at constant temperatures 500, 550 and 600 oC. The same procedure was applied for the MFR preloaded with 5 g/m2 of soot under conventional combustion conditions. From the evolution of the pressure drop during the regeneration the soot oxidation rate was calculated as a function of temperature by employing previously developed mathematical models [14]. The results are illustrated in Figure 6. From Figure 6 it is evident that the soot oxidation rate is not affected by the type of the combustion conditions under which the soot was generated.

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Figure 6: Comparison of MFR soot oxidation rate under HCCI and conventional combustion engine conditions.

CONCLUSION Multifunctional reactors based on advanced catalyst synthesis and coating techniques as well as on advanced simulation and performance assessment techniques are able to move forward the Diesel engine emission control area towards low-cost, more efficient and more compact systems for the current and the future Diesel engines.

References Thring R.H., “Homogeneous- Charge Compression Ignition Engines”, SAE Tech Paper No. 892068, 1989. Ryan W., Callahan J., “Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition of Diesel Fuel”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 961160, 1996. Stanglmaier H., Roberts E., “Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI): Benefits, Compromises and Future Engine Applications”, SAE Tech Paper 1999-01-3682, 1999.

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Tsurushima T., Kunishima E., Asaumi Y., Aoyagi Y., Enomoto Y., “The Effect of Knock on Heat Loss in Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Engines”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2002-01-0108 (SP-1688), 2002. Hasegawa R., Yanagihara H., “HCCI Combustion in DI Diesel Engine”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2003-01-0745, 2003. Duret P., Gatellier B., Monteiro L., Miche M., Zima P., Blundell D., Zhao H., Maroteaux D., Guezet J., Spinnler F., Perotti M., Araneo L., ‘’Progress in Diesel HCCI Combustion within the European SPACE LIGHT Project”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2004-01-1904, 2004. Sun Y., Reitz R., “Adaptive Injection Strategies (AIS) for Ultra-Low Emissions Diesel Engines”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2008-01-0058, 2008. Ojeda W., Zoldak P., Espinosa R., “Development of a Fuel Injection Strategy for Diesel LTC”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2008-01-0057, 2008. Bohac S., Han M., Jacobs J., Lopez A., Assanis D. Szymkowicz P., “Speciated Hydrocarbon Emissions from an Automotive Diesel Engine and DOC utilizing Conventional and PCI Combustion”, SAE Tech Paper No. 200601-0201 (SP-2005), 2006. Dec J., Davisson M., Sjoeberg M., Leif R., Hwang W., “Detailed HCCI Exhaust Speciation and the Sources of Hydrocarbon and Oxygenated Hydrocarbon Emissions”, SAE Tech. Paper No, 2008-01-0053, 2008. Karadimitra K., Macheridou G., Papaioannou E., Konstandopoulos A.G., “Ceria Nanoparticle Coated Filters for Soot Emission Control”, Int. Cong. Particle Tech., PARTEC, Nuremberg 27-29 March, 135, 2001. Konstandopoulos A.G., Lorentzou S., Pagkoura C., Zygogianni A., Kastrinaki G., “Catalytic Nano-structured Materials for Next Generation Diesel Particulate Filters”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2008-01-0417, 2008. Konstandopoulos A.G., Boettcher J., Lorentzou S., Pagkoura C., “Advanced Catalyst Coatings for Diesel Particulate Filters”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2008-01-0483, 2008.Konstandopoulos A.G., Lorentzou S., Pagkoura C., Boettcher J., “Advanced Catalyst Coating Technology for Porous Substrates”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 200701- 7334, JSAE 20077334, 2007. Konstandopoulos A.G., Papaioannou E., Zarvalis D., Skopa S., Baltzopoulou P., Kladopoulou E., Kostoglou M., Lorentzou S., “Catalytic Filter Systems with Direct and Indirect Soot Oxidation Activity”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2005-01-0670 (SP-1942), 2005. Zarvalis D., Lorentzou Souzana, Konstandopoulos A. G., “A Methodology for the Fast Evaluation of the Effect of Ash Aging on the Diesel Particulate Filter Performance”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2009-01-0630, 2009. Konstandopoulos A.G., Skaperdas E., Masoudi M., “Microstructural Properties of Soot Deposits in Diesel Particulate Traps”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2002-01-1015 (SP-1673), 2002 Konstandopoulos A.G., Kostoglou M., Skaperdas E., Papaioannou E., Zarvalis D., Kladopoulou E., “Fundamental Studies of Diesel Particulate Filters: Transient Loading, Regeneration and Aging”, SAE Tech. Paper No. 2000-01-1016 (SP-1497), 2000. European FP6 Project “Innovative Particle Trap System for Future Diesel Combustion Concepts (IPSY)”, FP6SUSTDEV-031410, 2007-2009.

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Support effect towards Palladium particles stability during NO+H2+O2 reactions: comparison between Pd/ Al2O3 and Pd/LaCoO3 catalysts C. Dujardin*, J.P. Dacquin, P. Miquel, M. Trentesaux, P. Granger Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, Université de Lille 1, Sciences et Technologies, UMR CNRS 8181, Bâtiment C3, 59655 – Villeneuve d’Ascq Cedex, France

ABSTRACT Structural and surface properties of Pd/LaCoO3 and Pd/Al2O3 catalysts have been compared during activation of NO by hydrogen in lean conditions. Palladium species have been followed during quasi in situ conditions using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy analysis. KEYWORDS: NO, perovskite, palladium, operando, XPS _________________________________________________ * Corresponding author: Christophe Dujardin Phone number: +33 3 28 77 85 29 Fax number: +33 3 20 43 65 61 E. mail: christophe.dujardin@univ-lille1.fr

TITLE RUNNING HEAD

Nature of Pd species in the course of the NO+H2+O2 reaction

1. Introduction The use of reducible supports in the field of advanced NOx control technologies (elimination of NO, NO2 and N2O) is widely applied as three-way catalysts.1 Among reducible supports, ceria-zirconia and perovskite based catalysts exhibit high oxygen mobility2 and well established catalytic properties for NOx reduction into nitrogen.3,4,6 In the case of stationary sources, the catalyst should work at a lower temperature window and in the presence of excess oxygen. Recent investigations show that noble metal-

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supported perovskite catalysts can be potentially interesting for NOx reduction for stationary sources running under such lean conditions.3 Besides, interesting advantage of perovskite as a catalytic support material is in part due to its ability to stabilise noble metal dispersion such as palladium in the perovskite structure, hence paving the way to various applications.5,6 The stabilisation of noble metals on perovskite has been alternately explained by the existence of stronger metal/support interaction under reductive atmosphere as well illustrated by the occurrence of a preferential orientation of Pt(111) plans with the characteristics surface plans of the orthorhombic structure of LaFeO3.7 Such microstructures would be preserved under oxidative conditions further blocking the particle growth of Pt oxide clusters. The dynamic of structural changes of supported Pd particles on perovskite has been extensively reviewed. Guilhaume et al. show that restructuration of La2Cu1-xPdxO4 solids occurs under three-way reacting conditions and corresponds to the destruction of the initial mixed-oxide structure with formation of highly-dispersed metallic palladium.8 From this concept, Nishihata et al. develop a so-called “intelligent” catalyst having the self-regenerative function.9 It consists on the possibility for palladium species to migrate back and forth between the surface and the perovskite lattice depending on the surrounding atmosphere.10 Typically, sintering of palladium particle appears limited at high temperature when palladium particles are supported on LaFeO3 perovskite as compared to classical alumina support 11 due to the incorporation of Pd ions into the crystal structure of the perovskite. However, Rodriguez et al. recently report that the LaFe0.65Co0.3Pd0.05O3 perovskite formed above 600°C should be meta-stable up to 700°C. When increasing the temperature higher than 700°C, the perovskite is expected to decompose by segregation of Pd-ions to PdO.12 Structural changes of Pd particles in Pd/ LaFeO3 were also followed under periodic CO-NO fluctuations at 400°C. The authors revealed the formation of a stable oxidic layer prevented the dissociative adsorption of NO so that insertion of palladium in the perovskite framework in these conditions was not observed.13 Kim et al. demonstrated an alternative possibility to synthesize LaPdO3 with perovskite structure using high pressure conditions (5GPa, 1100°C) despite the instability of PdIII with respect to its disproportionation to PdII and PdIV.14,15 A distorted octahedral coordination associated with the distorted perovskite structure was thus reported in the case of Pd3+ in LaPdO3. In the case of cobalt-based perovskite, the higher reducibility of LaCoO3 than LaFeO3 induces significant consequences on the stability of noble metals nanoparticles.16 We previously reported surface and structural modifications of LaCoO3 and Pd-LaCoO3 catalysts occurring in the course of the reaction NO+H2 in lean conditions. From in-situ

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XPS investigation, we observed a dramatic increase in binding energy level of Pd 3d5/2 photopeak from 335.3 eV to 337.5 eV, highlighting the stabilisation of oxidic palladium species in a chemical environment different from that of PdO and PdO2.17 Such changes in the presence of oxygen impacted the catalytic properties during the reaction of NO by H2. While numerous spectroscopic studies were reported on palladium-supported on alumina catalysts18, to our knowledge, no direct comparison of the palladium chemical environment and metal-support interaction on reducible and non-reducible support was established in the literature at mild temperature (≤ 500°C). Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the nature and the evolution of palladium species in Pd-LaCoO3 and Pd-Al2O3 catalysts in lean conditions (NO+H2+O2). Structural and surface changes have been observed by in situ method using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS).

2. Experimental Section 2.1. Catalyst preparation The preparation procedure of LaCoO3 using a so-called sol–gel method involving a citrate route is described elsewhere.[11,12] After calcination at 600°C, LaCoO3 (20 m2.g-1) and g-Al2O3 (100 m2.g-1) are impregnated by a palladium nitrate solution with adjusted concentrations in order to obtain 1 wt.% Pd. The precursor thus obtained is calcined in air at 400°C.

2.2. XPS analysis

X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments (XPS) are performed using a Vacuum Generators Escalab 220XL spectrometer. A monochromatized Aluminum source (1486.6 eV, 15 kV, 20 mA) is used for excitation without any charge compensation (small distance between sample and source). In situ thermal activation treatments at atmospheric pressure are performed in a catalytic chamber coupled to the analyzer and samples are directly transferred in the analysis chamber under ultra high vacuum (~1010 Torr) for XPS analysis. All binding energies (BE) are adjusted with the C 1s core level (285 eV) as internal reference. The surface atomic ratios were calculated by correcting the intensity with theoretical sensitivity factors based on the Scofield cross-section.

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1. Results 1.1 Surface characterization by XPS analysis Surface characterisation was performed using XPS analysis. Pd 3d, Co 2p and N 1s photopeak signals were carefully examined after various in situ thermal treatments under controlled atmosphere.

1.1.1. Pd/Al2O3 catalyst Palladium evolution is first investigated on the non-reducible support (Figure 1.A). Pd 3d photopeak located at 336.4 eV has been evidenced on the freshly calcined Pd/Al2O3 and corresponds to the PdO phase generally reported at 336.2 eV. In order to activate the noble metal, a thermal treatment under hydrogen is performed at 250°C. After reduction, the binding energy (B.E.) shifts to lower values characteristic of the metallic oxidation state of palladium. Then, during temperature programmed reaction under NO+H2+O2, palladium oxidation on surface is observed in line with the progressive increase of the B.E. value and broadening of the photopeak.

Figure 1: XPS analysis of Pd 3d photopeak (A) and N1s photopeak (B) on calcined Pd/Al2O3 (a), after reduction at 250°C (b), and during the in-situ temperature programmed reaction under 0.15%NO+0.5%H2+3%O2 at 25°C (c), 300°C (d) and 500°C (e).

After NO+H2+O2 reaction at 500°C, a B.E. value close to the fresh Pd/Al2O3 is observed (336.6 eV) that presents only slight modification of the oxidic palladium phase at high temperature. Such modification might rise from nitrogen-containing surface

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species traces after reaction at 300°C and further evacuation at higher temperature under vacuum that could lead to Pd 3d photopeak perturbation. In parallel, relative atomic surface concentrations were calculated (Table 1). Surface atomic ratio of Pd/ Al decreases after reduction that is related to the increase of particle size of Pd that is usually reported for alumina support.16 During reaction under NO+H2+O2, the atomic ratio also progressively decreases from 0.017 to 0.006 and reflects the sintering effect of noble metal particles on non-reducible support at high temperature. Table 1: XPS measurements of 1 wt.% Pd/Al2O3 and 1 wt.% Pd/LaCoO3 during reduction and after successive steps of the reaction under 0.15% NO+0.5% H2+3%O2 at various temperatures Analysed step

Atomic quantification of Co

Atomic quantification of Pd

Atomic ratio (d)

FWHM of Pd 3d photopeak (eV)

%Pdn+

%Pd2+

%Pd0

(a)

(b)

(c)

Pd/Al

Co/La

Pd/La

-

-

100

-

0.012

-

-

2.7

-

-

-

-

100

0.009

-

-

2.9

-

-

-

44

-

66

0.017

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

49

39

0.008

-

-

3.8

-

-

-

0

72

28

0.006

-

-

2.6

Fresh Pd/ LaCoO3

100

-

-

100

-

-

-

0.55

0.016

2.4

Reduction 250°C

-

70

30

-

-

100

-

0.56

0.010

1.7

30

70

54

46

-

-

0.63

0.012

3.0

100

.

-

100

-

-

-

0.55

0.010

1.7

100

-

-

100

-

-

-

0.49

0.007

1.6

%Co3+

%Co2+

%Co0

Fresh Pd/ Al2O3

-

-

Reduction 250°C

-

Reaction 25°C, 30 min Reaction 300°C, 2h Reaction 500°C, 2h

Reaction 25°C, 30 min Reaction 300°C, 2h Reaction 500°C, 2h

a) B.E. 337 eV b) B.E. 336 eV c) B.E. 335 eV d) Accuracy ~20%

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1.1.2. Pd/LaCoO3 catalyst We focused our attention first on the consequences of this reductive thermal treatment for the support. The alumina support is known to be rather inert in such a condition whereas the LaCoO3 perovskite can be damaged during reduction at high temperature.19 Co 2p photopeak is followed during the sequential treatment (Figure 2 B). Initial Co 2p photopeak exhibits a binding energy (BE) value of 780 eV characteristic of Co3+ species in agreement with the observation of the typical shake-up structure of Co 2p at 789.5 eV. The reductive thermal treatment under H2 at 250째C leads the development of a shake-up structure at 785.6 eV characteristic of the formation of Co2+ species. The shift of the photopeak to lower BE values indicates the formation of Co0 species during the reduction. The atomic ratio of cobalt species is summarized in the Table 1. The superficial reduction of LaCoO3 perovskite after a H2 thermal treatment at 250째C is less extensive than on a previous study where H2 thermal treatment is performed at 500째C.22 The contact of the activated catalyst with the reaction mixture (NO+H2+O2) leads to the reoxidation of the cobalt species at room temperature. This reoxidation becomes complete after contacting the reaction mixture at 300째C with the observation of exclusively Co3+ species (spectra d-e). The reoxidation process can be explained either by the dissociation of NO or O2 onto the surface. This evolution underlines the fact that LaCoO3 perovskite can be considered as a reducible support in agreement with previous results from Royer et al.2 Hence the properties of LaCoO3 may influence the stabilisation of palladium species in comparison to an alumina support.

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Figure 2: XPS analysis of Pd 3d photopeak (A), Co 2p photopeak (B) and N1s photopeak (C) on calcined Pd/LaCoO3 (a), after reduction at 250°C (b), and during the in-situ temperature programmed reaction under 0.15%NO+0.5%H2+3%O2 at 25°C (c), 300°C (d) and 500°C (e).

After calcination, palladium oxide exhibits a photopeak at 337.3 eV that was previously reported by Giraudon et al20 on Pd/LaFeO3. Reduction of palladium nanoparticles leads to the decrease of Pd 3d binding energy value to 335 eV. The contact of the catalyst with the reaction mixture induces surface oxidation and the shift of Pd 3d photopeak accompanied with a broadening. After contact at 300°C during 2h, the photopeak becomes thinner that indicates a unique species for palladium oxidic species. Surface Pd/La atomic ratio decreases from 0.012 to 0.007 in these conditions that could be related to the partial insertion of palladium in the framework of the perovskite as previously proposed by several authors or a progressive change of palladium nanoparticles structure during PdO formation. In parallel, N1s photopeak presented in Figure 2C indicates that nitrogen strongly adsorbs at the surface of the

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solid even after vacuum treatment. At 25°C, nitrates and nitrites adsorbed species are respectively evidenced at 407.1 and 403.4 eV.17 Increases in temperature lead to the progressive removal of nitrite species but nitrate species still interact with surface sites even after reaction at 500°C and could suggest the increase of binding energy value of Pd 3d photopeak as observed. In fact, the consequences of a high temperature H2 thermal treatment were previously reported showing a slight surface reduction of cobalt atoms until 300°C and the destruction of the LaCoO3 perovskite structure at 500°C in the presence of pure H2. However the regeneration of LaCoO3 perovskite structure was previously evidence using in situ XRD and XPS measurements when the pre-reduced catalyst is contacted with reaction mixture in lean conditions.18 In these conditions, specific metal-support interaction could lead to changes of palladium morphology. Nishihata et al confirm that as the catalyst is cycled between oxidative and reductive atmospheres, palladium atoms reversibly move into and out of the perovskite lattice. This movement appears to suppress the growth of metallic Pd particles when palladium is supported on perovskite.8

2. Conclusions The comparison of Pd/Al2O3 and Pd/LaCoO3 catalysts shows the effect of a reductive support towards the properties of palladium particles. During reaction conditions, changes in selectivity and activity occur. Palladium particles supported on alumina become partly oxidised as PdO phase at intermediate temperature below 300°C during the selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrogen. Unusual binding energy of Pd3d photopeak is observed on perovskite support as compared to Pd/Al2O3. The evolution of surface Pd/La atomic ratio suggests in these conditions that Palladium can be inserted in the framework of the perovskite.

3. Acknowledgment

J.P. D. and P.M. thank the ADEME and Renault for their grant respectively.

References (Endnotes) A. Fritz, V. Pitchon, Applied Catal. B, 13 (1997) 1. S. Royer, D. Duprez, S. Kaliaguine, Catal. Today 112 (2006) 99.

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C.N. Costa, V.N. Stathopoulos, V.C. Belessi, A.M. Efstathiou, J. Catal. 197 (2001) 350. M. Engelmann-Pirez, P. Granger, L. Leclercq, G. Leclercq, Topics in Catal. Vols 30/31 (2004) 59. M. D. Smith, A. F. Stepan, C. Ramarao, P. E. Brennan S. V. Ley, Chem. Commun., 2003, 2652 – 2653. I. Tan, H. Tanaka, M. Uenishi, N. Kajita, M. Taniguchi, Y. Nishihata, J. Mizuki, SAE 2003-01-0812 J.P. Dacquin, M. Cabié, C.R. Henry, C. Lancelot, C. Dujardin, S.R. Raouf, P. Granger, Journal of Catalysis 270, 2010, 299-309 N. Guilhaume, S. D. Peter, M. Primet, Appl. Catal. B, 10 (1996) 325-344 Y. Nishihata, J. Mizuki, T. Akao, H. Tanaka, M. Uenishi, M. Kimura, T. Okamoto, N. Hamada, Nature, 418 (2002) 164-167 H. Tanaka, I. Tan, M. Uenishi, M. Kimura, K. Dohmae, Topics in Catalysis, 16/17 (2001) 63-70. H. Tanaka, M., Uenishi, M. Taniguchi, I. Tan, K. Narita, M. Kimura, K. Kaneko, Y. Nishihata, J. Mizuki, Catal. Today 117 (2006) 321 G. C. Mondragón Rodríguez, R. Ochrombel, B. Saruhan: J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28 (2008) 2611–2616 D. Matsumura, Y. Okajima, Y. Nishihata, J. Mizuki, M. Taniguchi, M. Uenishi, H. Tanaka, Journal of Physics: Conference Series 190 (2009) 012154 S.-J. Kim, S. Lemaux, G. Demazeau, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Choy, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 123 (2001) 1041-10414 S.-J. Kim, S. Lemaux, G. Demazeau, J.-Y. Kim, J.-H. Choy, Journal of material chemistry, 12 (2002) 995-1000 I. Twagirashema, M. Frere, L. Gengembre, C. Dujardin, P. Granger, Topics in Catalysis, 42-43 (2007) 171-176 I Twagirashema, M. Engelmann-Pirez, M. Frere, L. Burylo, L. Gengembre, C. Dujardin, P. Granger, Catal. Today, 119 (2007) 100-105 E. Lesage-Rosenberg, G. Vlaic, H. Dexpert, P. Lagarde, E Freund, Applied Catalysis 22 (1986) 211-219 C. Dujardin, I. Twagirashema, P. Granger J. Phys. Chem. C, 112 (2008) 17183-17192 J.-M. Giraudon, A. Elhachimi, G. Leclercq, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental 84 (2008) 251–261

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Understanding the Mechanism of H2-SCR Through the Use of Transient Isotopic Techniques Angelos M. Efstathiou

Heterogeneous Catalysis Laboratory, Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1678, Cyprus

ABSTRACT This Keynote Lecture addressed the most essential mechanistic aspects of H2SCR on supported-Pt catalysts using the SSITKA-MS, SSITKA-DRIFTS and other transient isotopic experiments. In particular, answers regarding the chemical nature and surface concentration of active NOx intermediates, the origin of volcano-type activity profile vs temperature, and the role of gaseous oxygen were provided.

INTRODUCTION Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with ammonia (NH3) under strongly oxidizing conditions (NH3-SCR) was first introduced in 1973 [1, 2]. Since then, NH3SCR is a widely practiced industrial NOx control technology with a total capacity of more than 70 GW in both Japan and Germany [2], and with more than 130 SCR units (>30,000 m3 of catalyst) retrofitted in power plants in Europe and US between 1987 and 1996 by Siemens alone [3]. However, several problems are still encountered in the use of NH3-SCR technology with the current catalysts (e.g., V2O5-WO3/TiO2), namely: catalyst deactivation, NH3-slip (emissions of non reacted toxic ammonia), ash odor, air heaters fouling, and high running cost [2,4]. The problem of catalyst deactivation strongly depends on the type of fuel used, the combustion of which produces several unwanted contaminant species (e.g., Hg, Cl, S, K, etc) [5,6]. The heatersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; fouling is mainly associated with the formation of ammonium bisulfate (NH4HSO4) [7] and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) (low temperature NH3-SCR) [8]. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx present in industrial flue gas streams at low-temperatures (T<200oC) has many advantages over that implemented at higher temperatures (T>200oC). For example, placement of the de-NOx catalyst after the electrostatic solid precipitator unit implies that the partially cleaned flue gas stream from dust would require less soot blowing and catalyst cleaning, thus providing longer catalyst lifetime. Furthermore, low-temperature SCR process reduces both investment and running costs since the SCR unit can be located at the end of the stack gas train (low-

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temperature region), thus minimizing the need to run ducting from a high-temperature region and return the flue gas to the stack gas train. Also, much less reheating of the flue gas from the deSOx to the deNOx-SCR unit would be required [1, 2, 9]. In many cases, current NH3-SCR process technology must be located in places within the process for which the produced flue gas has to be purified, near 300-400oC. However, retrofit of the NH3-SCR unit into these locations in the plant is costly and faces space limitations. Therefore, new low-temperature SCR catalysts working at around 150-200oC can be located downstream of the particulate control device, near the stack. This allows new low-temperature H2-SCR units to retrofit large industrial utility boilers and installations firing natural gas or refinery fuel gas that make use of the NH3-SCR technology. Successful industrial low-temperature SCR catalysts must be active and stable in the presence of H2O, CO2 and SOx in the flue gas stream, the composition of which would be dependent on the fuel used. Low-temperature NH3-SCR catalysts (180-240oC) are currently used in some industrial applications [10, 11]. However, besides the general problems associated with the NH3-SCR of NOx technology used in stationary applications [2, 4], as mentioned in the previous paragraphs, the main disadvantage of the low-temperature NH3-SCR is its susceptibility to ammonium bisulphate (NH4HSO4) precipitation when SOx are present in the flue gas stream, and also the formation of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), which is thermally stable at T<250oC [8]. Apart from the problems faced by the current NH3-SCR of NOx technology previously described, and which requires the urgent development of new SCR catalysts, the use of green technologies that would lead to the reduction of NOx emissions without further polluting the environment demand the finding of suitable non-carboncontaining reducing agents for the catalytic elimination of NOx from industrial flue gas streams at low temperatures (T<200oC) with reduced running and investment costs. The selective removal of nitric oxides from a flue gas by the use of molecular hydrogen (reducing agent) in the presence of large amounts of oxygen via a chemical reduction step is not new, since it is one of the main chemical reactions occurring in the complex catalytic chemistry of â&#x20AC;&#x153;three-wayâ&#x20AC;? catalysts [12]. However, the use of hydrogen as a reducing agent to eliminate NOx (H2-SCR) present in strongly oxidizing (>2 vol% O2) exhaust gas streams is relatively new. Most of the information related to H2-SCR of NOx has been published in the journal literature during the last 15 years [13-46], and patents depicting the significance of the H2-SCR technology have been reported [4750].

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MECHANISTIC ASPECTS oF H2-SCR Recent research from our laboratory [19, 21, 25, 33-35, 44] has demonstrated that industrial H2-SCR of NO at 130-180 oC is possible over a Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. Until the complete transition to a hydrogen economy and zero greenhouse gas emissions are achieved, H2-SCR may be considered as a breakthrough NOx control technology over the currently used NH3-SCR approach. The effects of reaction temperature on the chemical structure and surface concentration of active and inactive (spectator) NOx intermediate species in the H2-SCR of NO under working reaction conditions at 120-300 oC, and the role of gaseous oxygen in the reaction mechanistim are described as determined by SSITKA-DRIFTS, SSITKA-MS, transient isothermal, and temperatureprogrammed surface reaction in H2 (H2-TPSR) experiments performed over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. The results provide insight into the volcano-type profile of reaction rate and NO conversion versus reaction temperature (XNO vs T) observed. The effect of H2 and O2 feed composition on the NO conversion and N2-selectivity of reaction is also described [44].

1. The Volcano-type behavior Fig. 1 presents the effect of Pt loading in the 0.1-2.0 wt% range and of reaction temperature in the 100-400 oC range on the specific (per gram of Pt) integral reaction rate of N2 production. The increase of Pt loading, which is accompanied by an increase of Pt particle size resulted in a large decrease in the specific integral rate of N2 production (μmol.g-1.s-1). In particular, more than 20 times larger integral rates were obtained over the 0.1 wt% Pt compared το the 2 wt% Pt/50wt%MgΟ-CeO2 catalyst. The former catalyst showed also high N2 selectivities between 82 and 97% in the 100-400 oC range. It should be noted here that comparison of the activity of the present supported-Pt catalysts in terms of TOF (s-1) would not be appropriate, since a bifunctional catalysis is operative for the present reaction system [19, 26, 35]. It was found that the active NOx reaction intermediate species are populated on the support surface, in the vicinity of Pt particles, where the main role of Pt is to provide active atomic hydrogen species by a spillover mechanism for NOx reduction. The volcano-type behavior of the NO conversion versus temperature profile (Fig. 1) observed in many previous studies of H2-SCR of NO over supported-Pt catalysts [19, 21, 25, 26] could also be the result of the strong competition between the rate of hydrogen combustion and that of NO reduction by H2. The ratios of H2/NO and H2/ O2 in the gas phase is expected to determine the surface coverage of important active intermediate species (e.g., H, NOx) and the surface oxidation state of Pt. As reaction

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temperature increases, optimum values of such parameters seem to exist, resulting in an optimum rate for the conversion of NO into N2. The temperature-window of operation (Î&#x201D;T), and the temperature at which maximum conversion of NO was achieved (Fig. 1) depends also on the different reactivity of active NOx formed on each supported-Pt catalyst, and their surface coverage with reaction temperature [51].

Figure 1: Effect of Pt loading (wt%) and reaction temperature on the specific per gram of Pt integral rate of N2 formation over the x wt% Pt/50wt%MgO-CeO2 catalyst. Feed composition: H2= 1.0 vol%, NO= 0.25 vol%, O2= 5 vol%; W=0.15g; GHSV=80,000 h-1.

2. The Chemical structure of active and inactive adsorbed NO x The chemical structure of the active NOx species that truly participate in the nitrogen reaction path of the H2-SCR of NO as a function of reaction temperature in the 120-300 ÎżC range was studied by SSITKA experiments in a DRIFTS cell, which was operated as a differential microreactor. DRIFTS spectra were first recorded after 30 min of reaction in the 14NO/H2/O2 gas mixture. The reaction feed stream was then switched to the equivalent isotopic 15NO/H2/O2 gas mixture, and DRIFTS spectra were recorded after 30 min of reaction (new steady state). The spectra obtained at 120 oC over 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst are presented in Figs. 2a-c. The spectra shown are after deconvolution and curve fitting associated with the 14NO/H2/O2 reaction, along with the IR band that gave the red isotopic shift under the 15NO/H2/O2 reaction conditions (dashed-line after deconvolution and curve-fitting procedures). The IR bands that shifted to lower wavenumbers under the isotopic switch correspond to active adsorbed NOx intermediates formed during the 14NO/H2/O2 reaction that eventually led to N2

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and N2O, whereas those that did not give the red isotopic shift correspond to inactive (spectator) adsorbed NOx species. The SSITKA-DRIFTS results allow us to demonstrate the true location of the active NOx species- for example, whether they are formed on the metal (Pt) or the support surface. This important result is strongly supported by the SSITKA-MS studies (see following section), allowing for the quantification of the true active NOx intermediate species. The concentration of the latter species was found to be largely in excess of a monolayer based on the exposed Pt metal surface. The observed shift from 1250 to 1210 cm-1 (Fig. 2a) can be assigned to the asymmetric or the symmetric vibrational mode of bidentate or monodentate nitrate formed on the MgO support [35, 51]. A similar SSITKA-DRIFTS experiment as that shown in Fig. 2 was performed on 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO and 0.1 wt% Pt/CeO2 catalysts, with the observed isotopic shifts assigned to different active adsorbed NOx species [35, 51]. In Fig. 2b the observed shift from 1560 to 1535 cm-1 is assigned to the N-O stretching vibrational mode of bidentate nitrate or the asymmetric mode of monodentate nitrate, the same NOx species giving the red isotopic shift from 1250 to 1210 cm-1 shown in Fig. 2a. The results of Figs. 2a and 2b indicate the accuracy of the spectral analysis, illustrating that all vibrational modes of a given NOx adsorbed species assumed to be active are expected to give the red isotopic shift. Separation of the aforementioned two IR nitrate bands was found to increase with bidentate nitrates compared to monodentate nitrates. There is a discussion in the literature [52] about the nature of NOx species observed in the 2300-2100 cm-1 range. The N2O(g) molecular species has a stretching N-N vibrational mode at 2224 cm-1, practically the same as that shown in Fig. 2c. Previously, we reported that under the present experimental conditions and in the DRIFTS cell used, it was impossible for this IR band to be due to gaseous N2O [35, 51]. Furthermore, we report here that the isotopic shift for the N-N bond would be expected to be about 75 cm-1 [52], as opposed to the observed shift of about 40 cm-1 (Fig. 2c). NO+ and NO2+ adsorbed species on metal oxide surfaces also gave IR bands in the 2200-2100 cm-1 range. In Fig. 2c, the observed IR band shift from 2220 to 2180 cm-1 is assigned to nitrosyl (NO+) co-adsorbed with a nitrate (NO3-) species on adjacent metal cation-oxygen anion site pair of the CeO2 support surface [35, 51].

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Figure 2: Deconvolution and curve fitting of SSITKA-DRIFTS spectra recorded at 120 oC in the H2-SCR of NO over 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst in the spectral region (a)1410-1150 cm-1, (b) 1570-1410 cm-1, and (c) 2450-2000 cm-1.

Based on the SSITKA-DRIFTS results (at T= 120 oC) presented in Figs 2a-c, other IR bands due to adsorbed NOx did not give the red isotopic shift of the N-O stretching vibrational mode. Although these species were formed under H2-SCR reaction conditions, they did not participate in the reaction pathways to form N2 and N2O. For example, the IR bands recorded at 1370 and 2360 cm-1 (Figs. 2a and 2c, respectively) correspond to adsorbed NO2+ on the support (MgO and CeO2), whereas the IR band at 2120 cm-1 corresponds to another kind of inactive nitrosyl (NOδ+ and/ or NO2δ+) species on the MgO and/or CeO2 support. Other inactive adsorbed species identified included chelating nitrite (NO2-) (1370 cm-1; Fig. 2a) and nitritos (1465 cm-1; Fig. 2b). We recently provided strong evidence that reduction of active NOx formed within a region near the metal-support interface of the present H2-SCR catalytic system

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proceeds through an H-spillover process, with Pt providing the H-spilt species [35, 51]. But these H-spilt species cannot diffuse a long distance away from the Pt clusterssupport periphery, according to results of transient DRIFTS-H2 experiments. As a result, the structurally similar NOx species appear to be active and inactive intermediates. Based on this fact, two IR bands at 1250 cm-1 (Fig. 2a) and 2220 cm-1 (Fig. 2c) were used in the deconvolution and curve-fitting procedures of the IR spectrum obtained under the 14NO/H2/O2 gas mixture. As the reaction temperature of H2-SCR was increased to 300 oC, an additional NOx adsorbed species of different structure appeared to be an active reaction intermediate (Fig. 3). The observed IR band shifts (1320 to 1300 cm-1 and 1170 to 1140 cm-1) correspond more closely to the asymmetric (va) and symmetric (vs) N-O2 stretch of the chelating nitrite (NO2-) species. It should be noted that this pair of IR bands, which provided a red isotopic shift (Fig. 3), appears to correspond only to the chelating nitrite species. It is also important to note that the bidentate or monodentate nitrate species (1250 and 1560 cm-1, Fig. 2) that appeared to be active species formed at 120 o C on MgO were not active at 300â&#x2014;ŚC, as indicated by the absence of an observable red isotopic shift in that region. On the other hand, nitrosyl (NO+) co-adsorbed with a nitrate (NO3-) species on adjacent metal cation-oxygen anion site pair of the CeO2 support surface still appeared to be an active reaction intermediate at 300 oC (IR band red shift from 2220 to 2180 cm-1). The observed IR bands at 1380/1210 and 1245 cm-1 correspond to chelating nitrite, bidentate, and/or monodentate nitrate species, which are considered inactive NOx intermediates. These species cannot be reached by the H-spilt species from the Pt to the support surface to become reduced, as discussed in more detail later.

Figure 3: Deconvolution and curve fitting of SSITKA-DRIFTS spectra recorded at 300 oC in the H2-SCR of NO over 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst in the spectral region 1420-1100 cm-1.

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Figure 4 presents IR bands in the 1450–1150 (Fig. 4a) and 2300–2150 cm-1 (Fig. 4b) ranges recorded during transient isothermal reaction in H2 experiments of adsorbed NOx formed after steady-state H2-SCR of NO at 120 oC. These experiments were designed to explore whether all or part of the adsorbed NOx that is identified as an active reaction intermediate (see Figs. 2 and 3) and resides on the MgO and CeO2 supports can be reduced by hydrogen. Based on the concentration (μmol/g) of active NOx reaction intermediates measured by SSITKA-MS experiments, the Pt mean particle size (1.3 nm), and the average number of M-O pairs per nm2 (based on MgO and CeO2 crystallographic data), assuming a hemispherical geometry for the Pt nanoparticles, and considering that for every surface M-O pair (M=Ce4+, Mg2+) corresponds one active adsorbed NOx species, it is possible to estimate the radius of the ring around each Pt nanoparticle, within which active NOx are located. On the average, the active NOx (13.5 μmol/g) were formed within about a 4-5 Å radius around each Pt nanoparticle (see Scheme 1), at most two lattice constants (referred to MgO and CeO2 supports) away from the Pt-support interface. For the present H2-SCR on Pt/MgO-CeO2, H diffusion on Pt in the 120-160°C range (partially reduced Pt surface) appears to be not difficult; however, H migration on the support (MgO and CeO2) surface will become energetically difficult beyond a distance of ~ 5 Å from the Pt nanoparticles (see Scheme 1).

Figure 4: In situ DRIFTS spectra recorded in the 1450-1150 cm-1 (a) and 2300-2150 cm-1 (b) range under transient isothermal reaction in H2 following H2-SCR at 120°C. Spectra recorded after 1, 5 and 10 min in 10%H2/He stream are shown.

The fraction of the NOx species that were identified as active reaction intermediates (Figs. 2 and 3) and that reacted with hydrogen under the transient

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isothermal DRIFTS experiments shown in Fig. 4 could be estimated based on the ratio of the integral IR band associated with the given NOx species after 10 min in 10% H2/ He gas stream to the integral IR band at the start of the experiment (before reaction with the 10%H2/He gas mixture). Fig. 5 presents the percentage of NOx pool formed after 30 min of H2-SCR at a given reaction temperature (120-400°C) over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst reacted with hydrogen during 10 min in 10% H2/He after H2SCR (Fig. 4). It can be seen that for bidentate or monodentate nitrate (1250 cm-1) and nitrosyl (NO+) coadsorbed with a nitrate (NO3-) species (2220 cm-1), the percentage of active NOx changed only slightly with reaction temperature. In contrast, chelating nitrites (1320 cm-1) become active at about 200°C, and their surface concentration accessible to hydrogen reduction remains practically constant at 200-400°C. These results are in harmony with the subsequent SSITKA-MS experimental results, in which the concentration (μmol/g) of all active NOx leading to N2 was accurately measured.

Figure 5: Percentage (%) of NOx pool corresponding to bidentate or monodentate nitrate (IR band at 1250 cm-1), chelating nitrite (IR band at 1320 cm-1) and nitrosyl (NO+) co-adsorbed with nitrate (NO3-) on adjacent metal cation-oxygen anion site-pair of the CeO2 support (IR band at 2220 cm-1) that react in 10%H2/He gas mixture as a function of reaction temperature in the H2-SCR of NO over the 0.1 wt% Pt/ MgO-CeO2 catalyst.

3. Estimation of the concentration of active intermediate species The surface concentration (μmol/g) and the surface coverage, θ (based on the surface Pt atoms), of the active reaction intermediate NOx species of H2-SCR in the 120300°C range was accurately measured by SSITKA-MS. Fig. 6 shows transient response curves of the di-nitrogen isotopic 14N2 and 14N15N species obtained after the switch

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NO/H2/O2 (200oC, 30 min) →14NO/H2/O2 (200 oC, t). The results are expressed in terms of the dimensionless concentration Z, which corresponds to the fraction of the ultimate change (giving Z=0) as a function of time, t. The decay of Ar gas concentration shown in Fig. 6 was used to monitor the gas phase holdup of the system [53]. The 14N15N species is the main one; little 14N2 was seen, because the amount (μmol/g) of 14N2(g) is proportional to the area difference between the Ar and 14N2 transient response curves [53]. As shown in Fig. 6, two rate maxima appeared at 200°C (tm1= 23 s and tm2= 54 s), which reflects the different reduction kinetics of the two active NOx species present, the nature of which was identified by SSITKA-DRIFTS experiments and it was found to depend on reaction temperature. 14

The concentration of active NOx that truly participate in the reaction path to form N2 was estimated by integrating the transient response curves of 14N15N and of 14 N2 with respect to the Ar curve (Fig. 6). Fig. 7a presents the results obtained in terms of μmol/g of catalyst or surface coverage (θ) as a function of reaction temperature. The surface coverage θ is referred to the exposed surface Pt atoms (μmol Pts/g). Values of θ greater than unity indicate that at least part of the estimated active NOx cannot reside on Pt. For the present catalytic system, according to the DRIFTS-SSITKA results, all of the active NOx reside on the support (vicinity of Pt-support interface, Scheme 1). Fig. 7a illustrates that in the 120-300οC range θ takes values significantly larger than unity, between 2.3 and 2.7 (θmax=2.7 at 140 οC). On the other hand, it should be noted that these differences are small. Therefore, the concentration of active NOx stays practically constant in the 120-300οC range.

Figure 6: Transient response curves of 14N2, 14N15N and Ar obtained during SSITKA-MS experiments (14NO/H2/O2/Ar/He → 15NO/H2/O2/He) at 200 °C over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst.

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Scheme 1: Hydrogen diffusion on the MgO and CeO2 support surfaces is limited to a region (circle in dashed-line) of about 4-5 Ă&#x2026; radius around the Pt nanoparticles. NOx reaction intermediates of the H2-SCR identified as active species by SSITKA-DRIFTS experiments are located within the marked dashed-line circle, whereas those located outside of it are considered as inactive reaction intermediates.

Fig. 7b presents the intrinsic kinetic rate (Îźmol/g.s) of N2 formation as a function of reaction temperature estimated under steady-state reaction conditions in the 14NO/H2/O2 feed gas stream before the isotopic switch to the equivalent 15NO/H2/ O2 gas mixture was made (Fig. 6). It is also shown the corresponding H2 conversion obtained versus the reaction temperature. It can be seen that the kinetic rate of H2-SCR passed through a maximum in a temperature range where the conversion of H2 was < 40%. The volcano-type behavior of the kinetic reaction rate (Fig. 7b) was similar to that obtained for the NO conversion versus reaction temperature reported in previous works [25, 33, 34]. According to the results shown in Figs. 7a and 7b, the appearance of a maximum in the profile of kinetic rate of N2 formation versus the reaction temperature cannot be attributed to a compensatory increase in the rate constant with increasing reaction temperature, and a simultaneous decrease in the surface concentration of active NOx that led to N2 formation. Obviously, other intrinsic kinetic factors are responsible for the volcano-type behavior of the reaction rate versus temperature. One such reason is the fact that the rate of NOx reduction must depend on the surface coverage of H on the support (-OH) at the vicinity of NOx, the latter being a function of temperature, and likely affected by the diffusion kinetics of H from the Pt to the support sites.

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Figure 7: (a) Concentration (μmol/g) and surface coverage (θ) of active NOx that lead to N2 formation as a function of reaction temperature in H2-SCR estimated from SSITKA-MS experiments performed over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. (b) Kinetic rate (μmol/g.s) of N2 formation and H2 conversion (XH2, %) as a function of reaction temperature during steady state H2-SCR of NO.

Figure 8 presents transient response curves of 14NO and 14N15N gaseous species obtained under H2-TPSR (10%H2/He flow) over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst according to the gas switches: 14NO/H2/O2/Ar/He (30 min, 120 oC ) → 15NO/He (15 min, 120 oC ) → He, cool down quickly to 25 oC → 10%H2/He (TPSR). A broad 14NO desorption response curve comprising two distinct peaks was observed at 30-250°C, along with a 14 15 N N peak centered at 115°C with a small shoulder at the rising part of it. The formation of 14N15N(g) can be explained by considering that two adjacent adsorbed NOx species formed under the 14NO/H2/O2 reaction, one of which was exchanged with gaseous 15NO (under the 15NO/He treatment of the catalyst), were reduced in a coupling mode to eventually form di-nitrogen 14N15N species. We suggested that the two NOx species participating in the formation of 14N15N are the NO+ (nitrosyl) and NO3- (nitrate) coadsorbed on adjacent metal cation-oxygen anion site pair of the CeO2 support surface. The exchangeable adsorbed 14NOx species with gaseous 15NO is that of 14NO+ (nitrosyl), whereas the non-exchangable one is that of 14NO3- (nitrate). An alternative explanation for the appearance of 14N15N response curve in the H2-TPSR of Fig. 8 could be that the exchangeable 14NOx species (labeled 15NOx) diffused toward a non-exchangeable species (labeled 14NOx) during H2-TPSR, with simultaneous reduction/coupling to form 14N15N(g) and H2O. This explanation is difficult to accept, however, because the two active NOx species identified for the present H2-SCR catalytic system were not located on the same solid surface. Earlier, we clearly demonstrated that the first active NOx species is located in the vicinity of the Pt-MgO interface, with the other located in the vicinity of the Pt-CeO2 interface (see Scheme 1). Therefore, diffusion of the first NOx species from ceria particles to reach the second NOx species on MgO particles, or vice versa, to become reduced in the presence of hydrogen is

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much less likely than the coupling/reduction of two adjacent NOx on the same surface, as suggested previously.

Figure 8: Transient response curves of 14NO and 14N15N gaseous species obtained during H2-TPSR (10%H2/ He flow) according to the sequence: 14NO/H2/O2/Ar/He (30 min, 120 oC )→15NO/He (15 min, 120 oC ) → He, cool down quickly to 25 oC → 10%H2/He over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst.

4. The role of gaseous oxygen in H2-SCR The role of gaseous oxygen present in the reaction feed stream (NO/H2/O2) on the mechanism of H2-SCR was investigated after performing SSITKA-MS experiments with the use of 18O2 in order to trace the “oxygen path” due to gaseous oxygen only. Fig. 9 presents transient response curves of N216O and Ar obtained on Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst after the switch NO/H2/16O2/Ar/He ® NO/H2/18O2/He was made at 140 oC. As seen in Fig. 9, the concentration of N216O produced does not change after the isotopic switch, while at the same time no evolution of N218O was noticed. A completely different result was obtained in the case of Pt/SiO2 and Pt/La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 catalysts [26], where the concentration of N216O was reduced after the isotopic switch, while a continuous evolution of N218O was noticed. The latter results strongly indicate that gaseous O2 participates toward N2O formation in the H2-SCR of NO in the case of Pt/SiO2 and Pt/ La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 but not in the case of Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. These results reveal a strong support effect on the oxygen path of reaction towards N2O formation. It was found that on Pt/SiO2 about 17% of the total oxygen (O atoms) participating in the reaction path of N2O formation originated from gas-phase oxygen, whereas the rest of it originated from the NO reactant molecule. On the contrary, the respective percentage over the Pt/La0.5Ce0.5MnO3 catalyst was found to be twice as small. As previously mentioned, the active intermediate NOx species that lead to the formation of N2 and N2O during H2-SCR

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of NO over Pt/SiO2 are Pt-NOδ+ and Pt-NO3. [26]. The latter is formed after oxidation of adsorbed NO on Pt [26]. On the contrary, the active intermediate NOx species that lead to the formation of N2 and N2O over Pt/MgO-CeO2 are formed on MgO and CeO2 support surfaces. It is important to state here that formation of NO2 on the present catalyst is selectively reduced to N2 as implied by the isotopic results of Fig. 9.

Figure 9: Transient response curves of Ν2O and Ar obtained following the isotopic switch NO/H2/16O2/ Ar/He → NO/H2/18O2/He at 140 oC over the 0.1 wt % Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. No N218O gas formation was observed. Feed gas composition: H2 = 1.0 vol%, NO = 0.25 vol%, O2 = 2 vol%, Ar = 1vol%, He as balance gas.

5. The effect of hydrogen feed concentration Fig. 10 presents the effect of hydrogen concentration (x= 0.2-0.8 vol%) in the feed stream consisting of 150 ppm NO/x vol% H2/2 vol% O2/He on the catalytic activity in terms of NO conversion (XNO, %) and N2-selectivity (SN2, %) in the 120-180 oC range and at a GHSV of 33,000 h-1. It is clearly observed that when the hydrogen feed concentration is about 2000 ppm (H2/NO=13.3), even though the NO conversion is relatively high, N2-selectivities are only in the 65-77% range. It is useful to mention here that practical use of H2-SCR of NOx requires NO conversion and N2-selectivity values larger than 90%, whereas appropriate hydrogen feed concentrations is expected to be determined based on the economics of the given H2-SCR industrial application. It is clear, however, that the lower the hydrogen feed concentration the better the economics of the given de-NOx process to be expected. Very high NO conversions (>97%) and N2-selectivities in the 83-93% range are observed in the whole 120-180 oC range after using 0.8 vol% H2 in the feed stream.

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In explaining the effect of hydrogen feed concentration on XNO (%) and SN2 (%) the combustion of hydrogen as well as the oxidation state of Pt under the different H2/ O2 ratios prevailing in the gas-phase above the catalyst surface must be considered. The extent of hydrogen dissociation step [H2(g)+2s ↔ 2H-s] on the Pt surface is expected to be determined by the available concentration of Pt0 surface sites, the gas-phase hydrogen concentration, and the reaction temperature. The available concentration of Pt0 surface sites under reaction conditions will then be determined by the extent of surface Pt oxidation caused mainly by the presence of oxygen in the feed stream, but also by the adsorbed NOx reaction intermediates on Pt, the latter found not to be active intermediates but inactive (spectator) species [35, 51]. The gas-phase hydrogen concentration along the catalyst bed is strongly influenced by the rate of hydrogen combustion, which is proportional to the reaction temperature, and the hydrogen and oxygen gas composition. All the above remarks are made in order to point out that the rate of reduction of active NOx to N2 or N2O will be influenced by the surface concentration of H (θH) on Pt, thus the N2-selectivity as well. Considering the fact that the active NOx are formed on the Pt-MgO and Pt-CeO2 interface [35, 51], the rate of H spillover from Pt to the Pt-support interface becomes important. The latter is expected to be influenced by θH, θNOx (inactive) and other adsorbed intermediates on Pt, that could impose energy barriers for surface diffusion, and the reaction temperature. Figure 10: Effect of hydrogen feed composition (0.2-0.8 vol%) and reaction temperature (120-180 oC) on the (a) XNO (%) and (b) SN2 (%) of the H2-SCR over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. GHSV = 33,000 h-1;

Feed gas composition: 150 ppm NO/x vol% H2/2 vol% O2/He.

6. The effect of oxygen feed concentration

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Fig. 11 presents the effect of oxygen feed concentration (x= 0.0-10.0 vol%) in the feed stream consisting of 150 ppm NO/0.7 vol% H2/x vol% O2/He on the catalytic performance (XNO, SN2 and XH2) of 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 solid at 140  oC (Fig. 11a) and 180 oC (Fig. 11b) and for a GHSV of 22,000 h-1. Similar XNO vs. vol% O2 and XH2 vs. vol% O2 profiles are observed at both reaction temperatures, where a monotonic but slight decrease of XNO with increasing vol% O2 feed concentration in the 0-10 vol% range is observed. The XH2 vs. vol% O2 profile passes through a maximum (volcano-type) at a value between 2 and 3 vol% O2 in the feed. However, the N2-selectivity versus vol% O2 feed composition profile was found to strongly depend on reaction temperature. At 140  oC, maximum N2-selectivitry (ca. 93%) is observed at 2 vol% O2, while a minimum N2-selectivity (ca. 64%) is observed at 5 vol% O2 in the feed stream (Fig. 11). Remarkably, at the high oxygen feed concentration range of 5-10  vol%, the SN2 (%) drops by 10 percentage units at 140 oC, while it increases by 12 percentage units at 180 oC. The above-mentioned experimental results of H2-SCR over the present 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO–CeO2 catalytic system reveal the complexity of the dependence of reaction kinetics towards N2 and N2O formation on the oxygen feed concentration. We have previously reported [25] that the kinetic reaction order with respect to the oxygen feed concentration is slightly negative, presenting, however, two regions. A break-down in reaction order occurred at an oxygen composition in the 4-5 vol% range. It should be noted here that these kinetic results were obtained with 2500 ppm of NO and 1.0 vol% H2 in the feed stream [25]. The results of Fig. 11 appear to have similar features to those previously obtained on the same catalytic system but with different feed gas composition (150 versus 2500 ppm NO; 0.7 versus 1.0 vol% H2) with respect to the dependence of the influence of oxygen feed concentration on catalyst’s performance from its specific value. According to in situ DRIFTS studies, the oxygen feed concentration had only a slight influence on the concentration of active adsorbed NOx intermediates and a large effect on the concentration of inactive adsorbed NOx [44]. However, no effect was evidenced on the population of different in structure (reactivity) adsorbed NOx species. An interesting feature observed in Fig. 11 is the significant drop of XH2 (%) when 10 vol% O2 in the feed is used at both reaction temperatures. As reported previously, the XH2 (%) is largely due to the combustion reaction occurred on the Pt surface. It appears, therefore, that as the oxygen concentration increases beyond 2 vol%, the Pt surface becomes largely oxidized, and the rate of hydrogen combustion on this oxidized surface state is reduced significantly without affecting much the XNO (%) and SN2 (%). This important observation has a practical consequence in that lower than 0.7 vol% H2 feed concentrations could be used under these strongly oxidizing conditions.

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Figure 11: Effect of oxygen feed composition (0-10 vol%) on the XNO (%), SN2 (%) and XH2 (%) of the H2SCR at 140 oC (a) and 180 oC (b) over the 0.1 wt% Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst. GHSV = 33,000 h-1; Feed gas

composition: 150 ppm NO/0.7 vol% H2/x vol% O2/He.

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46: 353-364. [24] Shibata, J., Hashimoto, M., Shimizu, K., Yoshida, H., Hattori, T., Satsuma, A., Factors controlling activity and selectivity for SCR of NO by hydrogen over supported platinum catalysts, J Phys Chem B 2004; 108: 18327-18335. [25] Costa, C.N., Efstathiou, A.M., Pt/Mg-Ce-O catalyst for NO/H2/O2 lean de-NOx reaction, Environ Chem Lett 2004; 2: 55-58. [26] Costa, C.N., Efstathiou, A.M., Transient isotopic kinetic study of the NO/H2/O2 (lean de-NOx) reaction on Pt/SiO2 and Pt/La-Ce-Mn-O catalysts, J Phys Chem B 2004; 108: 2620-2630. [27] Machida, M., Watanabe, T., Effect of Na-addition on catalytic activity of Pt-ZSM-5 for low-temperature NO-H2-O2 reactions, Appl Catal B: Environ 2004; 52: 281-286. [28] Macleod, N., Cropley, R., Keel, J.M., Lambert, R.M., Exploiting the synergy of titania and alumina in lean NOx reuction: in situ ammonia generation during the Pd/TiO2/Al2O3-catalysed H2/CO/NO/O2 reaction, J Catal 2004; 221: 20-31. [29] Engelmann-Pirez, M., Granger, P., Leclercq, G., Investigation of the catalytic performance of supported noble metal based catalysts in the NO+H2 reaction under lean conditions, Catal Today 2005; 107/108: 315-322. [30] Qi, G., Yang, R.T., Rinaldi, F.C., Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with hydrogen over Pd-based catalysts, J Catal 2006; 237: 381-392. [31] Konsolakis, M., Vrontaki, M., Avgouropoulos, G., Ioannides, T., Yentekakis, I.V., Novel doubly-promoted catalysts for the lean NOx reduction by H2+CO: Pd(K)/Al2O3-(TiO2), Appl Catal B: Environ 2006; 68: 59-67. [32] Hamada, S., Hibarino, S., Ikeue, K., Machida, M., Preparation of supported Pt-M catalysts (M=Mo and W) from anion-exchanged hydrotalcites and their catalytic activity for low temperature NO-H2-O2 reaction, Appl Catal B: Environ 2007; 74: 197-202. [33] Costa, C.N., Efstathiou, A.M., Low-temperature H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst, Appl Catal B: Environ 2007; 72: 240-252. [34] Costa, C.N., Savva, P.G., Fierro, J.L.G., Efstathiou, A.M., Industrial H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgOCeO2 catalyst, Appl Catal B: Environ 2007; 75: 147-156. [35] Costa, C.N., Efstathiou, A.M., Mechanistic aspects of the H2-SCR of NO on a novel Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst, J Phys Chem C 2007; 111: 3010-3020. [36] Twagirashema, I., Engelmann-Pirez, M., Frere, M., Burylo, L., Gengembre, L., Dujardin, C., Granger, P., An in situ study of the NO+H2+O2 reaction on Pd/LaCoO3 based catalysts, Catal Today 2007; 119: 100-105. [37] Yang, J.-I, Jung, H., The effect of temperature on NOx reduction by H2 in the presence of excess oxygen on a Pt/Al2O3 monolithic catalyst, Chem Eng J 2009; 146: 11-15. [38] Schott, F.J.P., Balle, P., Adler, J., Kureti, S., Reduction of NOx by H2 on Pt/WO3/ZrO2 catalysts in oxygenrich exhaust, Appl Catal B: Environ 2009; 87: 18-29. [39] Itoh, M., Saito, M., Takehara, M., Motoki, K., Influence of supported-metal characteristics on deNOx catalytic activity over Pt/CeO2, J Mol Catal A: Chem 2009; 304: 159-165. [40] Furfori, S., Russo, N., Fino, D., Saracco, G., Specchia, V., NO SCR reduction by hydrogen generated in line on perovskite-type catalysts for automotive diesel exhaust gas treatment, Chem Eng Sci 2010; 65:

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120-127. [41] Mondragón Rodríguez, G.C., Kelm, K., Saruhan, B., H2-selective catalytic reduction of NOx activity and microstructural analysis of new BaTi0.95Pd0.05O3 catalyst, Appl Catal A: Gen 2010; 387: 173-184. [42] Yu, Q., Richter, M., Kong, F., Li, L., Wu, G., Guan, N., Selective catalytic reduction of NO by hydrogen over Pt/ZSM-35, Catal Today 2010; 158: 452-458. [43] Bensaid, S., Borla, E.M., Russo, N., Fino, D., Specchia, V., Appraisal of a DeNOx system based on H2 for light-duty diesel engine vehicles, Ind Eng Chem Res 2010; 49: 10323-10333. [44] Olympiou, G.G., Efstathiou, A.M., Industrial NOx control via H2-SCR on a novel supported-Pt nanocatalyst, Chem Eng J 2011; 170: 424-432. [45] Pascal, G., Parvulescu, V.I., Catalytic NOx abatement systems for mobile sources: From three-way to lean burn after-treatment technologies, Chem Reviews 2011; 111: 3155-3207. [46] Park, S.M., Kim, M.-Y., Kim, E.S., Han, H.-S., Seo, G., H2-SCR of NO on Pt-MnOx catalysts: Reaction path via NH3 formation, Appl Catal A: Gen 2011; 395: 120-128. [47] Bromberg, L., Cohn, D.R., Rabinovich, A., Emission abatement system. US6560958 B1 (2003). [48] Yokota, K., Fukui, M., Tanaka, T., Process for reducing nitrogen oxides. US5543124 (1996). [49] Nam, I.-S., Yim, S.D., Baik, J.H., Oh, S.H., Cho, B.K., Zeolite catalyst and preparation process for NOx reduction. US7049261 B2 (2006). [50] Varatharajan, C. Balan, A.T. Evulet, R.K. Vipperla, Systems and processes for reducing NOx emissions. US7802434 (2010). [51] Savva, P.G., Efstathiou, A.M., The influence of reaction temperature on the chemical structure and surface concentration of active NOx in H2-SCR over Pt/MgO-CeO2: SSITKA-DRIFTS and transient mass spectrometry studies, J. Catal 2008; 257: 324-333. [52] Hadjiivanov K.I., Identification of Neutral and Charged Surface NOx Species by IR spectroscopyCatal. Rev. Sci. Eng. 2000, 42: 71-144. [53] Efstathiou, A.M., Verykios, X.E., “Transient Methods in Heterogeneous Catalysis: Experimental Features and Application to Study Mechanistic Aspects of the CH4/O2 (OCM), NH3/O2 and NO/He Reactions”, Appl. Catal. A: Gen. 1997; 151: 109-166.

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Low-Temperature Industrial CATALYTIC NO x Control Using H2/C X H Y as Reducing Agents Christos M. Kalamaras and Angelos M. Efstathiou* Heterogeneous Catalysis Laboratory, Chemistry Department, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, 1678, Cyprus

ABSTRACT In the present work, the synthesis of Pt catalysts supported over CeO2-ZrO2 mesoporous solids was performed and tested towards selective NOx reduction using H2 or H2/CxHy gas mixtures as reducing agents. Extensive characterization of the developed catalysts was performed using various techniques (BET, powder-XRD, UV-Vis/DRS, H2 and CO2 selective chemisorption followed by TPD, in situ DRIFTS, XPS and Raman). The catalysts were screened against H2-SCR and H2/CxHy-SCR reactions in the 150-600oC range. Important mechanistic work using SSITKA-DRIFTS-Mass spectrometry coupled with other transient experiments was also performed for the first time to gather fundamental knowledge on the mechanism of reaction at hand.

INTRODUCTION In view of the approaching European stringent environmental regulations, which are by far the most prominent measures concerning the removal of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from automobile exhaust emissions (lean burn and diesel engines) and from stationary industrial sources, the development of alternative clean and green catalytic technologies consisting of highly active and selective catalysts which can efficiently reduce NOx under lean (strongly oxidizing) conditions and preferably at lowtemperatures is of high importance today. There is also a strong and urgent need for the development of novel catalytic formulations which can efficiently reduce NOx using reducing agents found in the exhaust gas stream or which can be produced on board in the case of diesel or gasoline lean burn engines. In this respect, the use of H2/CxHy gas mixtures as reducing agents hold a future promise if a suitable catalytic system will be developed. Thus, a clear understanding of the fundamental catalytic chemistry of such systems is of paramount importance in order to design and optimize such a new class of NOx control catalytic materials.

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Ceria-zirconia mixed metal oxides are crucial components in modern “threeway” catalysts due to their excellent redox properties, the high oxygen mobility and thermal stability [1]. The latter solids are used for the development of supported metal catalysts that promote important catalytic reactions, such as oxidation of CO and hydrocarbons [2], methane combustion [3], and selective catalytic reduction of NOx (de-NOx) [2, 4-6].

EXPERIMENTAL The synthesis of CeO2-ZrO2 mixed metal oxide support was carried out using the citric sol-gel method starting from Ce and Zr nitrate salts as precursors. Deposition of Pt nanoparticles (0.1 wt% Pt) on the Ce1-xZrxO2 (x=0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) supports was performed using the incipient wetness impregnation method. A detailed characterization of the prepared catalysts was performed using various experimental techniques: BET, XRD, Raman, XPS, UV-Vis/DRS, H2-TPD and CO2-TPD. The de-NOx catalytic performance using H2 as a reducing agent was evaluated in terms of NO conversion, XNO(%) and N2-seelctivity, SN2(%) as a function reaction temperature (120-300oC) for the various catalysts formulations developed, and using a feed composition: 130 ppm NO/2.5 vol% O2/0.8 vol% H2/He and a GHSV of 33,000 h-1. The catalytic performance (XNO, SN2, %) of the Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid on the SCR of NO using C3H6/H2 and CH4/H2 as reducing agents was tested in the 150-600 oC range and feed composition: 150 ppm NO/2.5 vol% O2/0.8 vol% H2/0.5 vol% CxHy/He, and a GHSV of 33,000 h-1. The steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) coupled by Diffused Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and Mass Spectrometry (MS) was also applied with a main focus to determinate important mechanistic and kinetic aspects of the Η2-SCR reaction over the developed catalysts.

RESULTS and DISCUSSION 1. Physicochemical Characterization As it is shown in Table 1, the Pt/Ce0.4Zr0.6O2 solid exhibits significantly higher specific surface area (SSA, m2.g-1) and smaller mean pores diameter (dp, nm) compared to the other supported-Pt catalysts. However, the presence of mesoporosity is evidenced for all three materials with a mean pores diameter in the 3.4-6.3 nm range. Based on the X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the solids only a single crystalline

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phase, that of pseudo-cubic CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution is revealed. The latter crystalline phase was also indentified by Raman studies. The mean primary crystal size, dc (nm) of the Ce1-xZrxO2 solid solutions was estimated after calcination (750 οC, 2h), and it was found to be 4.3, 4.3 and 5.7 nm for the Ce0.4Zr0.6O2, Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solids, respectively. These dc (nm) values lead to the conclusion that all Ce1-xZrxO2 solid supports were of nano-crystalline structure. It is also important to note that after deNOx reactions tests (120-600οC, 20 h) all CeO2-ZrO2 solid solutions maintained their nano-crystalline structure. The wide band at ~ 610 cm-1 observed in the Raman spectra of all solids provides evidence for the presence of oxygen vacancies in the lattice of the Ce1-xZrxO2 solid solution. The latter result was also proved by XPS studies, where both Ce oxidation states (Ce3+ and Ce4+) were present in the support surface. Moreover, it was found that after pre-treament of the solids followed by Η2-SCR, part of the Ce3+ species (~ 30%) had been oxidized to Ce4+. Table 1: Textural properties, platinum dispersion and mean particle size, and amount of CO2 desorbed over 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 catalysts.

a b

Catalyst

SSA (m2/g)

Mean pore diameter, dp (nm)

Pt Dispersion (%)a

Mean Pt particle size, dPt (nm)a

Amount of CΟ2 desorbed (μmol/gcat)b

Pt/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2

86.2

6.2

85

1.9

111.0

Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2

58.0

6.3

77

2.1

253.2

Pt/Ce0.4Zr0.6O2

90.1

3.4

83

2.0

220.2

obtained using H2-TPD studies. obtained using CO2-TPD studies.

The Pt dispersion (D, %) and the mean Pt particle size (based on spherical geometry, dPt, nm) of the three 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 solids were estimated using the H2-TPD. The dispersion of Pt was found to be 85, 77 and 83%, resulting to an equivalent mean Pt particle size of 1.9, 2.1 and 2.0 nm, respectively, for the Pt/Ce0.4Zr0.6O2, Pt/

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Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 and Pt/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solids (Table 1). Based on the CΟ2-ΤPD studies, the Pt/ Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst exchibits the highest amount of CO2 desorbed, suggesting that the high concentration of oxygen vacancies over the Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 solid had an influence on the strength and concentration of the catalyst basic sites.

2. Catalytic Activity Fig. 1 presents the effect of reaction temperature in the 120-300 oC range on the NO conversion (XNO, %) and N2 selectivity (SN2, %) over the 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 (x=0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) catalysts. At temperatures in the 120-300 oC range, the solids exhibit similar XNO (%) profiles (volcano type), with maximum activity of 92% at 220 o C. In the low-temperature range of 120-200  οC, the Pt/Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 catalyst presents slightly higher activity compared to the other solids, whereas at Τ>200 οC, all catalysts (Fig.1a) have shown practically the same activity. The N2-selectivity profile behavior of all catalyst was also similar in the 120-300 oC range (Fig. 1b), but differences of up to 20 % units can be seen at certain temperatures.

Figure 1: Effect of reaction temperature in the 120-300 oC range on the XNO (a) and SN2 (b) under H2-SCR reaction conditions of the 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 (x=0.4, 0.5 and 0.6) catalysts. Feed composition: 150 ppm NO/0.8 vol% H2/2.5 vol% O2/He; GHSV=33,000 h-1.

The presence of CO2 in the feed stream had a significant negative effect (~70%) on the catalytic activity of Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 solid at T<175 oC, while at Τ> 175 oC only a slight decrease (10%) of the XNO was observed. On the other hand, the N2-selectivity profile obtained with CO2 present in the feed was improved in the whole temperature range investigated (120-600 oC). It is suggested that the presence of CO2 blocks non-selective

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NOx adsorption sites on the support close to the Pt nanoparticles-support interface by forming adsorbed carbonate (CO32-) species [6]. The presence of both CO2 and H2O in the feed stream results to further decrease in the catalytic activity, with maximum NO conversion to reach 65% at 240 o C. Nevertheless, at Τ< 300 oC the presence of H2O in the feed stream was found to improve SN2, while a large increase was seen at higher temperatures (Τ> 300 oC) due to NH3 production. The low NO conversion values may be attributed to the competitive adsorption of H2O with NO onto the support surface [6]. However, the improved N2selectivity behavior observed at Τ=200-250 oC could be explained by the fact that the H2O stabilizes the NO3- adsorbed species, while at the same time the dissociative adsorption of H2O increases the surface concentration of H onto the support (-OH species) which are necessary for NOx reduction [6]. Fig. 2 presents the effect of reaction temperature in the 150-600 oC range on the NO conversion (XNO, %) and N2 selectivity (SN2, %) over the 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst for the reduction of NO using Η2/C3Η6 gas mixture as reducing agent. It is clearly observed that at Τ< 450 oC the use of C3Η6 as a reducing agent (absent of H2) results to low NO conversion values (XNO=20-30 %), whereas at Τ>450 οC a significant increase in activity was observed (presence/absent of H2). On the other hand, the N2-selectivity in the whole temperature range investigated (150-600 oC) under ΝΟ/Ο2/C3H6 reaction was found to be significantly improved compared to the use of H2 as reducing agent (ΝΟ/Η2/Ο2 reaction). It is important to note that in the 150-300oC range there is an increase up to 20 % units in XNO (%) when both H2 and C3H6 are present in the feed stream (Fig. 2a). This implies the existence of a synergy effect between Η2 and C3Η6. According to DRIFTS studies performed in the 150-250oC range (not presented here), -CHx species are formed by the interaction of propylene with the Pt surface, the surface coverage of which is larger in the presence than the absence of hydrogen in the feed stream. This result may imply that –CHx species may react with adsorbed NOx to form an intermediate –NCO [7] the reactivity of which towards N2 formation might be higher than of NOx. In similar catalytic activity measurements, when CH4/H2 were added in the feed stream (ΝΟ/Ο2/H2/CH4), the NO conversion and N2 selectivity in the whole temperature range were similar, thus no hydrogen synergy effect was observed as in Fig. 2a.

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Figure 2: Effect of reaction T in the 150-650 oC range on the XNO (a) and SN2 (b) under H2/C3H6-SCR reaction conditions over 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst. Feed composition: 150 ppm NO/0.8 vol% H2/2.5 vol% O2/ He; 150 ppm NO/0.8 vol% H2/2.5 vol% O2/0.5 vol% C3Η6/He; 150 ppm NO/2.5 vol% O2 /0.5 vol% C3Η6/He; GHSV=33,000 h-1.

3. Mechanistic Studies Steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis (SSITKA) experiments coupled with mass spectrometry were used to quantify the active NOx reaction intermediates involved in H2-SCR mechanism from the NO reactant to the N2O and N2 gas products (nitrogen-containing intermediate species). Table 2 presents the concentration (μmol.g-1) of active “N-containing” intermediates, named “N-pool”, and the equivalent amount in terms of surface Pt monolayers (θN) based on surface Pt (Table 1), obtained after the isotopic switch 14NO/H2/O2/Ar/He (30 min) → 15NO /H2/O2/He (t) was made over the Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst at 200, 250 and 300οC. It is seen that in all cases the surface concentration of the active nitrogen-containing intermediates were found to be more than one monolayer of surface Pt atoms (θN>1), a result that strongly implies that these species must reside on the support surface, likely within a reactive zone around the Pt nanoparticles. In previous work from our lab [4, 6, 8], the bi-functional mechanism of the H2SCR of NO over Pt/MgO-CeO2 catalyst was demonstrated, where the active adsorbed NOx intermediate species are formed within a reactive zone of 4-5 Å around each Pt nanoparticle, while the H2 and O2 dissociation takes places on the Pt surface [8]. After SSITKA-MS experiments in the presence of H2O in the feed stream, an important decrease of θΝ was found, which provides an explanation for the negative effect of water on NO conversion.

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The chemical structure of the active intermediate NOx species that participate in the nitrogen reaction path of the H2-SCR of NO and the inactive species (spectators) was studied by SSITKA-DRIFTS experiments. Under the non isotopic 14NO/H2/O2 steadystate reaction over the Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst at 200οC, the characteristic vibrational modes of bidentate nitrates (NΟ3-), monodentate nitrates (NΟ3-), nitrosyls (Μ-ΝΟδ+) and chelating nitrites (NO2-) on the support surface were observed. After the new steady-state under the isotopic gas mixture of 15NO/H2/O2 was reached, only the IR bands of chelating nitrites gave the red isotopic shift upon replacing the 14N with 15N in the “nitrogen-path” of the H2-SCR reaction of NO. The latter result suggests that chelating nitrite is an active intermediate involved in the reaction mechanism, whereas the nitrosyls, monodentate and bidentate nitrates species must be considered as inactive species (spectators), since their characteristic IR bands did not give the red isotopic shift (Table 3). Table 2: Concentration (μmol.g-1) and surface coverage (θN) of active “N-containing” intermediate species obtained over 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 at 200, 250 and 300οC.

T (oC)

“N-pool” (μmol.g-1)

θN

NOx to N2 (%)

NOx to N2Ο (%)

200

14.1

3.6

99

1

250

7.2

1.8

93

7

300

17.5

4.4

92

8

Table 3: Vibrational modes of active intermediate NOx and inactive NOx formed under H2SCR of NO over 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce0.5Zr0.5O2 catalyst at 200 οC.

Specie Bidentate Nitrate Monodentate Nitrate Chelating Nitrite Nitrosyls

Vibration v(NO2),asym v(NO2),sym v(N=O) v(NO2),asym v(NO2),sym v(N=O)

Wavenumber (cm-1) 1557 1068 1605 1315 1506 1021

v(NO2),asym

1280 → 1258

v(NO2),sym

1182 → 1159

v(NO2),sym

1434

v(NO2),asym

2340

393

Active No

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CONCLUSIONS 0.1 wt% Pt/Ce1-xZrxO2 (x=0.4, 0.5 και 0.6) catalysts were prepared by the citrate sol-gel (support) and incipient wetness impregnation (deposition of Pt) followed by detail physicochemical characterization (BET, XRD, Raman, UV-Vis/DRS, XPS, H2-TPD and CO2-TPD) in order to investigate their performance towards the selective catalytic reduction of NO using Η2/C3H6 or Η2/CH4 gas mixtures as reducing agents. A synergy effect between H2 and C3Η6 at Τ< 300 οC resulted in an improvement of the NO conversion and the N2-selectivity. Based on mechanistic studies of the H2-SCR of NO, it was proved that chelating nitrite is the truly active NOx intermediate species formed around the metalsupport interface, where the nitrosyls, monodentate and bidentate nitrate species formed on the support are found to be inactive (spectators). The negative effect of H2O on the catalytic activity was explained by SSITKA-MS experiments based on which the concentration of active NOx decreased.

Acknowledgments The European Regional Development Fund, the Republic of Cyprus, and the Research Promotion Foundation of Cyprus are gratefully acknowledged for their financial support through the projects ΔΙΑΚΡΑΤΙΚΕΣ/ΚΥ-ΡΟΥ/0609/04 and PENEK/ ENISX/0308/50.

REFERENCES Α. Trovarelli, “Catalysis by Ceria and Related Materials”, Catalytic Science Series, Vol. 2, Imperial College Press, London, 2002. P. Granger, V.I. Parvulescu, Chem. Rev. 111 (2011) 3155. T.G. Kuznetsova, V.A. Sadykov, S.A. Veniaminov, G.M. Alikina, E.M. Moroz, V.A. Rogov, O.N. Martyanov, V.F. Yudanov, I.S. Abornev, S. Neophytides, Catal. Today 91-92 (2004) 161. C.N. Costa, Α.M. Efstathiou, Appl. Catal. B: Environ. 72 (2007) 240. X. Courtois, N. Bion, P. Marécot, D. Duprez, Chapter 8: “The role of cerium-based oxides used as oxygen storage materials in DeNOx catalysis”, Stud. Surf. Sci. Catal., Elsevier, 2007. G.G. Olympiou, A.M. Efstathiou, Chem. Eng. Journal 170 (2011) 424. S. Chansai, R. Burch, C. Hardacre , J. Breen, F. Meunier, J. Catal. 276 (2010) 49. P.G. Savva, A.M. Efstathiou, J. Catal. 257 (2008) 324.

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RECENT RESEARCH IN THE FIELD OF NOX REDUCTION Riitta L. Keiski, Tanja Kolli, Ari Väliheikki, Marja Kärkkäinen, Anna Valtanen, Mari Pietikäinen, Kati Oravisjärvi, Mika Huuhtanen Mass and Heat Transfer Process Laboratory, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FI-90014 University of Oulu, Finland. riitta.keiski@oulu.fi, tanja.kolli@oulu.fi, ari.valiheikki@oulu.fi, marja.karkkainen@ oulu.fi, anna.valtanen@oulu.fi, mari.pietikainen@oulu.fi, kati.oravisjarvi@oulu,fi mika.huuhtanen@oulu.fi

ABSTRACT Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is an effective technology to reduce harmful NOx emissions both in stationary sources and in vehicles. Different catalyst materials are needed for low temperature operation compared to high temperature SCR conditions. The catalyst material development is important due to stringent NOx emission limits, as well as to avoid the use of V2O5 because of its toxicity. Zeolite-based catalysts have been found to have promising materials. The increased use of bio-fuels may cause catalyst deactivation due to poisoning. The effects of these bio-fuel impurities such as P, Na, and K have not been studied widely. Research work to improve activity, stability, and selectivity of novel catalyst materials must be done to fulfil all the requirements.

INTRODUCTION Noble metal (Rh, Pd, Pt) based catalysts have been known to reduce diesel and gasoline emissions since the 1970s’. However, continuous catalyst research and designing both in the industry and academy is needed incessantly to fulfil all the requirements. To understand the behaviour of the catalyst it is important to study the basic hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation and nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction reactions as well as kinetics on the catalyst surface [1]. The optimisation of the catalyst activity and selectivity in NOx reduction needs constant research work. The addition order of catalyst compounds such as oxygen storage compounds (OSC) has been found to have an influence on the activity and selectivity of the catalyst [2]. In addition, the laboratory accelerated ageing procedures is worthwhile to understand catalyst deactivation mechanisms. For example, the thermal deactivation of a catalyst is a combination of several ageing phenomena [3]. Poisoning with lubricant based impurities has also an influence on the activity of the catalyst [4].

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Novel catalyst materials for NOx abatement in stationary and automotive applications are still needed due to stringent legislation and increased use of biofuels. The target set by the EU is that 20% of the energy consumption comes from renewable resources by 2020 [5]. In addition, the next Euro VI standard will push academia and industry to find new catalytic materials to fulfill the NOx limits. SCR has been proven to be an effective technology for stationary sources (NH3) and recently also for vehicles (NH3, EtOH, HC). For this reason, catalysts resistant against deactivation and their stability are also essential research fields nowadays. The commercially used V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalyst reduces harmful NOx emissions up to 500째C effectively. At higher temperatures, V2O5 enhances significantly more the direct oxidation of ammonia [6]. In addition, V2O5 has been found to be toxic and its disposal is difficult. Therefore, the use of V2O5 as an SCR catalyst has started to receive a negative image. Thus, several catalytic support materials such as zeolites, metal oxides, and carbon nanotubes are studied with or without precious metals (e.g. Pd, Pt, Ag) and base metals (e.g. W, Fe, Cu) to find out an effective catalyst for the reduction of NOx emissions. The aims of the on-going research projects are to study SCR technologies in stationary and mobile processes utilizing bio-based fuels, to obtain new knowledge on catalytic materials (e.g. nanotechnology), to find out the effect of poisons (e.g. potassium, sodium, sulphur, phosphorus) on catalytic activity, to compare the effect of reducing agents (EtOH or NH3) and to develop and prepare new catalyst materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Carbon nanotubes decorated with Pd nanoparticles [7].

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LOW TEMPERATURE (<300°C) NH3-SCR and EtOH-SCR OVER CNTs CNTs have been found to be suitable for catalyst support materials because of their several advantageous properties [8]. According to the results some promising catalytic materials for low temperature NOx reduction are found. Noble metal (Pt, Pd, and Rh) decorated carbon nanotube based catalysts were prepared, characterized as well as their activities and N2-selectivity were tested in the model NH3- and ethanol-SCR reactions in the activity measurement system shown in Figure 2. The reason for testing ethanol as a reducing agent is in its non-toxicity and safety. Ethanol is nowadays used widely also as a biofuel component in passenger cars’ fuels.

Figure 2. a) Activity measurement system equipped with GASMETTM Gas Analyzer, b) one example of catalyst packing, zebra stripes with quartz wool, and c) a paramagnetic oxygen analyzer (ABB Advanced Optima).

A tested low temperature NH3- and EtOH-SCR catalysts were prepared by a wet impregnation method. Carboxyl functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTCOOH) were decorated with Pd and Pt. To test the catalytic activities the parent CNTCOOH, Pd- or Pt-CNT catalysts were packed as zebra stripes with quartz wool inside the reactor (Fig 2b). The used gas mixture in the NH3-SCR reaction was NO, NH3, O2 and N2 as the balancing gas. In the case of EtOH-SCR, the reaction gas mixture contained NO, C2H5OH, O2 and H2O balanced with nitrogen. Ethanol and water were fed to the reactor as liquid using a peristaltic pump. In both cases the GHSV used was ~24 000 h-1. During the activity test the temperature was increased with a heating rate of 5°C/min

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from room temperature to 300째C. The water-EtOH mixture was added to the reactor at 100째C to make sure that it is in gaseous phase. The concentration of reactants and products was analyzed with the Gasmet FT-IR analyzer equipped with the ABB oxygen analyzer (Fig 2c). [7,9,10] As a result of NH3- and EtOH-SCR activity tests, the addition of Pt or Pd nanoparticles on the parent CNT-COOH caused a significant increase in the NOx conversion. For the parent CNT-COOH the NOx conversion curve is near zero during the experiment. For the NH3-SCR reaction, the maximum conversions of NO over the Pt- and Pd/CNT catalysts were 86% and 55%, respectively. For both Pd- and Pt/CNT catalysts, the conversion of NH3 was almost 100%. The formation of by-products such as NO2, N2O, CO and CO2 was also detected during the reaction, and therefore, the maximum N2 selectivity of the Pt/CNT and Pd/CNT catalysts was only 30%. The preliminary tests of EtOH-SCR show promising results for the Pt and Pd/ CNT catalysts. The maximum NO conversions over Pd and Pt/CNT catalysts were >98% and >99%, respectively. In addition, the formation of undesired N2O was very low (under 5 ppm) during the experiments. [10] Figure 3 presents NO conversions as a function of temperature on the Pt/CNT catalyst when the reducing agent is NH3 or EtOH [8].

Figure 3. Comparison of NO conversion for the NH3- and EtOH-SCR reaction over the Pt/CNT catalyst as a function of temperature [7].

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HIGH TEMPERATURE (600°C) NH3-SCR Commercially used V2O5-WO3-TiO2 catalysts have found to have some problems as mention earlier. Therefore, a challenge is to find V-free catalysts which reduce NOx effectively at high temperatures (at 600°C). These kinds of catalysts are placed in the process right after the reactor or combustion chamber and thus extra heating system is not needed. For that purposes several catalyst supports (e.g. zeolite, CexZr1-xO2) with active metals (Fe, Cu, W) have been prepared, characterised, and tested in the model high temperature NH3-SCR reaction. The tested gas mixture contained 900 ppm of NO, 100 ppm NO2, 1000 ppm NH3, 10 vol-% H2O, 10 vol-% O2, balanced with N2. The total flow was 1 dm3/min. The concentration of reactants and products from 100°C to 600°C in every 5 seconds was analysed with the Gasmet FT-IR Gas analyzer equipped with an ABB oxygen analyzer (Fig 2). The studied catalyst sample (0.25g) was placed into the reactor as zebra stripes with quartz wool (Fig 2b). Figure 4 presents, as an example, how the addition of 3 wt-% of tungsten (W) on the washcoat material, ZSM-5 or ZrCe, improves the catalytic activity. In addition, when W is replaced with 3 wt-% of iron (Fe) on zeolite-based material, the conversion of NOx was increased. The reason why the conversion of NOx started to decrease at around 450°C is probably due to the unwanted NH3 oxidation reaction to NO. [11, 12]

Figure 4. The conversions of NOx as a function of temperature over ZSM-5, ZrCe, 3Fe-ZSM-5, 3W-ZSM-5, and 3W-ZrCe in the NO + NO2 + NH3 + O2 + H2O reaction gas mixture [12].

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EFFECT OF BIOFUEL IMPURITIES The use of biofuels is constantly increasing because of the tightening legislation [13]. The idea of this is to decrease exhaust and flue gas emissions and especially green house emissions (GHGs). However, even though carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions have decreased, the release of nitrogen oxides (NOx) has increased [14]. Therefore, the SCR catalysts are still important to reduce NOx emissions. Besides that, impuritiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; contents in biofuels depend naturally on the raw material used, such as sugars, starch and vegetable oils used. Figure 5 shows as an example of that, how much more plant based biodiesel contains impurities (e.g. P, Ca, Zn) compared to fossil based and traditionally used diesel. The effect of these biofuel-based impurities in the NH3-SCR applications has not been studied that much yet.

Figure 5. Chemical composition of particulate matter emitted from diesel engine driven with diesel or liquid biofuel, determined by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM).

Based on the results by Väliheikki et al. [12, 15] it found that when 1 wt-% of sodium (Na) or potassium (K) was wet-impregnated on the studied fresh catalyst samples at room temperature, the effect of these impurities on specific surface areas (BET) measured by N2 physisorption by Micrometrics ASAP 2020 was relatively small (Table 1) (Figure 6).

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Table 1. The specific surface areas for fresh, potassium (K), and sodium (Na) treated catalyst samples [12, 15]. Fresh K Na 2 2 2 Catalyst (m /g) (m /g) (m /g) ZSM-5 324 355 345 Fe-ZSM-5 347 340 324 W-ZSM-5 352 323 322 ZrCe 13 9 9 W-ZrCe 12 10 10

Figure 6. The equipment for analysing the specific surface area (BET) as well as pore volumes and sizes (BJH).

However, further studies are needed to improve the catalytic properties, to understand the poisoning mechanisms with different impurities or combinations of impurities and finally to derive the kinetics for the converter design.

CONCLUSIONS NOx emission control needs continuous catalyst research and design work both in the academy and industry. The tightening legislation and increasing use of biofuels are forcing to improve the activity, stability, and selectivity of catalyst materials. In addition to understand the reaction mechanism and kinetics design and modelling of

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catalytic converters are needed. Promising of catalytic materials such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs) used in low temperature NH3- and EtOH-SCR applications was found. Both Pt and Pd decorated CNTs reached quite high NO conversions. However, the N2-selectivity was unfortunately relatively low in the case of the NH3-SCR, but high in the case of EtOH-SCR. Therefore, the idea to use non-toxic and safe ethanol as a reducing chemical in the SCR technology is interesting because it is used also as a biofuel in passenger cars. More research work is still needed. For high temperature SCR applications it is important to find active vanadiumfree catalyst materials. Tungsten (W) impregnated on the zeolite or ceria-zirconia washcoat has shown promising results. Treatment with biofuel-based impurities (K and Na) caused only a small decrease in the surface area. However, the effect of biofuel based impurities on the catalyst activity, selectivity and stability needs more studies.

REFERENCES Huuhtanen M. Zeolite catalyst in the reduction of NOx in lean automotive exhaust gas conditions. Behaviour of catalyst in activity, DRIFT and TPD studies. Doctoral thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2006. Kolli T. Pd/Al2O3 –based automotive exhaust gas catalysts. The effect of BaO and OSC material on NOx reduction. Doctoral thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2006. Lassi U. Deactivation correlation of Pd/Rh three-way catalysts designed for EURO IV emission limits. Doctoral thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2003. Kröger V. Poisoning of automotive exhaust gas catalyst components. The role of phosphorus in the poisoning phenomena. Doctoral thesis, University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland, 2007. http://www.europarl.europa.eu/sides/getDoc.do?language=en&type=IM-PRESS & reference=20081208B KG44004#title5. EU 2008. Kobayashi M and Miyoshi L, Appl. Catal. B 72 (2007) 253-261. Avila A, Pietikäinen M, Huuhtanen M, Leino A-R, Kolli T, Kordás K and Keiski RL. Novel Pt/CNT and Pd/CNT catalysts for the low temperature ammonia and ethanol assisted selective catalytic reduction of NO. In: Clean air research at the University of Oulu, Proceedings of the SkyPro Conference, June 3, 2010, University of Oulu, Finland, 46-49, 2010. Serp P, Corrias M and Kalck P, Appl. Catal. A 253 (2003) 337-358. Avila A, Leino A-R, Huuhtanen M, Kolli T, Kordás K and Keiski RL. Novel CNT-based catalyst materials for low temperature NH3-SCR of NO. 14th Nordic Symposium on Catalysis, Book of Abstract, August 29 to 31, Marienlyst, Denmark, P47, 2010.

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Pietikäinen M, Avila A, Huuhtanen M, Kolli T, Kordás K and Keiski RL. Selective catalytic reduction of NO with ethanol over carbon nanotube supported catalyst. 14th Nordic Symposium on Catalysis, Book of Abstract, August 29 to 31, Marienlyst, Denmark, P46, 2010. Huhtala J. Preparation, characterization and activity testing for high temperature NH3-SCR applications (in Finnish), Master’s thesis, University of Oulu, 90 p. 2011. Väliheikki A. NH3-SCR catalyst poisoning caused by potassium and sodium (in Finnish), Master’s thesis, University of Oulu, 95 p. 2011. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2003:123 :0042:0042:EN:PDF EU 2003. Xue J, Grift TE & Hansen AC, Ren. Sust. En. Rev. 15 (2011) 1098-1116.. Väliheikki A, Kolli T, Huuhtanen M, Maunula T, Kinnunen T, Keiski RL, The effect of potassium and sodium biofuel impurities on the activity of Fe-ZSM-5 and W-ZSM-5 NH3-SCR catalysts, submitted to Topics in Catalysis (2012).

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Session 2.1 MEDCONF 2012 7th Mediterranean Conference on Mathematics Education: Research, Challenge, Creativity

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EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION IN TEACHING UNDERGRADUATE MATHEMATICS AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCING INNOVATIVE PROOFS Marios Ioannou

ABSTRACT Effective communication has a favorable impact on undergraduate mathematics students’ learning. This study focuses on how instruction influences the production of successful and occasionally innovative proofs in Group Theory. Data consists of students’ interviews and coursework, and seminar recordings. Data analysis suggests that teaching is a manifold genre of communication with its own dynamics. Students consider proof as an activity that requires rigorous thinking, precise presentation and efficient use of visual images. Furthermore, the effectiveness of communication between instructors and students enhances students’ proof production. Finally, a seminar episode is presented, highlighting the communicational characteristics that contribute to the development of an innovative proof.

INTRODUCTION Proof production in pure mathematics is considered as a cognitively demanding task (Moore, 1994; Segal 2000; Weber 2001), which often depends on the quality and effectiveness of communication between the instructors, and the students (Ioannou, 2012). Students consider Group Theory as one of the most demanding subjects in the undergraduate mathematics syllabus, since they must go beyond ‘imitative behavior patterns’ for mimicking the solution of a large number of variations on a small number of themes” (Dubinsky et al., 1994, p268). Weber (2001) associates student difficulty in Group Theory with the difficulty to construct proofs: “when left to their own devices, students usually fail to acquire optimal strategies for completing mathematical tasks and often acquire deficient ones” (Weber, 2001, p116). Alcock et al (2009) similarly point out that learning Group Theory is challenging because of the abstract nature of its concepts and because it involves reading and writing proofs using various learning practices and beliefs. This study will discuss the relation between effective communication in teaching Group Theory and its impact on the production of proofs, examining a special episode in which a student managed to produce an innovative proof during a discussion with the seminar leader.

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LITERATURE REVIEW University mathematics requires the production of rigorous and consistent proofs. The occasionally arduous (Moore, 1994; Segal, 2000) task of successfully producing and communicating their proofs is a significant obstacle in the smooth transition to university level Mathematics (Gueudet, 2008). Proof production is far from a straightforward task to analyse and identify the difficulties students face. From a pedagogical perspective, a possible contributing factor to the students’ difficulty is the teaching they receive in secondary education, since “most students have not been enculturated into the practice of proving, or even justifying the mathematical processes they use” (Dreyfus, 1999, p94). From a communicational perspective, there is a chasm between the professional mathematicians and students regarding their views about issues like conviction or validity of proof (Segal, 2000; Harel and Sowder, 1998), the adequacy of an explanation or justification (Sierpinska, 1994), or the ability to distinguish between different forms of reasoning (Dreyfus, 1999). Moore (1994) classifies novice students’ difficulties with proving in three wide categories referring to: the mathematical language; the concept understanding; and the initiation of proof. This categorisation is in conformity with the Commognitive Theoretical Framework (Sfard, 2008), used in this study, where one is able to examine the students’ use of words, visual mediators, and understanding of the various mathematical concepts. Weber (2001) categorises difficulties with proofs into two classes: the first is related to the students’ difficulty to have an accurate and clear conception of what comprises a mathematical proof, and the second is related to students’ difficulty to understand a mathematical proposition or concept. Furthermore, Weber (2001) indicates three types of strategic knowledge, namely the knowledge of domain’s proof techniques, the knowledge of which theorems are important and when they will be useful and the knowledge of when and when not to use ‘syntactic’ strategies. Regarding students’ perspectives on proofs, Ioannou (2012) suggests that the majority of students consider proof production as a major milestone in the process of learning pure mathematics in particular. This study aims to investigate further the students’ perspectives regarding proofs as a means and result of successful mathematical communication, and how communication amongst mathematicians influences students’ performance in proof production, in the context of Group Theory. Additionally, this study aims to consider issues of mathematical communication and its significance in the overall mathematical learning (and proof production as an important activity) (Gueudet, 2008). Finally, I investigate an episode from a seminar session in which the student through his communication with the seminar leader managed to produce an innovative proof,

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examining the characteristics of this communicational incident and highlighting, in the form of conjectures, what factors contributed to the production of the particular proof.

AIMS, METHODS AND CONTEXT OF STUDY For the purpose of this study, I have used the Commognitive Theoretical Framework (CTF)(Sfard, 2008), which adopts a participationist perspective to mathematical learning. Communication and thinking are fundamental constructs in CTF. Thinking is defined as “an individualized version of (interpersonal) communicating” (Sfard, 2008, p81). Thinking is considered an act (not necessarily interpersonal) of communication, rather than a step primary to communication. Therefore the primary and defining feature of communication, in the context of teaching and instruction, is its community-coordinating role. In addition, human communication is a ruleregulated activity. There exist two distinct kinds of rules: Object-level rules, namely rules regarding properties of the objects of a certain discourse, taking the form of narratives of these objects; and, Metalevel rules, namely, rules that are involved when we examine the patterned activity of formulation and substantiation of the object-level rules. In mathematical discourse, the relevant metarules are those that govern the activity of proving (Sfard, 2008). Metalevel learning originates in the students’ direct engagement with the new discourse. Since the new discourse has different metarules to the ones students were acting so far, such an engagement entails commognitive conflict. This is caused when different discursants are acting according to different metarules. Moreover, such conflict emerges when familiar routines meet with other people’s ways of employing the same discursive tasks, based on different metarules. When the learner is exposed to commognitive conflict, he or she has the opportunity for metalevel learning, i.e. for the evolution of metarules. This study, a ramification of author’s doctoral study, aims to investigate how the quality of mathematical communication, through instruction, may assist students to produce (innovative) proofs. In the context of this study, innovative proof is defined as a proof which is different from the ordinary, probably hinted or suggested by the lecturer; a proof that does not follow a certain pattern similar to the given examples; one that is considered as such by experienced mathematicians; and possibly one that can be characterised as elegant. Data collection took place in the Spring Semester of a recent academic year. The module was mandatory and attended by 78 students (10 weeks, 20 hourly lectures, 3 cycles of seminars, in Weeks 3, 6 and 10). The role of the seminars was mainly to support the students with their coursework. There were 4 seminar groups, with about

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20 students in each. In each seminar group there was a seminar leader, a full-time faculty member of the department, and a seminar assistant who was a PhD student. The students submitted the coursework at the end of the semester. This was marked and returned to them soon after. Data consists of: lecture observation notes which cover student attendance, instances of communicational interaction between the lecturer and the students, verbal, body or other evidence of student engagement and response to the lecture, and general observations of lecturer and student behaviour; lecture notes, namely notes of what the lecturer was writing on the blackboard; audio-recordings of the 20 lectures; audio-recordings of the 24 seminars in which there have been captured all conversations between the students and the seminar staff, during which they have predominantly discussed difficulties with certain exercises in the problem sheets; 3 cycles of interviews with 13 out of the 78 students who made themselves available on a voluntary basis, the 4 seminar leaders and assistants and the lecturer; student coursework composed by the solution of three distinct problem sheets given during the semester; marker comments on student coursework; and, student examination scripts.

ANALYSIS Proof can be considered as a means of communicating mathematical ideas, following certain established standards regarding the level of rigour, precision and conviction. This view was overtly expressed by a number of students in this study, according to which proof is considered as a form of communicational interaction. The majority of students seem to realise the importance of effective communication, and the significance of bridging the gap between their possibly immature ability to express their reasoning, and the experienced mathematician’s understanding of proof. This view is obvious in the excerpt below. But I – yeah, again, it might be – me not – it makes perfect sense, but I might not.. make it – it’s just like you know – I can understand it, but it’s trying to, I mean because proof is really trying to make someone else understand it, and I say, possibly I do struggle at – giving, you know, making someone else understand it by writing it down, but, so it’s where I might lose some marks, but... MH

MH shows particular sensitivity in effectively communicating his proof and making his reasoning clear. It is his priority not just to apply the appropriate routine and produce a correct proof, but also a comprehensible proof, which according to the above excerpt possibly increases the level of difficulty. MH is putting into action the human capacities of language (Sfard, 2008), i.e. adequate reasoning and effective

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abstracting, since Group Theory is a module of a higher level of abstraction for novice students. His effort to achieve successfully communicable proof possibly indicates two things: realisation of the significance of proving as an essential part of the learning of Group Theory and development of his mathematical maturity. There is an indication of awareness of the need not only to understand the newly introduced concepts, but also to improve his metalevel understanding and abilities, to apply the appropriate metarules, and moreover produce clear and valid proofs. Students overtly and explicitly expressed their general difficulty with proofs, and the negative impact it has in their engagement with Pure Mathematics and their intention not to study any other Pure Mathematics modules. The following excerpt is a representative example of students’ perception regarding proofs, which indicates future disengagement with Pure Mathematics. It’s quite a different style of Maths… especially the Pure side where, you suddenly have to do proofs, I think that was what first shocked me, about this degree, cos I’d never done it. [...] Um, this is something I’m doing at the minute, and it worries me for next year – I prefer Pure, as like – interesting, but I do worse in it (laughs) so I prefer Applied, in the fact that I get better marks, cos I suppose you know when you’ve got the right answer don’t you, whereas Pure is quite fiddly and you can – do a proof but not write it quite how they want [...] I suppose... in applied, it’s more like – what you’ve done all your life, there’s a method, and you just follow the steps, and you should – hopefully, get the answer. And like, you fiddle with it, don’t you, when you’re doing integration and stuff, but you follow the steps? Whereas in Pure, I often find, especially when it’s the proofs, it’s like, just completely random, like, it doesn’t follow something that you’ve done already? AH

The process of proof can often be considered a learning shock, as novice students do not have any previous experience of proof production. AH’s shock is located in the way in which she should approach proofs. Successful proof production requires two elements: deep understanding of the involved mathematical objects and familiarisation with the governing metarules in the context of Group Theory. In addition, as Sfard (2008), and Ioannou (2012) suggest, familiarity with metarules in one mathematical discourse, does not imply immediate command of metalevel rules in a different mathematical discourse. Moreover proof, in the context of this module, has apparently caused commognitive conflict, since the metarules that the lecturer is using are different from the ones that AH used up to that point. The reported shock is for AH a challenge related to metalevel learning. One of the major obstacles that novice students face in their transition to university mathematics is to adjust their learning approach in order to address the metalevel learning demands that the rigorous university teaching approach, the new norms of mathematical communication, the nature of mathematics, and the overall university education, require. This last claim

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emerges from AH’s reference to her success in Applied Mathematics, because of the similarity of “what you’ve done all your life”. Yet new demands on metadiscursive level require the transition from the ‘method’ and the ‘just follow the steps’, to the development of analytic and creative mathematical thinking. Regarding purely the quality of mathematical communication, through teaching and instruction, students have expressed their wish for more extensive and systematic use of visual images, and more active participation in the lectures and seminars. Regarding the use of visual images the majority of students asked for more pictures and expressed their need to visualise. I’m a visual learner, but I don’t know if there’s anything visual within it, that he could actually put on the board, I’m not sure if he could do that or not, but I think it would help me, personally, a lot… [...] More pictures and stuff, like... explaining what’s happening and sort of thing, so that – maybe then I could picture it in my head, I’d find it easier. Cos if I’m trying to picture, as he’s going along, then sometimes if he’s going too fast, I don’t have time to try and think about it, when I’m trying to think about something else. So... maybe stop and then draw a picture. LH

Visual mediators are one of the four main characteristics of the mathematical language. Moreover, problematic use of visual images may indicate partial use of mathematical language and, henceforth, problematic mathematical communication and learning. The role of images, as the lecturer used these, was supportive, assisting students to achieve object-level understanding. Effective use of such images though requires at least some primitive object-level understanding, as Zazkis et al (1996) suggest. Moreover, visual images assist students to shift from object-level learning to the metalevel learning, along with the necessary familiarity with the routines, which would allow students to successfully produce proofs. As Ioannou (2012) suggests, at the very early stages of their encounter with Group Theory, students are in the process of object-level understanding and consequently visual images are not always usable. Regarding the mathematical communication through teaching and instruction, students have expressed their need for more interactive and substantial participation. For instance, SN repeatedly expressed his desire to be part of an interactive, inspiring and challenging lecture in which students would not just be taught but actively participate, also making use of modern technology gadgets. Um... It is important for a lecturer to engage the students so at the end of the day it is not a matter of just copying, but I would prefer more – maybe that would not be a lecture – but at the end of the day what you should have is more interactive session which lecturer does throw questions on members of the audience and expects answers...[...] in the lecture. Definitely would expect in this modern day

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and age more use of interactive whiteboards, computers, and since we are dealing with groups... the lecturer should be able to juxtapose his lectures with real life examples... cause as you know symmetry does play a big part in lecture. SN

The expressed desire for more engagement and participation is mainly a need for better and more effective communication. Although different students express this desire for different reasons, some for satisfying their desire to go beyond the expected level and curriculum or others to achieve better object-level and metalevel understanding, the need for better mathematical communication is the main point. In the context of seminars, mathematical communication is even more crucial, since seminars are considered the main source of instruction, where students have the opportunity to resolve any difficulties during the solution of the coursework, and reveal the emerged commognitive conflicts, which may be addressed through communication with the seminar staff. AH has described the benefits of attending seminars in detail. I find the seminars really useful, because it’s a chance – obviously, to speak to people – and the lecturers are really friendly. [...] And a lot of them – cos – I think sometimes, you can just be told the answer in maths, and a lot of them make you think about it, and just ask kind of the questions, to get you on the right track? Rather than just saying, oh, you just do this! AH

The quality of the communication between the seminar staff and the student is an important factor in the process of mathematical learning. While, ideally, the students are able to resolve any object-level and metalevel difficulties through discussions with the seminar staff by exposing their thinking, the communication with experienced mathematicians also enables them to learn how to utilise the language of a certain mathematical discourse, use visual mediators or be obliged to produce illustrations to clarify their reasoning – in general, learning the norms of a particular mathematica discourse. All these improve the effectiveness of communication between the novices and the experienced mathematicians for the benefit of the former, and consequently their object-level and metalevel learning is favorably influenced. Finally, the quality of mathematical communication in the context of seminars should, according to the student below, lead students to develop critical thinking towards learning and approach mathematics in an innovative way. Yes I think the seminar system helps...and I think it has this support... you can discuss the coursework questions which is what it is about... although it is not my own ideal thing... I would be interested in comparing the seminar system with other maths departments...with a seminar system that has us a part of it ... if this is not too far fetched... A lot of students go to the seminars to ask about the seminar questions and not to expand their mind on what the subject is about [...] Yeah... I mean the seminar system just perpetuates the... it should give encouragement to

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students who are too lazy to do their work... but it doesn’t give any advantage to the ones who have done their work before hand...laughs...a seminar should be a discussion among peers... not just asking the lecturer how I am supposed to solve this... SN

The role of the seminar should therefore be manifold. First, it should not only give students the chance to resolve any object-level or metalevel difficulties and improve their mathematical learning, but also to encourage them to ‘expand their minds’ through exposure to new mathematical tasks, discussions with peers and inspiring conversations with staff members. Second, seminars should expand students’ spectrum of experience through exposure to new challenges, applications, and examples that would help them produce innovative proofs. For SN, communication is a challenge for thinking. Seminars, moreover, should involve communicational activities through which students would improve their object-level and metalevel mathematical understanding.

CASE STUDY In this section, I intend to discuss a certain conversation between the seminar leader (SL) and a student (S), during which the student has managed to produce an innovative, according to the seminar leader, proof. Moreover, I highlight what characteristics of the given conversation have contributed to the creation of this proof. The mathematical task to proved was the following: Suppose (G,o) is a group with the property that g2 = e, for all g E e. Prove that for all g1, g2 E G we have g1 g2 = g1g2 (that is, G is abelian). The ordinary solution, which was suggested by the lecturer through examples and, later on, handed out in the ‘notes on solutions’ for the particular exercise was the following: By assumption, (g1g2)2=e , so g1g2g1g2 = e. Multiply both sides on the left by g1 and on the right by g2 to get g12g2g1g22 = g1g2. As g12 = g22 = e , this gives what we want. Student’s proof that the given group is abelian involved a different, innovative technique, in the sense that, no example was given in the lecture notes suggesting such approach, and through a conversation with the seminar leader, without mimicking any other source of information. As seen below, the student did not start using the property of the group but he rather started by doing manipulations on a group element, namely g1g2 on which he applied accurately the group axioms, some of them more than once. In the second step of his solution he introduced a third element, namely g3, showing both inventiveness and awareness in relation to the property of closure of group elements.

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The solution is given below.

The conversation between the student and the seminar leader, a very experienced and prize awarded professor for his teaching abilities, has certain characteristics, which have possibly contributed to the production of this innovative proof. SL1: Ok… can I see what you did? Show me where you started. S1: Ok… g1g2 then times it by the identity… […] And then by g1 you can rearrange the brackets any way you like… by the associative law… But then I rearranged it… but this is what we are trying to prove… g1g2 = g2g1 . So I think… I don’t suppose this is any good… to rearrange it like that… SL2: Yeah… I think I sunk… at some point. So you started with g1 then you multiplied with by g22 ! and then all the rest is rearranging… S2: Yeah, it’s rearranging… but keeping it in the same order… SL3: Yeah… S3: But changed the order here…

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SL4: But how do you know how to do that? S4: That’s why I think it is wrong… because that is what we are trying to prove… SL5: I like that trick… Um… my instinct is that it’s not going to work this method, which is a shame… you had a nice trick… and more importantly…you used one of the hypothesis, which is that… I suppose there are ways to fiddle with that trick… what if you try to multiply the other side with g12 as well… would that do any good? S5: Umm… SL6: Umm… no I suspect not… You would come to the same point you want to rearrange… It’s a pity you deserve to work… S6: Wait a minute… it worked… SL7: Oh, it worked? Oh, you’re a beauty! Wow… laughs… that is nice… I have never seen that solution before actually… Check it… Ooh! It looks pretty cool… That’s different from the lecturer’s solution… Yeah… I have seen lots of guys doing this exercise, but not like this before…

The first characteristic of his instructing approach is the flexibility he shows regarding the students’ idea of how to start and develop his proof. Although SL has at hand the lecturer’s suggested proof, he encouraged the student to initiate a proof that at the beginning looked unorthodox. A second characteristic is the overtness with which SL expresses his thinking and reveals his reasoning (SL2, SL4 and SL5). This characteristic of their communication, urges the student to give further explanations and reconsider his approach (S2, S3 and S4). A third characteristic is the constant encouragement towards the student even if the proof does not appear to be correct at the beginning (SL5 and SL6). This probably contributes to the student’s persistence in following the particular proof approach. Finally, a fourth characteristic is the words of reward that SL expresses so overtly (SL7). From an affective perspective this last communicational characteristic is particularly important, since it enthralls student’s success in proving a certain mathematical task.

CONCLUSION Students in this study are aware of the importance of effective mathematical communication, with particular focus of the significance of proof as a rigorous and elegant way of communicating their reasoning. The use of visual mediators is important in the enhancement of mathematical communication, according to students ’ perception. Teaching and instruction in the context of lecture and seminar respectively, ought to allow students to participate more actively, and encourage them to expand their spectrum of experiences through mathematical challenges and communication with peers and experienced mathematicians. This would lead them to have a more critical approach to learning, improve their metalevel mathematical understanding and possibly allow them to be more innovative in their proof production. Finally, this study conjectures that there are certain communicational characteristics

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that possibly contribute to students’ production of innovative proofs, namely, flexibility in the instructive approach, overtness in the way the instructor expresses his reasoning and views during the process of proof production, reasonable encouragement towards students, and rewarding remarks when plausible. Further research is required in order to verify these four communicational characteristics.

REFERENCES Alcock, L., et al. “Workbooks for independent study of group theory proofs.” Conference on Research in Undergraduate Mathematics Education. Raleigh, NC. (2009). Dreyfus, T. “Why Johnny can’t prove.” Educational Studies in Mathematics 38: 85109. (1999). Dubinsky, E., J. Dautermann, et al. “On learning the fundamental concepts of Group Theory.” Educational Studies in Mathematics 27(3): 267-305. (1994). Gueudet, G. “Investigating the secondary-tertiary transition.” Educational Studies in Mathematics 67: 237-254. (2008). Ioannou, M. (2012). Conceptual and Learning Issues in Mathematics Undergraduates’ First Encounter with Group Theory: A Commognitive Analysis. School of Education and Lifelong Learning. Norwich, University of East Anglia. PhD: 361. Moore, R. C. “Making the transition to formal proof.” Educational Studies in Mathematics 27: 249-266. (1994). Segal, J. “Learning about mathematical proof: Conviction and validity.” Journal of Mathematical Behavior 18(2): 191-210. (2000). Sfard, A. Thinking as Communicating: Human development, the growth of discourses, and mathematizing, Cambridge University Press. (2008). Weber, K. “Student difficulty in constructing proofs: The need for strategic knowledge.” Educational Studies in Mathematics 48(1): 101-119. (2001). Zazkis, R., E. Dubinsky, et al. “Coordinating visual and analytic strategies: A study of students’ understanding of the group D4.” Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 27(4): 435-457. (1996).

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Session 3.1 Innovation

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THE 1ST SUMMER SCHOOL OF YOUTH ENTREPRENEURSHIP AT THE UNIVERSITY OF THE AEGEAN: PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION, EVALUATION Anastasia Constantelou(*) and Vasilis Angelis(**)

(*) Assistant Professor of Innovation Management, Department of Financial and Management Engineering, School of Management Sciences, University of the Aegean, Kountouriotou 41, 82100 Chios, Greece. E-mail: a.konstantelou@fme.aegean.gr (**) Professor of Quantitative Methods, Deputy Head of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit, Department of Business Administration, School of Management Sciences, University of the Aegean, Michalon 8, 82100 Chios, Greece. E-mail: vaggel@aegean.gr

ABSTRACT At the end of 2011, the University of the Aegean set up its Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit. The Unit’s main objective is the promotion of innovation and entrepreneurship as a favorable prospect for employment among the University’s students. In July 2012, the Unit organized in Chios island the 1st Summer School of Youth Entrepreneurship. The School aimed to establish co-operation networks among participants (academics, business people, undergraduates and postgraduates students of the University of the Aegean), introduce tools and methods for the implementation of successful business plans, and give students the opportunity to apply their entrepreneurial skills and knowledge on real field projects. This paper presents an overview of the Summer School and discusses its planning, implementation, evaluation and results.

1. Introduction At the end of 2011, the University of the Aegean started up the operation of its Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit. The main objectives of this Unit are the advancement of entrepreneurial culture among students and the promotion of innovation and entrepreneurship as a favorable prospect for employment. In trying to achieve its objectives, the Unit combines the following activities: • Knowledge on entrepreneurial issues through lectures followed by relevant cases studies, business plans and business games. • The development of innovative and creative spirit through the establishment of

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Entrepreneurship Awards. • The establishment of close relationships between the University and the local and national business community for the exchange of ideas and experiences, • Regular visits of students to selected innovative enterprises and lectures given to the students by business people and managers. One of the main activities of the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit is the organization of a Summer School on Youth Entrepreneurship. The 1st Summer School of Youth Entrepreneurship took place in Chios from 2nd to 6th July 2012. The School’s main aim was to act as a meeting venue for the fruitful cooperation among academics, business people, managers, undergraduates as well as postgraduates students and recent graduates. Its main objectives were to: • Advance the idea that entrepreneurship is based on skills and abilities, which may be acquired through formal education, but also on personal characteristics, such as audacity, risk tolerance and inventiveness, which may be encouraged and systematically developed throughout a person’s working life. • Establish co-operation networks among participants. • Acquaint students with tools and methods for the implementation of successful business plans, and • Give students the opportunity to apply their academic knowledge about entrepreneurial issues on real field projects This paper gives a thorough account of the whole experience of organizing such an event for the first time in a Greek University located in the European periphery. The paper discusses in detail all aspects of the organization of the 1st Summer School of Youth Entrepreneurship, from initial inception to planning, implementation, and evaluation of results. The paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents an overview of the University of the Aegean and the scope of the newly established Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit. Section 3 discusses the rationale for the set up of the Summer School. Section 4 discusses the process of planning and organizing the Summer School and Section 5 discusses the implementation phase. Finally, the last Section 6 presents the main findings of students’ evaluation of the whole initiative.

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2. The University of the Aegean and the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit The University of the Aegean has a unique characteristic: Its Schools and Departments are located on six different islands in the Aegean Sea (Lesvos , Chios, Samos, Syros, Limnos, and Rhodes), thus making it a pioneer networked and university that actively promotes inter-disciplinarity and innovation. The University currently consists of 17 Departments hosted by 5 different Schools as follows: • SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES (LESVOS) - Department of Social Anthropology and History - Department of Geography - Department of Sociology - Department of Cultural Technology and Communication • SCHOOL OF THE ENVIRONMENT (LESVOS) - Department of Environment - Department of Marine Sciences - Food and Nutrition Sciences (based in Lemnos) • SCHOOL OF BUSINESS (CHIOS) - Department of Business Administration - Department of Shipping, Trade and Transport - Department of Financial and Management Engineering • SCHOOL OF SCIENCES (SAMOS) - Department of Mathematics - Department of Information and Communication Systems Engineering - Department of Statistics and Actuarial-Financial Mathematics • SCHOOL OF HUMANITIES (RHODES) - Department of Primary Education - Department of Pre-school Education and Educational Design - Department of Mediterranean Studies • University Unit of Syros (SYROS)   - Department of Product & Systems Design Engineering The Innovation and Entrepreneurship Unit of the University is part of the Bureau of Employment and Career and is concerned with the design, implementation and monitoring of all activities supporting entrepreneurship education across all Schools and Departments of the University. The Unit is based in Chios and is hosted by the School of Management Sciences. Its primary objective is to cultivate an innovative and creative spirit among students through the development of educational courses

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and company case studies on entrepreneurship, as well as Business Plan and Business Game software solutions in an e-learning environment. The Unit also aims to liaise with the business world via lectures by guest speakers and visits to selected innovative enterprises. One distinctive activity of the Unit has been the organization of the annual Summer School of Youth Entrepreneurship.

3. The Rationale As already discussed, the University’s scattered structure has been both an advantage and a great challenge to its operation. Our students are spread across the Aegean Sea and face practical difficulties having limited opportunities to know each other, work together, and develop common interests. On the other hand, it is exactly the innovative character and interdisciplinary nature of our Schools and Departments that is our wealth and we have to take advantage of it. For these reasons, the idea of hosting a summer school on entrepreneurship bringing together only students of the University of the Aegean sounded extremely intriguing. The academic staff of the University would also benefit from the event through the exchange of ideas and expertise over entrepreneurship education with peers from other universities and countries. In addition, the School of Management Sciences has had the physical resources and manpower required to host such an event. The School could materialize as the opportunity for funding became available through European Structural Funds1.

4. The Planning Phase During the preparation period, we identified a number of challenges. For example, since entrepreneurship as a topic is not only taught but can also be experienced-based, one great challenge was how best to combine theory with practice so that students with a real interest in entrepreneurship would be attracted to the Program and become involved in an action-oriented approach. Another challenge was how to exploit the interdisciplinary background of our students and turn it to an advantage while opening up to the “outside world”, that is to the business and academic community beyond the university borders. Finally, we aimed to “spread the word” as widely as possible to our student communities across all University Departments and make the Summer School a point of reference for our students. For these to happen we had to act “professionally” in the organization of the event. We also knew which things to avoid: not too much teaching, too much theory, too loose program so that students would go to the beach instead of attending the Summer School, and not too technical 1  The School was funded by the Operational Program for Education and Life-Long Learning administered by the Greek Ministry of Education, Religion and Life-Long Learning.

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content so to cater for all students’ different backgrounds. The planning phase started in late April 2012 and comprised the following activities: (a) Drafting of the Call for Expression of Interest, (b) Dissemination of the Call to student communities across the University, (c) Establishment of a procedure for the selection of representative candidates from all University Departments, and (d) Preparation of the structure and organization of the event. The Registration Form that accompanied the Call for Expression of Interest asked candidates to write a short paragraph on their rationale to attend the Summer School and (optionally) to briefly describe an entrepreneurial idea they might have. The final selection was made according to the following principles: • Equal representation of participants from all departments. The number of students representing each department was calculated based on the number of applications received by that Department to the total number of applications received. The resulting quotient represented the “weight” of each department in the final selection. • Geographic representation of participants per island. • Equal distribution by gender to avoid discrimination. • Timely receipt of completed application form and additional supporting material • Year and level of study (undergraduate / master / doctorate) • Rationale to attend the Summer School • Availability of entrepreneurial idea A total of 30 students were selected from 14 out of the 17 Departments of the University. At the same time, collaboration with foreign teams working in the area of entrepreneurship education became an important objective as it could bring in new ideas for the organisation of the Summer School. A search on the Internet for similar events organized in Greece and abroad identified a number of initiatives (summer schools, bootcamps, crash courses on entrepreneurship, etc.) with a mixed picture regarding their scope and activities. Some events put emphasis on networking with peers and people from the industry, others offered a light-handed approach on the basics of entrepreneurship, others put an emphasis on technology-based entrepreneurship (mostly ICT-based, e.g. mobile applications). Moreover, their content was often tailored to the needs of particular groups whereas their duration varied from a single weekend to a whole academic semester.

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The approach we finally adopted was based on the belief that the Summer School should act as a meeting point for a fruitful cooperation among academics, entrepreneurs, business people, undergraduate and graduate students of the University of the Aegean. It should promote the idea that entrepreneurship is based both on skills and abilities acquired through formal training as well as on other individual characteristics such as courage, tolerance to risk and ingenuity, all of which could be systematically cultivated and encouraged. At the same time, the Summer School should acquaint students with the essential tools and methods for writing effective business plans and give them the opportunity to have a hands-on experience as close to real-life situations as possible. To implement our approach we established collaboration with the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Units of the University of Thessaly and of the National Technical University of Athens in order to benefit from their longer and wider experience in entrepreneurship education and activities, involve relevant tutors from these Universities in the group of summer school teachers, and consult with colleagues over the structure, curriculum, and supporting activities of the summer school. We also established an open line of communication with the Interdisciplinary Institute for Broadband Technology (IBBT) in Belgium. IBBT builds on the excellence of scientific research groups in Flanders and works with more than 1000 researchers from 19 IBBT research groups within the Flemish universities. It actively supports entrepreneurship training , coaching, incubation and acceleration. Its student entrepreneurship programme involves extra-curriculum activities and is organised together with the Flemish Universities that are partners of IBBT. The Institute combines courses from the technology faculty with programmes from the Business Schools into a Technopreneurial Master Course. It organises events, workshops and identifies coaches and also provides early stage funding for students, hosts a co-working space, and runs an internationalisation program for “born global” companies. Through our collaboration with IBBT, we got several ideas about how to structure the Program of the Summer School. For example, a shorter and lighter version of their iBoot camp could be followed. In addition, they could provide expertise on how to combine workshops (technical knowledge) with hands-on practice. With IBBT executives we exchanged views on possible solutions to potential problems. For example, we discussed that: • Students should be assigned with ‘deliverables’ so they know what the goal is and what they need to achieve • Students should be given incentives in order to attract their attention • Since most of the students won’t know each other and have never worked together it would be wise to organise teambuilding activities. The creation of multidisciplinary teams can add great value to the Summer School entrepreneurial

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seminars.

Based on the information and the ideas we shared, we structured the Summer School, drafted the program, allocated time to academic staff and invited external speakers for teaching and coaching.

5. The Implementation Phase The Summer School was structured around the model of an entrepreneurial boot camp where teams of students would be offered the opportunity to have a firsthand experience of the difficult road to turn ideas and business opportunities into viable and executable business plans. A “light” stage-gate approach was adopted, which included the following steps: Idea Sourcing: This stage started prior to the Summer School and was completed the first day of the event. During that stage all entrepreneurial ideas from the students were collected by the Secretariat of the Summer School. A first lot of ideas collected from the students in their application forms. These ideas were put on a white board on the first day of the School (after lunch-time) so students could pin on the idea that they would like to work on. The idea owners were invited to present and “sell” their ideas in order to build a team. Those students who had not sent us their ideas but participated to the Summer School were encouraged to submit their ideas as well. Team building : This bottom-up process ended with the formation of working teams after several “marriages” among different idea owners. A total of 6 working teams with 3 to 5 team members each were formed. Each team had a multidisciplinary synthesis as it was comprised by students from different Departments of the University. In the afternoon lecture of the the 1st day students were introduced to the NABC (Need, Approach, Benefit and Cost) method for pitching ideas, which was supposed to guide their work in the rest of the week. Preparation of Feasibility Analysis: During the 5 days of the Summer School, a combination of lectures, coaching, and team work helped the team members to develop their business opportunity plans. The morning and afternoon lectures covered in a practical way the most important elements of a business plan, including strategic analysis, market and industry analysis, financials, conflict resolution techniques, etc. Lectures were given by members of the academic staff of the Business School and guest speakers from NTUA, the University of Thessaly, and IBBT. In the in-between periods, tutors acted as mentors, were going from group to group helping the students to structure their thinking, ask additional questions and share their own thoughts and

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feedback on the team’ original idea. Students were spending their entire day at the Uni. The outcome of that stage was a preliminary feasibility analysis of each business idea, ready to be pitched to an external audience. Presentation of the business opportunity plan: At the last day of the Summer School the teams presented (“pitched”) their idea and supporting feasibility analysis to a panel of academics and business people from the island of Chios. All presentations were made in English. The panel assessed the business potential of each proposal , made recommendation s for the next stage, and selected the most well grounded presentation for an award. As an award, the panel members agreed to contribute to the “networking” efforts of the winning team and bring it in contact with potential contributors and investors.

6. The Evaluation Phase An on-line evaluation took place after the end of the Summer School where both students and academics/instructors participated. More specifically, 22 out of 25 students answered the evaluation questionnaire. Some highlights of the students’ evaluation are the following: • 16 out of 22 students (62%) thought that the objectives of the Summer School were achieved to a significant extend. • 18 out of 22 students (82%) thought that the level of lectures was high or very high • 20 out of 22 students (90%) thought that the instructors’ knowledge and experience was more than satisfactory. • 19 out of 22 students (86%) thought that instructors could well raise the interest of students during the lectures • 21 out of 22 students were very satisfied by the secretarial and technical support provided • Overall, 18 out of 22 students (82%) stated that they were satisfied to very satisfied from the works of the Summer School. To conclude, the 1st Summer School of Youth Entrepreneurship organized by the University of the Aegean in Chios Island was an extremely successful first attempt to combine entrepreneurship theory with hands-on practical experience. It proved that students are willing to take up such a challenge, despite the fact that they are not necessarily prepared for it during their normal curriculum. Working in small groups and with interdisciplinary teams made all the difference. Our style of work demanded

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mentors/coaches that could help students in their line of thinking. This is in fact an area that we could work further in the future, that is develop a network of mentors and coaches of national and international orientation that could provide practical advice and inspiration to our students..

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SEMANTIC INFORMATIONSYSTEM FOR HEALTH CARE Dr. Peter Scholten

Dr. Ji Jie

Scholten Consultancy

Jining University

The Netherland

Qufu, Shandong, China

peterscholten@hetnet.nl

flashseason@126.com

Presented at EastMeetsWest Conference, 2012, Cyprus

ABSTRACT Coming years special attention has to be given to ICT for Health and ageing well with his focus on Prevention, Health promotion and integrated Health Care. We have developed a semantic information system can be used for improving healthcare and prevention of sickness. The system could collect medical information from the Internet, convert knowledge to ontology and answer user questions in an interactive way.By support of this research it has been proven that a semantic approach with inferred relations between diseases and symptoms can manage these complex problems called multimorbidity, which can be used as a first indication for a possibility of some diseases.

1. INTRODUCTION Coming years special attention has to be given to ICT for Health and ageing well with his focus on Prevention, Health promotion and integrated Health Care. Due to a rapidly rising ofolder people in Europe there is a need for a creation of more opportunities for older people to stay longer in work. Predictions are that, by 2060, about 30% of the EU population will be aged 65+. The percentage of the EU population aged 80+ is forecast to increase fourfold from 1990 to 2060. However this is asking for improving the quality of life of older people. At the same time it is clear that the economic and social models of the past fifty years will not be able to face up to these changes. If people are living longer, we suppose they are also remaining healthy longer and the demand for health and support services will not increase at the same rate as the numbers of older people.

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This is asking for a complete renovation of our healthcare system. Health care should be cared for health. Many of the illnesses that cause poor health and dependency, such as cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and mental illness, are preventable and their consequences on older people’s wellbeing can be managed. Chronical diseases are becoming a real health problem. In 2003 there were about 600,000 Dutch persons with diabetes and we expect a double of it within 2025. On a world-scale these numbers are growing from 250 million up to 380 million in 2025. This has resulted in 2 trends: • Cost-development: The costs of healthcare have been increased enormous the last years and for many groups too high. • Realization of health care. In several EU countries the number of persons working in healthcare is out of proportions. We expect this number in 2025 to be above 20%, which is not possible to realize any more. The solution is to change healthcare in care for health and a semantic information system will give support to such a transformation. This can save Milliard Euros/yr. The last years more people have found internet for searching for information for healthcare. Many discussions have taken place about self-management in healthcare. However self-management for healthcare should be better managed and an interactive smart system is needed. The number of health portals is growing every day, which does not support any more the transparency in healthcare. On top of this, most information system we can’t find information within some context as we might expect to solve real practical problems. A second problem is that most healthcare portals are database oriented, without support for exchange of information between different systems. Search in Google results in many answers, but not always in a solution of a medical problem. A semantic information system is the solution for all of these problems and can generate a direct answer to some formulated problems. A semantic information system can beseen as a basic for improving healthcare and prevention of sickness. • A semantic information system can give support to the further development of the process of self-management in health. • Enormous cost can be saved if caretakers can prepare themselves much better

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than before consulting a medical doctor. It saves time and misunderstandings. • With the help of a semantic information system we can search for information within some context and in this way we will be able to do more accurate searchesand the services they need from the tools provided. • The last years many new medicines have been developed and taken into account the complexity of several diseases, a semantic “decision support system” will give support to find the best medicine and will in this way improve the quality of treatment. • A semantic information system can use its own vocabulary, which will help low educated people during searching for information. • A semantic information system can be modelled with the purpose of sharing, developing and reusing knowledge. Knowledge in the field of healthcare should be described in such a way that information systems can understand it and execute automatic all kinds of tasks. This can be done by ontologies. This is the concept of adding meaning to the data that are presented on the web. Associated semantic descriptions can be used by automated reasoners to infer implicit meaning and relations which would provide for more contextually relevant information. Within the last decade, ontologies have emerged as a powerful standard for representing computer-tractable knowledge. Amongst others, the Semantic Web initiative is one of the driving forces behind this development. Current ontology languages like OWL-DL have stable, well-founded and expressive semantics using Description Logics as underlying knowledge representation standard. Interactive semantic systemcan give answers to user questions, like: • Having symptoms, • What kind of disease can it be • What kind of treatment can be done • How serious is my problem, when to see a doctor • Personal treatment: - Name medical doctor - Where to find - How to get there • Treatment by medicine

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- What kind of medicine - Where to buy • Support by assistive technology - Kind of prosthetics - Where to buy As shown inFigure1, the system contains three components: • Information gathering component collects medical information from different sitesand generates Meta ontology. The ontology connects different system together and is used as the backend database in our semantic system. • Query process component provides diagnostic information by imitating the conversations between patient and professional. It could convert natural language question to machine understandable Description Logic query (DL query), send suggestion/feedback to patientsin an interactive way.

Figure 1. Three Components

• User interface componentprovides a universal, web-based interface and showsmedical information to theuser in various ways. This paper is organized as follows: Section 2 mainly talks about the information gathering component; Section 3 describes the query processing components, including reasoner, natural language interpreter; in Section 4 we show the feedback mechanism and information displaying components; the last section is the conclusion and future works

2. INFORMATION GATHERING COMPONENT This component prepares the backend database of the developed system. As shown in Figure 2, first, we use PHP to collect medical information from different professional site; secondly, sub ontologies are generated for each site; finally, ontologies from different domain are merged together.

2.1 Get medical entities

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A medical entity can be a proper noun, or an independent existence in the medical domain. Entity set is a set of grouped entities. Examples like disease, symptom, hospital name, medical instrument, etc.In order to keep information explicit, the results returned by a search engine cannot be used here. Instead, medical knowledge is selected from several professional medical sites. In this paper, information snatches work is done by PHP [1]. A PHP library package simple_dom_HTML is utilized to convert variant site pages to XML, and then special PHP programs are made for each site [2]. For example, from the site Mayo Clinic we can get diseases, symptoms and medicines [3], from site ZorgkaartNetherland we can get institute names, professional names all over the Netherland [4]. All entities and their relative URLs are stored in MySQL database [5]. After getting entities, we need to create relations between entities, for example, relationships between disease and symptom, relationships between professional and disease. String matching is the basic idea to create relationships between entities and . As one entity may appear in different names, for example, “gynaecologist” and “obstetrics”, “gynaecology”, or “pregnancy”,we made an alternative keyword set for such kind of entities. Suppose has m relevant URLs and has n alternative keywords, the relation between and is established as follows: • Step1: Open relative URL of • Step 2: Search all keywords of otherwise, go to next URL of

in page , if exist, create a relation from

to ;

Note that plural forms, letter lower/upper case and special symbols are normalized before string matching.

Figure 2. Information Gathering

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2.2 Generate Ontology Ontology is an explicit specification of conceptualization. It is a body of knowledge describing some domain, typically common sense knowledge domain. In order to apply a reasoner on collected information, knowledge stored in relational database has to be changed to ontologies. An ontology contains three basic concepts: class, individual and property. Class can be defined as an extension or an intension. Individual is an instance or an object of a class, which is the basic component of an ontology. Properties between objects in an ontology specify how objects are related to other objects. For example, two records in mySQL are listed in Figure 3. Relation between database and ontology. As both two tables have same disease_id 277, Symptom entity “Abdominal pain” is symptom of Disease entity diarrhea. This can be done in ontology by a triple description: Diarrhea hasSymptom Abdominal_pain or Abdominal_pain isSymptomOf diarrhea In ontology, “diarrhea” is an individual of class Disease, “Abdominal pain” is an individual of class Symptom. Property “hasSymptom” is the property between Disease and Symptom, which takes Disease as its domain and Symptom as its range. Property “isSymptomOf” is the inverse property of “hasSymptom”.

Figure 3. Relation between database and ontology

From the above example, we can find a simple corresponding relation between relational database and ontology: The names of entity sets are classes; entities are

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individuals; relationships between entities are properties.According to this relation, we use OWL API 3 to convert classes, individuals and relations from MySQL to sub ontologies programmatically [6]. Each sub ontology describes relations between two classes. Next, we use ProtĂŠgĂŠ 4 to merge all sub ontologies to one ontology [7]. Duplicated and synonymous individuals were merged as one individual. Figure 4 shows the final ontology in our system. The merge operation makes information exchange between different knowledge domains possible. This ontology will be used as the backend ontology in the next querying processing component.

Figure 4. The backendontology

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3. QUERY PROCESSING COMPONENT Using query processing component, a user could use natural language to find useful medical knowledge through conversations. Three modules are used to achieve this purpose: reasoner, natural language interpreter and feedback module. Figure 5 shows the flow chart of the query processing component.

Figure 5. Query Processing Component

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3.1 Reasoner A description logic reasoner is a piece of software able to query and infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms. A reasoner accepts DL query as input. The DL query allows users to quickly test definitions of classes to see that they subsume the appropriate subclasses and individuals. In our system, a DL query contains three parameters: property, mode and individual names. Property specifies the relationship and individual names are query inputs. A DL query “hasSymptom value ” could get a disease set that has symptom . When we have multiple individuals, “and” and “some” modes are used hereto indicate the intersection or union operation between result sets. Suppose we have two symptoms and , under “and” mode, the generated DL query is: property value and property value , which is an intersection of two disease sets. Under “some” mode, the generated DL query is: property some {, }, which is a union operation of two disease sets. These two modes are equal when the number of individuals is one. A reasoner also infers current ontology to make relations completely. For example, if there is condition 1: “diarrhea hasSymptom Abdominal_pain”, and condition 2: “hasSymptom and isSymptomOf are inverse properties”, a reasoned could infer “Abdominal_pain isSymptomOf diarrhea” automatically. In this paper, we use FaCT++ as the backend reasoned [8]. The FaCT++ is the new generation of the well-known FaCT OWL-DL reasoner. Additionally, FaCT++ is implemented using C++ in order to create a more efficient software tool, and to maximize portability.

3.2 Natural LanguageInterpreter One task of the Natural Language Interpreter (NLI) is to find out individual names from the user description as the initialize DL query input. This is simply realized by string matching. Another task is to understand and convert natural language to reasoner understandable DL queries. In NLI, the ontology is treated as a directed graph, as shown in Figure 4, where nodes represent classes and directed edges represent properties between classes. Each node is described by several prototypes, and each prototype is a natural language sentence. Given an input sentence, the k Nearest Neighbour (kNN) algorithm is used to find out the most similar node [9]. When NLI receives user input, it divides user input to two parts: description and question. By using kNN, The description is mapped to a start nodeand the question is mapped to anend node. Once the NLI gets and , sub DL queries can be generated according to the

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ontology graph. There are three route patterns of and : • Isolate node: This happens when user description is empty. In this case, the start node is Empty, there is no property and individual, only end node is considered. For example, “List all diseases” belongs to node Disease, it generates DL query Disease. • Neighbour node: When and are neighbour nodes, there is an edge between them. The DL query is some {,,…} or value and value and … Where is the property which takes as domain and as range, respectively; is the i-th individual of node . “And” and “some” mode are predefined in NLI. • Non-neighbour node: We use a route search algorithmto find the shortest query route between two non-neighbour nodes. A sequence of DL queries is generated for each sub route. The previous DL query’s result is used as next query’s input. A user input “My abdominal feels pain, what medicine should I use?” wants to find treatment from symptom. However, Symptom and Treatment are not adjacent nodes. The shortest route between Symptom and Treatment is Symptom -> Disease -> Treatment. Thus, two DL queries are generated: hasSymptom some {Abdominal_pain}, canCure some {, , …}, where is Disease individuals generated by the first DL query.

4. USER INTERFACE The web-based user interfaceuses widgets and helping messages to help the user use our system. The GUI has feedback, query editing and information displaying functions. We use Google Web Toolkit (GWT) to connect client side GUI to server side programs [10].

4.1 Feedback function Feedback function mainly provides helping message, system status and translation service. • Helping message: Once the query route is generated, the system shows the route in natural language to ask the user to confirm. For example, “For your question, we have two steps. Step 1: We will find disease(s) from your symptom(s). Step 2: We will find treatments for disease(s).” For each sub query, the system will show what need to do now, what is the output. • System status: This shows the system status. Example status are busy or idle, what is undergoing, error messages and so on.

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• Translation function: User could specify language (currently English and Dutch are available) before using the system.

Figure 6. Candidate symptom and multi-morbidity

4.2 Query editing function As the system is conversation based, both input and sub queries are free in form. The query editing function restricts user’s input machine understandable and allows the user to edit sub queries any time. The system provides the following functions: • Input normalization: When the maximum similarity of user input is lower that a threshold, the system shows a popup a window with input suggestions. A user could rewrite the description / question. • Similar input selection: The system will provide similar individual names. For example, the best individual fits to “My abdominal feels pain” is “Abdominal_pain”, but the system will also provide other options like “Abdominal_pain_cramping”, “Lower_abdominal_pain”, “Severe_abdominal_pain”, etc. Thesesimilarinputs may help the user to get more accurate results. • Candidate individual selection: The system could provide candidate individuals by inverse querying. A user could fine-tune input individuals through this feature. For example, when a patient feels uncomfortable, he/she may only realized the most obvious symptom rather than realize all existing symptoms. As shown in Figure6,

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from the initial symptom input we can get disease 1, then use an inverse query to get more inferred symptoms related to this disease. When a user feels Abdominal_ pain, he can get disease diarrhea. The system then lists all symptoms of diarrhea, like “Abdominal_cramps”, “Fever”, “Bloating”, “Blood_stool”, “Frequent_loose_ water_stools” and so on. If the patient selects another symptom, the possibility of diarrhea will increase. Meanwhile, the patient may also have a higher probability to getother diseases. • Multi-morbidity checker: One patient may have more than one disease at the same time.This is called multi-morbidity. The system lists all possible disease and corresponding symptoms, and asks the user to check existing symptoms. The reliability of each disease is calculated during this procedure in order to improve the quality of the found disease.

Figure 7. Default display method

Figure 8. Map information

4.3 Information Displaying Due to characters of different class, the final query result is provided to the user in various ways. We currently provided following ways to user: • Default: The query result is listed by default. As shown in Figure 7, when click, relative information is shown in a new window.

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• Professional: For professionals, we show the user the address, average score and several search options as in Figure 8. • Medical instrument: Figure 9 provides a preview of medical instruments to the user. • Others: For other classes, such as companies, we link to their websites directly.

Figure 9. Preview

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS The explosive development of knowledge in the field of medicine is asking for SMART support systems. Finding relations to two or more different diseases are not easy to handle within a tree oriented “if..then..else” system. By support of this research it has been proven that a semantic approach with inferred relations between diseases and symptoms can manage these complex problems called multimorbidity. Even the extension to medicine and ADL tools are simple to realize. Not all people experience the same symptoms and the appearance of some symptoms can be more significant than others. This means that the results of this semantic system can be used only as a first indication for a possibility of some diseases. It can never be seen as a replacement of a medical docter, but can save time and can improve the quality of diagnoses by using it as a pre-consulting tool. Beside this, it can serve as a service not standard integrated in first line health care. For further improvement of the diagnoses some patient’s characteristics like body weight, blood pressure etc. based on clinical tests have to be added.

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REFERENCE PHP: http://www.php.net Simple HTML DOM: http://simplehtmldom.sourceforge.net Mayo Clinic: http://www.mayoclinic.com ZorgkaartNetherland: http://www.zorgkaartnederland.nl Apache MySQL: http://www.apachefriends.org/en/xampp.html M. Horridge and S. Bechhofer. The OWL API: A Java API for working with owl 2 ontologies. In Proceedings of the 6th International Workshop on OWL: Experiences and Directions (OWLED 2009), volume 529 of CEUR Workshop Proceedings, 2009. Protege 4: http://protege.stanford.edu FactPlusPlus: http://code.google.com/p/factplusplus Hall P, Park BU, Samworth RJ, «Choice of neighbor order in nearest-neighbor classification». 36 (5), Annals of Statistics. Google Web Toolkit: https://developers.google.com/web-toolkit

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User Profile Architecture Konstantinos Agnantis*, Konstantinos Kalogirou*, Taxiarchis Tsaprounis* and Evangelos Bekiaris* *Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Hellenic Institute of Transport, 6th km Charilaou-Thermi, 57001, Thermi, Thessaloniki, Macedonia, GREECE {kagnantis,kalogir,Taxiarchis.Tsaprounis,abek}@certh.gr

Abstract The purpose of this paper is to present the User Profile architecture that has been developed as part of the OASIS EU project[1]. The User Profile framework is a quite powerful and flexible mechanism that allows different applications to store their arbitrary preferences and properties in XML-structured documents. Also, these applications can be informed of changes that may occur to any property. This lightweight approach of storage makes the framework capable of being executed on both desktop and mobile environments. One of its key objectives is to keep synchronized all the user profiles that may reside on different devices. Applications that do not belong to the OASIS system can take advantage of the User Profile framework by using the publicly exposed Web Services. The User Profile framework provides seamless and transparent to the end-user interaction with the rest of the OASIS middleware architecture.

1. Introduction The User Profile module is responsible for the storage of the various properties/parameters an application wants to keep. These properties contain user and application specific information. All the common user specific properties that do not belong to a specific application, but are shared among all applications (like age, name etc), are stored to the User Profile, as well.

Because each user may own a variety of devices running his/her oasis application (a mobile, a PDA, a desktop pc), user profile module should use a mechanism to synchronize all these user profiles, so that no matter which application in whatever device a user is using, it should always has access to the most updated profile. This mechanism can be accomplished using a central profile server that stores all the updated profiles of all users and delivers them on demand to the oasis applications.

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Brooks et al. [4] in their work describe the MUMS (Massive User Modeling System) system. It is a centralized system that provides a user modeling service. As regard decentralized approaches, in [5] Heckmann et al. present decentralized architectures for user modeling where user-adaptive systems exchange information. The rapid growth of web applications caused the need for exchange, reuse and integration of data and user models. Additionally, a new challenge raised seeking solutions for user modeling and personalization across application boundaries [6].

2. Location The user profile repository is stored both at the server and device side. The user profile located at the server side, it is used as a back-up and as a reference point for all oasis enabled devices. Each oasis enabled device has a local copy of the user profile. Every application that wants to have access to the userâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s profile data has to use the UserProfile API in order to invoke it. Any oasis application that needs user profile data will exclusively use this local copy of the user profile to get the requested information. Nevertheless, the UserProfile API will provide the mechanism to update the local user profile with the remote one (stored on the Profile Server) and vice versa. Using an approach, we can achieve several goals. First of all, the usage of a centralized profile server ensures the integrity (by maintaining copies in several backup servers) and the availability (providing that there is an always- on internet connection) of all profile data to the end oasis user, eliminating the danger of user profile settings and preferences being damaged or lost due to a hardware or software failure of the device (pc, PDA or mobile phone) of an oasis user. Secondly, a centralized approach of the user profile, facilitate to a great extent the various issues which may arise concerning the synchronization process between different devices of the same oasis user. Using the server as a reference point, we need to keep updated just this server. To achieve this, a connection between the server and each device is required. Otherwise, pair connections between all devices of the user have to be established, making the profile synchronization a really difficult task to handle. On the other hand, keeping an updated copy of the user profile into the end user device has a twofold positive effect:

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• The device’s user profile copy can be seen as a temporary storage of the profile, letting applications which heavily use profile, to store and retrieve user profile parameter faster, thus improving their responsiveness, as they won’t have to request them from a remote server. • A locally stored user profile will not prevent an application from running, even if the internet connection is temporarily down. In such a case all profile data will be retrieved from and stored to the local copy of the profile, and as soon as the internet connection re-established the updated user profile will be synchronized with the profile stored in the remote server.

3 Architecture 3.1 User Profile Structure It was considered to combine several different existing solutions like Gnome’s GConf configuration system [2] or Preferences Service which is provided by OSGi [3], in order to create a user profile framework that will be easy to implement and maintain following oasis applications’ requirements. The oasis User Profile Service does not use a database back-end in order to store the various user profile parameters. An important reason for not using a database is that there is a need to have a copy of a user profile to a great variety of end-user devices, some of which may have really limited resources and capabilities and are unable to handle a database (e.g. features mobile phones). Instead, all properties are stored in xml files. The xml files, in turn, are stored in a hierarchy of directories and subdirectories, depending on the names of the different parameters’ names. For that reason, the profile structure will format a tree, like one it shown in Fig. 1:

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[UserProfile] [Schemas] health.schema nutritional.schema ... [Users] [Kostas] [common] oasisconf.xml [apps] [health] oasisconf.xml [nutritional] oasisconf.xml [meals] oasisconf.xml [Nick] ... Fig. 1. Example of a User Profile Directory Structure

3.2 User Parameter Files There are two kind of files stored in the user profile server (remote1 and local2). The schemas files which are xml files and they are used to define the parameters that are going to be used by an application, and UserPref files that store the values of the parameters defined in the schemas files. Analytically: Schemas Files. An oasis application developer, in order to define the parameters that will be used or/and provided by his application should create a parameterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s description file called schemas file (which should be ending with a .schemas extension). Schema files are in a human-readable xml format. Figure 2 demonstrates the contents of such a file. This schemas file belongs to a health application, and the developer of this oasis application has defined three parameters (as you can see there are three 1â&#x20AC;&#x192; Remote profile server: the remote server that is running the profile service and holds the profiles of all users. 2â&#x20AC;&#x192; Local profile server : the server that is running the profile service locally (e.g. in the PDA or mobile phone) and holds the profile of a specific end user (owner of the device).

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schema elements - each schemas element defines a parameter): • enabled: boolean parameter • user age: integer parameter • friends: list of string parameter Each schema element contains meta-information about the key, which are the following: • applyto: defines the name and the full path to the application parameter (key). • owner: defines the owner of the key (i.e. the application that created the preference). • type: defines the type of the key. • default: defines the default value of the key. • locale: defines a short and long description of the key. It also supports internationalization as the developer can define a list of <locale > elements, for different languages. The schemas files of all oasis applications are stored to a specific location in the profile server.

<amiprefschemafile> <schemalist> <schema> <applyto>/apps/health/enabled</applyto> <owner>health</owner> <type>bool</type> <default>false</default> <locale name=”en”> <short>Enable application</short> <long> If true, the application’s icon is enabled and the user can load it. </long> </locale> </schema> <schema> <applyto>/apps/health/user_age</applyto>

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<owner>health</owner> <type>int</type> <default>5</default> <locale name=”en”> <short>User age</short> <long>

The current age of the user. The value should be greater than zero. A zero value means that the age is not defined.

</long> </locale> </schema> <schema> <applyto>/apps/health/friends</applyto> <owner>health</owner> <type sub=”string”>list</type> <default>{Nick;Maria}</default> <locale name=”en”> <short>User’s friends</short> <long> A list with the names of all the friends of the user. </long> </locale> </schema> </schemalist> </amiprefschemafile> Fig. 2. An example of a schemas file

UserPref files. UserPref files are simple human-readable xml files, too. Nevertheless, contrary to schemas files, which define the application’s parameters and their default values, userPref files keep track of these preferences that their values have been altered either by the user himself or by the application. For example, if the user John (or John’s application) change the value of the /apps/health/user_age property to 70 and the value of the /apps/health/friends

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property to {Nick;Maria;Sam}, then (if it does not exist) a new oasispref.xml file will be created under /users/John/apps/health directory, that will have the contents shown in Fig. 3:

<?xml version=”1.0”?> <!-- Created by OASIS XML handler software --> <amipref> <entry name=”user_age”> <mtime>1260285312</mtime> <type>int</type> <value>70</value> </entry> <entry name=”friends”> <mtime>1255954507</mtime> <type sub=”string”>list</type> <value> <li>Nick</li> <li>Maria</li> <li>Sam</li> </value> </entry> </amipref> Fig. 3. An example of a UserPref xml file

Each userPref.xml file contains a list of entry element. Each entry contains exactly the following information • name: the name of the parameter • mtime: the modification time of the parameter • type: the type of the parameter • value: the value of the parameter

Combining these two types of files may have the following advantages:

1. Let the application developer define the parameters that are supported by the application, and the type of them.

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2. Even if a user has not specified a value for a preference, there is always a default value for it. 3. Using schemas files and default values, we reduce the amount of redundant information. For example if no user will change any value of a preference of the health application then just one file (i.e., the health.schemas file) will hold all the necessary information. There is no need to keep one copy of health parameters file (oasispref.xml) for each user of the oasis system.

On the other side, there are some limitations of this way of storing profile data:

1. We cannot define a parameter that will be common for 2 or more applications. Any parameter should belong to exactly a specific application or it should be a common parameter, which means that it can be accessed from any application. 2. We cannot define new parameters on the fly; for example an application may want to add a new parameter nickname. If this parameter is not defined in the corresponding schemas file, then any attempt to add it to the user profile will fail. In order to successfully add a new parameter, it is necessary to manually update the schemas file.

4. User Profile Data Types Values are limited to a fixed set of simple primitive types: integer, double, string and boolean. Lists of each type are also allowed (etc. list of integers, list of strings). Recursive lists (lists of lists) are not allowed and lists must be homogeneous in type. For example, an integer and a string values cannot be stored in the same list. There are at least two simple workarounds if someone needs to store a complex object/struct type to the user profile repository: â&#x20AC;˘ Serialize the struct to a string then store it as a string type parameter, and deserialize it to the complex object/struct as soon as you get the parameterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s value back. â&#x20AC;˘ Make use a directory structure; define one key for each field of this structure. For example, if an object Person which has two attributes (name, surname) has to be stored, a schemas file of the application has to contain two distinct parameters; name and surname.

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5. Synchronization Techniques

There are different techniques we can apply for the user profile synchronization:

1. Manually by the user. There will be an update button on the GUI that the user clicks in order to update the user profile (server or client side). 2. Every time an application starts or exits. When the application starts the device side user profile should be updated. On the contrary, the server side user profile should be updated, when the application exits, in order any local changes to be uploaded to the server, too. 3. A time interval may be decided in order to check for updates. For example, the User Profile module can check every 10 minutes, if there is any changes to the local profile of the user, and in case there is, upload them to the server. 4. When oasis main application starts. The above techniques may be applied together or separately. Depending on the case, the whole profile may be updated or just a part of it.

5.1 Using the Profile Service As it has been seen so far, from an application point of view, the oasis User Profile Service uses a hierarchy of key-values pairs. Keys are named as UNIX-file-like paths. As soon as the profile initialization phase is over, any oasis application can ask the User Profile module for a specific parameter. The parameter does not have to belong to this specific application in order to be requested. For example a health application may request the value of a parameter that belongs to the route guidance application. On the other hand only the owner of a parameter can change the value of it (i.e. write permission). Each application will use a login mechanism to connect with the user profile service, so that the profile service will know which application wants to read or write to a profile property, and if the specific application has the appropriate privileges for such an action.

6. Conclusions This document tried to summarize the architecture and the main components of the User Profile module that will be used as an integral part of the whole oasis

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EU Project. Its architecture has been designed having in mind that the whole system should be usable and scalable so that it can be easily integrated not only to the oasis Platform, but can be used as a standalone user profile service platform that other projects or applications can take advantage of, as well.

References 1. OASIS European Research Project official homepage, http://www.oasis-project.eu/ 2. Pennington, H.: GConf: Manageable User Preferences. Ottawa Linux Syposium(2002) (414–424) 3. OSGI Alliance: OSGi Service Platform Service Compendium, Release 4, Version 4.1 (2007) (135–153) 4. C. Brooks, M. Winter, J. Greer, and G. McCalla. The massive user modelling system (MUMS). In Seventh International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Springer, 2004. 5. D. Heckmann, T. Schwartz, B. Brandherm, and A. Kröner. Decentralized user modeling with UserML and GUMO. In Decentralized, Agent Based and Social Approaches to User Modeling, Workshop DASUM-05 at 9th International Conference on User Modelling, pp 61–66, 2005. 6. M. Viviani, N. Bennani, and E. Egyed-Zsigmond. A Survey on User Modeling in Multi-application Environments. In Third International Conference on Advances in Human-Oriented and Personalized Mechanisms, Technologies and Services, number Section II, pp 111–116. IEEE, Aug. 2010.

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Poster Session

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TELEXETASIS: A MULTI-MODAL BIOMETRIC SYSTEM FOR secure and reliable E-EXAMs A. Georghiades, M. Pavlou*, G. Zaggoulos**, and Ch. Pavlou** *Open University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Cyprus **University of Cyprus, P.O. Box 20537, 1678 Nicosia, Cyprus maria.pavlou@ouc.ac.cy, asg9009@yahoo.com, zaggoulos.george@ucy.ac.cy, pavlou. christodoulos@ucy.ac.cy

Abstract We present and analyze “Telexetasis,” a multi-modal, biometric system enabling Higher-Education Institutes to conduct reliable and cost-effective e-Exams in diverse, non-supervised exam settings. Installed on students’ personal computing devices, “Telexetasis” will continuously process information generated by the camera, microphone and keyboard, calculating a robust, presence-verification metric based on the students’ activities throughout an exam; the verification metric will then be sent to the students’ Institution along with their answers. We discuss the advances of “Telexetasis” vis-à-vis currently available authentication systems, emphasizing the ways in which it will deal with the many and variegated security challenges that e-Exams may pose, in order to assure exam integrity.

1. Introduction One of the major criticisms regarding Open and Distance Learning (ODL) is the difficulty faced by Higher-Education Institutes (HEIs) to verify and validate the identity of students who are awarded degrees and academic credit. While many HEIs have tried to tackle the problem by implementing various safeguards, issues related to unethical conduct and potential security threats present in a non-supervised, online, test environment (e.g. impersonation, collaboration, solicitation of unauthorised help from a bystander and cheating) are still pending and unsettled. As a result, at present many online courses are assessed through reports, portfolios and projects, and, where exams do exist, these are mainly class-based and proctored and take place either at decentralised locations, or centralised on-campus residencies. The inability of HEIs to conduct reliable e-Exams has many repercussions: a) It undermines the “anywhereanyplace” founding principle of ODL; b) It presupposes the investment of a large amount of money, time, and effort by both HEIs and students; c) It imposes additional

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practical difficulties upon disabled students—it should be noted that more than 12.000 students with disabilities join the Open University (UK) every year. This paper presents and analyzes “Telexetasis,” a multi-modal, biometric system that will enable HEIs to conduct reliable and cost-effective e-Exams in diverse, nonsupervised, exam settings (including a student’s home office). Installed on students’ personal computing devices, “Telexetasis” will continuously process complementary information generated by the (built-in or external) camera, microphone and keyboard, calculating a robust, presence-verification metric based on the students’ activities throughout an exam; the verification metric will then be sent to the students’ Institution along with their answers. This paper provides an overview of the system, compares it to current authentication methods, and discusses its potential as a valuable tool in ODL.1

2. ALTERNATIVE PROCTORING STYLES IN E-LEARNING

Over the past few decades, there has been an enormous boost in the field of e-Learning and, nowadays, there are many Open Universities worldwide that cater to a huge number of e-Students. The Open University (UK) alone has more than 260.000 students,2 the Open University of Australia 40.000, while the Hellenic Open University around 30.000. A plethora of conventional Universities, even high-profile ones, such as Oxford, Cambridge and Stanford, have also launched a range of online courses. Surveys conducted since 2002 on online learning in the US clearly demonstrate that the number of students enrolled on online courses constantly increases. This growth is substantially greater (almost by ten times) than the overall higher-education (H.E.) enrolment increase and is expected to be even greater in the near future. In Fall 2011, almost a third of the students in H.E. in the US were enrolled on at least one online course, and this is expected to increase to over 50% by 2015.3 Similar growth is observed in Europe and Asia, as well. Despite the sharp rise of e-Learning, one of the main weaknesses of HEIs active in ODL is that the majority of their students still have to travel to campus for their final examinations. Many Institutions have tried to tackle the issue and alleviate the 1  “Telexetasis” was also introduced at the EADTU 25th Annual Conference (Pavlou et al. 2012). Here, we concentrate more on the technical aspects of the proposed system, on its comparison with competing systems, and on its potential contributions to ODL. 2  The Open University, UK (1971-2010), Facts and Figures 2009-2010. 3  Babson Survey Research Group and the College Board (2011). Going the Distance: Online Education in the United States.

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difficulties it entails by adopting a number of alternative proctoring styles: • Students are often allowed to sit their exams off-campus, in certified testing centers, either in a different area or abroad. For this arrangement, students normally have to pay an extra amount of money that ranges from €40 - €250.4 • If an exam centre is not available, students can make arrangements to take their exams in absentia with a qualified proctor (e.g. a teacher or clergy) at a location near their home. The fees incurred for this style of proctoring are quite high and are typically paid by the student. This option is particularly widespread in the US and is adopted by many Institutions (e.g. Harvard). • Certain Universities are using specific hardware/software that: (a) verifies the identity of the exam taker at the beginning of the exam, such as face and voice recognition systems (e.g. the voice recognition biometric system by TeamEDU), fingerprint recognition, and keyboard dynamics (Ramim and Levy 2007; Flior and Kowalski 2010; Apampa et al. 2010); and/or (b) employs client computer lockdown for the entire duration of an exam (e.g. the Respondus lock-down browser), preventing students from visiting other websites, or using unauthorized applications. Tegrity’s Remote Proctoring (in conjunction with the LockDown Browser™) is also used by a number of US Universities (e.g. Indiana State University) in order to video record all examinee activity for subsequent review by the course Instructors. The option for timed online exams is also considered to provide a degree of protection against cheating, due to the time limits it imposes. • Recently, certain US companies, such as Kryterion and ProctorU, have started providing live, online proctoring services. These companies allow exam takers to complete their assessments at home, on their personal computer, while still ensuring the integrity of the exam for their Institution. Especially in the US, many Institutions have partnered with such companies (e.g. Troy University, University of Illinois, and University of Oklahoma) and their number is constantly rising. Notably, since 2009, the partners of ProctorU have risen from 9 to more than 100.5 Mention should also be made here about Software Secure, a company that provides nonreal-time proctoring through Remote Proctor Now and Remote Proctor Pro. These two services record all sound and video during an exam and deliver the data to Software Secure servers for post-exam review by Certified Video Review Specialists.6

Even though the aforementioned proctoring styles enable HEIs to enhance the

4  The British Council in Cyprus delivers exams, or re-sits, on behalf of the London External Programme and the Open University (UK) for €110 per subject. 5  See the full list of Institutions on www.proctoru.com. 6  For more information on these two services, visit www.softwaresecure.com.

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quality of their student services, they are not without weaknesses. Off-campus live proctoring is costly and administrative burdensome for Institutions and students alike, while it still presupposes physical presence at a testing centre. As far as authentication hardware/software is concerned, although they provide verification for a student’s identity at the beginning of an exam, they cannot guarantee that this student remains the same throughout, nor can they detect whether the student receives unauthorized help during the exam (Huang et al. 2004; Pillsbury 2004). At present, the services offered by online proctoring companies are the most reliable and flexible, in so far as they: • enable students to sit their exams from home; • are more cost-effective than other solutions (e.g. use of an exam centre. or local proctors); • can verify the identity of a student throughout the exam; • deal effectively with instances of impersonation and cheating; • can interact with Virtual Learning Environments currently used in ODL. Nevertheless, this mode of online proctoring is not ideal and, as it stands, cannot be widely adopted. For example, the need for human proctors keeps the cost of each proctored exam quite high (between $20-$25), while it also renders this service inapt for large scale and simultaneous exams. Furthermore, it may require the purchase of specialized equipment by the students, further increasing their financial burden. Last, students may feel that their privacy is being violated, or that a stranger “intrudes” into their vital space (see, also, Pavlou et al. 2012).

3. “TELEXETASIS”: AUTOMATED ANYWHERE-ANYPLACE E-EXAM PRESENCE VERIFICATION

To meet the challenges that e-Exams pose, and fill the gap of currently available authentication systems, we propose “Telexetasis,” a fully-automated, multi-modal, biometric, student presence verification system, combining both physiological traits, such as face authentication, as well as behavioral characteristics, such as typing rhythm. The selected biometric traits need to possess a set of attributes in order for them to be suitable for biometric authentication. These attributes include universality (every person should possess them), sufficient uniqueness for user authentication, relative permanence over a set period of time (e.g. an academic year), convenient and unobtrusive collectability (measurability) of the relevant data, adequate performance

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(with respect to accuracy, speed, and resource requirements) for the task at hand, wide acceptance by the target user cohort, and, finally, low circumvention (i.e., difficulty in imitating a biometric trait using an artifact or a substitute).

Figure 1: Complementary Biometric Modalities (face

recognition, sound, keyboard dynamics) In a personal computer setting, the biometric traits that can be used are the ones that are easily captured (measured) with readily available sensors, such as a web camera or a microphone, without active involvement by the student. These include the studentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s face, iris, and possibly ear (captured using a web camera), voice (captured using a microphone) and keystroke dynamics (determined from the data provided by the keyboard). Given the challenges involved, no single biometric trait will be able to meet the performance requirements of the task at hand, in so far as each individual trait has its strengths and weaknesses.

To overcome the limitations of individual traits, â&#x20AC;&#x153;Telexetasisâ&#x20AC;? will integrate information of various biometric traits obtained from different sources. Such a system would provide, through the complementary nature of different biometrics, robust and reliable student presence verification, and strongly resist the many modes of student cheating for the entire duration of a summative e-Exam, taking place in a highly varied, and possibly varying, unsupervised, real-life environment. The combined visual and audio information will also be used, in a data-fusion framework,

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to monitor the surroundings of a student taking a test, in order to detect the presence of any unauthorized individuals that could provide illegitimate assistance. The task is complementary to student presence verification and it entails detection of disturbances in the environment that may signify the presence of an unauthorized individual or that the student is engaged in illegitimate activity. Taking into account the differences in student ICT familiarity and literacy, as well as the stress that some students may experience owing to the testing format— web-based, instead of paper-based—special attention will be paid to keep the whole process as simple as possible, and render “Telexetasis” user friendly for both Tutors and students.7 Furthermore, due to privacy considerations regarding raw biometric data, primary processing will be performed on the local computer and only a verification metric will be sent to the server for the duration of an e-Exam. Heretofore, we have identified an extensive list of system requirements, providing a fairly complete description of the behavior of “Telexetasis.” The main requirements are as follows: • The system will verify the presence of a single person for the entire duration of a test. Absence, even for a short period of time, would imply possible disqualification.8 • The presence of more than one person (detected using face detection, or by exploiting visual and audio disturbances in the background) is prohibited. • Continuously verify the claimed identity of the student. • The student should agree not to talk for the entire duration of the test, unless required by the test. Appearing to speak to someone in, or outside, the field of view of the camera would not be allowed. (Such a violation can be recognized by speech detection, i.e., recognizing the presence of any kind of speech, using audio data. The microphone should be kept on at all times.) • The system will continuously track the face of the student and ascertain that the student stays “focused” on the computer monitor.

7  It is important to note that according to research, ICT familiarity differences do not necessarily affect student performance; see, e.g., Taylor et al. 1998. 8  A choice would be given to the educational institution, or the instructor, on how to handle such incidents. Accordingly, the system may give a warning to the student, annotate the captured video, and then notify the instructor of a possible violation. An institution may also permit short absences under very specific conditions. If a student absolutely needs to take a break, she may have to: (a) finish and submit the part of the exam she is working on, but without being able to see the questions that would follow, and (b) relinquish the right to review any previously answered questions.

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• Employ client computer lock-down, permitting only the functions required to perform a secure and reliable e-Exam. Disable any unnecessary applications, as well as instant messaging and internet access. Although the articulated system requirements pose significant challenges, there are several factors that support the technical feasibility of our system: • There are currently several, general-purpose, mostly uni-modal, biometric systems on the market (such as AurOra and Accenture)9 implying sufficient maturity of the field. • Various technical components required by our system, such as face recognition (Zhao et al. 2003; Abate et al. 2007), including face recognition under extreme imaging conditions (e.g. Georghiades et al. 2001), face detection (Yang et al. 2002; Degtyarev and Seredin 2010), video and audio correlation (Kidron et al. 2005), and visual activity recognition (Turaga et al. 2008; Aggarwal and Ryoo 2011), are active research areas in Computer Vision, with a multitude of published results over the past few years. Consequently, a realistic plan has been formulated for the design, implementation, testing, and deployment of “Telexetasis,” building upon the aforementioned research. After specifying the overall system design based on the initial definition of the system requirements, an iterative implementation strategy will be adopted, where in each iteration increasingly more functionality will be implemented, tested, and evaluated, leading to possible design modifications, before moving to the next iteration. The implementation will be performed in two, approximately concurrent tracks, which will be integrated at the end. The first track will implement the core, multi-modal, biometric, presence verification engine, while the second will implement peripheral functionality modules, such as client-server encrypted communication, initial student authentication, and client computer lock-down. This iterative process will culminate in the system integration of the core engine with the peripheral modules, as well as with various popular Virtual Learning Environments (VLEs), such as Moodle, WebTC, and Blackboard. Students will be able to use “Telexetasis” by installing and running our software application on their computer. After selecting their host Institution from a drop-down list, they will log on to their Institution’s educational platform (for example Moodle or Blackboard) in a conventional fashion, find their exam prepared by the course Instructor, read through the examination guide and regulations set up by their Institution and/or 9  Most of these systems focus on issues concerning Industry, Businesses and Government bodies.

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Instructor, complete the exam, and, finally, select “Upload” to submit their answers for grading.

Figure 2: System in Operation – Two Instances.

The monitoring of students will be fully-automated and will be done through a biometric index. This index will consist of different metrics derived from the student’s face detection and verification, from activity recognition (through image, sound, and correlation between these modalities), and from background monitoring (see Fig. 2). If the calculated index is unsatisfactory, “Telexetasis” will annotate the incident and may either display a warning on the student’s screen (e.g. if the student has been looking at a different direction than the monitor for a substantial period of time), or terminate the exam (e.g. if the student leaves the room). The exact policy for warnings or actions during each exam will be set by the examinees’ Institution and/or Instructor (e.g. some Institutions may allow a five minute absence or break, others may not).

4. EVALUATION OF TELEXETASIS AND COMPARISON WITH COMPETING SYSTEMS

Compared to companies that specialise in live online proctoring, as well as other proctoring systems, “Telexetasis” retains a clear advantage in terms of cost, functionality, reliability, flexibility of use, and privacy issues (see, also, Table 1): • “Telexetasis” will be a fully-automated system, requiring no human monitoring during, or after, an exam. As a result, it could be offered at a very low and particularly attractive price, rendering it ideal for continuous assessment, which is considered the best way of assessing students, insofar as it provides timely feedback and a more reliable estimate of a student’s capabilities (Kika et al. 1992). • Full automatisation will increase reliability, insofar as a human proctor may be distracted or even collude with an examinee during an exam. • Unlike other web-based proctoring systems that require the procurement of specialized hardware, such as the combined omni-directional camera, microphone and finger-print reader by Software Secure, “Telexetasis” will be using existing (or

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readily-available) computer equipment and peripherals. • “Telexetasis” will be able to accommodate a large number of exam takers at a time, a capacity that current proctoring companies cannot match because of their need for human resources. Consequently, it could be used equally well for both large audiences and simultaneous exams. • While other companies monitor student behaviour via live-streaming watched by a remotely-situated human proctor, or video playback reviewed after an exam, “Telexetasis” will monitor student automatically through a biometric index. As such, students using our system will not feel that their privacy is being violated, or that a stranger “intrudes” into their vital space. • The process for online human proctoring can be as cumbersome as proctored, class-based exams (Bailie and Jortberg 2009, pp. 201-202, Figs. 1a & 1b), to the extent that students must arrange a proctored exam in advance. With “Telexetasis,” no scheduling will be necessary. • The core algorithm of “Telexetasis” will be running on the student computer and, as a result, much less data will be exchanged with the server through the Internet. Table 1: Telexetasis vs. Main Competitors ProctorU

Kryterion

Software Secure Remote Proctor Now/ Pro

TELEXETASIS

Human Resources (Remote proctors / Review Specialists)

No

Specialized Hardware Required

No

Kryterion Neck Camera, $45

No special H/W for “Remote Proctor Now”/ Omnidirectional Camera, $165, for “Remote Proctor Pro”

No

Compatible with VLEs (e.g. Moodle, Blackboard)

Booking Arrangements

No

No

Privacy

No $20-$25 per exam

No $90-$100 per exam

No

$15 per exam

<$10 per course

Suitable for Large-Scale (synchronous) Proctoring

No

No

No

Suitable for continuous formative assessment

No

No

No

Cost

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According to a survey published in “The Chronicle of Higher Education,” the total number of worldwide student enrolments in 2007 was around 150 million. Based on the fact that at present one third of the students in the US, a “megaprovider” of e-Learning, is enrolled on at least one online course, and that online students in Europe and the US are approximately 10 million, it is assumed that at least one sixth of the worldwide student population, that is approximately 25 million, is enrolled on at least one online course. Furthermore, in the US, where the way has been paved by webproctoring companies, HEIs are expected to be more prepared and amenable to using “Telexetasis,” when also considering its major advantages over its competitors, e.g. ProctorU. In Europe, where live online proctoring is not extensively used, one might expect skepticism at the beginning in using such a system. However, the sheer fact that “Telexetasis” does not have any strong competitors in this market is per se a strong advantage, and renders European HEIs active in ODL a niche market, especially if we take into account the fact that many HEIs in Europe have a good infrastructure and will be ready to use a system like “Telexetasis” immediately. It should also be mentioned here that all our respondents to a questionnaire regarding online proctoring expressed their interest in the procurement of “Telexetasis,” agreeing that such a system will have benefits for both Institutions and students. Therefore, “Telexetasis” has significant potential to be adopted widely by both Open and conventional HEIs.

5. CONCLUSIONS

“Telexetasis” will be the first multi-modal biometric system that will allow HEIs to conduct secure and reliable e-Exams. The proposed system will be fully automated, providing verification of the examinee’s identity for the entire duration of an e-Exam, while using readily-available computing devices. Our system will be beneficial for both distance students and HEIs alike, as it will save both money and time, and offer convenience, flexibility, and high reliability. It will be easy to use and will respect the students’ privacy. Furthermore, it will be able to support large-scale and simultaneous exams at dramatically reduced running costs, because it will operate without the need for human proctors or video reviewers, unlike other online proctoring services, such as Kryterion and ProctorU. In addition to the above more practical advantages, we are confident that a system like “Telexetasis” would make a valuable contribution to the ODL of tomorrow. Far from being merely another piece of software, “Telexetasis” will be first and foremost an educational tool. For instance, the particularly low cost of “Telexetasis” will render it ideal for continuous assessment, which is considered the best way of measuring student performance. Moreover, by having at their disposal a fully-automated system that enables reliable e-Exams, HEIs will be able to take full advantage of the great

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potential of technology in order to design more dynamic and robust high-stakes assessments that will both measure student performance and promote learning and creativity.

References Abate, A. F., Nappi, M., Riccio, D. and Sabatino, G. (2007). 2D and 3D face recognition: A survey. Pattern Recogn. Letters, Vol. 28, Issue 14, pp. 1885–1906. Aggarwal, J. K. and Ryoo M. S. (2011). Human activity analysis: A review. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 16:1-16:43. Apampa, M., Wills, G. and Argles, D. (2010). User Security Issues in Summative E-Assessment Security. Intern. Journal of Digital Society (1:2), pp. 135-147. Bailie, J. L. and Jortberg, M. A. (2009). Online learner authentication: Verifying the identity of online users. Journal of Online Learning and Teaching (5:2). Degtyarev, N. and Seredin, O. (2010). Comparative Testing of Face Detection Algorithms. Lect. Notes Comput. Sc., Vol. 6134, Image & Sign. Proc., pp. 200-209. Flior, E. and Kowalski, K. (2010). Continuous Biometric User Authentication in Online Examinations. 7th Intern. Conf. on Information Technology, pp. 488-492. Georghiades, A. S., Belhumeur, P. N. and Kriegman D. (2001). From Few to Many: Illumination Cone Models for Face Recognition under Variable Lighting and Pose. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 23, No. 6, pp. 643-660.

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Huang, W., Yen, D. C., Lin, Z. X. & Huang, J. H. (2004). How to compete in a global education market effectively: A conceptual framework for designing a next generation e-Education system. J. Global Inform. Management (12:2), pp. 84-107. Kidron, E., Schechner, Y. Y. and Elad, M. (2005). Pixels that Sound. Proc. IEEE Comp. Vision & Pattern Recogn., Vol. I, pp. 88-96. (—. Cross-modal localization via sparsity. IEEE Trans. Signal Process., Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 1390-1404, 2007.) Kika, F. M., McLaughlin, T. F. and Dixon, J. (1992). Effects of frequent testing of secondary algebra students. Journal of Educational Research (85), pp. 159-162. Pavlou, M., Georghiades, A., Zaggoulos, G., and Pavlou, C. (2012). Telexetasis: Anywhere-Anyplace Reliable Cost-effective e-Exam Presence Verification. Proc. EADTU 25th Annual Conference, Paphos, Cyprus. Pillsbury, C. (2004). Reflections on academic misconduct: An investigating officer’s experiences and ethics supplements. J. Am. Acad. of Bus. (5), pp. 446-454. Ramim, M. M. & Levy, Y. (2007). Towards a framework of biometrics exam authentication in e-Learning environments.  Proc. Inform. Resources Management Association Intern. Conf. (IRMA) 2007, Vancouver, Canada, pp. 539-543. Taylor, C., Jamieson, J., Eignor, D. and Kirsch, I. (1998). The relationship between computer familiarity and performance on computer-based TOEFL tasks. TOEFL research report 59, Educational Testing Service. Turaga, P., Chellappa, R., Subrahmanian, V. S. and Udrea, O. (2008). Machine Recognition of Human Activities: A Survey. IEEE Trans. on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, Vol. 18, No. 11, pp. 14731488. Yang, M.-H., Kriegman, D. and Ahuja, N. (2002). Detecting Faces in Images: A Survey. IEEE Trans. on Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., Vol. 24, No. 1, pp. 34-58. Zhao, W., Chellappa, R., Rosenfeld, A. and Phillips, P.J. (2003). Face Recognition: A Literature Survey. ACM Computing Surveys, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 399-458.

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MONITORING ORGAN TRANSPLANT PATIENTS FOR SKIN CANCER AND OTHER SKIN DISORDERS EUGENIA TOUMBIS* AND DIMITRI RIGOPOULOS** Bâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; DEPARTMENT OF DERMATOLOGY, ATTIKON GENERAL UNIVERSITY HOSPITAL RIMINI 1 STREET, CHAIDARI, ATHENS 12462 GREECE *toumbise@yahoo.com **dermatologyattikon@gmail.com

ABSTRACT With the global climate changes that have occurred over the past decade, an increase in the number of skin conditions has prematurely emerged in several high risk groups and particularly in organ transplant recipients (OTR) treated with immunosuppression. Of these skin conditions, skin cancer is the most prominent, manifesting in a particularly aggressive manner. Since most skin cancers are preventable, it is crucially important to monitor the OTR patient group and enforce preventable measures. Organ transplant patient monitoring of the skin should be done by a dermatologist according to the relative risk of the patient (high, medium, low). High risk patients are examined every three months. Medium risk patients are examined every six months. Low risk patients are examined once yearly. Lesions are accessed clinically, using dermatoscopy and then photographed. Suspicious lesions are biopsied. All patients (OTR and those awaiting a transplant) are given an information booklet which discusses sun protection and preventive measures for daily practice, self examination and the importance of a medical follow-up by a dermatologist.

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Empowerment for innovation â&#x20AC;&#x201C; steering SMEs towards effective IT Service Management Iva S. Walterova EPMA â&#x20AC;&#x201C; European Projects and Management Agency Prvniho Pluku 12a Praha 8, 186 00 Czech Republic walterova@epma.cz

ABSTRACT At the regional level it is very often the case that in spite of quite a high level of ICT development, there is a lack of modern eServices, especially in new EU member states. One of the reasons for this is the underestimation of the need for ICT trainings and lack of understanding of IT service management (ITSM). Such lack can be observed in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), which can however save up to 30% of their IT costs and human resources if they were utilizing ITSM effectively. These resources can in turn be invested into their development and innovations. The poster therefore introduces an international initiative, which has created an ITSM method and offers trainings tailored to SME needs. It furthermore shows results of piloting of these activities in Central European regions.

INTRODUCTION The paper first introduces the current state of ICT development in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), especially focusing on the Central and Eastern European region. After establishing that SMEs do not utilize ICT to a sufficient extent and therefore their profits and development suffers, the paper introduces an initiative that aims at improving this situation. SMEs in selected regions are currently being trained in this method. The paper concludes in showing the results of these trainings in one of the involved countries, the Czech Republic.

ICT AND SMEs IN CENTRAL EUROPE: CURRENT SITUATION Despite the quite high level of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) development, a lack of their utilization and provision of eServices can often be

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observed on the regional level especially in the new EU member states. This is the case even for the private sector represented on the regional level in the EU mostly by SMEs. According to the European Commission, SMEs represent 99% of all European businesses, and provide two out of three European private sector jobs (European Commission, 2012). They are therefore essential socially and economically for regional economies. In spite of this fact, a very few of them realize the importance of functional and fitting ICT. The IT organization of SMEs in Central Europe will play a major role in their further development regarding business success as well as their future innovation potential. This hypothesis will be mirrored by different facts: • In a global economy the speed and quality of decision making is a crucial factor in success. Looking at companies like Google or Facebook, it becomes clear, that in the information age, SMEs– especially in the digital products sector – are often not far away from growing into multinational companies within only a few years. Based on the hypergrowth-effects that Shapiro/Varian describe in their book “Information Rules”, like e.g. network-effects and natural monopolies, an increasing number of SMEs with a medium and higher share of information in their products are facing a revolution that can only be managed by being based on a reliable IT infrastructure. • Even SMEs that are working in quite traditional areas, like in the construction or production sector, are rather dependent on reliable IT to observe the progress of the construction side or of the production processes in their plants. Additionally they have to fulfill an increasing number of compliance issues like saving financial or even tachographic data from their trucks for financial audits. Compliance issues based on a performing IT Infrastructure will be incrementally the basis for ratings regarding bank loans. • Beside the regulatory issues SMEs are facing today, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) offer a high degree of freedom to innovate their products far ahead to today’s customer value without incurring too many costs. Fitting IT organization can only be developed and maintained utilizing a matching form and degree of IT service management (ITSM). A survey undertaken in six Central and Eastern European countries (Austria, Czech Republic, Germany, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia) in 2010 found that although almost 40% from the 200+ surveyed companies have a general knowledge of ITSM, only 10% of them really apply these principles. Furthermore they do not feel the need for training in this area and are unable to evaluate benefits of the approach to their company (Hertweck, Kuller, 2010).

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The above mentioned survey also estimated what companies can save if utilizing ITSM. It proved that innovations on the IT-infrastructure and management level lead to productivity enhancement of the IT department of up to 40%. It has also found a linear correlation between the enhancement of innovations of IT Services on a product or business service level and the companies’ annual return (Hertweck, Kuller, 2010). This means that resources can be saved thanks to ICT utilization and should then be in turn invested into further IT development. This all is possible to be achieved in an organized and effective manner only with the help of ITSM.

DEVELOPING A NEW ITSM METHOD FOR SMEs Although the importance of ITSM utilization by SMEs is clear, the method is generally too complex and demanding to be adopted by this type of companies. A consortium of representatives of the academia, public and private sector from Central and Eastern European region have decided to tackle this situation in 2009. Their initiative, the INNOTRAIN IT project (more information is available at www.innotrain-it. eu), has focused for the whole of 2010 and most of 2011 on creating an ITSM method that would take into account the real needs and abilities of SMEs and show them how to reach the best business performance supported by cost-efficient, measurable and reliable IT. In order to reach its goals the project, which is co-funded by the European Regional Development fund, combines professional expertise of researchers with experiences in business processes. The rest of 2011, 2012 and the beginning of 2013 are then devoted on training the new method to representative of local SMEs and jump-starting their innovation processes. The INNOTRAIN IT approach was not to develop and teach a “new” ITSM standard. Rather, INNOTRAIN IT unites the concepts of the various ITSM standards (Figure 1) that are truly relevant for SMEs and makes them available in a greatly simplified version (Grabowski et. al., 2011).

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Figure 1: INNOTRAIN IT simplification method

The subsequently created training modules are based on several conclusions made by the partnership early in their research, including: â&#x20AC;˘ The complexity of the existing ITSM methods must be lowered and the classical ITSM coursework approach must be changed. All barriers that hinder SMEs from adopting ITSM need to be diminished. â&#x20AC;˘ The INNOTRAIN IT trainings should take into account that there is a significant innovation barrier between innovations at an IT-Infrastructure level and innovations at a Business-Process level. The resulting trainings should therefore be structured in such a way that SMEs get lured by IT-Infrastructure solutions and then will be forwarded to business process or even business service/product innovations. The INNOTRAIN ITSM method is taught in training courses and web-based training units in a way that is specially tailored to ITSM beginners from business and IT. In doing so, the fundamental principle is reducing the complexity of existing frameworks and methods, largely refraining from English technical terms and instead using an easy-to-understand presentation.

Training SMEs in Central Europe: results from the Czech Republic The Czech Republic started their trainings in November 2011, since then having organized 16 training modules and trained 122 people. But unfortunately, the majority of contacted SMEs have not shown interest in participating in the trainings. There was

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low positive response rate to the directly mailed offers despite the fact that progressive companies are willing to value training in this area rather highly. IT professionals who come into contact with relevant SME representatives on regular basis as their IT solutions providers, point to the great need for training of SMEs in this area, they also highlight, as mentioned above, that such knowledge could save the enterprises precious resources. On the other hand, the limited interest does not surprise them. They note that the management of many SMEs does not perceive IT as an integral part of their company. Most of the participants who attend the training approach the topic with reserve; many have little idea what to expect from ITSM; and many are afraid to show this uncertainty; therefore, it tends to be difficult for the trainers to “break the ice” in the initial stages of the lessons. The trainings are, however, prepared exactly for this kind of approach, and the trainers are always able to engage the participants enough to start asking questions and discuss their specific concerns and aspirations in terms of ITSM. Trainings then usually finish with discussions on how participants plan to utilize their newly gained knowledge in ITSM in their business.

REFERENCES European Commission, SME Performance Review, available at: http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/policies/ sme/facts-figures-analysis/performance-review/index_en.htm (2012). Grabowski, M., et. al., IT Service Management: Quick – Simple – Clear, eBook (2011). Hertweck, D., Kuller, P. Innovation Maturity Report – Survey Report, available at: http://www.innotrain-it. eu (September 2010).

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Profile for Irene Andreou

EastWest 2012 proceedings  

EastWest 2012 Conference Proceedings

EastWest 2012 proceedings  

EastWest 2012 Conference Proceedings

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