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14 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

cwic~i‡Yi GB mKj cÖwZeÜKZv AcmviY Kiv cÖ‡qvRb| Gi Rb¨ cÖvwš—K Ges Kg-AwaKvim¤úbœ e¨w³‡`i w`‡K we‡kl `„wó †`Iqv cÖ‡qvRb|

bxwZgvjv 4 †hŠbZv Ges G †_‡K cÖvß Avb›` e¨w³Rxe‡bi †K›`ªxq welq, ZvÕ †m cÖRb‡b AvMÖnx †nvK ev bvB †nvK| †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ mviv Rxebe¨vcx m¤cÖmvwiZ| †hŠbZv cÖvq mKj cÖRbb wm×v‡š—i Awe‡”Q`¨ Dcv`vb, hw`I gvbyl cÖRbb Kv‡R GUv e¨envi Ki“K ev bvB Ki“K, gvbyl wnmv‡e GwU Zvi Rxe‡bi †K›`ªxq Ask| GKRb gvbyl Zvi cÖRbb AvMÖn PwiZv_© Kivi GKwU gva¨gB †Kej †hŠbZv bq| AwfÁZv AR©b I cÖRbbgy³ †hŠbZvi cwiZ…wß jv‡f AskMÖnY, Ges †hŠbZv e¨wZ‡i‡K cÖRb‡bi welqwUi e¨vcv‡i wbivcË cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e, we‡kl K‡i Zv‡`i cÖwZ we‡kl `„wócvZ cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e, hv‡`i‡K HwZnvwmKfv‡e Ges eZ©gv‡b GB AwfÁZv AR©b †_‡K weiZ ivLv n‡”Q| mKj e¨w³ Ggb Ae¯’vi Aš—f©~³ hvi Aax‡b Zviv Avb›``vqK †hŠbZvi A‡š^lY Ki‡Z cv‡i|25 e¨w³K Ges hyw³wm× ¯^vZ‡š¿¨i wfwˇZ Avb›`weavb Aew¯’Z, hvi gva¨‡g †hŠb wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨‡mev, `gbg~jK Kvh©µg I mwnsmZv †_‡K wbivcËvmn ˆbwZKZvi †¶‡Îi Dbœq‡b wePvie¨e¯’v, mvg¨Zv Ges gyw³i Dbœqb wbwðZ Kiv Avek¨K| †hŠbZvi GKwU Aš—wb©wnZ iƒc †mB Avb›`weavb, A‡š^lY Kiv, cÖKvk Ges KLb Zv Abyfe Kiv hv‡e G welq¸‡jv KviI Rb¨ A¯^xKvi Kiv hv‡e bv|

bxwZgvjv 5 mK‡ji Rb¨ †hŠb AwaKvi wbwðZKi‡Yi A_© mKj cÖKvi ¶wZ †_‡K wbivcËv weavb I gyw³i A½xKvi| mKj cÖKvi mwnsmZv I ¶wZ †_‡K wbivcËv weavb Ges Avkªq Aej¤^b Kiv †hŠb AwaKv‡ii wfw˯^iƒc|26 ˆ`wnK, †gŠwLK, gb¯—vwZ¡K, A_©‰bwZK Ges †hŠb cÖK…wZi mwnsmZv I Ace¨envi DfqB †hŠbZv-m¤úwK©Z ¶wZi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z, †mB mv‡_ wj½, eqm, †RÛvi, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ, †hŠb cwiwPwZ, ˆeevwnK Ae¯’v, †hŠb BwZnvm ev e¨envi, cÖK…Z A_ev Av‡ivwcZ †hŠb-BwZnvm ev AvPiY A_ev †m Zvi

†hŠbZv Kxfv‡e e¨envi K‡i G mKj wel‡qi wfwˇZ e¨w³i wei“‡× mwnsmZv BZ¨vw`| mKj wkï Ges cÖvK-hyevMY mKj cÖKvi †kvlY †_‡K we‡kl wbivcËv cvIqvi AwaKvi AR©‡bi `vex`vi| Gi mv‡_ †hŠb nqivbx †_‡K wbivcËv, wkï †ek¨ve„wË, Ges mKj cÖKvi †hŠb Ace¨envi, mwnsmZv Ges nqivbx, †mB mv‡_ †Kvb ai‡bi `gbg~jK AvPiY, †hŠb Kvh©Kjvc ev †hŠb AvPiY, Ak-xj AvPiY Ges `ªe¨mg~‡n wkï‡`i Aš—f©~w³KiY BZ¨vw` welqI RwoZ|

bxwZgvjv 6 †KejgvÎ A‡b¨i AwaKvi Ges ¯^vaxbZvi cÖwZ cÖK…Z ¯^xK…wZ I m¤§v‡bi wbðqZv `v‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ Ges MYZvwš¿K mgv‡Ri mvwe©K Kj¨v‡Yi ¯^v‡_© AvBb Øviv †hŠb AwaKv‡ii Ici mxgve×Zv Av‡ivc Kiv hv‡e| Ab¨vb¨ gvbevwaKv‡ii gZ †hŠb AwaKvi AvBb Øviv wba©vwiZ †Kej †mB mKj mxgve×Zv, hv A‡b¨i AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZv Ges gvbevwaKvi AvB‡bi28 AvIZvq †Kv‡bv MYZvwš¿K mgvR29, Rb¯^v¯’¨ Ges Rbk„•Ljvi mvwe©K wbivcËv weavb Ki‡Z h_v‡hvM¨ ¯^xK…wZ I m¤§vb wbwðZ K‡i| GB ai‡bi mxgve×Zv Aek¨B ˆelg¨nxb, cÖ‡qvRbxq Ges AvBbvbyM j¶¨ AR©‡bi AvbycvwZK nv‡i n‡Z n‡e| e¨w³K Ges mvgvwRK ¯^v_©mg~‡ni ga¨Kvi MwZkxj m¤ú‡K©i m‡PZbZv, `k©‡bi eû‡Z¡i Dcw¯’wZi ¯^xK…wZ Ges cv_©‡K¨i cÖwZ mvg¨Zv, gh©v`v Ges m¤§vb Øviv †hŠb AwaKv‡ii Abykxjb cwiPvwjZ nq|30

bxwZgvjv 7 mKj cÖKvi †hŠb AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZvi cÖwZ m¤§vb `vb, wbivcËv weavb I cwic~Y©Zv `v‡bi eva¨evaKZv| †hŠb AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZvi mv‡_ ¸i“Z¡c~Y© AvBbvbyM `vex Aš——f©~³, †mB mv‡_ †mB mKj `vex c~i‡Yi Dcvq Lyu‡R cvIqv|31 Ab¨vb¨ gvbevwaKv‡ii g‡Zv ivóª wZb ch©v‡qi eva¨evaKZvq RwoZ, †hgbÑ mK‡ji †hŠb AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b, wbivcËv weavb Ges cwiZ…ß Kiv|32 (m¤§vb cÖ`k©‡bi eva¨evaKZvi Rb¨ iv‡óªi cÖ‡qvRb cÖZ¨¶ ev c‡iv¶fv‡e Z…Zxq c¶‡K †Kv‡bv we‡kl AwaKvi cwiZ…ß Kivi wel‡q, G †¶‡Î, †hŠb AwaKvi, n¯—‡¶c Ki‡Z bv †`Iqv|) wbivcËv weav‡bi eva¨evaKZvi Rb¨ iv‡óªi cÖ‡qvRb Z…Zxq c¶‡K gvbevwaKv‡ii wbðqZv cÖ`v‡bi wel‡q n¯—‡¶c


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 15

Ki‡Z bv †`qv| cwiZ…wßi eva¨evaKZvi Rb¨ iv‡óªi cÖ‡qvRb GB AwaKv‡ii cwic~Y© ev¯—evq‡b h_vh_ AvBbMZ, cÖkvmwbK, A_© eivÏ, wePvimsµvš—, m¤cÖPvi Ges Ab¨vb¨ e¨e¯’vw` MÖnY Kiv|33 †h‡nZz ivóª Zvi wbR¯^ cwimxgvq gvbevwaKv‡ii m¤§vb cÖ`k©b, wbivcËv weavb Ges cwiZ…wß cÖ`v‡bi cÖv_wgK `vwqZ¡ cvjbKvix wnmv‡e, Ab¨vb¨ mykxj mgv‡Ri Ab¨ mKj wbqš¿KMY, hv‡`i Kg©KvÊ Ges Kg© cvjb bv Kivi welqwU †hŠb AwaKvi Dc‡fv‡Mi Dci cÖfve we¯—vi K‡i, Zv‡`i welqwU Aek¨B aZ©‡e¨i g‡a¨ Avb‡Z n‡e| G¸‡jvi g‡a¨ Ab¨vb¨ ivóª, Avš—tmxgvš— mË¡vmg~n Ges Kg©m~Px, hv mvnvh¨ Ges Dbœqb mn‡hvwMZv, wbivcËv msw¯’wZ Ges Ab¨vb¨ ˆgÎxeÜb, †mB mv‡_ A-ivóª wbqš¿K, h_v evwYwR¨K, AjvfRbK I agx©q mË¡vmg~nmn e¨w³eM© D‡j-L‡hvM¨| G Kvi‡Y, ivóª †Kv‡bv gvby‡li †hŠb AwaKv‡ii e¨vNvZ Kiv ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Dcv‡q AbwaKvi P”Pv© Kiv †_‡K weiZ _vK‡e, Z…Zxq c¶ Øviv G mKj AwaKv‡ii e¨vNvZ m„wó Kiv ev AbwaKvi P”Pv© Kivi wµqvKg© †_‡K wbivcËv weavb Ki‡e Ges †hŠb AwaKvi mywbwðZ Kivi j‡¶¨ Kvh©Ki, Askx`vixZ¡g~jK Ges Revew`nxZvg~jK cÖwZôvb M‡o †Zvjvi c‡¶ BwZevPK c`‡¶c Ges Kg©KvÊ I m¤ú` eivÏ Kivi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡e| AvBwcwcGd Zvi ¶gZvi AvIZvq mKj †hŠb AwaKv‡ii m¤§vb cÖ`k©b, wbivcËv weavb Ges cwic~iY Kvh©µ‡g m`m¨ mwgwZ¸‡jv‡K mnvqZv, Drmvn cÖ`vb Ges mn‡hvwMZv cÖ`vb mKj cÖKvi Kg©KvÊ cwiPvjbv Ki‡Z e×cwiKi Ges mKj †hŠb AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ h_vh_ AvBbMZ, cÖkvmwbK, ev‡RUxq Ges Ab¨vb¨ bxwZgvjv I e¨e¯’vw` MÖnY Kivi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b, wbivcËv weavb Ges cwic~iY Kvh©µ‡g ivóª Ges Ab¨vb¨ A-ivóª wbqš¿‡Ki c‡¶ mycvwik Ki‡e|


16

†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

†hŠbZvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z gvbevwaKvi n‡jv †hŠb AwaKvi AvBwcwcGd cÖZ¨q iv‡L †h †hŠb AwaKvi gvbevwaKv‡ii Aš—f~©³| †hŠb AwaKvi †hŠbZvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z K‡qKwU AwaKv‡ii mgwó, hv mKj gvby‡li ¯^vaxbZv, mgZv, †MvcbxqZv, ¯^vwaKvi Ges gh©v`v †_‡K DrmvwiZ| GKvwaK cÖvwZôvwbK wbwgËK, gvb`Ê Ges ˆewkóvejx †hŠbZvi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z ¸i“Z¡c~Y© bxwZgvjvi ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb K‡i| †hŠb AwaKvi Ggb GK we‡kl gvb`Ê hv we`¨gvb gvbevwaKvi †hŠbZvi gva¨‡g wµqvkxj nq| †hŠb AwaKvi we‡kl cwiwPwZi wbivcËv weavb Ki‡jI Zv Gi evB‡iI cÖmvwiZ nq Ges ˆelg¨nxbZvi KvVv‡gvi g‡a¨ A‡b¨i AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©‡bi gva¨‡g Zv‡`i †hŠbZvi cÖKvk I cwiZ…wß MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi cÖ`v‡bi cÖwZ mKj bvMwi‡Ki AwaKvi wbwðZ K‡i| gvbweK †hŠbZvi cwigʇj GB mKj †hŠb AwaKvi †gŠwjK, mycÖwZwôZ gvbevwaKvi bxwZgvjv, G ˆewkóvejx HwZnvwmK wKsev AvaywbK †nvK bv †Kb, Zv Kvh©Ki K‡i| G mKj AwaKv‡ii Kvh©µg `wi`ª, cÖvwš—K, mgvRwew”Qbœ Ges myweavewÂZ‡`i wbKU we‡kl ¸i“Z¡ enb K‡i| Gi Av‡jv‡K AvBwcwcGd mKj gvbevwaKv‡ii mve©RbxbZv, Avš—tm¤úK©, ci¯úiwbf©ikxjZv Ges Awe‡”Q`¨Zv‡K Ggb wbq‡g mg_©b K‡i, hv‡Z GB †NvlYvi mv‡_ †h mKj †hŠb AwaKvi mw¤§jb Kiv n‡q‡Q, Zv wbgœwjwLZ avivmg~‡ni c~e©eZx© mvaviY bxwZgvjv GKwU we‡kl µgvebwZi ev¯—evqb AbymiY K‡i bv|

aviv 1 †hŠb, wj½ ev †RÛvi msµvš— mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨ †_‡K mvg¨, AvBb I ¯^vaxbZvi mg-wbivcËvi AwaKvi| • mKj gvbyl gy³fv‡e ghv©`v I AwaKv‡ii34 `„wó‡Z mgvb Ae¯’vq Rb¥MÖnY K‡i Ges Aek¨B Zv‡`i †hŠbZv, AvB‡bi35 `„wó‡Z ˆel‡g¨i wei“‡× wj½ ev †RÛv‡ii36 wfwˇZ mgwbivcËvi AwaKvi jvf K‡i| • mKj e¨w³i Rb¨ Ggb GKwU cwi‡e‡ki wbðqZv w`‡Z n‡e, †hLv‡b cÖ‡Z¨‡K ivóª KZ…©K c~Y© ¯^vaxbZvi mvgvwRK myweav cvIqv hvq| ivóª Ges mykxj mgvR Aek¨ c`‡¶c MÖnY Ki‡e hv‡Z gwnjv ev cyi“‡li cÖPwjZ f~wgKv mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©KvÊ wj½, †RÛvi A_ev †RÛvi Awfe¨w³i b~¨bZv ev D×ZZvi aviYvi wfwˇZ ms¯‹vimva‡bi welqwU mgybœZ Kiv m¤¢e nq| • mKj e¨w³ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆelg¨ e¨wZ‡i‡K Kg© m¤úv`b, wk¶v, ¯^v¯’¨, mvgvwRK wbivcËv Ges Ab¨vb¨ A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi Av‡Q, †mB mv‡_ myweavw`, cY¨, †mev Kvh©µg Ges †m¸‡jv AR©b Kivi Ae¯’v jvf Kivi AwaKvi Ges †fvM Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³‡K AvBbvbyM ¶gZv cÖ`vb Ki‡Z n‡e Ges GKB cÖKvi myweav w`‡Z n‡e hv‡Z †Kv‡bv Pzw³‡Z DcbxZ n‡Z †m †mB myweav, mgAwaKvi, m¤ú` cwiPvjbv, AvBbAv`vjZ Ges UªvBeybvj cÖf„wZ †¶‡Î mKj ch©v‡q mgZvi wfwˇZ wkïi µgea©gvb ¶gZvi Av‡jv‡K cÖ‡qvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| • mKj e¨w³ †Kvbiƒc ˆelg¨ QvovB Zvi PjvPj, Avevm¯’j I bvMwiKZ¡ MÖnY msµvš— AvB‡bi †¶‡Î mgvb AwaKvi cvIqvi AwaKvix|

aviv 2 bvixcyi“l †f`, †hŠbZv ev †RÛvi we‡ePbvq bv †i‡L mKj gvby‡li Rb¨ AskMÖn‡Yi AwaKvi • mKj e¨w³ Ggb GKwU cwi‡e‡ki AwaKvix †hLv‡b gvbe Rxe‡bi gvbevwaKvi I †gŠwjK ¯^vaxbZvi Dbœqb Kvh©µ‡g ¯’vbxq, RvZxq, AvÂwjK Ges Avš—R©vwZK ch©v‡q bvMwiK, A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK Ges ivR‰bwZK Kg©Kv‡Ê


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 17

gy³, Kvh©Kix Ges A_©en AskMÖnY Ki‡Z cvi‡e|37 • mKj e¨w³ Zv‡`i Kj¨v‡Yi38 Rb¨ cÖYxZ bxwZgvjvi Dbœqb I ev¯—evqbmn †Kv‡bv cÖPwjZ ev AcÖPwjZ cÖwZeÜKZv, †hgb ˆeevwnK †hvM¨Zv, GBPAvBwf Ae¯’v‡bi mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Ae¯’vi cÖwZeÜKZv A_ev ˆelg¨g~jK †RÛvi gvb`Ê, Mreuvav, ms¯‹vi, hv †RÛvi I †hŠb m¤ú‡`i aviYvi Dci wfwË K‡i †Kv‡bv gvby‡li AskMÖnY‡K evavcÖ`vb I mxwgZ Kiv e¨wZ‡i‡K Zv‡`i †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨i¶vq Ask MÖnY Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|39 • cÖvqktB evavcÖ`vbK…Z hyeK m¤cÖ`vq Zv‡`i mgv‡Ri A_©en cwieZ©b Avbvi Rb¨ AskMÖnYKvix Ges g~L¨ f~wgKv cvjbKvix wnmv‡e AskMÖn‡Yi AwaKvi iv‡L| Zviv A_©en Dcv‡q †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ I AwaKvic~iY mgybœZKiY Ges wbivcËvweavb bxwZgvjv I Kg©m~Px m¤cÖÖmvi‡Y `vwqZ¡ fvM K‡i †bIqv Ges G‡Z wb‡Ri AskMÖnY wbwðZ Ki‡e|40 • mKj e¨w³ †Kv‡bv †¶Î †_‡K †Kv‡bv ˆelg¨c~Y© cÖfve e¨wZ‡i‡K ivóªxq Kvh©µg Ges mKj bvMwiK Abyôvbvw`‡Z AskMÖnYmn bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK Rxe‡b Ask MÖnY Ki‡Z m¶g n‡e| • AskMÖn‡Yi wfwˇZ, †Kv‡bviƒc ˆelg¨ e¨wZ‡i‡K mKj e¨w³ Zvi wbR †`‡ki Af¨š—‡i ¯^vfvweK PjvPj, †`k Z¨vM Kiv Ges cÖZ¨veZ©b Kiv mn mKj cÖKvi PjvPj Ges åg‡Yi †¶‡Î cÖ‡qvRbxq mKj cÖKvi bw_cÎ msMÖ‡ni AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|41

aviv 3 cÖwZwU gvbyl Rxeb, gyw³, e¨w³MZ wbivcËv I ˆ`wnK ALÊZvi AwaKvi| • cÖwZwU gvbyl Zvi Rxeb, gyw³i42 AwaKvi Ges mKj cÖKvi AZ¨vPvi, wbôziZv, AgvbweK AvPiY Ges AatcwZZ e¨envi43, we‡klfv‡e ˆel‡g¨i †Kv‡bv wbwl× †¶‡Îi wfwˇZ e¨w³MZ wbivcËv I ˆ`wnK ALÊZvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, mwnsmZv ev `gbg~jK AvPiY †_‡K gy³fv‡e Zv‡`i †hŠb AwaKvi Dc‡fvM Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ Rxeb Ges ˆ`wnK ALÊZvi44 AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, GB mKj AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB cwiev‡ii m¤§v‡bi ¯^v‡_© cÖwZ‡kv‡ai wbwg‡Ë fxwZ ev SzuwKi mÂvi Kiv hv‡e bv|45 • †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K Zvi †hŠb BwZnvm ev AvPvi-e¨envi, †RÛvi

cwiwPwZ ev cÖKv‡ki Kvi‡Y wePvwiK ev wePviewnf~©Z nZ¨v, wePvwiK ev wePviewnf~©Z ˆ`wnK kvw¯— cÖ`vb Kiv hv‡e bv|46 • †Kv‡bv bvixi Rxeb ev ¯^v¯’¨ †gwW‡Kj wPwKrmvi djkÖ“wZ‡Z Zvi †Kv‡bv ˆ`wnK ev gvbwmK Ae¯’v ev A‡b¨i Kvi‡Y †m †h åƒY enb Ki‡Z cv‡i Zvi †¶‡Î †Kv‡bv SzuwK‡Z †djv hv‡e bv| • †Kv‡bv bvix‡K Zvi †hŠbZv‡K e¨envi K‡i kw³i gva¨‡g Zv‡K Mf©avi‡Yi †`v‡l †`vlx Kiv hv‡e bv| • mKj gvbyl bvixi †hŠbv½ weKjv½KiY ev eva¨Zvg~jK ev Amgq weevn47mn ¶wZKviY HwZn¨MZ AvPiYmg~n †_‡K gy³ nIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj gvbyl mKj cÖKvi ˆ`wnK, †gŠwLK, gb¯—vwZ¡K ev A_©‰bwZK AZ¨vPvi, †hŠb nqivwb, †hŠb mwnsmZv, ˆeevwnK Ae¯’vq ev weevnewnf©~Z ejvrKvi, mk¯¿ msNl© ev Aš—ixY Ae¯’vq Ab¨ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi `gbg~jK †hŠbKg©mn mKj cÖKvi mwnsmZv †_‡K gy³ nIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj †RÛv‡ii †hŠbKgx©mn mKj e¨w³48 ev weevnewnf©~Z cÖK…Z ev Awfhy³ †hŠbK‡g©i †¶‡Î Zv‡`i wj½, †hŠbZv ev †RÛvimsµvš— Kj¼ ev ˆel‡g¨i wfwˇZ m„ó mwnsmZv †_‡K gy³ _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • m¤§Z †hŠbK‡g©i Kvi‡Y A¯úó ev Awbi“wcZ Aciv‡ai j•Nb ev †¯^”QvPvix ev Ah_v_© ˆelg¨g~jK ev mwnsm Kg©Kv‡Êi Kvi‡Y Kvnv‡KI †¯^”QvPvix ˆelg¨g~jK Aš—ixY Ae¯’v ivLv hv‡e bv|49 • †Kv‡bv e¨w³i cÖK…Z ev Av‡ivwcZ †hŠbvPvimn †hŠbPvwn`v, AvPiY ev Awfe¨w³ BZ¨vw` mwnsmZv, Ace¨envi I Drcxob Kg©KvʇK hyw³c~Y©, ˆKwdqr ev kvw¯—i n«vm wnmv‡e MÖnY‡hvM¨ n‡e bv| • mKj Awfevmx Ges Awfevmx Kgx©, we‡klfv‡e hyeK, gwnjv Ges Uªvb‡RÛvi Awfevmx †h †`‡k †m emevm ev KvR K‡i †mLv‡b ˆ`wnK ¶wZ Ges mwnsmZv †_‡K Ges Zv‡`i †hŠb ev †RÛvi Awfe¨w³i Ace¨envimn Zv‡`i †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ Ges AwaKvi wbivc` _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ AwfkswmZ nIqv †_‡K Avkªq-cÖv_©bv Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, we‡klfv‡e, Zv‡`i †hŠb ev †RÛvi Awfe¨w³i wfwˇZ M„nxZ iv‡óªi †Kv‡bv Kvh©µg ev wj½, †RÛvi, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ, †hŠb BwZnvm ev AvPiY ev †hŠb cwiwPwZ Ávb ev GBPAvBwf msµvš— ¸i“Zi Ace¨envi51 Aciv‡ai wel‡q|52


18 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

• mKj e¨w³ †hLv‡b Zv‡`i wj½, †RÛvi, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ, †hŠb BwZnvm ev AvPiY BZ¨vw`i Kvi‡Y wePvwiK Kvh©µ‡gi mycÖwZwôZ fxwZ cÖ`k©‡bi m¤§yLxb n‡Z cv‡i, †Zgb †Kv‡bv iv‡óª AcmviY, a„Z ev ewn®‹vi A_ev Gi gva¨‡g fxwZ cÖ`k©b cÖf„wZi m¤§yLxb nIqv †_‡K gy³ _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|53

aviv 4 †MvcbZvi AwaKvi • mKj gvbyl Zv‡`i †MvcbxqZv, cwievi, evm¯’vb, `wjjcÎ ev cÎvjvc cÖf„wZi †¶‡Î †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆ¯^ivPvix n¯—‡¶‡ci cÖfvegy³ _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i Ges Zv‡`i †hŠb ¯^vwaKvi cÖ‡qv‡Mi Rb¨ cÖ‡qvRbxq †MvcbxqZv Aej¤^b Kivi AwaKviI msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ †hŠb ¯^vwaKvi cÖ‡qvM Ges †Kv‡bv cÖKvi Zv‡`i †hŠbZv, †hŠb AvPiY Ges NwbóZv Aej¤^b Kivi wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi ¶gZv cÖ‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î ˆ¯^ivPvix n¯—‡¶‡ci cÖfvegy³ _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ cwi‡lev I cwiPh©v e¨e¯’v MÖnY, †gwW‡Kj bw_cÎ Ges mvwe©Kfv‡e Zv‡`i GBPAvBwf Ae¯’v m¤úwK©Z Z_¨vejx m¤ú‡K© †MvcbxqZv Aej¤^b Ges MÖnY‡hvM¨ mxgve×Zv I ˆelg¨nxb KvVv‡gvi AvIZvi evB‡i ˆ¯^ivPvix n¯—‡¶‡ci gva¨‡g cÖKvk ev ˆ¯^ivPvix n¯—‡¶‡ci gva¨‡g cÖKv‡ki fxZ cÖ`©kb cÖfvegy³ _vKvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|55 • mKj e¨w³ Zv‡`i †hŠb Pvwn`v, †hŠb BwZnvm, †hŠb m½x Ges AvPiY Ges †hŠbZvi m‡½ m¤úwK©Z Ab¨vb¨ welqmg~n cÖKv‡ki wbqš¿Y AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|

aviv 5 e¨w³ ¯^vZš¿¨ Ges AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z ¯^xK…wZ jv‡fi AwaKvi • mKj gvbyl AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z ¯^xK…wZcÖvwß Ges †hŠb ¯^vaxbZv cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, hvi g‡a¨ ˆelg¨nxb KvVv‡gvi AvIZvq Ges A‡b¨i AwaKvi wbwðZ Kiv Ges mš—vb avi‡Yi ¶gZv weKwkZ Kivi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i e¨w³we‡k‡li †hŠbZvm¤úwK©Z welqmg~n gy³fv‡e wbqš¿Y I wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi, †hŠb m½x †e‡Q †bIqvi AwaKvi, c~Y© †hŠb kw³ e¨envi I cwiZ…wß cvIqvi AwaKvi, my‡hvM cvIqv e¨w³MZ ¯^vwaKvi

Ges ¯^xK…wZi AwaKvi msi¶Y Aš—f©~³| • mKj e¨w³ †h †Kv‡bv †¶‡Î Ges †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆelg¨wenxbfv‡e AvB‡bi `„wó‡Z mKj ¯’v‡b ¯^xK…wZ cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ mvgvwRK, ivR‰bwZK Ges A_©‰bwZK Ae¯’vi cwi‡e‡k ¯^vaxb Ges m¤úK©wfwËK †hŠb AvPiY Ges e¨envi gy³fv‡e cÖ‡qvM Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, †hLv‡b ˆelg¨wenxbfv‡e, mwnsmZv, `gbg~jK Kg©KvÊ Ges Ace¨envi †_‡K gy³ mKj AwaKvi Ges ¯^vaxbZv mgvbfv‡e mK‡j Dc‡fvM Ki‡Z cv‡i| • †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K Ggb †Kv‡bv AvBb Øviv Awfhy³ Kiv hv‡e bv, hvi gva¨‡g †¯^”QvPvixfv‡e m¤§wZg~jK †hŠb m¤úK© ev AvPi‡Yi Kvi‡Y †`vlx mve¨¯— Kiv nq; wj½, †hŠbZv ev †RÛvi ev m¤§wZg~jK †hŠb AvPiY ev e¨env‡ii Kvi‡Y AvUK ev e›`x Kiv hv‡e bv| • mKj AvUKK…Z e¨w³ †Kv‡bv wbwl× ˆelg¨g~jK wfwˇZ `gb ev ¶wZMÖ¯’ bv nIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| mKj AvUKK…Z e¨w³ cÖvwš——KZv †_‡K wbivc` _vKv Ges wbqwgZ `v¤úZ¨ Kg©KvÊ cwiPvjbvi j‡¶¨ mv¶vr Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ gvbyl cvPvi msµvš— Aciv‡ai ¶wZ †_‡K euvPvi ¯^vaxbZv cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K Zvi myiw¶Z †hŠb Awfe¨w³ cÖKvk; †hŠbÁvbvR©b; cÖK…Z ev Awc©Z †hŠb BwZnvm ev AvPiY ev †RÛvi cwiwPwZ ev AvPiY cÖf„wZi wfwˇZ A‰bw”QKfv‡e †Kv‡bv †gwW‡Kj M‡elYv ev c×wZ, †Kv‡bv †gwW‡Kj cix¶v ev †¯^”QvPvix †gwW‡Kj Aei“×Zvi wkKvi †_‡K cwiÎvY cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K wj½ be-eivÏKiY (reassignment) A¯¿cPvi, eܨvZ¡KiY ev ni‡gvb †_ivcxi D‡Ï‡k¨ Zv‡`i †RÛvi cwiwPwZi wePvwiK ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`v‡bi j‡¶¨ ev Rb¥ wbeÜbcÎ, cvm‡cvU© ev wbe©vPbx cwiwPwZmn, wKš‘ †Kej Gi g‡a¨B mxgve× bq, G Kvi‡Y Zvi wj½, eqm, †RÛvi, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ ev †hŠbÁvbvR©‡bi Rb¨ †Rvic~e©K †gwW‡Kj Kvh©µ‡gi AvIZvq Avbv hv‡e bv|


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 19

aviv 6

aviv 7

wPš—v, AwfgZ Ges gZvgZ cÖKvk Kivi ¯^vaxbZvi AwaKvi; msN MV‡bi AwaKvi

¯^v¯’¨ Ges ˆeÁvwbK AMÖMwZi myweav cÖvwßi AwaKvi

• mKj e¨w³ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi cÖfvekvjx mvs¯‹…wZK wek¦vm ev ivR‰bwZK fveaviv ev bvMwiK wbq‡gi ˆelg¨g~jK gZev`, bvMwiK ˆbwZKZv, bvMwiK ¯^v¯’¨ ev bvMwiK wbivcËvi †¶‡Î GKZidv n¯—‡¶c ev mxgve×Zv Zv‡`i †hŠbZv, †hŠb Ávb AR©b, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ Ges †hŠb AwaKvi m¤úwK©Z wPš—v, gZvgZ cÖ`vb Ges cÖKvk Kivi ¯^vaxbZvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|59 • mKj e¨w³ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi cÖwZeÜKZv QvovB, A‰elg¨g~jK KvVv‡gv Ges wkï‡`i µgea©gvb ¶gZvi cwigʇj gZvgZ cÖ`v‡bi AwaKvimn wPš—v, ˆbwZK Ges agx©q60 ¯^vaxbZv msi¶‡Yi AwaKvi iv‡L| • mKj e¨w³ Ab¨ e¨w³i AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© m¤§vb cÖ`k©bmn mKj cÖKvi fq, j¾v, Aciva‡eva, åvš— aviYv Ges Ab¨ mKj Ae¯’v †_‡K gy³ Ae¯’vq Zv‡`i AvKv•Lv cÖKvkmn Zv‡`i †hŠbZv AbymÜvb, ¯^cœ †`Lv Ges Kíbv Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³, we‡klfv‡e gwnjv, †Kv‡bv cÖwZeÜKZv QvovB Zvi cwiPq, PvjPjb, †cvlvK, ˆ`wnK ˆewkó¨, bv‡gi cQ›` Ges Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Dcv‡q cwiPq cÖvwßi Awfe¨w³ ev AwffveKZ¡ BZ¨vw` cÖKv‡ki AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|61 • mKj e¨w³i †h †Kv‡bv AvB‡bi gva¨‡g Ges mxgv‡š—i wewawb‡la e¨wZ‡i‡K; A‰elg¨g~jK KvVv‡gv Ges wkï‡`i µgea©gvb ¶gZvi cwigʇj gZvgZ cÖ`v‡bi AwaKvi Ges Ab¨ e¨w³i AwaKvi m¤ú‡K© IqvwKdnvj n‡q gvbevwaKvi, †hŠbvwaKvi, †hŠbÁvb AR©b, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ Ges †hŠbZv msµvš— Z‡_¨i A‡š^lY, MÖnY Ges Askx Kivi ¯^vaxbZv i‡q‡Q| • mKj e¨w³ kvwš—c~Y©fv‡e mg‡eZ nIqv Ges wewfbœ cÖK…wZi mwgwZ62 MVb Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| †hLv‡b mvgvwRK KvVv‡gvi AvIZvq, mK‡ji Rb¨ AwaKvi Ges gyw³ c~Y©fv‡e ev¯—evwqZ nq, †mLv‡b gvbevwaKvi, †hŠbvwaKvi, †hŠbZv, †hŠbÁvb AR©b, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ msµvš— wel‡q †h †Kv‡bv gva¨‡g Z‡_¨i A‡š^lY, MÖnY, Askx Kiv, MVb Kiv, †hvM`vb Kiv Ges †Mvôx I cÖwZôvb ˆZwi Kiv Ges Dbœqb, wewbgq, cÖPviYv Ges Z_¨ I aviYv A‡š^lY cÖf„wZ welqvejxI Gi mv‡_ Aš—f~©³|

• mKj e¨w³ m‡e©v”P AR©b‡hvM¨ gv‡bi ˆ`wnK I gvbwmK ¯^v¯’¨ Dc‡fvM Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i63, hv ¯^v‡¯’¨i †gŠwjK wba©viK wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ64 Ges mKj †hŠb mgm¨vejx, RwUjZv Ges A¯^vfvweKZ¡ cÖwZ‡iva, wba©viY Ges wPwKrmv MÖn‡Yi my‡hvM cÖvwßi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ AbvKvw•¶Z Mf© Ges GBPAvBwf/GBWmmn †hŠbevwnZ msµgY †_‡K myiw¶Z wbivc` †hŠbvPvi MÖn‡Y eva¨ Ki‡Z cvi‡e| • mKj e¨w³ Rb¯^v‡¯’i mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z †h †Kv‡bv wePvwiK, bxwZwba©viYx Kg©m~Px I cwi‡lev cÖwZôvb Ges Zv‡`i †Mvôx‡Z AskMÖnY Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj ¯^v¯’¨ n¯—‡¶cmg~n cÖvwš—K e¨w³ Ges †Mvôxmg~‡ni we‡kl Pvwn`v c~i‡Yi wel‡q Aek¨B ms‡e`bkxj n‡Z n‡e| • mKj e¨w³ ¯^v¯’¨ cwiPh©v cÖ`vbKvix‡`i we‡eKevb we‡ivwaZv m‡Ë¡I ¯^vaxbfv‡e ¯^v¯’¨ cwiPh©v I cwi‡lev MÖnY Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|65 • mKj e¨w³ ¯^v‡¯’¨i mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z Ges ˆeÁvwbKfv‡e MÖnYxq M‡elYv I Z_¨cÖgvYwfwËK m‡e©v”P m¤¢e ¯^v¯’¨ cwi‡lev †hŠbvwaKvi, †hŠbÁvb AR©b, †hŠbZv, †RÛvi cwiwPwZ m¤úwK©Z Z_¨ cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • †hŠbKgx©mn mKj e¨w³ Zv‡`i mKj m½x I cwiPh©v cÖv_x©‡`i mv‡_ wbivc` †hŠb AvPiY wbwðZ Ki‡Z wbivc` Kg© cwi‡ek, ¯^v¯’¨ cwi‡lev, cÖ‡qvRbxq mnvqZv Ges myi¶v cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ mk¯¿ msN‡l© ev kw³ cÖ‡qv‡Mi gva¨‡g ¯’vb P~¨wZi mgq mKj cÖKvi mgwš^Z †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ cwi‡lev cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ †hŠb AwaKvi I †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ msµvš— ˆeÁvwbK AMÖMwZ Ges Gi cÖ‡qvM66 msµvš— myweav Dc‡fvM Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ A‡b¨i mv‡_ mgvbvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ ˆelg¨nxbfv‡e †Kv‡bv cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ cÖhyw³, cwi‡lev ev †gwW‡Kj n¯—‡¶c Ask MÖnY ev Zv eR©b Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y Ki‡e| GB Kvh©µ‡gi wfZ‡i eqmwfwËK wewawb‡la ˆelg¨nxbZvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv Ges wkï‡`i µgea©gvb ¶gZvi cwigʇj gZvgZ cÖ`v‡bi AwaKvi c~iY Ki‡Z n‡e|


20 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

• mKj e¨w³ A‡b¨i mv‡_ mgvbvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ Ges ˆelg¨nxbfv‡e †Kv‡bv ˆeÁvwbK M‡elYvq Ask MÖnY ev Zv eR©b Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y Ki‡e|

aviv 8 wk¶v I Z_¨ cÖvwßi AwaKvi • mKj gvbyl, †Kv‡bv ˆelg¨ e¨wZ‡i‡K, mvaviYfv‡e cÖ‡qvRbxq wk¶v MÖnY Ges Z_¨cÖvwß Ges mgwš^Zfv‡e †hŠb wk¶v I Z_¨cÖvwßi AwaKvi Ges Kvh©Kifv‡e c~Y© bvMwiKZ¡ Ges bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK cwigÛ‡j mgvbwaKvi cIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ Kj¼ I ˆelg¨ we‡gvP‡bi D‡Ï‡k¨ wk¶v MÖnY, Z_¨mg„× Kgx© wnmv‡e hye m¤cÖ`v‡qi Dbœqb wbwðZ Kiv, hv‡Z Zviv Zv‡`i Rxeb m¤ú‡K© `vwqZ¡ MÖnY I ¶gZvq‡bi gva¨‡g †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ I †hŠb wk¶v msµvš— wba©viYx bxwZgvjvmg~‡n Ask MÖnY Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|67 • mKj e¨w³, we‡klfv‡e hye m¤cÖ`vq, mgwš^Z †hŠb wk¶v Kg©m~Px Ges †hŠb m¤úwK©Z bxwZgvjvq h_vh_ m¤¢iY (†RvMvb) †`Iqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • RvZxq cwimxgv AwZµg K‡iI evB‡i mKj e¨w³ †hŠb, †hŠb AwaKvi Ges †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ msµvš— AcÖPwjZ Ges cÖPwjZ Z_¨ cÖvwßi wbðqZv, hye m¤cÖ`vq we‡klfv‡e wfbœ cÖK…wZi †hŠb Rxeb Ges †hŠb m¤úK© m¤ú‡K© Z_¨ cÖvwßi wbðqZv cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ Zvi †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ wbwðZKiY Ges KLb, Kxfv‡e, Ges Kvi mv‡_ †hŠbK‡g© wjß n‡e Ges KLb Zv‡`i †hŠb AvPiY cÖRbb¶g Ki‡Z n‡e †m wel‡q wm×vš— MÖnYmn †evaMg¨ fvlvq †hŠb m¤úwK©Z mgvR, we`¨vjq, ¯^v¯’¨ †mevcÖ`vbKvixwfwËK Z_¨cÖvwßi wbðqZvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|68 • mKj e¨w³ Zv‡`i †hŠb I cÖRbb Rxeb cwic~Y©, gy³ I Z_¨wbf©iZvi mv‡_ †h †Kv‡bv wm×vš— MÖnY Kivi wbðqZv weavb Ki‡Z ch©vß wk¶v MÖnY I Z_¨cÖvwßi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|69

aviv 9 weevn Kiv ev bv Kiv, cwievi MVb Ges cwiKíbv Kiv ev bv Kiv Ges KLb, Kxfv‡e wKsev Av‡`Š mš—vb MÖnY Ki‡e wK bv †m e¨vcv‡i wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi • mKj e¨w³ gy³fv‡e Ges `vwqZ¡kxjfv‡e weevn Ki‡e wK bv, cwievi MVb Ges cwiKíbv MÖnY Ki‡e wK bv, Ges KLb, Kxfv‡e Ges KZ¸wj ev e¨eavb †Kgb n‡e ev Av‡`Š mš—vb MÖnY Ki‡e wK bv †m e¨vcv‡i †hLv‡b AvBb I bxwZgvjv ˆewPÎgq cwievi e¨e¯’v ¯^xKvi K‡i, GgbwK weevn ev DËivwaKvixZ¡ Øviv ¯úó bq Ggb GKwU cwi‡e‡ki †¶‡Î wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i|70 • mKj e¨w³ gy³fv‡e Ges c~Y© m¤§wZ‡Z weevne܇b Ave× nIqv ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv kh¨vm½x MÖnY, hv ˆelg¨nxb KvVv‡gvi AvIZvq mK‡ji Rb¨ cÖvc¨ Ges mš—vb avi‡Yi ¶gZv weKwkZ Kivi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³i cwievi m¤úwK©Z mgvR Kj¨vY I Ab¨vb¨ bvMwiK myweavw` cvIqvi AwaKvi iv‡L, †hgb K‡g© wb‡qvM Ges Awfevmb MÖnY, cQ›`gvwdK cwievi MVb, Ggb wK hv weevn ev DËivwaKvi‡Z¡ ¯úó D‡j-L bvB| • mKj e¨w³ KLb, Kxfv‡e mš—vb MÖnY Ki‡e ev Av‡`Š mš—vb MÖnY Ki‡e wK bv Ges mš—vb‡`i g‡a¨Kvi weiwZ KZUv n‡e †m e¨vcv‡i `vwqZ¡kxj Ges gy³fv‡e wm×vš— MÖnY Ges †m msµvš— Z_¨, wk¶v Ges wm×vš— MÖn‡Yi Dcvqmg~n AvqZ¡ Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y iv‡L| • mKj e¨w³ gy³ I `vwqZ¡kxjfv‡e cÖRbb I cwievi MVb msµvš— wm×vš— MÖnYmn ˆRweKfv‡e A_ev `ËK MÖn‡Yi gva¨‡g mš—vb MÖnY Ki‡e wK bv, †mB mv‡_ wbivc`, Kvh©Ki, MÖnY‡hvM¨ Ges e¨qmv‡c¶ Rb¥wb‡ivaK (De©iZv wbqš¿Y) c×wZ e¨e¯’v, cÖRbb cÖhyw³ Ges wPwKrmv e¨e¯’v MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ ˆeevwnK Ae¯’v wbwe©‡k‡l Ges ˆelg¨wenxb KvVv‡gvi Aax‡b Ges cÖRbb, eܨvZ¡ Ges Mf©aviY mgvwß msµvš— civgk© ev mswk-ó cwi‡lev MÖnY mš—vb avi‡Yi ¶gZv weKwkZ Kivi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj bvix AvqZ¡vaxb, mvg_©¨c~Y©, MÖnY‡hvM¨ Ges mnR cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ cÖwZi¶v, wbivc` gvZ…Z¡ Ges wbivc` Mf©cvZ msµvš— cÖ‡qvR‡b Z_¨, wk¶v Ges cwi‡lev MÖn‡Yi wm×vš—


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 21

MÖn‡Yi Dcvqmg~n AvqZ¡ Kivi AwaKvi msi¶Y iv‡L| • mKj e¨w³ wkïi AwffveKZ¡, Uªvw÷ Ges `ˇKi wel‡q A_ev GKB cÖKvi cÖwZôvb msµvš— wel‡q GKB AwaKvi I `vwqZ¡ MÖn‡Yi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, †h mKj †¶‡Î wkï‡`i †kªô g½j kxl© AwaKvi wnmv‡e we‡ewPZ Ges †hLv‡b GB mKj aviYv ˆelg¨nxb KvVv‡gvi AvIZvq RvZxq wePvi e¨e¯’vq we`¨gvb|

aviv 10 Revew`wnZv Ges cÖwZweav‡bi AwaKvi • Kvh©Ki, ch©vß, AvqZ¡‡hvM¨ Ges h_vh_ wk¶Yxq, AvBbvbyM, wePvwiK Ges Ab¨ welqvejxi gva¨‡g hviv †hŠb AwaKvi mgybœZ ivL‡Z `vwqZ¡kxj Zviv Zv‡`i cÖwZ cwic~Y©fv‡e Revew`wnZvi e¨vcv‡i mKj gvby‡li wbwðZKiY Ges `vex Kivi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q| †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ ev¯—evqb ch©‡e¶Y Kivi ¶gZvmn †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ AwaKvi j•NbRwbZ cÖwZKvi. cÖZ¨vc©b, c~be©vmb I cwiZzwó ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Dcv‡qi gva¨‡g c~Y© ¶wZc~iY cÖvwßi my‡hvM AvqZ¡ KivI GB wel‡qi mv‡_ mswk-ó|72 • ivóª Revew`wnZvi Ggb †KŠkj M‡o Zzj‡Z e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡e hv‡Z †hŠb AwaKvi mgybœZ ivLvi j‡¶¨ Zv‡`i eva¨evaKZv wbwðZ Kiv nq| • mKj e¨w³ mk¯¿ msNl©, we‡klf‡e †hŠb Ges †RÛviwfwËK mwnsmZvi mgq Revew`wnZv Ges ¶wZc~iY cvIqvi Kvh©Ki †KŠkj MÖn‡Yi myweav cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| • mKj e¨w³ Z_¨cÖvwß Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq mn‡hvwMZvi myweav cvIqvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i, hvi gva¨‡g †hŠb AwaKvi j•N‡bi Kvi‡Y cÖwZKvi I ¶wZc~iY wbwðZ Kiv hvq| • mKj e¨w³i A-ivóªxq wbqš¿K‡K AvB‡bi AvIZvq Avbvi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q, hvi Kvh©Kjvc ev Abeavb Zv‡`i †hŠb AwaKvi Dc‡fvM‡K cÖfvevwš^Z K‡i| Gi mv‡_ †hŠb AwaKvi j•NbRwbZ Kvi‡Y ¶wZc~iY I cÖwZKvi cÖvwßi AwaKvi Aš—f©~³| • ivóª Z…Zxq c¶ KZ…©K Ab¨ e¨w³i j•Nb †hŠb AwaKvi j•Nb cÖwZ‡iv‡a c`‡¶c MÖnY Ki‡e| AvBwcwcGd Zvi wb‡Ri ¶gZvi cwigʇj GB mKj KvR Ki‡Z cÖwZkÖ“wZe× Gi mv‡_ cÖhyw³K mnvqZv, ¶gZvqb e„w×

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* RvwZmsN gvbevwaKvi ms¯’vmg~‡ni eû Avš—R©vwZK gvb I wi‡cvU© RvwZmsN gvbevwaKvi Kwgkb I‡qemvB‡U www.who.hr.org †`Lyb * wek¦¯^v¯’¨ ms¯’vi †hŠb AwaKvi Ges †hŠb ¯^v¯’¨ welqK c~Y© Av‡jvPbvi Rb¨, †`Lyb www.who.int/reproductive-health/ gender/sexualhealth.html#4

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24 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

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†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 25

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21| †RÛvi ej‡Z, †Kv‡bv GK wbw`©ó mg‡q bvix I cyi“‡li mv‡_ m¤úwK©Z mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK Ges A_©‰bwZK ¸Yvejx I my‡hvM‡K eySvq| 22| †RÛvi cwiwPwZ ej‡Z cyi“l A_ev bvix, cyi“lZ¡ ev bvixZ¡ m¤úwK©Z †Kv‡bv e¨w³i Af¨š—ixY AvZ¥-m‡PZbZv‡K eySvq| 23| †hŠbÁvb ej‡Z mgwj½, wecwiZ wj½ ev Dfq wj‡½i cÖwZ cÖavb †hŠb AvKl©Y‡K eySvq| 24| mKj cwigʇj ˆelg¨nxbZv m¤ú‡K© Avš—R©vwZK AvBb Ges †Mvôx, wj½ Ges †RÛvi-m¤úwK©Z †Mvôx‰el‡g¨i †cÖw¶‡Z D‡Ïk¨g~jK Ges ÔKvh©KiÕ Dfq cÖKvi ˆelg¨g~jK Kvh©µ‡gi D`vni‡Yi Rb¨ †`Lyb gvbevwaKvi KwgwUi mvaviY gš—e¨ bs 18: ˆelg¨nxbZv, BDGb WK. GBPAviAvB /†Rb/1/†if. 6 GU 146, 2003| AviI †`Lyb: mKj cÖKvi †Mvôx‰elg¨ `~ixKiY m¤úwK©Z KwgwUi mvaviY mycvwik 25: †Mvôx‰el‡g¨i †RÛvim¤úwK©Z e¨vßx| BDGb WK. G/55/18, 2000| 25| wmGjGwWGg †gwb‡d‡÷v (2q ms¯‹iY, †hŠb AwaKvi Ges cÖRbb AwaKvi welqK cÖPviYv A‡±vei 2006) c„. 26| www.convencion.org.uy

26| AvÂwjK Av`vjZ KZ…©K m„ô †hŠb ¶wZi wei“‡× we‡kl cÖKvi wbivcËv msµvš— cÖviw¤¢K I cÖfvekvjx wm×vš—| †`Lyb: gvbevwaKv‡ii BD‡ivcxq Av`vjZ X Ges Y. †b`vij¨vÊm, 26 gvP© 1985| 27| wkï AwaKvi msµvš— Kb‡fbkb, aviv 34: ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n mKj cÖKvi †hŠb †kvlY Ges †hŠb Ace¨envi †_‡K wkï‡`i wbivcËv weavb Ki‡Z e×cwiKi| G Kvi‡Y ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n †h mKj cÖwZ‡ivag~jK e¨e¯’v, we‡klfv‡e mKj cÖKvi h_vh_ RvZxq, wØcvw¶K Ges eûc¶xq Kvh©µg MÖnY Ki‡e, †m¸wj n‡jvÑ (K) wkï‡K †eAvBbxfv‡e †hŠbK‡g© DrmvwnZ ev eva¨ Kiv; (L) †ek¨ve„wË ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv cÖKvi †eAvBbx Kvh©µ‡gi AvIZvq wkï‡`i †kvlYg~jKfv‡e e¨envi Kiv; (M) Ak-xj wP‡Î ev `ª‡e¨ Ask MÖnY wkï‡`i †kvlYg~jKfv‡e e¨envi Kiv| 28| Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi †NvlYv, aviv 29: (1) mgv‡Ri cÖwZ cÖwZwU e¨w³i GKK `vwqZ¡ n‡jv Zvi Avcb e¨w³‡Z¡i ¯^vaxb I c~Y© Dbœqb mvab Kiv| (2) eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b ivóªxq ms¯’vmg~n Zvi GB AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZv ev¯—evq‡b, cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³ †mB mKj mxgve×Zvi m¤§yLxb n‡e, hv GKwU MYZvwš¿K mgv‡R AvBb Øviv wba©vwiZ †KejgvÎ Ab¨ e¨w³i h_vh_ AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZv wbwðZ Ki‡Z Ges ˆbwZKZv, bvMwiK k„•Ljv Ges mvwe©K Kj¨v‡Yi c~Y© ev¯—evq‡b c`‡¶c MÖnY Ki‡e| (3) GB mKj AwaKvi Ges ¯^vaxbZv †hb RvwZms‡Ni D‡Ïk¨ I bxwZgvjvi cwicš’x wnmv‡e †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v‡ZB e¨envi bv nq| www.un.org/Overview/rights.htm-†Z cvIqv hv‡e| 29| A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKv‡ii Avš—R©vwZK Pzw³cÎ, aviv 12: 1| eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b ivóªxq ms¯’vmg~n m‡e©v”P AR©b‡hvM¨ gv‡bi ˆ`wnK I gvbwmK ¯^v¯’¨cÖvwßi welqwU ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb K‡i| 2| eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b


26 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

GB AwaKv‡ii c~Y© ev¯—evqb AR©b Ki‡Z ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n †h mKj cÖ‡qvRbxq welq‡K Aš—f©~³ Ki‡e, (1) g„Z mš—vb cÖme I beRvZK g„Zz¨i nvi Kgv‡bvi e¨e¯’v I wkïi ¯^v¯’¨m¤§Z e„w×i wbðqZv weavb; (2) cwi‡ekMZ I wkí ¯^v¯’¨wewai mKj wel‡qi Dbœqb mvab; (3) gnvgvix, AvÂwjK, †ckvMZ I Ab¨vb¨ e¨vwai cÖwZ‡iva, wPwKrmv I wbqš¿Y; (4) Amy¯’Zvi mgq mKj cÖKvi †gwW‡Kj cwi‡lev I †gwW‡Kj g‡bv‡hvM cÖ`v‡bi Ae¯’vi m„wó| AviI †`Lyb: A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi msµvš— KwgwU| mvaviY gš—e¨ 14: m‡e©v”P AR©b‡hvM¨ gv‡bi ˆ`wnK I gvbwmK ¯^v¯’¨cÖvwßi AwaKvi| RvwZmsN cwicÎ B/wm 12/2004/4 11 AvM÷ 2000, c¨viv 26-29| 30| GB bxwZgvjvq wea„Z D‡Ïk¨vejx Ges AvBbvbyM j‡¶¨i mv‡_ m½wZc~Y© bq Ggb AvBb Øviv ¯^xK…Z mxgve×Zvi cwieZ©‡bi Rb¨ KvR Ki‡Z n‡e| †`Lyb wmGjGwWBGg †gwb‡d‡÷v (2q ms¯‹iY, †hŠb AwaKvi I cÖRbb AwaKvi welqK Kb‡fbk‡bi cÖPviYv, A‡±vei 2006); c„. 33 www.convencion.org.uy. 31| Dbœqb mn‡hvwMZvi Rb¨ gvbevwaKviwfwËK c`‡¶c| RvwZmsN ms¯’vmg~‡ni g‡a¨ cvi¯úwiK Dcjwäi c_wb‡`©kbv: www.undp.org/governance/docs/HR_guides_CommonUndestanding.pdf.

32| GB Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b Ab¨vb¨ AwaKv‡ii mv‡_ ¯^v¯’¨ AwaKv‡ii welqwU ivóªxq ms¯’vmg~‡ni `vqe×Zv ch©v‡jvPbv Kvh©µ‡g m¤§vb, wbivcËv weavb Ges cwic~Y©Ki‡Yi aviYv A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi msµvš— Avš—R©vwZK Pzw³cÎ ZË¡veavbKvix KZ©„c¶ KZ…©K M„nxZ nq| A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi (wmBGmwmAvi) mvwe©K gš—e¨, bs 14,Aa¨vq 34-37| 33| †`Lyb, wmBGmwmAvi mvwe©K gš—e¨, bs 14,Aa¨vq 39| 34| Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi †NvlYv, 1948, aviv 1: mKj gvbyl gy³fv‡e Rb¥MÖnY K‡i Ges gh©v`v I AwaKv‡ii †¶‡Î mgvb| 35| Avš—R©vwZK bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ, aviv 2 (1): eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b cÖ‡Z¨K ivóªxq ms¯’v Zvi ivóªmxgvq mKj e¨w³i cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Ges wbðqZv weavb Ki‡e Ges eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Î ¯^xK…Z Ges †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ¯^vZš¿¨ †hgb, RvwZ‡Mvôx, eY©, fvlv, ag©, ivR‰bwZK ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv wPš—vaviv, RvZxq ev mvgvwRK DrcwË, m¤úwË, Rb¥ ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v QvovB Zvi AwaKv‡ii wbðqZv weavb Ki‡e| aviv 3: eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n mKj bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi Dc‡fvM Kivi †¶‡Î mKj bvix I cyi“‡li mgvbvwaKvi wbwðZ Ki‡Z e×cwiKi| aviv 26: mKj e¨w³ AvB‡bi †Pv‡L mgvb Ges †h †Kv‡bv ˆelg¨ QvovB AvB‡bi wbivcËv cvIqvi AwaKvix| GB wnmv‡e AvBb †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆelg¨ wbwl× K‡i Ges ˆel‡g¨i wei“‡× †h †Kv‡bv †¶‡Î, †hgb RvwZ‡Mvôx, eY©, fvlv, ag©, ivR‰bwZK ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv wPš—vaviv, RvZxq ev mvgvwRK DrcwË, m¤úwË, Rb¥ ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v QvovB mKj e¨w³i mgvb I Kvh©Ki wbivcËv wbðqZv weavb K‡i| gvbevwaKvi KwgwU wj½wfwËK ˆel‡g¨i †¶‡Î GB mKj Abywewai e¨vL¨v cÖ`vb Ges Kvh©Ki K‡i‡Q| UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev. 6, 146, 2003 †`Lyb|

bvix‡`i wei“‡× mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨ `~ixKiY Kb‡fbkb, 1979, aviv 1: eZ©gvb Kb‡fbk‡bi j‡¶¨, Ôbvix‡`i weiƒ‡×

ˆelg¨Õ ej‡Z, †hŠbZvi wfwˇZ †h †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨, eR©b ev evavwb‡la Kvh©Ki Kiv, hv bvix I cyi“‡li mvg¨Zvi wfwˇZ ˆeevwnK Ae¯’vi E‡a©, gvbevwaKvi Ges ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK, bvMwiK ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv †¶‡Î †gŠwjK ¯^vaxbZvi †¶‡Î †Kvb bvixi cwiwPwZ, Dc‡fvM ev cÖ‡qvM Kivi †¶‡Î nvwbKi ev AKvh©Ki Kiv‡K eySv‡e| †`Lyb: mKj cÖKvi RvwZMZ ˆelg¨ `~ixKi‡Yi mvaviY mycvwik 25, UN Doc A/55/18, 2000 AviI †`Lyb: RvwZMZ ˆelg¨ we‡ivax wek¦ m‡¤§j‡bi Rb¨ cÖ¯‘ZK…Z RvwZmsN A_©‰bwZK Ges mvgvwRK KvDw݇ji cUf~wgcÎ (1999) E/CN.4/1999/WG.1/BP.7, hv RvwZMZ ˆelg¨ I †hŠb cÖwk¶Y ˆel‡g¨i mshyw³i cÖwZ wb‡`©kK|

wkï AwaKvi msµvš— Kb‡fbkb, 1989, aviv 2 (1): ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n Zv‡`i AwaKv‡ii GjvKvq †h †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆelg¨


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 27

QvovB, wkï ev Zvi wcZv-gvZvi ev Awffve‡Ki RvwZ‡Mvôx, eY©, wj½, fvlv, ag©, ivR‰bwZK ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv wPš—vaviv, RvZxq ev b„ZvwZ¡K ev mvgvwRK DrcwË, m¤úwË, kvixwiK ˆeKj¨, Rb¥ ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv Ae¯’v QvovB eZ©gvb Kb‡fbk‡b mKj wkïi Rb¨ ewY©Z AwaKvimg~‡ni cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b Ges wbðqZv weavb Ki‡e| (2) ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n GKRb wkï Zvi wcZv-gvZv, AvBbvbyM AwffveK ev cwiev‡ii m`m¨‡`i Ae¯’vb, Kvh©Kjvc, gZvgZ ev wek¦vm cÖKv‡ki Dci wfwË K‡i †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆel‡g¨i wfwˇZ hv‡Z mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨ I kvw¯—g~jK Kg©KvÊ †_‡K myiw¶Z _v‡K †m wel‡q mgvb I Kvh©Ki AvBbx wbivcËv h_vh_ wbwðZ Kivi mKj e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡e|

weKjv½ gvby‡li msµvš— Kb‡fbkb, aviv 1, 2, 3 Ges 4: †mB mv‡_ aviv 5-G ewY©Z ˆel‡g¨i mywbw`©ó wbwl×KiY: mvg¨

I ˆelg¨: 1| ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb K‡i †h, mKj e¨w³ m¤§y‡L I wfZ‡i mgvb Ges ˆelg¨nxbfv‡e mgvb wbivcËv I mgvb my‡hvM jvf Kivi AwaKvix| 2| ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n kvixwiK A¶gZvi Kvi‡Y †Kv‡bv cÖKvi ˆelg¨ wbwl× Ges kvixwiKfv‡e A¶g e¨w³‡`i mKj ¯—‡i ˆel‡g¨i wei“‡× mgvb I Kvh©Ki AvBbx wbivcËv cÖ`vb wbwðZ K‡i| AviI †`Lyb: weKjv½ gvby‡li msµvš— Kb‡fbkb, aviv 2-G e¨vL¨v Kiv n‡q‡Q, ÔkvixwiK A¶gZv wfwˇZ ˆelg¨Õ: mKj gvbevwaKvi Ges †gŠwjK ¯^vaxbZvi ivR‰bwZK, A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK, mvs¯‹…wZK, bvMwiK ev Ab¨ †Kv‡bv †¶‡Î A‡b¨i mv‡_ mgvbwfwˇZ cwiZ…wß ev cÖ‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î evavMÖ¯’ ev A¯^xKvi Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ ev cwiYwZ‡Z †Kv‡bv kvixwiK A¶gZvi wfwˇZ †Kv‡bv cv_©K¨, we‡f` ev evavi Kvi‡Y ˆelg¨ Kiv| Gi mv‡_ mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨, Ggb wK hyw³m¤§Z Avevm m¤ú‡K© A¯^xK…wZ| 36| †hŠbZv Ges we‡klfv‡e †hŠb Áv‡bi wfwˇZ ˆel‡g¨i cÖwZ‡iv‡ai mywbw`©÷ m~Î A‡÷ªwjqvi Uz¨‡bb wf.-‡Z AbywôZ RvwZmsN gvbevwaKvi KwgwUi wm×vš—mg~‡n cvIqv hv‡e| Communication No. 488/1992, UN Doc. CCPR/C/50/D488/1992 (1994): http://hrw.org/lgbt/pdf/toonen.pdf Ges Gi cieZx© †hvM‡hvM Ges gvbevwaKvi KwgwU KZ©„K ivóªmg~n‡K cÖ`Ë mgvwßm~PK gš—e¨mg~n| AviI I. Salz (2004) Bracketing Sexuality: Human Rights and Sexual Orientation - A Decade of Development at the UN. 7 (2) Health and Human Rights Quarterly, pp. 49-80. bvixi †hŠbZv m¤úwK©Z wek¦v‡mi Kvi‡Y bvixewR©Z mgZv-i Rb¨ †`Lyb: Human Rights Committee’s General Comment No. 28 on the interpretation and reach of article 3 of the ICCPR: Equality of Rights between men and women (2000) UN Doc. CCPR/C/21/REV.1 /Add.10.

37| RvwZmsN (2003) Statement of Common Understanding: The Human Rights Based Approach to

Development Cooperation Towards a Common Understanding Among the UN agencies. UN InterAgency Workshop, May, 2003.

38| †`Lyb Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, Art. 7: ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n 39| Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of International Guidelines on HIV-AIDS and Human

Rights (2006 consolidated version). Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights and UNAIDS. www.ohchr.org/englishg/issues/hiv/guidelines.htm.

40| †`Lyb Committee on the convention on the Rights of the Child’s General Comment 4 Convention on the Rights of the Child’s (2003) para 8: Gi Av‡jv‡K cÖvK-hye‡`i ¯^v‡¯’¨i AwaKvi I Dbœq‡bi †gŠwjK welq n‡jv ÔcÖvK-hyev ¯^v¯’¨ I DbœqbÕ: gy³fv‡e gZ cÖKv‡ki AwaKvi Ges †m¸wj h_v‡hvM¨ ¸i“Z¡ cÖ`vb Kiv (2003); ivóªxqms¯’v¸wj cÖvK-hyev‡`i †h mKj welq ¶wZMÖ¯’ K‡i †m wel‡q we‡klfv‡e Zv‡`i cwiev‡ii g‡a¨, we`¨vj‡q Ges Zvi cvwicvwk¦©K mgv‡R, gy³fv‡e Zv‡`i gZ cÖKv‡ki h_v‡hvM¨ I cÖK…Z my‡hvM cÖ`vb Kivi Pvwn`v wbwðZ Kiv| 41| †`Lyb †hŠb ˆelg¨ Ges MwZgqZv cÖm‡½, the Human Rights Committee’s General Comment 28 on Equality of rights between men and women

AviI †`Lyb PjvP‡ji ¯^vaxbZvi AwaKvi-Gi Dci †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 22, †mB mv‡_ International Guidelines

on HIV-AIDS and Human Rights of 2006


28 †hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv

42| Avš—R©vwZK bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ, 1966, aviv 9.1: mKj e¨w³i e¨w³ ¯^vaxbZv I wbivcËvi AwaKvi i‡q‡Q| †KejgvÎ AvBb Øviv cÖYxZ †mB mKj †¶Î Ges †mB mKj c×wZ e¨wZ‡i‡K †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡KB †¯^”QvPvixfv‡e Aš—ixY ev AvUK Kiv hv‡e bv| 43| Avš—R©vwZK bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ, aviv 7: Ô†Kv‡bv e¨w³ AZ¨vPvi ev †Kv‡bv cÖKvi b„ksm, AgvbweK ev gh©v`vnvbxKi e¨envi ev kvw¯—g~jK Kg©Kv‡Êi m¤§yLxb n‡e bv| we‡klfv‡e, †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K Zvi ¯^vaxb g‡Zi wei“‡× †Kv‡bv cÖKvi †gwW‡Kj ev ˆeÁvwbK cix¶vq wb‡qvwRZ Kiv hv‡e bv|Õ AZ¨vPv‡ii wei“‡× KwgwU hy³iv‡óªi KvivMvi¸‡jv‡Z bvixi wei“‡× †hŠb mwnsmZv cÖ‡qv‡M b„ksm, AgvbweK ev gh©v`v nvbxKi e¨envi ev kvw¯—g~jK Kg©Kv‡Êi wei“‡× cÖwZi¶vi e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q| UN (2000) Conclusions and Recommemdations of the Committee against Torture. United States of America. Doc. A/55/44, paras 175-180.

KwgwU Dj½ K‡i Zj-vwki D‡Ï‡k¨ mgKvgx ev †RÛvi-A¯^xK…Z e¨w³‡`i Dci b„ksm, AgvbweK ev gh©v`v nvbxKi e¨envi ev kvw¯—g~jK Kg©KvÊ Ges Ab¨vb¨ AvPi‡Yi wei“‡× cÖwZi¶vi e¨e¯’v K‡i‡Q| AZ¨vPv‡ii wei“‡× we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqvi GKBfv‡e †hŠb I †RÛvi cwiwPwZi Kvi‡Y †hŠb nvgjv cwiPvjbvi cvkvcvwk b„ksm, AgvbweK ev gh©v`vnvbxKi e¨envi ev kvw¯—g~jK Kg©Kv‡Êi Rb¨ Zvi ¸i“Zi DwØMœZv cÖKvk K‡i‡Q| †`Lyb Conference

International Court of Justice Reference Guide pages 106-122. UN Doc. EICN. 4/2002/76.

44| ¯^v¯’¨, AvZ¥-mve©‡fŠgZ¡ I ¯^vaxbZv n«v‡mi †¶‡Î mwnsmZv I Ab¨vb¨ Ace¨env‡ii wei“‡× ˆ`wnK ALÊZvi AwaKvi µgea©gvb nv‡i e¨envi Kivi gva¨‡g mKj gvby‡li, we‡klfv‡e bvix‡`i wKQz wbivcËvi wbðqZvi cÖ‡qvRbxqZv i‡q‡Q| †`Lyb United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women’s Platform for Action (FWCW, Beijing, China: 4-15 September 1995, at para. 112.

AviI †`Lyb UN Secretary General’s In-depth Study on All Forms of Violence against Women with regards to its focus on rights to bodily integrity. UN Doc. A162/122/Add., at para. 2767.

45| RvwZmsN mvaviY cwil` wm×vš— A/Res/S-23/3, para 69 †eBwRs †NvlYvi ev¯—evq‡bi ch©v‡jvPbv Ges mwµq Kg©myPx www.un.org/womenweatch/daw/followup/ress233e.pdf.

46| †`Lyb gvbevwaKv‡ii i¶K‡`i Ae¯’v msµvš— gnvmwP‡ei we‡kl cÖwZwbwai wi‡cvU© E/CN.4/2006/ 95/Add. 1, gvP© 22, 2006| bvixi wei“‡× mwnsmZv, Gi KviY Ges cwiYwZ msµvš— we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqvi E/CN.4/2005/72/Add. 3, †deª“qvwi 10, 2005, c¨viv 21; gvbevwaKvi KwgwU, mgvcbx ch©‡e¶Y: wPwj, CCPR/C/79/Add.104, March 30, 1999, para 20; Av`vjZewnf~©Z g„Zz¨`Ê msµvš— we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqv‡ii wi‡cvU© E/CN.4/2002/74, Rvbyqvwi 9, 2002; Av`vjZewnf~©Z, msw¶ß Ges ˆ¯^ivPvix g„Zz¨`Ê msµvš— we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqv‡ii wi‡cvU© E/CN.4/2001/9, Rvbyqvwi 11, 2001 Ges E/CN.4/2001/9/ Add.1, Rvbyqvwi 17, 2001, c¨viv 175| AviI †`Lyb Avš—R©vwZK Kwgkb Ae Ry¨wi÷m, gvbevwaKvi AvB‡b †hŠb cÖwk¶Y Ges †RÛvi cwiwPwZ| m~Î: RvwZmsN gvbevwaKvi e¨e¯’vi gZaviv Ges AvBbweÁvb, A‡±vei 2007, www.icj.org/news. php3?id_article=4209&lang=en 47| GB welqwU ¯úófv‡e Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi AvB‡b ewY©Z Av‡Q| D`vni‡Yi Rb¨ †`Lyb: bvix‡`i Ae¯’vb welqK Kwgkb wm×vš— 51/2 bvix †hŠbv‡½i weKjv½Zv eÜ Kiv Ges 5/123 bvix wkïi eva¨Zvg~jK weevn UN Doc. E/2007/27E/CN. 6/2007/9; bvixi wei“‡× mwnsmZv msµvš— we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqvi Dc¯’vwcZ wi‡cvU©: cwiev‡ii mvs¯‹…wZK Kg©KvÊ, hv bvixi wei“‡× mwnsmZvi Bw½Zen E/CN.4/2002/83, 31 Rvbyqvwi 2002| 48| †`Lyb GBPAvBwf/GBWm Ges gvbevwaKvi msµvš— Avš—R©vwZK wb‡`©kbv (2006) mgwš^Z ms¯‹iY| gvbevwaKvi nvBKwgkb Awdm Ges UNAIDS www.unhcr.org/english/issues/hiv/guidelines.htm> AviI †`Lyb BD‡iv‡ci †hŠbKgx© g¨vwb‡d‡÷v Ges BD‡iv‡ci †hŠbKgx©‡`i AwaKv‡ii †NvlYv www.sexworkeurope.org /site/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=24&itemid=201| 49| †`Lyb GBPAvBwf/GBWm Ges gvbevwaKvi msµvš— Avš—R©vwZK wb‡`©kbv (2006) mgwš^Z ms¯‹iY| gvbevwaKvi nvBKwgkb


†hŠb AwaKvi : GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv 29

Awdm Ges UNAIDS <www.unhcr.org/english/issues/hiv/guidelines.htm> AviI †`Lyb †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 7| 50| †`Lyb †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 5| 51| gvbevwaKvi cÖ¯—ve msµvš— Kwgkb 1998/52 bvix‡`i wei“‡× mwnsmZv D‡”Q`| ESCOR Suppl. (no. 3) at 171, UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/52(1998); bvixi wei“‡× mwnsmZv, Gi KviY Ges cwiYwZ msµvš— we‡kl i¨v‡cvwUqvi wgR. ivwaKv Kzgviv¯^vgxi gvbevwaKvi Kwgkb wm×vš— msµvš— Kwgkb 1994/44 †gvZv‡eK Dc¯’vwcZ wi‡cvU© 1997/44. UN Doc. E/CN.4/1998/54

RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (1995) kiYv_x©‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb mwnsmZv cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| www.unhcr.org/pub/PUBL/3b9cc26c4.pdf RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (1995) kiYv_x©‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb mwnsmZv cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| www.unhcr.org/pub/PUBL/3b9cc26c4.pdf| 52| RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (1995) kiYv_x©‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb mwnsmZv cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| www.unhcr.org/pub/PUBL/3b9cc26c4.pdf| AviI †`Lyb, RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (2003) kiYv_x©, cÖZ¨veZ©bKvix I Avf¨š—ixYfv‡e ev¯‘Pz¨Z‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb I †RÛviwfwËK mwnsmZv: cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| Ges †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 23| 53| RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (1995) kiYv_x©‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb mwnsmZv cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| wwwunhcr.org/pub/PUBL/3b9cc26c4.pdf AviI †`Lyb, RvwZmsN kiYv_x© welqK nvB Kwgkbvi (2003) kiYv_x©, cÖZ¨veZ©bKvix Ges Avf¨š—ixYfv‡e ev¯‘Pz¨Z‡`i wei“‡× †hŠb I †RÛviwfwËK mwnsmZv: cÖwZ‡iva I cÖwZwµqv e¨³ msµvš— wb‡`©kbv| 54| Avš—R©vwZK bvMwiK I ivR‰bwZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ, aviv 17: †Kv‡bv e¨w³i †MvcbxqZv, cwievi, M„n ev †hvMv‡hv‡M GKZidv I Ab¨vqfv‡e n¯—‡¶c Kiv hv‡e bv ev Zvi m¤§vb I mybv‡gi Dci A‰ea AvNvZ Kiv hv‡e bv| 55| †`Lyb: WHO (2004) HIV Status Disclousure to Sexual Partners: Rates, Barriers and Outcomes for Women. Geneva: WHO.

56| †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 9| 57| H 58| †Kv‡bv e¨w³, we‡klfv‡e, bvix ev wkï cvPvi cÖwZnZ, `gb Ges kvw¯— cÖ`vb msµvš— RvwZmsN cÖ‡UvKj RvwZmsN Avš—ivóªxq msMwVZ Aciv‡ai wei“‡× Kb‡fbk‡bi mv‡_ m¤ú~iK, †`Lyb www.unodc.org/unodc/en/crime_ocp_convention.htm# final. 59| †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 19| 60| Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi †NvlYv, 1948, aviv 19: mKj e¨w³i gZ I Awfe¨w³ cÖKv‡ki ¯^vaxbZvi AwaKvi Dc‡fv‡Mi AwaKvi Av‡Q; GB AwaKv‡ii AvIZvq †Kvbiƒc n¯—‡¶c e¨ZxZ †Kv‡bv gZ aviY Kivi AwaKvi †fvM Kiv Ges †h †Kvb wgwWqv Ges ivóªxq cwimxgv we‡ePbvq bv G‡bB †h †Kv‡bv Z_¨ ev wPš—vaviv A‡š^lY, MÖnY, mieivn Kivi ¯^vaxbZv †fvM K‡i| 61| †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 19| 62| Avš—R©vwZK gvbevwaKvi †NvlYv, aviv 20: cÖ‡Z¨K e¨w³ kvwš—c~Y©fv‡e mgv‡ek Kiv Ges msMVb Kivi ¯^vaxbZvi AwaKvi msi¶Y K‡i| †Kv‡bv e¨w³‡K †Kv‡bv GKwU wbw`©ó msMV‡b Aš—f~©³ Ki‡Z eva¨ Kiv hv‡e bv| 63| Avš—R©vwZK A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ, aviv 12.1: eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n ˆ`wnK I gvbwmK ¯^v‡¯’¨i m‡e©v”P cÖvw߇hvM¨ gvb wbwðZKi‡Yi AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb K‡i|


30 †hŠb30AwaKvi †hŠb: AwaKvi: GKwU AvBwcwcGd GKwU AvBwcwcGd †NvlYv †NvlYv

64| A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi KwgwUi mvaviY gš—e¨ bs 14: ¯^v‡¯’¨i m‡e©v”P cÖvw߇hvM¨ gvb wbwðZKi‡Yi AwaKvi (Avš—R©vwZK A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK I mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKvi Pzw³cÎ- aviv 12, 2000)| 65| †hŠb I cÖRbb AwaKvi PvUv©i cvIqv hv‡e: www.ippf.org/en/Resources/Statements/IPPF+ charter+on+ Sexual+and+Reproductive+Rights.htm| AviI †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 21| 66| A_©‰bwZK, mvgvwRK Ges mvs¯‹…wZK AwaKv‡ii Pzw³cÎ, aviv 15.1 (L): eZ©gvb Pzw³c‡Îi Aax‡b ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n mK‡ji AwaKv‡ii cÖwZ ¯^xK…wZ cÖ`vb K‡i| . . . (L) ˆeÁvwbK Dbœqb Ges Gi cÖ‡qv‡Mi myweav MÖn‡Yi my‡hvM| 67| bvix‡`i wei“‡× mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨ `~ixKiY Kb‡fbkb, aviv 10 (h) ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n wk¶v‡¶Î Ges we‡klfv‡e bvix I cyi“‡li mvg¨Zvi wfwˇZ cyi“l‡`i cvkvcvwk bvix‡`i mgvb AwaKvi wbwðZ Ki‡Z bvix‡`i wei“‡× ˆelg¨ `~ixKi‡Y h_vh_ mKj cÖKvi e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡e. . . . (h) cwievi cwiKíbvi Z_¨ I Dc‡`kmn cwiev‡ii ¯^v¯’¨ I g½jRbK Ae¯’v wbwðZ Ki‡Z mnvqK we‡kl wk¶vg~jK Z‡_¨i cÖvwß| 68| RbmsL¨v I Dbœqb msµvš— Avš—R©vwZK m‡¤§jb, RbmsL¨v I Dbœqb msµvš— Avš—R©vwZK m‡¤§j‡bi cieZx© ev¯—evqb g~j Kgm~Px, UN Doc. A/Res/S-21/2, para:73 †`Lyb: Kvh©µg Kg©m~Pxi Aa¨vq 7.45 Ges 7.46 †gvZv‡eK 2 cÖvK-hyev‡`i hye m¤cÖ`v‡qi cwic~Y© AskMÖnY Ges Avš—R©vwZK ms¯’vmg~‡ni mnvqZvq miKvi AwffveK‡`i AwaKvi, KZ©e¨ Ges `vwqZ¡mg~‡ni cÖwZ h_vh_ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b K‡i †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ msµvš— wel‡q AMÖvwaKv‡ii wfwˇZ Kvh©µg Kg©m~Px ev¯—evqb Kivi me©vZ¡K cÖ‡Póv Pvjv‡e Ges cÖvK-hyevi weKvkgvb axkw³i mv‡_ m½wZc~Y© ¶gZv Ges Zv‡`i cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ wk¶v, Z_¨ Ges cwiPh©vi AwaKvi wbwðZKi‡Yi gva¨‡g cÖvK-hyev‡`i Ges Zv‡`i mvs¯‹…wZK g~j¨‡eva Ges agx©q wek¦v‡mi cÖwZ m¤§vb cÖ`k©b c~e©K wbwðZ Ki‡e †h cÖvK-hyev we`¨vjqAf¨š—i I we`¨vjq ewnf©~Z Dfq †¶‡Î cÖ‡qvRbxq Z_¨mn cÖwZ‡iva, wk¶v, civgk© Ges ¯^v¯’¨ cwiPh©v msµvš— Z_¨ msMÖn K‡i Zv‡`i‡K Zv‡`i †hŠb I cÖRbb ¯^v¯’¨ Pvwn`vi †¶‡Î `vwqZ¡kxj Ges Z_¨eûj weKímgyn †_‡K †e‡Q wb‡Z n‡e, hv‡Z Zviv we‡klfv‡e cÖvK-hye Ae¯’vq Mf©aviY msL¨v n«vm Ki‡Z cv‡i| 69| †hŠb I cÖRbb AwaKvi PvU©vi, 8.1, www.ippf.org/en/Resources/Statements/IPPF+charter+on+ Sexual+and+Reproductive+Rights.htm| 70| †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 28 24| 71| bvix‡`i wei“‡× mKj cÖKvi ˆelg¨ `~ixKiY Kb‡fbkb, aviv 16 (1) ( E): ivóªxqms¯’vmg~n mKj bvixi wei“‡× weevn I cvwievwiK m¤ú‡K©i wel‡q mKj cÖKvi ‰elg¨ wbg~©‡j h_vh_ e¨e¯’v MÖnY Ki‡e Ges bvix I cyi“‡li ga¨Kvi mgZviwfwˇZ we‡klfv‡e wbwðZ Ki‡e. . . . (E) GKB AwaKv‡ii Aax‡b mš—vb msL¨v I Zv‡`i mš—vb‡`i g‡a¨ e¨eavb Ges Z_¨ I wk¶v cÖvwßi gva¨‡g GB mKj AwaKvi cÖ‡qv‡Mi †¶‡Î gy³fv‡e Ges cÖwZwµqv cÖ`k©‡bi wm×vš— MÖnY Ki‡e| 72| †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 28 Ges †hvMRvKvZ©v bxwZgvjv 29|

IPPF_Sexual_Rights_Declaration_Bangla_Part2  

mK‡ji Rb¨ †hŠb AwaKvi wbwðZKi‡Yi A_© mKj cÖKvi ¶wZ †_‡K wbivcËv weavb I gyw³i A½xKvi| mKj cÖKvi †hŠb AwaKvi I ¯^vaxbZvi cÖwZ m¤§vb `vb, wbiv...

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