Page 1

LEARN ENGLISH

Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere

Emirates College of Technology - Language Center

LEARN ENGLISH

s t s

ith

ow N

w

Te


2

www.ect.ac.ae


Introduction

“

There are four ways, and only four ways in which we have contact with the world.

“

We are evaluated and classified by these four contacts. What we do, how we look What we say and how we say it Dale Carnegie.

Effective communication is saying it the right way. The book we have selected for study is a collection of literary extracts from different fields. It is a combination of science, technology, world records as well as ethics. The underlying idea is to improve language ability through these interesting topics. Each unit is meant to equip the learner with skills in reading, grammar, word study and finally demonstrate good writing skills. This publication intends to make language learning a fun process and help the student to be confident in the day to day use of the English language. Thank You. Publication Team.

www.ect.ac.ae

3


Table of

Contents Unit One 08

PART ONE Build Background

09 Vocabulary 11

Reading 01: Adventure

13

Own Your Own

14

Grammar Focus: Simple Present

15 Practice PART TWO 17 Vocabulary 19

Reading 02: Pilot buries helicopter crash survivor in sand

21

Own Your Own

22

Grammar Focus: Simple past

ADVENTURE | 11

23 Practice 24

Writing a Adventurous paragraph

25 Practice

Unit Two 26

THE TROPICAL RAINFOREST | 28

PART ONE Build Background

27 Vocabulary 28

Reading 01: The Tropical Rainforest

29

Own Your Own

30

Grammar Focus: Present Perfect

32 Practice 33 34

4

PART TWO Reading 02 Part 01: Brazil Amazon Destruction Down but Still Alarming

www.ect.ac.ae

AMAZON DESTRUCTION DOWN BUT STILL ALARMING | 34


HELLO

35

Own Your Own

36

Part 02: Environmental Summit

37 Comprehension 39

Own Your Own

40 Practice

Unit Three 42

PART ONE Build Background

43 Vocabulary 44

Reading 01: Sleep

46

Own Your Own

48

Grammar Focus: Modal Verbs

49 Practice 52

PART TWO Build Background

52 Vocabulary 53

Reading 02: Hibernation

54 Comprehension 56

Grammar Focus: Passive Voice

57 Practice 58

Writing Focus: A persuasive Essay

59 Practice

Unit Four 62

PART ONE Build Background

63 Vocabulary 64

Reading 01: One of The Tallest Living Things

66

Own Your Own

67

Grammar Focus: Degrees of Comparison

68 Practice

EDITORS INTRO

69

PART TWO Reading 02: The World’s Longest Suspension Bridge

71

Own Your Own

71 Comprehension 73

Grammar Focus: Adverbs

73 Practice 74

Writing Focus: An Expository Essay

Unit Five 78

PART ONE Build Background

79 Vocabulary 80

Reading 01: Ramadan

81

Own Your Own

82 Comprehension 83

Grammar Focus: Conjunctions PART TWO

88 Vocabulary 89

Reading 02: Mecca

90

Own Your Own

91

Grammar Focus: Prepositions

92 Practice 93

Writing Focus: An Explanatory paragraph

94 Practice

Unit Six 96

PART ONE Build Background

97 Vocabulary 98

Reading 01: William Shakespeare

99

Own Your Own

100 Grammar Focus: Coordinating Conjunctions 101 Practice

www.ect.ac.ae

5


HELLO

PART TWO

PART TWO Reading 02: Cell Phones

105 Vocabulary

119

106 Reading 02: Steve Jobs

120 Vocabulary

107

121

Own Your Own

108 Grammar Focus: Relative Pronouns / countable and uncountable nouns)

EDITORS INTRO

Own Your Own

121 Comprehension

109 Practice

122 Grammar Focus: Gerunds and Infinitives / Simple Past Usage

110

124

Writing Focus: A short Biography

Writing Focus: An Informational Essay

Unit Seven PART ONE Build Background

112

113 Vocabulary 114

Reading 01: Braille

115

Own Your Own

116 Comprehension 116

Grammar Focus: Question Tags

44

53

SLEEP

80

HIBERNATION

89

RAMADAN

6

69

www.ect.ac.ae

LONGEST SUSPENSION BRIDGE

119

MECCA

CELL PHONES


WELCOME

www.ect.ac.ae

7


UNIT

ONE

My Life as a Hermit Neil Ansell

Main Theme How does an adventurous event change us? Work with a partner. Talk about adventurous stories You know about from your own experi-

BUILD

BACKGROUND

ence, from stories in books and on TV. Then share your discussion with the rest of the class.

8

www.ect.ac.ae

N

eil Ansell: My life as a hermit is a fictional-adventurous story about a man named Neil Ansell who lived a life of blissful solitude for five years. But then Neil Ansell discovered why we can’t live alone.

The main character, Neil Ansell escaped the London rat race to live a hermit’s life in rural Wales. Neil Ansell told people it was an enriching experience. Neil Ansell lived alone in the isolated hills of Mid Wales for five years. Living without any of the trappings of modern life, he had no phone, no car, no television and no gas or electricity. He did stints of forestry work and remained in good health until he finally felt that he could not live alone.


Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Words

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

Solitude

Vocabulary

Moor

Learn Literary Words

In fiction, you can learn a lot about a character by paying attention to what the character says. Dialogue is the exact words spoken by two or more characters in the story.

Migrants Character

Self-sufficient

Dialogue

Deserted

Setting

Obstacles

Another important part of a story is the setting - the time and place where the narrative occurs. Identifying the setting will help you better understand what is happening in a story.

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right

Presumably Pursue Genre Decade Tenancy Penniless

1 Solitude A Type 2

Moor

B

To withdraw from/leave a person or thing

3 Migrants C Poor/bankrupt 4 Self-sufficient D Probably 5 Deserted E Lease/rental 6

Obstacles

F

A period of 10 years

7 Presumably G Loneliness 8

Pursue

H

Difficulties

9

Genre

I

One that moves from one country/region to another

10

Decade

J

Chase/follow

11 Tenancy K Independent 12

Penniless

L

An open wet wasteland www.ect.ac.ae

9


UNIT

ONE

Exercise IELTS

B. Complete the following sentences with words from previous (Page 05) exercise: 01.

The ........................................ contract was signed by the manager.

The best

02.

Science fiction is a popular ............................................. nowadays.

preparation classes in ECT Language Center

04.

The long period of ...................................................... had a negative effect on his personality.

05.

There were many ................................................. in his way, but he managed to carry out his plans.

06.

They used to tell us frightening stories about the ..................... .......................................................... house in the mountain.

IELTS

03. The detective was determined to ............................................... the suspect.

07. It took our company a .................................................... to finish the project. 08.

Illegal ............................................... are arrested and sent to prison.

09. Our teacher will ....................................................... give us a test this Thursday. 10.

A donation of 200 dirhams was sent to a ...................................... old woman.

11. Walking over the .................................................. was a very difficult task. 12.

10

www.ect.ac.ae

Villagers are usually ........................................... as they depend on their own farms products.


Reading One Set a purpose for reading

Adventure

Neil Ansell: My life as a hermit Neil Ansell lived alone in the isolated hills of Mid Wales for five years. How does this experience change him?

people moving to the countryside; they almost form a mini-genre of their own – back-to-nature writing, or escape-to-the-country. Almost all have the same point. A family leaves a successful career in the city to pursue their dream of a rural For five years this man lived a life of blissful solitude. paradise. They buy a deserted farmhouse in a But then Neil Ansell discovered why we can’t live alone. remote area and set about making a new life for Here he reveals why… themselves. There will be various obstacles to Neil Ansell be faced, perhaps even some dark nights of the soul, but eventually they will overcome, or else The Observer, Sunday 27 March 2011 presumably the book would never have been The walk from the nearest train station takes me written. My situation was somewhat different. nearly three hours. At first there are roads and footpaths, but finally I must strike out; through During my 20s I spent more than five years dense woods, across a footbridge over a river travelling; hitch-hiking How did Neil live and sleeping rough or life in his and over a moor. Penlan Describe the staying with people I met twenties? is not an easy place to setting at the get to. beginning of the along the road, picking up work when and where I could. Mostly forestry work or field excerpt? It is late February, grey work. Towards the end of the decade I washed and cold. It will be at least a month before the up back in London, penniless, and ended up in first of the spring migrants arrive; even the a big basement with about 20 others, young curlews have not got back yet from the coast. homeless people and newly arrived immigrants. But there are still the first hesitant signs of spring. I had no idea what I would do next, no plans My fruit tree has its first green shoots. The local for the future. And then I was made an offer of pair of red kites are circling over the copse of the tenancy of a cottage without services high oaks where they nest. in the mountains of mid-Wales, for a rent of just I first came to this cottage when I was 30 years £100 a year. old, and for five years it was my only home. I think I saw it as a challenge. I wanted to know There have been many books written about www.ect.ac.ae

11


UNIT

ONE

just how little I needed in order to lead a fulfilling kind of a challenge; this was just me living the life. life I had chosen. What led me away in the end My book, Deep Country, is an account of the was a craving to have children. five years I spent in the hills, of how I lived and what I lived for, of how I learned to become selfsufficient in every sense of the word. Not just in terms of growing or gathering almost all of my supply of food, but in terms of relying entirely on my own resources. I was never bored; there was always too much to be done like chopping wood, fetching water, looking for food, walking, watching or doing so many other things. This is a book about nature and landscape, but it is also a book about what it means to live a life so remote that you may not see another soul for weeks at a time. No neighbours, no vehicles, no phone.

Two years later, after five years at the cottage, I left the deep country and started a family. There was a certain amount of acculturation required on my part. I quickly found myself working with homeless people. There would be disputes to resolve, fights to break up, medical emergencies, one crisis after another. And always there would be people that needed to be talked to. My lifestyle is very different now. I live in a flat in town, a five-minute walk from the sea, with my two daughters. My children look forward to

our occasional visits to Wales, but I always try to arrange my life so that every now and then I still What I found was not what you might expect. get the opportunity to visit the cottage for a little You might think that such protracted solitude alone time. When I get there I bring the busy life would lead to self-examination and to a growing style of town with me, and I rush around looking self-awareness. But not for me. What happened for storm damage, checking to see if the mice to me was that I began to forget myself. Alone, have raided my supply of food, checking my there was no need for identity, for self-definition. wood and water supply. But when darkness falls During my years in the hills I kept a journal. For and I light a few candles for the evening and put the first year it is a conventional diary; places I my feet up by the fireside and time slips away. It’s had gone, things I had done. By the second year good to be back. it is little more than a nature journal; what birds I had seen that day, perhaps some notes on the weather. By the third year it is no more than an almanac, marking the turn of the seasons by the comings and goings of migrant birds and their Before You Go on nesting dates, in addition to some occasional detailed description of a moment, perhaps the 01)Compare Neil’s present life as a hermit to your life now! flight of a single bird. I am an absence, a void; I have disappeared from my own story. 02)How would you feel if you wereNeil?

Critical Thinking

I could have stayed forever; becoming, no doubt, steadily more isolated. I had the measure of this 03)Would you want to stay in the isolated hills of Mid Wales. life now, it had long since ceased to feel like any

12

www.ect.ac.ae


On Your Own Decide if the following sentences are true or false by choosing either. 1. Neil Ansell enjoyed living alone in a remote area.

True

False

2. Reaching Penlan was an easy job.

True

False

3. Neil Ansell led a comfortable life in his twenties.

True

False

4. “Deep Country” is a book written by Ansell about his life in the countryside.

True

False

5. Although Neil Ansell moved to the city again, his life style didn’t change.

True

False

Comprehension 1. Who is the main character of the article? Describe him.

2. Where did Ansell move to live when he was 30 years old? How long did he live there?

3. How did he spend his youth?

4. What made him choose to live in a cottage?

5. Did he like living as a hermit? If yes, what did he miss?

6. What were the advantages of living as a hermit?

7. Did he return to urban life? Why did he take that decision?

8. What was Ansell’s new job? Write a few words about it.

www.ect.ac.ae

13


Grammar Usage & Practice

Simple Present We use the Simple Present when we talk about something, which happens repeatedly.

Simple Present - Usage The Simple Present is frequently used in English. It is also called Present Simple. Have a look at the following examples: 1) repeated actions (every day, always, often, sometimes or never) My friend often draws nice posters. I never drink milk.

2) Things in general The sun rises in the East.

3) Fixed arrangements, scheduled events (e.g. timetable) The plane flies to London every Monday.

4) Sequence of actions in the present (first - then, after that) First I get up, then I have breakfast.

5) With special verbs - which are normally not used with the Present Progressive (These verbs express states, possessions, feelings etc.)be, believe, belong, hate, hear, like, love, mean, prefer, remain, realize, see, seem, smell, think, understand, want, wish I understand English. He doesn’t like fish.

14

www.ect.ac.ae


Practice Choose the correct answer from a, b or c: 1. Students …………………college five days a week.

11. Children………………playing with their friends in

a) attend

parks.

b) attends

c) attended

2. He…………………his teeth twice a day.

a) enjoys

a) brush

12. Where………………the camel live?

b) brushes c) brushing

b) enjoy

3. Some pupils……………go to school by bus.

a) do

a) doesn’t

13. Wild animals……………………each other to

b) don’t

c) does

4. ………………you sell fresh milk? a) Does

b) Do

c) Doing

5. …………………she like fried fish? a) Does

b) Do

c) Done

6. When ……… the train usually leave the railway

a) does

b) do

c) did

survive. a) fight

b) fought

c) fights

14. My father……………………for an hour every day. a) walking b) walk

c) walks

15. Farmers……………………fruit when they are ripe. a) picked

station?

b) does

c) enjoying

b) picks

c) pick

c) did

7. What…………………they do in their free time? a) does

b) doing

c) do

8. …………………know our teacher’s phone number? a) You do

b) You don’t c) Do you

9. Does the Emirates…………………meat? a)imports

b) import

c) imported

10. My son……………the Holy Quran every day. a) reads

b) read

c) reading

www.ect.ac.ae

15


UNIT

ONE

Reading Two

Helicopter

BUILD

BACKGROUND

STORY HIGHLIGHTS

16

www.ect.ac.ae

Helicopter pilot buries injured passenger in sand to save him from

hypothermia •

Pilot dragged him from crocodile-infested mudflats in Australia’s

Northern Territory

Helicopter crashed as they flew in low over mudflats to look for the

giant reptiles

Passenger remains hospitalized in serious but stable condition


Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

Vocabulary Learn Literary Words

In fiction, you can learn a lot about a character by paying attention to what the character says. Dialogue is the exact words spoken by two or more characters in the story.

Words Character

Alert

Dialogue

Survive

Setting

Another important part of a story is the setting - the time and place where the narrative occurs. Identifying the setting will help you better understand what is happening in a story.

Mudflats Hypothermia Wreckage

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1 Alert A an area of a flat empty land at the coast which is sometimes covered by sea 2 Survive B to draw the attention of somebody and make him/ her fully aware of something 3 Mudflats C body temperature has become very low as a result of being in severe cold 4

Hypothermia

D

the remains of a destroyed car, ship, plane

5

Wreckage

E

to remain alive

www.ect.ac.ae

17


UNIT

ONE

Exercise IELTS The best

IELTS

preparation classes in ECT Language Center

B. Complete the following sentences with words from previous (Page 13) exercise: It was a very cold winter night when a police patrol was ………………………about a serious car accident which took place near the………………………on the northern coast. They rushed to the place to find the ………………………of a wagon car. The policemen were surprised to find that all the family……………………… but a two month old baby.

C. Find words in the text which describe the health condition of the passenger write them in the space below and then use them in sentences: Example: his friend was seriously hurt. The player was seriously hurt in the semifinal match, so he won’t be able to play tomorrow.

18

www.ect.ac.ae


Reading Two Set a purpose for reading

Helicopter

Pilot buries helicopter crash survivor in sand

www.ect.ac.ae

19


UNIT

ONE

A pilot dragged his passenger to safety and buried him neck-deep in sand to protect him from hypothermia. How did this experience change the life of the pilot and the passenger?

back to shore, away from the crocodiles -- and buried him in sand up to his neck to prevent him from freezing to death.

Rescuers responded after the pilot used a satellite CNN Reporter phone to alert them. The friend remained in the hospital on Monday Describe the CNN News in serious but stable main character A pilot dragged his passenger to safety and condition, Badham said. in the story? buried him neck-deep in sand to protect him He suffered head and chest injuries. He from hypothermia Sunday night after their also fractured his arm and several ribs.The pilot helicopter crashed in crocodile-infested mudflats suffered minor injuries. in Australia’s Northern Territory. “It was the opinion of the (air-ambulance) doctor “The pilot thought that in this remote location, that the friend’s injuries were grave and, quite nobody would find them. So he buried his likely, this man would not have survived the friend to try and stop night,” Badham said. Describe the the hypothermia,” said setting at the Ian Badham, director beginning of the of CareFlight, the air excerpt? ambulance service involved in the rescue. The two friends had gone camping on a remote beach without road access, about 130 km (80 miles) from the Northern Territory capital of Darwin. While leaving Sunday night, the pair decided to fly their two-seater helicopter over waters that are home to large crocodiles.

Critical Thinking

“It’s an area known for its big saltwater crocodiles,” Badham said. The pilot later told rescuers that they flew in to take a closer look. The next thing he remembered was lying upside down in the mud with the wreckage of the helicopter on top of him, Badham said. The men, both in their 50s, were about 100 meters (328 feet) from the main beach. Finding his friend seriously hurt, the pilot dragged him

20

www.ect.ac.ae

Before You Go on 01)How can Flying planes be extremely dangerous? Give examples. 02)Who played the important role in the story and why?


On Your Own A. Choose the correct answer from a, b or c: 1- Ian Badham was the…………………………… (a) helicopter pilot (b) passenger (c) head of Care Flight air ambulance service 2- The accident happened on when they were………………………… (a) on their way back home (b) on their way to the camp (c) touring the place at midday 3- The pilot …………………………………….directly after the accident. (a) lost consciousness (b) was fully aware of everything (c) forgot everything

Comprehension 1. Why did the pilot fly low?

2. What were the dangers that faced the two men after the accident?

3. How did the pilot help with saving the life of his friend?

4. Who played the most important role in the saving the life of the passenger? Why?

www.ect.ac.ae

21


UNIT

ONE

Grammar Usage & Practice

Simple Present

We use the Simple Present when we talk about something, which happens repeatedly.

Simple Present - Usage The Simple Present is frequently used in English. It is also called Present Simple. Have a look at the following examples: 1) Action finished in the past (single or repeated) I visited Berlin last week. Andrew watched TV yesterday.

2) Series of completed actions in the past First I got up, then I had breakfast.

3) Together with the Past Progressive/Continuous - The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past. They were playing cards when the telephone rang. 1st action: Past Progressive were playing 2nd action: Simple Past rang

Simple Past

Past 22

www.ect.ac.ae

Present

Future


Practice Choose the correct answer from a, b or c: 1. She ……………..early yesterday. a) sleep

b) slept

9. They ………………….come yesterday.

c) sleeping

to

school

2. He………..to climb the tree but he couldn’t a) did not b) do not c) does not do that. 10. Where …………………..find your lost bicycle? a) tries b) tried c) try 3. We called the police but they……………… come. a) did not

b) do not

c)do

a) don’t you b) do you

c) did you

11. ……………..give you anything before he had left?

4. Where did you ………………. last Friday?

a) Does he b) Did he

a) go

12. They ……………..their house and moved to another city.

b) went

c) goes

5. ………………..the plane land on time yesterday? a) Do 6. How holiday? a) was

b)Does

c) Did

………………your b) is

last

summer

c) were

7. Where………….you last night? a) is

b) were

c) are

8. He……………….his son to bring some bread before an hour. a) sent

b) sends

c) send

a) sell

b) selling

c) Do

c) sold

13. The postman …………………..the mail last night a) delivered b) delivers c) was delivered 14. She…………………… a documentary about the African jungle yesterday night. a) watches b) watching c) watched 15. Our teacher………………………us about the penguins last week. a) taught

b) teach

c) teaches

www.ect.ac.ae

23


UNIT

ONE

Writing a Adventurous Paragraph How to Write an Adventurous paragraph? Adventure is an exciting, thrill-filled genre that emphasizes suspenseful, fast-paced action. In a typical adventure story, a hero embarks on a journey filled with dangerous obstacles and villains that render his survival uncertain.

Planning the crucial elements of an adventure story Step 1

Step 4

Choose a faraway, exotic location for your Craft some unexpected twists and turns to hero to visit challenge your protagonist. She could get lost following a false clue, find a treasure map . Step 2 Create a hero or heroine. Adventure stories typically do not focus on character development, but your protagonist should possess some kind of defined role.

Step 5

Step 3

Step 6

Invent a catalyst for your adventure story. Give your protagonist a reason to leave and go exploring. This catalyst should involve some danger, to build suspense

Resolve the climax with the defeat of the antagonist by the protagonist and her friends. Allow the protagonist to return home with the promise of resuming normal life.

Construct a spellbinding climax wherein the hero faces extreme danger and a positive outcome of events seems doubtful

Adventurous

24

www.ect.ac.ae


Practice Write an adventure story about a made- up character in a realistic setting. Start your story with this sentence. I will never forget the day I met (character’s name) in (real place), use the above steps to gather details for your story. Put your details in an order that makes sense.

I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two adventure stories

Yes

No

I learned simple present and simple past

Yes

No

I learned how to write an adventure story

Yes

No www.ect.ac.ae

25


UNIT

TWO

Rainforest Main Theme

WHAT ARE THE MAIN FACTS ABOUT RAINFORESTS? Work with a partner. Talk about rainforests facts You know about from your own experience, from books and on TV. Then share your discussion with the rest of the class.

BUILD BACKGROUND The Tropical Rainforest is a science article. It describes different rainforest facts. The tropical rainforest is earth’s most complex biome in terms of both structure and species diversity. It occurs under optimal growing conditions: abundant precipitation and year round warmth. There is no annual rhythm to the forest; rather each species has evolved its own flowering and fruiting seasons.

26

www.ect.ac.ae


Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Words

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

Giant

What you will learn?

Umbrella Canopy

Vocabulary Building:

Academic words, dictionary skills, word study

Decompose

Reading Strategy:

Fahrenheit

Identify main idea and details

Mysterious

Grammar:

Adapted

Present Perfect Text type:

Informational Text(Science ) Writing:

(Argumentative Essay)

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right

1

Giant

A

Difficult to understand

2

Umbrella

B

Adjusted to certain conditions

3 Canopy C Covering 4

Decompose

D

Device for keeping rain or sun off of a person

5

Fahrenheit

E

Decay; rot

6

Mysterious

F

Huge

7 Adapted G Scale for measuring temperature commonly used in the USA

www.ect.ac.ae

27


Reading One Set a purpose for reading The tropical rainforest is a hot, moist biome found near Earth’s equator. The world’s largest tropical rainforests are in South America, Africa, and Southeast Asia. How can we protect and preserve rainforest?

The Tropical Rainforest Tropical rainforests are among the most mysterious of all geographical biomes in the world. A biome is an area with very distinctive plants and animals that have adapted to life in that particular environment. Rainforests have covered large portions of the Earth for millions of

of all rainforest animals live way up high in the canopy.

The third layer is the understory, and it’s very shady. Only about 15% of the sunlight from the canopy falls, and it tends be very warm and humid. Trees and leafy plants that require little years, and can have trees that are 1,000 years-old sun grow here, with the trees growing to about or more. They are called rainforests because they 60 ft. This layer has many smaller trees, shrubs, are among the wettest areas on Earth, receiving vines, and plants, but little air movement. There anywhere from 80 to 100 inches of rain a year. In are many animals and What are distinct most rainforests, the temperature ranges from 70 insects living in this layer. layers of trees in to 85 degrees Fahrenheit all year long, and the air The final layer of the rainforests? is almost always humid. rainforest is the forest floor. It is surprisingly Rainforests have four very distinct layers of trees. dark and less than 2% of the sun’s light reaches The first is the emergent layer which has giant this area. Because the sun’s rays don’t shine on trees growing from 100 to 240 feet tall. These the ground, there is very little plant life on the trees have umbrella-shaped crowns that grow forest floor. It is an area covered with fallen leaves, high above the rest of the forest. They have their seeds, dead flowers, and fruits and branches that own distinct plant and animal life. decompose very quickly. It also has a distinctive The next layer is called the canopy. These trees variety of animals and plants that live here. grow up to 130 feet tall, and they form a tight Rainforest Facts canopy, or covering, over the rest of the forest which allows very little sunlight to come down. • Rainforests produce about 40% of the The branches and trunks of these trees are world’s oxygen. covered with smaller plants and appear to be • About 25% of all medicines come from tied together with hundreds of vines. About 90% rainforest plants. • 1,400 plants in the rainforest are believed to offer cures for cancer.

28

www.ect.ac.ae


On Your Own

TWO

UNIT

Comprehension 1. In a rainforest, the tallest trees can grow ...................................................................................... (a) almost 200 feet tall (a) more than 200 yards tall (a) over 270 feet tall d. almost 250 feet tall 2. The forest floor tends to be very dark. Why? .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What is a biome? .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... 4. What makes rainforests essential for life on earth? .................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................... 5. Most animals that live in the rainforest live in the ...................................................................... (a) Emergent layer (b) Canopy (c) Understory d. Forest floor 6. Read the following sentence from the article and choose the best definition for the underlined word. In most rainforests, the temperature ranges from 70 to 85 degrees Fahrenheit all year long, and the air is almost always humid. 7. The underlined word means ............................................................................................................ (a) difficult to breathe (b) containing lots of oxygen (c) warm and comfortable d. containing lots of water vapor

www.ect.ac.ae

29


UNIT

TWO

Grammar Usage & Practice

Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now.

Present Perfect We use the Present Perfect to say that an action happened at an unspecified time before now. The exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many times, several times, before, so far, already, yet, etc.

1) Result of an action in the past is important in the present I have cleaned my room. 2) Recently completed action He has just played handball. 3) State beginning in the past and still continuing We have lived in Canada since 1986. 4) Together with lately, recently, yet I have been to London recently. Signal words just, yet, never, already, ever, so far, up to now, recently, since, for

Present Perfect

Past 30

www.ect.ac.ae

Present

Future


UNIT

TWO

Usage & Practice

Present Perfect Usage Subject + have/has + past participle Examples Affirmative sentences:

Negative sentences:

I have cleaned my room.

I have not cleaned my room.

You have cleaned your room.

You have not cleaned your room.

I’ve cleaned my room.

I’ve not cleaned my room.

You’ve cleaned your room.

I haven’t cleaned my room. You’ve not cleaned your room. You haven’t cleaned your room.

Questions: In the Present Perfect we put the auxiliary (have or has) before the subject (Auxiliary - Subject - Verb - Rest). see: Questions in Present Perfect Have I cleaned my room? Have you cleaned your room? I understand English. He doesn’t like fish.

www.ect.ac.ae

31


UNIT

TWO

Practice

Choose the correct answer from a, b or c: 1. I met Tom when we were in primary school. We ............................. each other for over five years. (a) have known (b) knew (c) has known 2. Mr. and Mrs. Jones ................................... in this area for 7 years. (a) has lived (b) have lived (c) lived 3. Sara ................................... several letters to her sister since she left home (a) have sent (b) is sending (c) has sent 4. Our teacher ................................... us a lot of help since the beginning of the academic year. (a) give (b) have given (c) has given 5. They have a new camera. They ................................... some beautiful pictures of their grandson. (a) is taking (b) has taken (c) have taken 6. They ................................... in this school for 3 years. (a) have studied (b) studies (c) has studied 7. My brother ................................... in an international company since 1995. (a) worked (b) have worked (c) has worked 8. We ................................... each other yet. (a) have not met (b) didn’t meet (c) has not meet 9. He ................................... him since last Friday. (a) have not seen (b) hadn’t seen (c) has not seen 10. Where ................................... since last Monday? (a) You have been (b) have you been (c) you have not been 11. ................................... your homework? No, not yet. (a) Have you finished (b) You have finished (c) You have not finished 12. ................................... my book? Yes, Ahmad has just taken it. (a) Has anybody taken (b) He has taken (c) He has not taken 13. I think it ................................... all night. Look the streets are still wet. (a) rained (b) rains (c) has rained

32

www.ect.ac.ae


Reading Two

UNIT

TWO

Amazon Destruction Part One

Brazil Amazon Destruction Down but Still Alarming by AXEL BUGGE

www.ect.ac.ae

33


UNIT

TWO

PART ONE

Brazil Amazon Destruction

Down but Still Alarming by AXEL BUGGE

BRASILIA, Brazil Tues June 11 (Reuters) - The rate of forest destruction of Brazil’s treasured Amazon jungle fell 13.4 percent last year from a five-year peak in 2000, figures showed on Tuesday, but it is still at a pace that deeply troubles environmentalists, they said.

Words

The Amazon is a generous source of medicines for man- kind and a home to up to 30 percent of the world’s animal and plant life. As the world’s largest rain forest, it helps sustain regional weather patterns upon which society now depends, scientists say. But logging and fires destroyed 6,095 square miles -- an area slightly smaller than half of Belgium -- in 2001, down from 7,037 square miles a year earlier, according to preliminary estimates from the government’s National Institute for Space Research. The environment ministry said in a statement the reduction was largely thanks to increased government monitoring of Amazon hot spots and the authorities’ efforts of “changing the model of predatory occupation of the Amazon.” Its continuous and impenetrable forest, the vast bulk of which is situated in

Giant Umbrella Canopy Decompose Fahrenheit Mysterious Adapted

Glossary Peak : top Preliminary : early (not final) Hot Spot : a place where there a lot of activity Trended : moved in a certain direction Encroachment : to extend beyond proper boundaries

34

www.ect.ac.ae


Reading Two Brazil but extends to neighboring countries as well, is larger than all of Western Europe. While environmentalists welcomed the fact that the rate of deforestation trended back toward the average of the late 1990s from the five-year high in 2000, they urged greater action to control development of the Amazon. The vast majority of Amazon destruction takes place because of the encroachment of farms that cut down or burn forests to expand. (Continued/...)

Critical Thinking Before You Go on 01)How can we protect rainforests from destruction? Give examples. 02)What are the reasons of high deforestation?

On Your Own A. Are the following statements True or False? 1. The Amazon rain forest helps with maintaining balance in nature.

True

False

2. The Amazon rain forest provides humans with few medicines.

True

False

3. There is an upward trend in the rate of Amazon rainforest destruction.

True

False

4. The Amazon rain forest stretches over many American countries.

True

False

5. Environmentalists are quite satisfied with the government procedures to stop Amazon. True

False

www.ect.ac.ae

35


UNIT

TWO

Comprehension 1. Which year witnessed the highest deforestation rate?

2. How important is the Amazon rainforest? Why?

3. What are the reasons of destroying the Amazon rainforest?

4. What are environmentalists demanding? Why?

5. What is the effect of the encroachment of farms on the Amazon rainforest?

PART TWO

ENVIRONMENTAL SUMMIT (.../Continued) South Africa will host in August a World Summit on Sustainable Development, dubbed Earth Summit 2 or Rio+10, as it comes 10 years after Brazil hosted a meeting of world leaders where broad commitments to the environment were made “I think at this moment that there is a global discussion on sustainability with Rio+10, it is truly saddening to turn up at the meeting with a number like this,” said Analuce Freitas, coordinator of public environmental policies at the World Wild- life Fund in Brazil. Freitas said the only way to cut deforestation rates is to overhaul government development policiesfor the Amazon so all projects include environmental considerations. “If environmental policies are not integrated with development projects these numbers will not change,” she said.

36

www.ect.ac.ae

A study last year warned that a government development plan including infrastructure projects could destroy 42 per- cent of the Amazon if it goes ahead. Roberto Smeraldi, head of the Amazonprotection program at Friend of the Earth in Brazil, said it was good news that the destruction rate had fallen from 2000. “Still, last year’s figures showing a return to business as usual, so to speak, of annual destruction around 15,000 square kilometers (5,800 sq. miles), confirmed what is an extremely serious situation.” Smeraldi said the worst part of current Amazon destruction rates is that the vast majority -- an estimated 4,400sq. miles (11,500 square km) -- results from farm-land cut out of the forests, which is authorized by local authorities.


TWO

On Your Own

UNIT

Glossary Summit - conference of leaders Sustainable Development - development which can be continued without damaging the environment or depleting natural resources Dubbed - called Overhaul - examine thoroughly and make changes to improve it Integrated - brought together Infrastructure - water, power, transport systems, etc. developed by the government Authorized - to give legal

Comprehension Post-Reading Activities A: Find the following information in Part Two.

1. Find 2 names of the environmental conference.

2. Name of place and date conference will be held.

3. An expected percentage of Amazon destruction.

4. A year when destruction rates started to decrease.

5. A name of an organization.

www.ect.ac.ae

37


UNIT

TWO

B. Fill in the spaces with words from the list

Sustainable development - summit - dubbed - overhaul - integrated - authorized - infrastructure - preliminary - hot spots - trended - encroachment 1. All the ………………………….. in the city are monitored by security cameras. 2. Desert ………………………….. is endangering the green areas. 3. Our share in the market ………………………….. downwards lately. 4. The government ………………………….. estimates show an increase in the cost of ………………………….. projects. 5. They were not ………………………….. to enter company’s headquarters. 6. The Arabian Gulf countries ………………………….. will be held in Oman. 7. Future plans should take into consideration ………………………….. 8. The college administration has ………………………….. many subjects with IT to improve students skills. 9. Our football team is ………………………….. the falcon. 10. It is advisable to ………………………….. our management policies for our company is not gaining any profit.

C. Answer the following question

What is your reaction about Amazon destruction if you were one of the following people? 1. A conservationist ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 2. A needy farmer who doesn’t have a farm land. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 3. A decision maker in the Brazilian government. ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................

38

www.ect.ac.ae


TWO

On Your Own

UNIT

Writing a Argumentative Essay

How to Write an argumentative ESSAY

Pattern 2:

An argumentative writing is an essay that is Thesis statement: written to provide a persuasive argument to CON(s) + Refutation(s) an opposing audience in order to change their PRO idea 1 minds PRO idea 2 There are three possible organization patterns: Conclusion Pattern 1: Pattern 3: Thesis statement: Thesis statement: PRO idea 1 CON idea 1 -----> Refutation PRO idea 2 CON idea 2 -----> Refutation CON(s) + Refutation(s) CON idea 3 -----> Refutation Conclusion Conclusion

www.ect.ac.ae

39


UNIT

TWO

Practice

Human activities have great effect on nature.

To what extent do you agree that there should be a careful consideration when dealing with nature? ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................

40

I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two reading texts

Yes

No

I learned simple present perfect

Yes

No

I learned how to write an argumentative essay

Yes

No

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

THREE

Human Nature How does human nature change us?

www.ect.ac.ae

41


UNIT

THREE

Main Theme

How does human nature change us? Work with a partner. Talk about advantages and disadvantages of sleep. You know about from your own experience, from books and on TV. Then share your discussion with the rest of the class.

What you will learn? Vocabulary Building:

Academic words, dictionary skills, word study

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Reading Strategy:

Identify main idea and details Grammar:

Usage and Practice Text type:

Informational Text Writing:

(Argumentative Essay)

Sleep

and

hibernation

sickness and depression.

By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

www.ect.ac.ae

an

informational

text.

It

describes reasons of long sleep. And the relationship between long sleep,

Objectives

42

is


Reading One

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

Mammals

A

any animal that can live both on land and in water

2

Reptiles

B

tired and almost asleep

3

Amphibians

C

animal that gives birth

4

Rapid

D

unable to feel or move all or part of the body

5

Drowsy

E

animals that has cold blood, e.g. Snakes

6 Twitch F Fast 7 Surrounding G recognize 8

Identify

H

Accidental/arbitrary

9

Bursts

I

having a baby her body

10

Paralyzed

J

to become healthy again

11

Alertness

K

feeling very sad and without hope

12

Depression

L

everything around or near somebody or something

13 Pregnant M nation 14 Heal N readiness 15

Random

O

move suddenly with great force

16

Culture

P

make a sudden quick movement

Words Mammals

Surrounding

Reptiles

Identify

Amphibians

Bursts

Rapid

Paralyzed

Drowsy

Alertness

Twitch

Depression www.ect.ac.ae

43


Reading One Set a purpose for reading B. Fill in the gaps with words from the above exercise: 1. Using this ointment would help your wounds …………………….. soon. 2. …………………….. choices may lead to unwanted results. 3. It wasn’t an easy job to …………………….. the suspect. 4. …………………….. changes have taken place recently. 5. We lived in a peaceful …………………….. for years. 6. The elephant is the largest land …………………….. 7. Taking this medicine may make you …………………….. Avoid driving for at least 3 hours. 8. …………………….. women need special care.

Reading One Set a purpose for reading

Sleep How does sleep help humans? “Wake up!” Do you hear these words often? If so, maybe you are not getting enough sleep. What is sleep? Why do people sleep? How much sleep do you need?

for sleep. But they do not understand everything about it.

There are two kinds of sleep in mammals and birds. One kind of sleep is Rapid Eye Movement All people sleep. All mammals and birds also sleep, which we call REM sleep. The other kind of sleep. Some reptiles, amphibians, and fish sleep sleep is Non–Rapid Eye Movement sleep, which too. Scientists understand some of the reasons we call NREM or non–REM sleep. The American

44

www.ect.ac.ae


THREE

Academy of Sleep Medicine divides NREM sleep into three stages: N1, N2, and N3 sleep. When people first go to sleep, they are in NREM sleep. The first stage of NREM sleep is N1 sleep. During N1 sleep, people get very drowsy. Some people have muscle twitches during this part of sleep. People are not very conscious of, or aware of, their surroundings during this stage of sleep. Brain monitors identify small, slow, and irregular brain waves during N1 sleep. The second stage of sleep is N2 sleep. People are not at all conscious of their surroundings during N2 sleep. About 45%-55% of total adult sleep is N2 sleep. Brain monitors identify large brain waves with quick bursts of activity during N2 sleep. The third stage of sleep is N3 sleep. It is very deep sleep. Brain monitors identify very slow brain waves during N3 sleep. Therefore, N3 sleep is called slow– wave sleep (SWS.) After N3 sleep, people cycle back to lighter N2 sleep before going into REM sleep. People cycle through the stages of NREM sleep 4 or 5 times each night and enter REM sleep several times during one night. Dreams occur during REM sleep and the eyes move quickly beneath closed eyelids. During REM sleep, people and animals are paralyzed. Scientists think people enter a state in which they cannot move so they will not hurt themselves while they are dreaming. The National Sleep Foundation in the United States says that 7–9 hours of sleep daily is best for an adult. Seven to nine hours of sleep is good

UNIT

for memory, alertness, problem–solving, and health. Less than six hours of sleep affects the ability to think. Getting too much sleep may not be good for people either. Too much sleep is linked to sickness and depression. Babies need a lot more sleep than adults. A newborn infant needs up to 18 hours of sleep each day. A baby spends about nine hours in REM sleep. Five–year– olds need 11–13 hours of sleep each day. A five– year– old spends about 2 hours in REM sleep. Teenagers need 9–10 hours of sleep each day. Pregnant women need more sleep than other adults. Many people think that elderly people need less sleep than younger adults, but that is not true. Most adults do well with 7–9 hours of sleep. Scientists are not sure of all the reasons for sleep. They know that sleep helps the body heal and grow. Sleep helps the immune system – which helps people fight disease. Sleep helps the infant brain grow. It seems that REM sleep is especially important for babies’ brain growth. It also seems that sleep is a time for processing memories. Why do we dream? Some scientists believe that dreams have a psychological purpose. Some think that dreams help organize our brains. Some think that dreams are the result of random brain activity during REM sleep. Sleep patterns differ considerably from culture to culture. Cultures with artificial light have different sleep patterns from cultures without artificial light (like electric lamps.) In cultures that use www.ect.ac.ae

45


Reading One artificial light, people usually go to sleep later at night, and they sleep through the night. In other cultures, people often sleep for two periods. They go to sleep shortly after the sun goes down. They sleep deeply for several hours. Then, they tend to wake up for several hours. Afterward, they go to sleep again for several more hours. In hunter– gatherer groups, people sleep off and on throughout the day and night. People sleep in a variety of places, too. Some people sleep on the ground. Some sleep on mats or in beds. Some use pillows, blankets, and other bedding. But they all sleep!

On Your Own

II. Reading activities A. Are the following statements True or False?

1. Scientists know everything about the reasons of sleep.

True

False

2. REM sleep is divided into 3 stages.

True

False

3. It is believed that a dreaming person will hurt himself/herself.

True

False

4. Lack of sleep has a negative effect of humans’ thinking abilities.

True

False

5. All cultures share the same sleep patterns.

True

False

Critical Thinking Before You Go on 01)How can we have a healthy sleep? Give examples. 02)What is the relationship between sleep and culture?

46

www.ect.ac.ae


Comprehension

On Your Own

B. Answer the following question:

1. What is the relationship between long sleep and sickness and depression? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. In your opinion, what makes a pregnant woman in need for longer hours of sleep? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. How does sleep help humans? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. Why, do you think, cultures without artificial light tend to sleep early? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. Why, do you think, people sleep in different places? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

www.ect.ac.ae

47


Grammar Usage & Practice The modal verbs are:-

CAN / COULD / MAY / MIGHT / MUST / SHALL / SHOULD / OUGHT TO / WILL / WOULD Modal

Can

Example

Uses

They can control their own budgets.

Ability / Possibility

We can’t fix it.

Inability / Impossibility

Can I smoke here?

Asking for permission

Can you help me?

Request

Could I borrow your dictionary? Could you say it again more slowly? We could try to fix it ourselves.

Could

I think we could have another Gulf War. He gave up his old job so he could work for us. May I have another cup of coffee?

May

Might

Shall (More common in the UK than the US)

Should

Suggestion Future possibility Ability in the past

Asking for permission Future possibility

We’d better phone tomorrow, they might be eating their dinner now.

Present possibility

We must say good-bye now.

Ought to

Request

China may become a major economic power.

They might give us a 10% discount.

Must

Asking for permission.

Future possibility

Necessity / Obligation

They mustn’t disrupt the work more than necessary.

Prohibition

We ought to employ a professional writer.

Saying what’s right or correct

Shall I help you with your luggage?

Offer

Shall we say 2.30 then?

Suggestion

Shall I do that or will you?

Asking what to do

We should sort out this problem at once.

Saying what’s right or correct

I think we should check everything again.

Recommending action Uncertain prediction

Profits should increase next year. I can’t see any taxis so I’ll walk. I’ll do that for you if you like.

Will

I’ll get back to you first thing on Monday. Profits will increase next year.

48

www.ect.ac.ae

Instant decisions Offer Promise Certain prediction


Grammar Usage & Practice

Would

!

UNIT

THREE

Would you mind if I brought a colleague with me?

Asking for permission

Would you pass the salt please?

Request

Would you mind waiting a moment?

Request

“Would three o`clock suit you?” - “That’d be fine.”

Making arrangements

Would you like to play golf this Friday?

Invitation

“Would you prefer tea or coffee?” - “I’d like tea please.”

Preferences

Note: The modal auxiliary verbs are always followed by the base form. The verb used to, which is explained here, can also be used like a modal verb

Practice Choose the correct answer from a, b or c:

(a) invited (b) invite (c) inviting

1. Friends should …………………. each other.

8. You can’t …………………. your keys in such a dark place.

(a) respects (b) respected (c) respect

(a) found (b) finds (c) find

2.Children things.

can

………………….

wonderful

9. …………………. come in, please? (a) I may (b) May I (c) I may not

(a) did (b) do (c) does

10. Where …………………. buy a new computer?

3. They will …………………. abroad in summer.

(a) we can (b) we can’t (c) can we

(a) travelling b) travel (c) travels

11. She may …………………. her dictionary.

4. A motorist shouldn’t …………………. his motorbike without a helmet.

(a) needs (b) needed (c) need

(a) ride (b) riding (c) rode

12. Where’s Mark? He …………………. be in his room.

5. We shall …………………. now

(a) might (b) mustn’t (c) is to

(a) leave (b) leaves (c) left

13. My grandpa …………………. go to hospital yesterday.

6. …………………. you speak any foreign languages?

(a) must (b) had to (c) need

(a) May (b) Can (c) Have

14. …………………. we stay or leave?

7. We will …………………. your friend to have dinner next Friday.

(a) Will (b) Would (c) Shall

www.ect.ac.ae

49


Reading Two

a t n ion i r H be Hibernation is a time when animals ‘sleep’ through cold weather. Some animals only go into a torpor or temporary sleep time and can wake up quickly. With normal sleep, the animal moves a little, has an active brain, and can wake up very quickly. With true hibernation, the animal appears dead. There is no movement and it takes a long time for it to wake up enough to even walk around.

50

www.ect.ac.ae


THREE

UNIT

www.ect.ac.ae

51


Hibernation is a time when animals ‘sleep’ through cold weather. Some animals only go into a torpor or temporary sleep time and can wake up quickly. With normal sleep, the animal moves a little, has an active brain, and can wake up very quickly. With true hibernation, the animal appears dead. There is no movement and it takes a long time for it to wake up enough to even walk around.

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Reading Two

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

adaptation

A

Special activities.

2 substance B Something given to somebody to persuade him/her to do something. 3

function

C

Changing something to suit new situation.

4

inducement

D

The hidden home of some types of wild animal.

5 behavior E Something that causes a particular reaction or development. 6

trigger

F

The way somebody/ something behaves.

7 excess G A type of solid, liquid or gas that has particular qualities. 8

52

dens

www.ect.ac.ae

H

More than is necessary.


B. Fill in the spaces with words from exercise A.

1. The movement of a skier may …………………………………........................................................ an avalanche. 2. Eating …………………………………....................................................................... food may cause stomach pain. 3. Some scientists observed the ………………………………....................................................... of penguin birds. 4. The lion dragged its prey to its …………………………...…...................................................... to feed the cubs.

Words Adaptation

Behavior

Substance

Trigger

Function

Excess

Inducement

Dens

Why do some animals need to hibernate?

H

ibernation is one of the main adaptations that allow certain northern animals to survive long, cold winters. Hibernation is like a very deep sleep that allows animals to save their energy when there is little or no food available. The body functions of ‘true hibernators’ go through several changes

heart rate slows from 80 to 4 beats per minute! Other true hibernators include the jumping mouse, little brown bat, eastern chipmunk, and several ground squirrels. Other animals, such as the skunk and raccoon, are not considered true hibernators, as they wake up in the winter to feed, and their body functions do not change

while they are hibernating. Body temperature drops, and the heart rate slows. For example, a hibernating woodchuck’s body temperature drops by more than 30 degrees Celsius, and its

as much. Since they only sleep for a little bit at a time, the term dormancy or ‘light sleeping’ is used to describe their behavior. The largest animals to hibernate are bears. Their heart rate www.ect.ac.ae

53


may slow down from a usual 40 –50 beats per minute to 8-12 beats per minute, but their body temperature changes very little, so they are able to wake up quickly.

food so that they can eat when they wake up, and some animals eat a lot in late summer and fall to add excess fat to their bodies. This fat keeps them warmer and acts as a source of Hibernating animals have a special substance energy while they are sleeping. Some animals in the blood called hibernation inducement also make changes to the places where they trigger, or HIT. This substance becomes active will sleep (dens). They add leaves and grasses to in the fall, when the days become cooler and keep them warm. shorter. When HIT becomes active, the animals start preparing for winter. Some animals store

Critical Thinking

Before You Go on 01)How does hibernation help animals to survive? Give examples. 02)Name animals need to hibernate.

Comprehension A. Answer the questions about hibernation:

1. Define hibernation. .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Why do some animals need to hibernate? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What is the meaning of dormancy? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. What does HIT stand for? How does HIT function? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. How do animals do when they prepare for hibernation? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

54

www.ect.ac.ae


B. Complete the following information about the changes in the body functions of true hibernators and dormancy

The true hibernators

The dormant animals

............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................... ...............................................................................................................

www.ect.ac.ae

55


Grammar Usage & Practice Passive Voice

We only use the passive when we are interested in the object or when we do not know who caused the action. Example: Appointments are required in such cases. We can only form a passive sentence from an active sentence when there is an object in the active sentence. Passive Voice- USAGE Form

to be + past participle How to form a passive sentence when an active sentence is given: - object of the “active” sentence becomes subject in the “passive” sentence - subject of the “active” sentence becomes “object” in the “passive” sentence” (or is left out) Active:

Peter

builds

a house

Passive:

A house

is built

by Peter

Examples Active:

Peter

builds

a house Simple Present

Passive:

A house

is built

by Peter

Active:

Peter

build

a house Simple Past

Passive:

A house

was built

by Peter

Active:

Peter

has build

a house Present Perfect

Passive:

56

www.ect.ac.ae

A house

has been built

by Peter


UNIT

THREE

Active:

Peter

will build

a house will-future

Passive:

A house

will be build

by Peter

Active:

Peter

can build

a house Modals

Passive:

A house

can be build

by Peter

Practice 1. Oil ……… to different countries around the 8. A new school will .………………. in our street. world. (a) be built (b) was built (c) is built (a) exported (b) is exported (c) are exported 9. The Holy Quran must ………………. by all 2. Some doors …………….. of wood.

Muslims.

(a) are made (b) is made (c) was made

(a) be followed (b) was followed (c) is followed

3. Her toys …………….. in the park yesterday.

10. These items can ………………. for a cheap

(a) was lost (b) were lost (c) are lost

price.

4. Emergency doctors ……………… to treat ill people at any time of the day.

(a) were bought (b) be bought (c) is bought

(a) was called (b) are called (c) is called

11. Success can’t …………………. achieved without hard work.

5. English ………………. in many countries all (a) be (b) was (c) is over the world. 12. Cows and goats …………… for their milk. (a) is spoken (b) are spoken (c) were spoken

(a) are keeping (b) are kept (c) is kept

6. A nice cupboard …………………… by the 14. My friends ……………….. to attend the final carpenter yesterday. match. (a) made (b) is made (c) was made

(a) were invited (b) is inivted (c) was invited

7. The dishes ………………………… by my sister last night.

16. The old fort ……………….. by hundreds of tourists every day.

(a) are washed (b) washed (c) were washed

(a) visits (b) is visited (c) was visited

www.ect.ac.ae

57


UNIT

THREE

Writing a Persuasive Essay How to Write A persuasive Essay A persuasive essay is an essay used to convince a reader about a particular idea, usually one that you believe in. Your persuasive essay could be based on anything about which you have an opinion.

Persuasive Essay Format

concrete details (2-3 comments per CD)

Intro:

shoot for at least 2 CD per paragraph (+ commentary)

Immediately engage reader (attention getter) Address a counter argument get the reader “in the ballpark” Establish context (topic of essay) usually 2-3 sentences narrowing down to the point of the paper

include a rebuttal defending your thesis (which includes CD and commentary) Conclusion:

cite your source with title and author (if using one source)

Transition into summary of key points

Strong & complete thesis statement

Refer back to the attention getter and tie things up

Body:

Restate thesis (say it another way!)

Begin paragraphs with a clear, concise topic Answer “So what?” sentence Leave reader feeling persuaded or at least challenged Use concrete details (CD) these include facts or quotes cite sources when necessary (simplified: such as author’s last name & pg #) Create

58

insightful

www.ect.ac.ae

commentary

to

support

This personal comment can include a universal observation (a prediction), a call to action (a recommendation) or a scare a veiled threat.


Practice Write Many people tend to stay up late nowadays doing different activities. Explain the effect of this habit on people’s health, mood and productivity in work.

I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two reading texts

Yes

No

I learned modal verbs and passive voice

Yes

No

I learned how to write a persuasive essay

Yes

No www.ect.ac.ae

59


UNIT

FOUR

W or ld R ec


FOUR

UNIT

s d ecor www.ect.ac.ae

61


UNIT

FOUR

Main Theme What do the wonders of nature teach us? Discuss with your partner. What do you understand by natural wonders and manmade wonders? Have you ever seen one? Can you name some of them?

What you will learn? Vocabulary Building: Literary terms, dictionary skills, word study Reading Strategy: Use Visuals Grammar, usage, Practice:

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Comparisons -Adjectives Text type: Informational text. Newspaper report/ article Writing: Expository paragraph cause and effect explanation.

Informational texts come under the non-fiction category. They present factual information. Some key words used in such articles are : press report , as in “ the Santa Rosa press report” or,” The National Daily press release”. That is to say as reported in the newspaper. Authenticated by – this term is used to give credit to the genuineness of information.

Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

62

www.ect.ac.ae


Reading One

Learn Academic Words I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

Estimated

A

A small group of trees

2

Grove

B

Long life

3 Ranger C A person whose job is to take care of a park or an area of countryside 4 Lopped D A group of people who have combined for a particular purpose 5 Authenticated E Valued 6

League

F

To make something less established

7

Curious

G

Easily destroyed or broken

8

Destabilize

H

To make something smaller or less

9

Fragile

I

To prove that something is genuine, real or true

10

Longevity

J

Having a strong desire to about something

Words Estimated

League

Grove

Curious

Ranger

Destabilize

Lopped

Fragile

Authenticated

Longevity

www.ect.ac.ae

63


Reading One Set a purpose for reading B. Fill in the gaps with words from the above exercise: 01. The ……………………….. were chasing a hunter for a week, but they failed to arrest him. 02. His true efforts were ……………………….. by his manager. 03. There was a ……………………….. of oak trees near our house in the countryside. 04. All these figures can’t put to the public unless they are ……………………….. by officials. 05. ……………………….. crowds delayed the rescue team from arriving to the accident scene. 06. Political unrest will ……………………….. our economy. 07. Some batteries take the highest share of sales because of their ……………………….. 08. Excuse me! Can I have a ……………………….. tag put on my suitcase, please? 09. A strong wind ……………………….. the branches of many trees last night. 10. Only retired teachers can be members in our ………………………..

Reading One Set a purpose for reading

Towering Calif One of the Tallest Living Things What is an ancient Californian redwood tree? A very Tall Living Thing: This is an informational extract which tells us about an ancient Californian redwood tree which has achieved the status of being called one of the tallest living things by virtue of its towering size. The estimated age of this tree is 800 years, and is found in a grove called the Montgomery Woods. Environmentalists are careful to see that this area is not destabilized by curious tourists. It is a pleasure to read about this natural wonder.

64

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FOUR

Towering Calif:Redwood Named World’s Tallest Tree UKIAH, Calif. Saturday June 5 (Reuters) - An ancient California redwood tree which towers 367.5 feet (112.08 meters) above the forest floor has taken the official title of being one of the tallest living things in the world till recently.

Redwoods League have been wary of publicly identifying the tallest redwood trees, fearing that crowds of curious tourists could destabilize the fragile environment. The Montgomery Woods, an isolated 1,300-acre (910 hectares) preserve, is The giant, dubbed ``the Mendocino Tree’’ and the least visited of the region’s redwood parks, estimated to be between 600 and 800 years old, the Press Democrat said, adding that some local is part of a grove called the Montgomery Woods residents were actually taking down signs to located some 12 miles (19 km) west of Ukiah in discourage visitors. northern California’s redwood country, the Santa ``The measuring of the new tallest tree is an Rosa Press Democrat reported Friday. exciting reminder of the longevity and value Park rangers and scientists made the new of the redwood ecosystem,’’ Marti Harris, a measurements in mid-March after a winter storm spokeswoman for the Save the Redwoods lopped 10 feet (three meters) off the previous League, told the newspaper. title holder, the massive ``Tall Tree’’ in nearby ``But we sincerely hope visitors to the reserve Redwood National Park which had reached a can appreciate the tree without jeopardizing its height of 367.8 feet (112.18 meters). health and long-term survival.’’ The results have been authenticated by the Guinness Book of World Records, the Press Democrat reported, but a new record was created by a similar redwood tree in the year 2006.

Park officials say there will be no official marker identifying the Mendocino Tree, which stands in a cluster of some two dozen trees all of which are over 350 feet (106 meters) tall.

These isolated giants are among the last State park rangers and members of the Save the survivors of a redwood ecosystem which once covered much of northern California, but which II. Reading activities: fell victim to decades of logging. A: Read the article and then match the following

1.

The tallest living thing on earth is a

A.

“the Mendocino Tree’’

2.

The “Tall Tree’’ is called

B.

is causing some worries to some people.

3.

Identifying the tallest redwood

C.

the second tallest tree now

4.

This tree is

E.

112.08 meters high old California

redwood tree

www.ect.ac.ae

65


On Your Own A. Are the following statements True or False?

1. The idea of encouraging tourists’ tours is welcomed by locals and park officials.

True

False

2. The Tall Tree and the Mendocino Tree are part of the same grove.

True

False

3. The remote location of the Mendocino Tree helped with preserving it.

True

False

4. Tourists won’t be able to visit The Montgomery Woods Park.

True

False

5. The Mendocino Tree is the only tall tree in the cluster.

True

False

Comprehension C. Answer the questions about hibernation:

1. Do you support the people who rejected the idea of publicly identifying the tallest redwood? Why or why not? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. What is the expected damage which can be caused by tourist? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What could tourist do in order to avoid endangering health and long-term survival of the park trees? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. Do you agree that nature has been victimized by human behavior? Why or why not? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

66

www.ect.ac.ae


Grammar Usage & Practice Degrees of comparison: Certain kinds of words are used in order to describe how things are similar, different or far superior. An adjective is a word that describes a noun. There are three degrees of comparison. They are called positive, comparative and superlative degrees. When two things are similar we use the positive degree: as……….as. When two things are different we use the comparative degree: greater than……... Here it is good to note that for most one-syllable adjectives, you add –r or - er to form a comparative adjective. For two syllable adjectives ending in y, you change y to i and add -er. The word than usually follows a comparative. When in comparison something is far superior to more than two things , we use the superlative degree. Here the definite article the precedes the word and – est is added at the end. : The longest bridge.

Small

This house is as small as the one across the road. Positive degree

Small (+ - er)

This tree is smaller than the other. Comparative degree.

Large( + - r)

Sunflowers are larger than daisies.

Big (double the last letter+ er)

A bear is bigger than a cat.

Easy( change y to I + -er)

Playing football is easier than doing mathematics.

Small ( + est)

This is the smallest tree in the garden. Superlative degree.

www.ect.ac.ae

67


Practice III. Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d:

8. Camel race is …………………. sport in the

1. This is the …………………. thing I have ever UAE. seen.

(a) more popular (b) popular (c) the most popular

(a) funnier (b) funny (c) funniest (d) fun

(d) most popular

2. …………………. countries in the world are in

9.

Asia and Africa.

food.

Fresh food is …………………. than frozen

(a) Poorer (b) The poorest (c) Poorer than (d) poor (a) useful (b) more useful (c) the most useful (d) useful 3. Damascus is one of …………………. cities in 10. She got …………………. mark in the English the world. (a) oldest (b) older than (c) older (d) the oldest 4.

They took the injured boy to the

…………………. hospital. (a) nearer (b) nearest (c) nearer than (d) a near 5. Some women are fond of buying the …………………. expensive clothes. (a) more (b) most (c) much (d) many 6.

She prepares the …………………. kinds of

food. (a) better (b) best (c) good (d) worse 7. Silver is …………………. gold. (a) cheap (b) cheaper (c) cheaper than (d) the cheapest

68

www.ect.ac.ae

language test. (a) higher than (b) highest (c) the highest (d) higher 11. Sally got …………………. marks in the final exams. (a) worse (b) bad (c) the worst

(d) worse than

12. Junk food is …………………. favorable kind of food among most of the elderly. (a) less (b) less than (c) the least (d) little 13. The park is …………………. than I expected. (a) far (b) furthest (c) farthest (d) further


UNIT

FOUR

World’s Longest Suspension Bridge

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Reading Two

The World’s Longest Bridge: In comparison with the above we have another amazing structure. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in southern Japan. This is a suspension bridge which means the pathway is suspended from pillars by cables. These pillars are built in a manner that can withstand the high- speed winds and the violent earth quakes, common in Japan. This is truly a manmade wonder which uses complicated technology and took 10 years to complete.

World’s Longest Suspension Bridge The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge in southern Japan is the world’s longest bridge. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge spans the Akashi Strait, connecting Awaji Island to Kobe, an important industrial center. The bridge has a span of 5973 feet (1991 meters), making it over 25% longer than its nearest competition: the Humber Bridge

in England. Strangely, there may be longer bridges in the world, but the Guinness Book of World Records measures the longest bridges according to their record-breaking spans. The Akashi Kaikyō Bridge is a suspension bridge. This means that the roadway is suspended from pillars by cables. The concrete pillars have to be tall enough to support the whole weight of the bridge. The www.ect.ac.ae

69


pillars on the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge are 900 feet tall. These pillars had to be built to withstand not only huge waves but also high-speed winds, and possibly even violent earthquakes, which are not uncommon in the area. The bridge has survived one earthquake already: its span was extended by more than 3 feet by the Kobe earthquake of 1995.

process, which took ten years to complete. Casting concrete in 300 feet of water, installing special pilot ropes over the strait by helicopter, and finally stretching the gigantic steel cables surely wasn’t an easy job. Ten years after construction commenced in 1988, the bridge was finished and the six-lane highway finally opened to traffic.

The cables weigh 50,000 tons and have a

The bridge has made the transportation from

diameter of almost four feet each. Each cable contains 290 hexagonal strands; each strand is composed of 127 steel wires. The total length of the wire used is more than 200,000 miles, enough to circle the Earth 7.5 times!

island to island much easier, so in addition to breaking a record, the Akashi Kaikyō Bridge achieves the main goal of a bridge: to connect two places.

The first plans to connect Kobe to Naruto via Awaji Island were voiced in 1955, but it took the government thirty years to decide to really build the bridge. The next three years were spent surveying the site and construction commenced in 1988. In designing the bridge, special consideration was given to its effect on the surroundings, great emphasis was placed on a “pleasing balance between light and shade” and also on the choice of the perfect color. The construction of the bridge was a very complicated and technologically draining

70

www.ect.ac.ae

Words Strait Withstand Suspension Concrete Connecting


UNIT

FOUR

On Your Own A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1 Complicated A Linking 2

Withstand

B

Supporting something from above by cables

3

Suspension

C

Narrow strip of water that connects two seas

4 Concrete D Survive something 5

Connecting

E

Mixture of sand, cement, small stones and water

6 Strait F Complex

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 1.) The ………………………............................................... of Hormuz connects the Arab Sea with the Arabian Gulf. 2.) Not all people ……………………………...................................................................................................... the hardship of life. 3.) Some students believe that math is a ……………………………........................................................................… subject. 4.) …………………………………............................................................................. is one of the oldest man-made materials. 5.) A network of roads is ………………………………….................… a number of remote towns with the capital. 6.) A ………………………………................................….. system was used in order to reduce the number of pillars.

Comprehension A- Choose the correct answer

1. The world’s longest suspension bridge .......... ..........................................................................

3. The article states that the cables...................... (a) have 127 steel wires (b) have a diameter of 40

(a) is second on the list in the Guinness Book of feet each (c) are long enough to go round the World Records earth more 7 times (d) the strands are round (b) is in Japan (c) spans (d) connects two British 4. The bridge construction started in ............... towns (a) 1988 (b) 1955 (c) 199 (d) 1985 2. The bridge’s pillars ................................................ 5. Helicopters were used to help with: (a) do not support the whole bridge weigh (b) (a) casting concrete (b) fix pilot ropes (c) stretch are less than 900 tall (c) were affected by Kobe giant steel cables (d) carry workers and enginee earthquake (d) are made of steel www.ect.ac.ae

71


B. Answer the following questions:

1. What are the possible dangers that may damage the bridge? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Why did the government need a long time to start building the bridge? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Why was the construction of the bridge a complicated process? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. When was the bridge ready to use? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 5. What are the results of building the bridge? .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 6. The geographical features of a given country affect the government’s plans. Explain with reference to text and give your opinion. .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

72

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FOUR

Grammar Usage & Practice Adverbs: An adverb usually describes the action of a verb. Many adverbs end with –ly. An adverb often answers the question how?

QUESTION How did Ali speak? How did Colin walk? How did he drive?

ANSWER Ali spoke politely Colin walked slowly He drove carefully

Practice Work with a partner. Use your imagination to write a sentence using each of the following adverbs. Take turns to read aloud the sentences you have written. Happily, Sadly, Thoughtfully, Nervously, Stubbornly, Angrily

III. Choose the correct answer from a or b

1. He’s a …………………driver.

6. He walks so …………………in those boots.

(a) dangerous (b) dangerously

(a) heavy (b) heavily

2. He ate his dinner very …………………

7. He is a …………… talker, but he never listens.

(a) quick (b) quickly

(a) quick (b) quickly

3. She’s a …………………speller.

8. She writes very …………………

(a) bad (b) badly

(a) bad (b) badly

4. …………………the wind changed directions.

9. There was a …………………noise last night.

(a) Sudden (b) Suddenly

Did you hear it?

5. Please try to be more …………………

(a) loud (b) loudly

(a) careful (b) carefully

10. If you drive …………………don’t be surprised www.ect.ac.ae

73


if you have an accident. (a) recklessly (b) reckless 11. It was not a hard assignment because Dr. Brown explained it ………………… (a) careful (b) carefully 12. Lily is the best student in class. She studies ………………… (a) hard (b) hardly 13. Be …………………to visitors if you want them to come back to your country. (a) pleasant (b) pleasantly 14. She’s a poor driver. She can’t stop the car ………………… (a) smoothly (b) Smooth 15. The problem requires a …………………evaluation (a) serious (b) Seriously 16. He speaks so …………………that I can’t understand him. (a) fast (b) fastly

V. Writing an Expository Essay Writing: Expository paragraph Certain texts are structured according to causes and effects. What caused this tree to exist even after 800 years? If the environment gets polluted what effect can it have on this tree? What caused people to create the longest bridge? What effect does it have on the people? Read the points from the text given below and write a paragraph giving cause and effect explanation. Cause - why did it happen? “But we sincerely hope visitors to the reserve can appreciate the tree without jeopardizing its health and long-term survival.”

Effect - What happened?

was given to its effect on the surroundings, great emphasis was placed on a “pleasing balance between light and shade” and also on the choice “In designing the bridge, special consideration of the perfect color.”

74

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FOUR

I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two reading texts

Yes

No

I learned Comparisons -Adjectives

Yes

No

Yes

No

I learned how to write: Expository paragraph .cause and effect explanation

www.ect.ac.ae

75


UNIT

FIVE

Islamic Events What does Ramadan and Hajj mean for Muslims?

76

www.ect.ac.ae


FIVE

UNIT

www.ect.ac.ae

77


UNIT

FIVE

Main Theme What does Ramadan and Hajj mean for Muslims? Work with a partner. Talk about the importance of Ramadan and hajj for all Muslims. Then share your discussion with the rest of the class.

What you will learn? Vocabulary building: Dictionary skills, word study Reading Strategy: Predict Text Type: Descriptive

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Grammar, usage, and Practice (Conjunctions and Prepositions) Writing: (Describe fasting and Hajj) Islamic events and places are descriptive texts about two important Islamic events. The first one is about Ramadan, the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. It is the Islamic month of fasting in which participating Muslims refrain from eating and drinking from dawn until sunset. The text also describes what Muslims do during this holy month and how they celebrate the end of it through receiving Eid- Al Fitr or the Feast of breaking fast. The second text highlights the Islam’s holiest city and the performance of Hajj or Pilgrimage.

Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

78

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FIVE

Vocabulary I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

Lunar

A

Money given as a help to the poor

2

Calendar

B

A day when people celebrate a special event

3

Self-sacrifice

C

Kindness and sympathy towards other people/aid

4

Sighting

D

To show that a day or an event is important

5

Solar

E

Connected with the moon

6 Fast F

The act of not allowing yourself to have or do something in order to help other people

7 Charity G Add decorations 8 Understanding H

A system by which time is divided into fixed periods, showing the beginning and end of a year

9 Celebrate I Seeing 10

Commemorates

J

Connected with the sun

11 Festival K Prayers and other religious practices/great love, care and support 12

Ornaments

L

Stop eating and drinking

13

Donation

M

To remind people of an important person or event.

14

Devotion

N

An act of providing help to the needy.

Words Lunar

Understanding

Calendar

Celebrate

Self-Sacrifice

commemorates

Sighting

Festival

Solar

Ornaments

Fast

Donation

Charity

Devotion www.ect.ac.ae

79


UNIT

FIVE

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 1. The Red Crescent is a ………….......................................................................................................……………… organization. 2. The UAE people …………..............................................………… the National Day on the second of December. 3. My son sent his savings as a …………………...............................................................................…………… to the needy. 4. The………………………year has 365 days, while the ……………............................................……… year is 354 days. 5. The ……..................................................................................................................................……………… will last for three days.

Reading One

Set a purpose for reading

RAMADAN Ramadan is a very special time for all Muslims. What makes it special? Ramadan is a very special time of year for the more than one billion Muslims around the world. It is a time of fasting, prayer, devotion to Allah (God), and self-sacrifice. Ramadan is the ninth month of the Muslim calendar. Muslim holidays follow the lunar calendar. In the lunar calendar, each month begins with the sighting of the new moon. There are twelve months in the lunar calendar and each month is either 29 or 30 days. The lunar calendar is eleven days shorter than the solar calendar, so Ramadan does not always occur at the same time each year. The Fast of Ramadan lasts the entire month.

80

www.ect.ac.ae

During this time, Muslims fast from dawn to sunset everyday. They eat small meals in the early morning before dawn and do not eat again until evening after the sun has gone down. Fasting is a way of experiencing hunger and developing an understanding for those poor people in the world who do not have much food to eat. It is also a way to learn to be very thankful What do Muslims for everything God do during provides. The daily Ramadan? evening meal to break the fast is known as Iftar. Iftar usually begins with dates and sweet drinks which


provide quick energy after a long day of fasting.

Fast. It is one of the most important celebrations During Ramadan, Muslims go to the mosque in the Muslim faith. People dress in their finest and spend hours praying and studying the Koran. clothes and decorate their homes with lights and On the 27thof the month, Muslims celebrate ornaments. Family and friends gather together the Laylat-al-Quadr or the Night of Power. This to pray, exchange gifts, and eat large meals. A celebration commemorates the night when sense of charity and doing good deeds is also Muhammad the Prophet first received the Holy a very important part of these celebrations. Muslims are expected to share their blessings and Quran from God. good fortunes by feeding the poor and making The month of Ramadan ends with a festival donations to their mosques. called the Eid-al-Fitr or the Feast of Breaking the

Critical Thinking Before You Go on 01) In your opinion, what is the effect of the month of Ramadan on the Muslim’s personality? 02) Why, do you think, it is very important to have Eid-al-Fitr at the end of Ramadan?

On Your Own Are the following statements True or False?

1. All the twelve months in the lunar calendar are 30 days.

True

False

2. Ramadan always occurs at the same time each year.

True

False

3. Fasting develops patience and understanding for poor people

True

False

4. Muslims can only eat two meals during Ramadan.

True

False

www.ect.ac.ae

81


Comprehension B. Answer the following questions:

1. What makes Ramadan a special month for Muslims? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. How is the lunar calendar different from the solar one? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What does fasting teach Muslims? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 4. What is special about the 27thnight of Ramadan? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

82

www.ect.ac.ae


FIVE

UNIT

Grammar Usage & Practice

Conjunctions A conjunction is a joining word, a word that connects parts of a sentence.

There are three different kinds of conjunctions: 1. Coordinating Conjunctions There are seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, nor, or, so, and yet. To remember all seven, you might want to learn this acronym: FANBOYS. F = for , A = and , N = nor , B = but , O = or , Y = yet , S = so And: links two noun phrases. We have tickets for the symphony and the opera. But ( sentence + sentence ) The orchestra rehearses on Tuesday, but the chorus rehearses on Wednesday. Or ( verb+ verb ) Have you seen or heard the opera by Scott Joblin? So (sentence + sentence) I wanted to sit in the front of the balcony, so I ordered my tickets early. for ( independent clauses ) She was a good leader for she could delegate well. Nor (negative clause + affirmative clause which has a negative meaning. He hasn’t written, nor has he called me. Yet ( joins two contrasting ideas ) I want to lose weight, yet I eat chocolate daily. www.ect.ac.ae

83


2. Paired Conjunctions Paired conjunctions are used in pairs to show the relationship between the ideas expressed in different parts of a sentence. both ---------------- and either --------------- or neither -------------- nor not only but also

He is both intelligent and good natured. I will either go for a walk or read a book. He is neither rich nor famous. She is not only clever, but also hard- working.

3. Subordinating Conjunctions Relationship

Conjunctions When Whenever

Time

Place

*I promise to help you whenever you ask. *My uncle always calls after he watches the news.

Until

*I never knew what happiness meant until I met you.

Before

*Before you go sign the log book.

Since

*I have been working as a teacher since 1986. *I still remember the place where I met you .

Where Wherever

Since As

To Purpose

*I will phone you when I arrive.

After

Because Reason

Examples

In order For So that

*Wherever you can find an empty spot just drop your luggage there. *She didn’t come to school yesterday because she was sick. *Since you have to leave early why don’t you arrive a few days earlier. *AS I work six days per week, I cant even find time to see my friends. *I’m travelling to Egypt to visit my family. *I’m working hard in order to pass my exams with flying colours. *Most of the visitors were happy just sitting in the shade , for it had been a long trip in the train. *I’m learning English so that I can get a better job.

84

www.ect.ac.ae


FIVE

If

Condition

Unless

Although Contrast

Even though While Whereas

UNIT

*If my ticket doesn’t arrive today, I won’t be to fly out tomorrow. *He won’t listen to you unless you make turn off the radio. *Although I was sick, I went to school . * He still brings her roses even though he knows she is allergic to them. *Bob is very tall , while Bill is very short. *I like to go out , whereas my husband likes to stay at home.

Practice III. Choose the correct answer from a or b

(a) but (b) however (c) and

1. It is very hot today, ……….. I won’t stay home.

7. I slept early last night, …………. I didn’t feel well.

(a) or (b) but (c) so

(a) because (b) so (c) but

2. Ali is an old man, ………………. he goes swimming every morning.

8. She wanted to leave …………. her manager didn’t allow her to do that.

(a) but (b) although (c) so

(a) but (b) and (c) so

3. My grandfather was ill, …………. he went to the 9. He went to the library ……………… read a book nearest clinic. about Islam. (a) however (b) and (c) so

(a) so (b) and (c) because

4. The athlete ran fast, …………….. he was very 10. My brother didn’t eat well ……………….. he tired. had had a stomach pain. (a) however (b) because (c) so

(a) but (b) and (c) because

5. She invited all her friends to her wedding 11. She wants to study medicine …………………….. party, …………............. few of them came. physics. (a) but (b) because (c) so

(a) but (b) or (c) because

6. I went to the park,………….my brother went there too.

12. The accident was terrible …………………….. many passengers were seriously injured www.ect.ac.ae

85


(a) because (b) so (c) although 13. He didn’t know the answer…………………….. he tried to guess it. (a) because (b) so (c) although 14. Would you like to sit here………………………. next to the window? (a) or (b) so (c) and 15. The referee looked at his watch………………. whistled the end of the match. (a) and (b) so (c) although 16. Ann couldn’t wait her friend for a longer time…………………..she was very late. (a) because (b) so (c) although 17. You will have to buy --------------------- the blue shirt ---------- the red. They don’t have the green one in you size. (a) either …or (b) neither…or (c) either….nor 18. …………… Ahmed and Sami are intelligent students. (a)or (b)Both (c) either

86

www.ect.ac.ae


Hajj

FOUR

UNIT

www.ect.ac.ae

87


UNIT

FIVE

Hajj is the fifth pillar of Islam. What are the main pillars of Hajj that each pilgrim should do?

Vocabulary I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

Cube

A

An area of low land between hills or mountains

2

Originally

B

Strong and healthy

3 Revealed C Actions always carried in out in the same way, as part of a religious ceremony 4 Valley D Formerly 5

Well=bodied

E

A journey to a holy place for religious reasons

6 Pilgrimage F A situation when people run in the same direction because of fright or excitement 7

Ritual

G

Fierce- very forceful

8

Stampede

H

A figure with six equal square sides

9

Violent

I

Made something known to somebody

Words Cube

Ritual

Originally

Stampede

Revealed

Violent

Valley Well-bodied Pilgrimage 88

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FIVE

B. Complete the following paragraph with words from above exercise: 1. The good news were ………………………… in the morning assembly. 2. ………………………… students cause a lot trouble to their families, classmates and parents. 3. Three people died because of a ………………………… in one of the stadiums a week ago 4. The………………………… to Mecca is the dream of every Muslim. 5. We stayed in a beautiful hotel which overlooked a deep ………………………… 6. Every Muslim should learn the ………………………… of Hajj before starting his journey. 7. I find difficult it to draw ………………………… shapes. 8. This place was ………………………… a famous scientist lab, then it was turned into a museum.

Mecca Mecca is Islam’s holiest city. Muslims turn toward take part in the annual Hajj. Many travel thousands Mecca five times a day to pray. of miles to reach the holy city. While there, they Mecca is located in Saudi Arabia, in a narrow perform certain rituals. After entering al-Haram valley about 50 miles from the Red Sea. It was a Mosque, they walk around the Ka’ba seven times in a counter-clockwise direction, a ritual called trading center originally. the Tawaf. They must also run seven times along Islam was revealed in Mecca to the Prophet one of the passageways in the mosque. This Mohammed in the 7th century. The Ka’ba, a ritual honors the search for water by Hajar, the cubed-shaped, black brick building, is the center Prophet Abraham’s wife. Describe what of Islam. Al-Haram Mosque (the Great Mosque) Muslims do surrounds the Ka’ba and the modern city of The crowds of people during Hajj? and the heat have created Mecca surrounds the mosque. problems in the past. Many pilgrims have died Only Muslims are allowed to visit Mecca. All ableof heat stroke; many others have died after bodied Muslims who have enough money to being crushed in stampedes or caught in fires make the journey must perform a spiritual Hajj, or as a result of violent political demonstrations. or pilgrimage, to Mecca at least once in their life. The government of Saudi Arabia has set a fixed During the Hajj, pilgrims must wear special white number of pilgrims who are allowed to come clothes and cannot do things like shave, cut their from each country each year to try to overcome nails, wear jewelry, kill or hunt, or fight or argue. these problems. More than 2 million Muslims from 70 countries

www.ect.ac.ae

89


UNIT

FIVE

Critical Thinking Before You Go on 01) Hajj teaches us, as Muslims, many lessons. Mention some of these lessons.

On Your Own II. Reading activities Are the following statements True or False?

1. Mecca is an inland city in Saudi Arabia.

True

False

2. Mecca is open to all people from different religions.

True

False

3. Muslims walk clockwise when they go round the ka’aba.

True

False

4. Hajj is a safe journey.

True

False

5. The government has taken actions to solve the problems that may face the Pilgrims.

True

False

B. Answer the following questions:

1. Has the location of Mecca played any role in the spread of Islam? Explain your answer ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Why, do you think, Hajj is a must for those who have enough money and strong bodies? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What caused the death of people in hajj? Are the steps taken to solve this problem enough? Why or why not? Give suggestions. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

90

www.ect.ac.ae


Grammar Usage & Practice PREPOSITIONS A PREPOSITION is a word used to describe TIME, LOCATION, DIRECTION, and RELATIONSHIP. PREPOSITIONS are useful words that connect a Noun or Pronoun to another word in the sentence. A PREPOSITION is one of the 8 parts of speech. Types of prepositions:

A PREPOSITION describes: 1. Time, 2. Direction, 3. Relationship 4. Location: check out the picture below

www.ect.ac.ae

91


Practice A) Choose the correct answer from a, b or c:

01. Kangaroos and koalas are native ………… Australia. (a) on (b) at (c) to 02. The capital ………… Australia is Canberra. (a) in (b) of (c) at 03. Australia exports a lot ………… wool. (a) of (b) for (c) at 04. Aboriginal people have lived ………… Australia for around 40,000 years. (a) at (b) on (c) in 05. The first white people came ………… Australia in 1788. (a) in (b) for (c) to 06. Popular sports ………… Australia are football and cricket. (a) for (b) on (c) in 07. The Great Barrier Reef is a popular tourist destination ………… Australia. (a) from (b) at (c) in 08. Australia is ………… the southern hemisphere. (a) in (b) on (c) at 09. The weather in the northern parts ………… Australia is warmer than in the south. (a) at (b) from (c) of 10. ………… Australians the word ‘mate’ means ‘friend’. (a) In (b) From (c) For B) Complete the following sentences with the suitable preposition (at – of – for – in – on – to-about- with)

01. Students start school ......................................................................... the age .................................................................... six. 02. He doesn’t go out .................................................................................................................................................. the evening. 03. Why don’t you put your shirts ......................................................................................................................... the drawer? 04. She is looking ...................................................................................................................................................................... her pen.

92

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FIVE

05. I usually drink milk ................................................................................................................................................ the morning. 06. She puts her books ........................................................................................................................................................ the shelf. 07. My father looked .......................................................................................................................................................... me angrily. 08. Ali usually meets .................................................................................................................. his friends at the weekends. 09. The pupils learnt .................................................................................................................................................. the polar bear. 10. My sister couldn’t carry her bag, so she asked ....................................................................................................... help. 11. Students should listen .................................................................................................................. their teachers carefully. 12. She always keeps her pencil case .................................................................................................................... the drawer. 13. The hunter aimed ............................................................................................................... the rabbit before shooting it. 14. The journey from Abu Dhabi ................................................................................ Jeddah takes about two hours.

Writing an Explanatory paragraph How to Write an Explanatory paragraph You write an explanatory paragraph to give information about a subject. You can make a subject clear to someone when you write a paragraph that explains it. Adventure is an exciting, thrill-filled genre that emphasizes suspenseful, fast-paced action. In a typical adventure story, a hero embarks on a journey filled with dangerous obstacles and villains that render his survival uncertain. Steps for Explanatory Writing:

Step 4

Step 1

Revise each paragraph so that it is well-written

Think of a topic.

Step 5

Step 2

Edit your rough draft for complete sentences, proper grammar, correct punctuation, spelling, and capitalization

Brainstorm ideas for your topic. Step 3 Write your rough draft

Step 6 Proofread

www.ect.ac.ae

93


Practice Fasting and Hajj (pilgrimage) refine the spirit of the Muslim. (Explain) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I learned new vocabulary.

Yes

No

I learned two descriptive texts.

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

I learned more about conjunctions and prepositions. I learned how to write: Expository paragraph.

94

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SIX

Talent and Success

TALENT How talent is related to success www.ect.ac.ae

95


UNIT

SIX

Main Theme

How talent is related to success? What is your understanding of the word Talent? Do you know of any famous personalities whose talent has made them successful? Discuss with your partner, and share it with the class.

What you will learn? Vocabulary building: Literary terms, dictionary skills, word study Reading Strategy: Predict

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Text Type: Informational Text (Biography) Grammar, usage, and Practice (coordinating conjunctions/ relative pronouns.) Writing: (Biography) William Shakespeare: This is part of a biography of the life of William Shakespeare. He was born in a farming family, and he went to a very ordinary village school. From his humble beginning, he rose to be a leading figure in the field of theater and literature by sheer hard work and showcasing his talent. Today you cannot think of English Literature without thinking of William Shakespeare.

Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary.

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts.

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing.

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences.

96

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SIX

Literary Term:

In Literature the word biography is used to give a detailed description of a character. A biography is usually non fictional and is written by someone other than the subject.

Vocabulary I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1 published A Support 2

sonnets

B

A building where plays are performed

3

theatre

C

one or more members of a ruling family

4 sponsor D Farmer 5

wealthy

E

A person who studies a subject and a lot about it

6 royalty F characteristic 7 peasants G Act 8

Scholars

H

Printed in a book

9

identity

I

Rich

10 perform J Poems

Words

Character

Biography

www.ect.ac.ae

97


UNIT

SIX

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 01. Many companies ……...........................................…………………… top students and pay their university fees. 02. His action were enough to reveal his real …………….............................................................................................……… 03. ………………........................................................................………… were oppressed by some landlords in the past. 04. The students will …………...…… a play about the UAE National Day in the national …………….........…… 05. I enjoy reading Shakespearean …………………….............................................................................................................…… 06. ………………................................………… have made a lot of studies about the history of the Arabian Gulf. 07. Not all ………….............................................................................................................……………… people lead a happy life. 08. Some of the ………...........………… were invited to the wedding party of the Prime Minister’s daughter. 09. My dictionary was …………….......................................................................................................................…………… in 2010. 10. The main station …………......................................................……………… and provides electricity to the capital.

Reading One

Set a purpose for reading

William Shakespeare Why, do you think, scholars have made a lot of studies on Shakespeare’s works? William Shakespeare is known as the greatest English writer of all time. Shakespeare was born in 1564 in Stratfordupon-Avon, England. His father, John, was a glove maker and his mother, Mary, came from a farming family. He had two brothers and four sisters. William went to the village school. In 1582, Shakespeare married a local woman named Anne Hathaway. Their daughter Susanna was born in 1583 and their twins, Hamnet and Judith, were born in 1585.

98

www.ect.ac.ae


Nothing is known about Shakespeare’s life from 1585 to about 1591. It is known that, by 1592, he was an actor living in London. He started writing poems about this time and later wrote more than 150 sonnets, which were published in 1609. He was also writing plays. In 1594, Shakespeare and some other actors started a new theatre company. It was sponsored by a wealthy nobleman, the Lord Chamberlain. When James I became king, he sponsored their company and it became known as the “King’s Men.”

the Globe theatre. Everyone, from royalty to peasants, came to see his plays. Shakespeare became a wealthy man and bought a large house in Stratford. After about 1611, he spent most of his time there. He died on April 23, 1616, and was buried at Stratford. He was 52 years old.

Shakespeare’s plays include comedies, tragedies, and histories. Scholars have studied his plays and poems for over 300 years. Some argue about whether he actually wrote some of the plays. Other scholars have tried to discover the In 1599, the company built a new theatre, called identities of the man and woman he wrote the Globe. Shakespeare was one of its owners. about in his sonnets. Today, all of his plays are For over 20 years, he wrote about two plays still performed and enjoyed by people around a year for the acting company to perform in the world.

On Your Own A. Complete the following information about Shakespeare’s life:

01.

Place of birth

……………………………………………………………………………

02.

Date of birth

……………………………………………………………………………

03.

Father’s name

……………………………………………………………………………

04.

Father’s job

……………………………………………………………………………

05.

Mother’s name

……………………………………………………………………………

06.

Mother’s job

……………………………………………………………………………

07.

Studied at

……………………………………………………………………………

08.

Married to

……………………………………………………………………………

09.

Number of children ……………………………………………………………………………

10.

Worked first as

……………………………………………………………………………

www.ect.ac.ae

99


Comprehension B. Answer the following questions:

1. How can influential people support talented ones? Explain (Give evidence from the text) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. Were Shakespeare’s works popular among the people of his time? Why? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. What was the effect of Shakespeare’s talent on his life? (Give evidence from the text) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

100

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FIVE

Grammar Usage & Practice

Conjunctions 1. Coordinating Conjunctions Understand the use of coordinating conjunctions. Use a coordinating conjunction when you want to give equal emphasis to two main clauses. The pattern for coordination looks like this: main clause + , + coordinating conjunction + main clause. Punctuate coordinating conjunctions correctly. Three patterns in writing use coordinating conjunctions. Add commas when required. — Connecting two main clauses When you connect two main clauses with a coordinating conjunction, use a comma. The pattern looks like this: main clause + , + coordinating conjunction + main clause. Here is an example: While I am at work, my dog Floyd sleeps on the bed , and my cat Buster naps in the bathtub.

Practice Turn the sentence pairs into single compound sentences using the coordinating conjunctions. “and”, “but”, “for”, “or”, “nor”, “yet”, “so”.Use proper punctuations

01. The black dog has won many prizes. He doesn’t know many tricks. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 02. She saw a cat run in front of her. She fell down while roller-skating. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... www.ect.ac.ae

101


03. There was a thunderstorm. The crew did not know how to avoid thunderstorms. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 04. I wanted to buy a new motorbike. I started to save my money. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 05. Gillian did not like to read. She was not very good at it. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 06. Pam liked her teacher. Leena also liked her teacher. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 07. The little boy did not like going to school. He went anyway. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 08. You can cry like a baby. You can clean your room like an adult. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 09. She didn’t want to play with Ann. She didn’t want to play with Jane. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 10. Omar could not play with that boy. Omar could not play with that other boy. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 11. Let’s go to the swimming pool. It’s hot inside the house. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

102

www.ect.ac.ae


FIVE

UNIT

12. I don’t want to eat. I don’t want to drink. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 13. I don’t want to play basketball. I don’t want to disobey my mother. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 14. I need to go by bus. I’m feeling too sick to drive. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 15. Rabbits make good pets. They don’t make too much noise and they are clean. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

www.ect.ac.ae

103


Steve Jobs

104

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

Steve Jobs: Unlike Shakespeare Steve Jobs comes from a different category altogether. He was a college dropout who shone in the field of computers. He started his career in computers working closely with his friend Steve Wozniak. Together they started the Apple Computers which is now a huge success across

BUILD

BACKGROUND

SIX

Available Adopt Invent Success Appeal

Words

Vocabulary

Public Prospered Development Popular Generate

I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1 Available A The achievement of something you wanted or tried to get 2 Adopt B Attract 3

Invent

C

To be financially successful

4

Success

D

You can get, buy or find

5

Appeal

E

Suited to the taste and knowledge of ordinary people

6 Public F Created/make something new 7 Prospered G the process of producing or creating something new or more advanced 8 Development H

When a child legally becomes part of a family which is not the one in which he or she was born

9

Produced or created

Popular

I

10 Generate J Ordinary people

www.ect.ac.ae

105


UNIT

SIX

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 01. Some cars are not …………….….........................………… in the Gulf as they are not suitable to hot places. 02. ……………...................…… is a process which requires a lot of money, effort, knowledge and patience. 03. The museum will be open to the ……………..............................................................................…………… next week. 04. The UAE ………………........................................................................………… under the leadership of Sheikh Zayed. 05. His bright ideas and suggestion always …………......................................................……………… to his manager. 06. The new mobile phone will be ……………....................................................…………… in the market next week. 07. Some families in the west ………………….....................................................……… children from poor countries. 08. Some people write books about their ……….............................................................................………………… stories. 09. Scientists do their best to………………......................................................………… things which serve humanity. 10. The main station ……………….......................................................………… and provides electricity to the capital.

Reading Two

Set a purpose for reading

Steve Jobs How could a hobby turn anyone into a successful person? Explain Steve Jobs has helped to make personal computers and computer technology available to everyone. Steven Paul Jobs was born in Los Altos, California, on February 24, 1955. He was adopted when he was a baby and grew up in northern California. After high school, Jobs attended college in Portland, Oregon, but left after his first semester to travel in India. When he returned to California, he learned that his high-school friend Steve Wozniak was building computers as a hobby.

106

www.ect.ac.ae


Wozniak had just invented the Apple I computer. Jobs thought it could be a big success and in 1976 Jobs and Wozniak started Apple Computers. They worked out of Jobs’ garage.

Pixar Animation Studios. In 1995, Pixar produced the first entirely computer-generated movie – Toy Story. It was a big hit, and Pixar went on to produce A Bug’s Life (1998), Toy Story 2 (1999), The Apple II personal computer that they built Monsters Inc. (2001), and Finding Nemo (2003). next appealed to both business and the public. These movies made a great deal of money. The computer sold well and the company In 1996, Apple bought NeXT Software. Jobs was prospered until about 1981. That year, the IBM asked to return to Apple to help it become a company introduced its personal computer and leader in the computer field once again. In 1998, began to take business away from Apple. Apple introduced its iMac and iBook personal By then, Jobs and his development team had computers, which have been very successful. invented the Macintosh computer. Unlike the Today, Jobs is the CEO of both Apple Computers Apple II, the Macintosh was not very popular at and Pixar Animation Studios. first and Jobs left the company in 1985. After Jobs left Apple, he started his own company, called NeXT Software. Then, in 1986, he bought

On Your Own A. Are the following statements True or False?

1. Job had finished his university studies before travelling to India. ........................................................... 2. Wozniak invented the first Apple computer as a business. ......................................................................... 3. The invention of the Apple II personal computer helped the company to flourish. ......................... 4. There was a strong competition between IBM and Apple Computers. ................................................ 5. Job has worked for Apple Computers since 1976 till time. ............................................................................

www.ect.ac.ae

107


UNIT

SIX

B. Answer the following question:

1. What made Apple Computers lose its share in the computers market? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. What, do you think, are the results of competition between companies? Give evidence from the text ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Why was Steve Jobs asked to return to Apple Computers? What made the company take that decision? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Grammar Usage & Practice I. Relative pronouns A relative pronoun is a word that relates the clause to the word or words the clause modifies.. Who: refers to persons only. Which: refers to things only. That: may refer to either persons or things. When and where: are used to refer to time and place. Example: This shoe belongs to someone who has large feet. Which is the window that was broken? That is the dress I like the most.

108

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

FIVE

II. Countable and uncountable nouns: The main difference between these two types of nouns is whether you can count the thing or not. Countable nouns refer to things that exist as separate units. Example: table, chair, finger, word, remark. Uncountable nouns refer to things that cannot be counted because they are thought of as a whole and cannot be cut into parts. They often refer to abstract things that have a collective meaning. Example: anger , courage, progress. They refer also to heights, depths, liquids I dived into the water. (How much water costs?

Practice III. Choose the correct answer from a, b or c:

(a) How deep (b) How high (c) How often

01. ……………………can I leave? (a) Where (b) When (c) What

8. ……………………………do you see your friends? Twice a week.

02. …………………did you come to school?

(a) How deep (b) How high (c) How often

(a) How (b) What (c) Where

9. ………………………do you come to college? By public transport

03. ………………..would you like to have for dinner? (a) What (b) When (c) Which 04. ……………………..shall we meet him? (a) What b) Which (c) Where 05. ……………………do birds migrate? (a) Why (b) What (c) Which

(a) How (b) How high (c) How often 10. ……………………………..does a kilo of fish cost? About 50 dirhams (a) How many (b) How much (c) How often 11. ……………………………books do you have? 25 books

06. ……………………………is Mount Everest? About a) How many (b) How high (c) How much 8800 meters 12. …………………………sugar do you want? Two (a) How deep (b) How high (c) How much kilos. 7. ……………………………is the Arabian Gulf? I don’t know

(a) How many (b) How high (c) How much

www.ect.ac.ae

109


UNIT

SIX

IV. Writing a Short Biography ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two reading texts

Yes

No

Yes

No

Yes

No

I learned coordinating conjunctions/ relative pronouns I learned how to write a short biography

110

www.ect.ac.ae


SEVEN

UNIT

INVENTIONS How do new inventions impact the society positively and negatively?

www.ect.ac.ae

111


UNIT

SEVEN

Main Theme

How do new inventions impact the society positively and negatively? Work with a partner. Talk about the positive and negative effects of technology on people. Then share your discussion with the rest of the class.

What you will learn? Vocabulary building: Reading Strategy: Predict Text Type: Information

BUILD

BACKGROUND

Grammar, usage, and Practice (Question Tags ,infinitives and gerunds) Writing: (Explain the role of new inventions)

Great inventions: are two informational texts on two inventions of the 19th and 20th Centuries. The first one is on Braille, which is a writing system used by the blind and the visually impaired. The second one is on cell phones that support a wide variety of services like making and receiving calls, text messaging, MMS, email, internet,…etc.

Objectives By the end of this unit, students are expected to: •

Learn new vocabulary

Demonstrate information inferred from reading texts

Compose a coherent and expressive piece of writing

Use grammatical rules to write correct sentences

112

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SEVEN

Vocabulary I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 1

Communication

A

Able to see

2

Blind

B

Easy to carry

3 Compose C Know/identify 4

Childhood

D

Tool or device

5

Institute

E

The finger next to the thumb

6

Code

F

Not able to see

7

Raised

G

A shot form of a w

8

Fingertips

H

To write music

9 Pattern I Organization 10

Symbols

J

The period of somebody’s life when they are a child

11 Index finger K System of words, letters or numbers that represent a message 12 Recognize L The process of expressing feelings or giving people information 13

Contractions

M

Higher than the area around

14

Sighted

N

The end of the finger

15

Instrument

O

Regular arrangement

16

Portable

P

A sign that has a fixed meaning

Words

Communication

Pattern

Blind

Symbols

Compose

Index finger

Childhood

Recognize

Institute

Contractions

Code

Sighted

Raised

Instrument

Fingertips

Portable www.ect.ac.ae

113


UNIT

SIX

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 01. ………………………........................................................................................….. computers are very popular nowadays. 02. Armies use special ……...........……………. to hide their secret information from unauthorized people. 03. Everyone should ………...........................................................................................................………………….. his/her rights. 04. She spent her early ………...........................................................................………………….. in a mountainous village. 05. His ………………...........................................................………….. had ink stains after he had left the police station. 06. Birds are ……………………..................................................................................................................................…….. of freedom. 07. Text messages and emails are full of ………...............……….. which are not accepted in formal writing. 08. Our neighbor was ……………..........…….. before he became ……...........…….......……….. after a car accident. 09. New cars are equipped with high tech ………............................………………….. which make driving easier. 10. Means of ………………..............................................………….. have developed greatly during the 20th century.

Reading One

Set a purpose for reading

Braille How did the writing system of Braille change the lives of visually imapired people? Braille is a form of communication that allows blind people to read, write, do math, and even compose music. It is not a language, but a system that can be used by blind people to read or write most of the world’s languages. Braille was developed in the 1820s by Louis Braille of France, who became blind after a childhood accident. While attending the National Institute for the Blind in Paris, he learned that French soldiers used a special code to send messages at night that could be read without a light. Raised dots and dashes formed a message on a piece of

114

www.ect.ac.ae


SEVEN

paper, which a soldier read by running a finger over them. Louis Braille was just 11 years old, but he used this military code to create an alphabet system that people could read with their fingertips. It took him almost nine years, but his system is still used today. In the Braille system, each letter of the alphabet is formed from a different pattern of up to six small raised dots. The system also includes symbols for numbers, punctuation What did Braille marks, and musical notes. To read Braille, people move their index finger from left to right along a

use to create the alphabet system?

UNIT

series of symbols on each line of a page. This lets them put together letters to make words or to recognize shortened forms of whole words and things such as periods or commas. Grade 1 Braille is the longer form of written Braille. Grade 2 Braille uses more short forms and contractions of words. Experienced readers can read Braille books as quickly as sighted readers can read regular books. Braille can be written on paper, using either a sharp, pointed instrument called a stylus or a machine that looks like a typewriter but has only six keys. Today, computer software programs and portable electronic Braille note takers are also available.

Critical Thinking Before You Go on In your opinion, can disability kill creativity, why or why not?

On Your Own A. Are the following statements True or False?

01. Braille is a system with multi functions to serve blind people. ................................................................................ 02. Blind people should English and French to use Braille. ................................................................................................ 03. The French army used a special to help its soldiers receive instructions at night. .................................... 04. Braille was 25 years old when he finished his system. ................................................................................................. 05. Words in Braille 1 and Braille 2 are of the same length. ................................................................................................

www.ect.ac.ae

115


UNIT

SEVEN

Comprehension B. Answer the following question:

1. How could one’s suffering turn into a blessing? Explain (give evidence from the text) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. What is the importance of attending conferences, lectures and workshops? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Explain Braille system in your own words. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Grammar Usage & Practice Question Tags Question Tags Usage A question tag is a short question at the end of a statement: He won the prize, didn’t he?

Question tag

We use question tags when we want to check if the information is correct.

116

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SEVEN

FORM 1. Use question tags at the end of a sentence: He won the prize, didn’t he?

Question tag

2. a. NEGATIVE QUESTION TAG: If the sentence is positive, the question tag is negative: You have seen that film, haven’t you? - + 2.b. POSITIVE QUESTION TAG: If the sentence is negative, the question tag is positive: You haven’t seen that film, have you? - + If the sentence contains a negative word (never, hardly…) the question tag is positive: Ann never goes anywhere, does she? 3. Questions tags consist of … AUXILIARY VERB + PRONOUN: I shouldn’t laugh, should I? Sarah was winning, wasn’t she? We use the auxiliary verb that is used in the previous sentence. If there is no auxiliary verb, we use “do/does” (present tense) and “did” (past tense): You live near here, don’t you? You turned left, didn’t you? The pronoun refers to the subject of the previous sentence.

www.ect.ac.ae

117


UNIT

SEVEN

Practice Complete the following with tag questions

01. Salahuddin is a great leader, ............................? 02. It isn’t very cold today, ............................?

12. Your teacher has lived here for ten years, ............................? 13. They had done their homework before going to bed, ............................?

03. Our teacher assigns a lot of homework, 14. The polar bear doesn’t live in hot places, ............................? ............................? 04.You brought enough money,............................? 15. She hasn’t been to Egypt since 1998, 05. The children won’t want to go to bed early, ............................? ............................? 16. It is raining heavily, ............................? 06. You have already seen the match, 17. The students are doing their best, ............................? ............................? 07. The winner received several rewards, 18. The children enjoyed the party, ............................? ............................? 08. We can’t travel today, ............................? 19. The bag isn’t in the car, ............................? 09. Our team would like to win another medal, 20. My mother did not meet her friend there, ............................? ............................? 10. Basketball players don’t have small feet, 21. Our manager took a wrong decision, ............................? ............................? 11. Your friend can come with us ............................?

118

www.ect.ac.ae


Reading Two

Set a purpose for reading

CELL PHONES Cell phones have advantages as well as disadvantages. Discuss Cell phones are mobile hand-held devices that can be used to contact people next door or in the next country. Each cell-phone service provider has a network of bases, or cell sites. These sites have antennas on towers, poles, or buildings to receive radio waves. When a call is made, voice and data are sent to and received at the nearest cell site (about ½ to 10 miles away). From there, they go to a switching site and then to the phone being called (if it is on the same network) or to the public telephone network, which connects to other service providers’ networks. As phone users move about, the phone automatically connects to the nearest cell site.

Until the late 1980s, cell phones could only be used in certain places and were so expensive and so big that they were usually installed in cars for business use. When new technology led to smaller (and smaller) phones that could be used across different service-providers’ networks and countries, the number of users increased and the price dropped. Today, countless adults, teenagers, and even children use them. India and China have the highest growth in numbers of cell-phone users.

Cell phones ringing at unsuitable times and people talking too loudly on them have caused libraries, theatres, and universities, for example, Radio-telephones on ships, aircraft, and military to ban their use. People who talk on them vehicles in the 1940s were the first type of while driving are more likely to get into an mobile phone. In the United States, the first accident. The phones’ poor security systems cellular system was created in 1977; it was make it possible to listen in on other people’s tested in 1978, in Chicago, and in 1981, in the conversations. Finally, some claim that using Washington-Baltimore area. In 1982, the Federal cell phones for long periods of time may cause Communications Commission let commercial cancer or genetic damage, but this has not been service providers set up businesses. proven. www.ect.ac.ae

119


UNIT

SEVEN

Critical Thinking Before You Go on In your opinion, what is the impact of having cell phones on people’s lives?

Vocabulary I. Vocabulary study

A. Match each vocabulary word on the left with its definition on the right 01 Switching A Something used to carry people or goods from a place to place 02

Aircraft

B

An official rule that says that something is not allowed

03

Vehicles

C

Buying and selling goods

04

Commission

D

To create or start something

05

Commercial

E

To fix

06 Set up F Plane 07

Install

G

To say that something is true

08

Ban

H

Tested and shown to be true

09 Claim I Exchanging 10 Proven J An official group of people are responsible to control something

B. Complete the following sentences with words from above exercise: 1. The High ........................................................................................ of childhood will hold a conference next month. 2. Some .................................................................................................. have 4 engines and can fly over long distances. 3. Our computer system is in the process of ................................................................................. over to a new one. 4. She took her laptop to a computer technician to ............................................... the new version MS Office. 5. Our college will .................................................................................................... a meeting to discuss students affairs. 6. There is a ..................................................................................................................................... on smoking in public places. 7. Your ............................................................... needs to be ................................................................... to deal with it as a fact. 8. Use caution when you drive on this road as it is frequently used by heavy ....................................................

120

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SEVEN

On Your Own A. Are the following statements True or False?

1. Cell phones can be used to call nearby people or people in remote areas. ...................................................... 2. Cell sites coverage ranges from about half a mile to 15 miles. ...................................................... 3. Cell sites are connected directly with end users. ...................................................... 4. Braille was 25 years old when he finished his system. ...................................................... 5. Public telephone networks function as links between different cell phones companies. ......................

Comprehension B. Answer the following questions:

1. What made cell phones usage very limited in the 1980s? Explain (give evidence from the text) ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2. What led to the popularity of cell phones? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3. Why were cell phones banned in some place? ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

Words

Switching

Set up

Aircraft

Install

Vehicles

Ban

Commission

Claim

Commercial

Proven www.ect.ac.ae

121


UNIT

SEVEN

Grammar Usage & Practice Gerunds and Infinitives 01. Gerunds and infinitives can function as: NOUNS (subjects, objects, subject complements) As subjects, they take a singular verb. Only Gerunds can be object of the preposition. To form gerunds, use the base form + ing (don’t’ forget the rules for spelling of the form of verbs) I enjoy learning English. Verbs that take only Gerunds Appreciate – avoid – delay – deny – discuss – dislike – enjoy – finish – understand- keep- mentionmind- miss- postpone- quit- recall- recommend- resent- suggest 02. Infinitives. To form infinitives use to + base form of the verb. I want to dance. Verbs that are followed by infinitives Agree-appear-decide –hope- intend-learn-offer-plan-seem-tend- wait- afford SIMLPLE PAST - USAGE The Simple Past is used to talk about actions or situations in the past. It is also called Past Simple. Have a look at the following examples: 1) Action finished in the past (single or repeated) I visited Berlin last week. Andrew watched TV yesterday. 2) Series of completed actions in the past First I got up, then I had breakfast. 3) Together with the Past Progressive/Continuous - The Simple Past interrupted an action which was in progress in the past. They were playing cards when the telephone rang. 1st action: Past Progressive were playing 2nd action: Simple Past rang

122

www.ect.ac.ae


SEVEN

UNIT

Choose the correct answer from a, b, c or d: 01. I remember ............................................................................................................................ the Queen in London. (a) meet (a) o meet (a) meeting (a) to meeting 02. Did you remember ...................................................................................................................................... the letter? (a) post (a) to post (a) posting (a) to posting 03. I’m not used .............................................................................................................................................. up this early. (a) get (a) to get (a) getting (a) to getting 04. I used ............................................................................................................................................. to the cinema a lot. (a) go (a) to go (a) going (a) to going 05. I regret ............................................................................................................................... Mary about the wedding. (a) tell (a) to tell (a) telling (a) to telling 06. Mrs. Jones, I regret ................................................................ you that your credit limit has been exceeded. (a) inform (a) to inform (a) informing (a) to informing 07. Stop ................................................................................................................................... this terrible noise at once! (a) make (a) to make (a) making (a) to making 08. I wanted to stop ............................................................. some presents, but we didn’t have enough time. (a) to (a) to buy (a) buying (a) to buying 09. Look, it’s starting .............................................................................................................................................................. . (a) rain (a) to rain (a) raining (a) to raining 10. I started ................................................................................................................................ English when I was four. (a) learn (a) to learn (a) to learning (a) learned

www.ect.ac.ae

123


UNIT

SIX

Practice Writing an Informational Essay How to write an informational essay

Informational essays answer questions such as: * what does this mean? * How does this work? * Why does this happen? * Why is this important? Opening Paragraph: 1. Focus the essay by telling what it is about. Then stick to that topic. 2. Strong opening, makes the readers want to go on reading. Body Paragraphs: 1. Put each reason in a separate paragraph. 2. Use transitions to connect the paragraphs. 3. Support your explanation with convincing details and examples. 4. Vary the sentence structure and the choice of words. 5. Check your paper for usage, spelling capitalization, and punctuation. Closing Paragraph: 1. Introduce a new fact that supports your explanation and/or make a generalization and/or a person observation New inventions have played a great role in making people’s lives easier. Explain. ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

124

www.ect.ac.ae


UNIT

SEVEN

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

I learned new vocabulary

Yes

No

I learned two informational texts

Yes

No

I learned Gerunds and Infinitives

Yes

No

I learned how to write an informational Essay

Yes

No

www.ect.ac.ae

125


Bibliography Abcteach (2013). www.abcteach.com upperelemiddle.pdf> (30 Dec.2013)

< http://www.abcteach.com/free/r/rc_bridges_longest_

Ahmed, S. (June 22, 2009) . Pilot buries helicopter crash survivor in sand. Cable News Network. <http://edition.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/asiapcf/06/22/australia.chopper.crash> (24.Dec.2013) Ansell, Neil. (27 March 2011). My life as a hermit. http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2011/ mar/27/neil-ansell-my-life-as-hermit (30 Dec.2013)

Bugge, Axel. Reuters (June 11, 2002). Brazil Amazon destruction down but still alarming. Original URL: Status DEAD http://www.english-to-go.com/_pdf/_database/lessons/944_19ujHLpkri3GDl068r69xdo6fhVhXds4. pdf (30 Dec.2013 )

ClipArts Free (2014). www.clipartsfree.net < http://www.clipartsfree.net/svg/21469-cessna-planevector.html> ( 10. Nov.2013)

Cuttables , Kate. (2013). www.misskatecuttables.com <http://www.misskatecuttables.com/products/ travel-vacation/all-boy-2.php> (24.Dec.2013)

Englisch-hilfen.de (2013) . http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/ grammar/past_perfect_diagram.htm> (31 Dec.2013)

<http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/

English for Everyone (2013). www.englishforeveryone.org http://www.englishforeveryone.org/PDFs/ Informational%20Passages%20RC%20-%20Sleep.pdf (30 Dec.2013)

English for Everyone (2013). www.englishforeveryone.org http://www.englishforeveryone.org/PDFs/ Informational%20Passages%20RC%20-%20Hibernation%20and%20Estivation.pdf (30 De.2013) English To Go Limited (2013). www.english-to-go.com < http://www.english-to-go.com/members/ view_lesson.cfm?lesson_id=276&sli=2&CFID=859967&CFTOKEN=93240698> (30. Dec.2013)

Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary 8th Edition CD-ROM . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010

126

www.ect.ac.ae


HELLO

EDITORS INTRO

Sadil, M. (2013). The tropical rainforest. < http://www. superteacherworksheets.com/readingcomp/5th-ainforest1_RAINF.pdf> (24.Dec.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (July 27th, 2011). Podcast: Ramadan. <http://www.esl-library.com/blog/2011/07/27/ podcast-ramadan> (30 De.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (2009). Mecca. < http://esllibrary.weebly.com/uploads/2/1/7/8/2178024/mecca. pdf> (30 De.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (2009). William Shakespeare. < http://www.cubictalk.com/cubicboard/matrials/ famous-people/shakespeare.pdf> (30 Dec.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (2009). Steve Jobs. <http://www.esl-library.com/pdf/lessons/steve-jobsredriverpress.pdf> (30 Dec.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (2009). Braille. <http://esllibrary.weebly.com/uploads/2/1/7/8/2178024/braille. pdf> (30 Dec.2013)

Red River Press Inc. (2009). Cellphones. < http://esllibrary.weebly.com/uploads/2/1/7/8/2178024/cell_ phones.pdf> (30 De.2013)

www.ect.ac.ae

127


LEARN ENGLISH

Learning is a treasure that will follow its owner everywhere

English Book.  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you