Corrosion Protection n. 5 - January 2024

Page 1

ISSN 2282-1767

an ipcm magazine

© Adobe Stock


GRIN LUZ joins the Redox excellence network of approved applicators of corrosion protective coatings

page 08

Fatigue corrosion and its prevention

page 26


Development of novel and costeffective corrosion resistant coatings for high temperature geothermal applications

page 46

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08 ISSUE 5 - JANUARY 2024

01 FROM THE EDITOR 02 WHAT'S NEW 08 COVER STORY GRIN LUZ joins the Redox excellence network of approved applicators of corrosion protective coatings

14 ADVANCEMENTS Flame Spray thermoplastic powders and their corrosion protection performance




Sherwin-Williams launched the new thermal insulative coating Heat-Flex® 7000

22 RESEARCH BREAKTHROUGH Drones protect wind turbines from ice

26 SCIENCE OUTLOOK Fatigue corrosion and its prevention


34 ADVANCEMENTS Oil & Gas goods receipt: the hidden killer of preservation planning?

36 VOICES People I met

46 RESEARCH BREAKTHROUGH Development of novel and cost-effective corrosion resistant coatings for high temperature geothermal applications


52 ADVANCEMENTS Hempel launches leading intumescent coating estimation software



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ast year saw the publication of the

an attractive look and style far removed from

first issue of Corrosion Protection,

those of traditional technical magazines,

the new ipcm®-branded technical-

and capable of combining the advantages of

scientific magazine devoted to

digital circulation with the practicality of its

corrosion prediction, prevention, protection,

printed version, in order to reach all players in

and mitigation – a journal designed to

this sector in a capillary manner.

illustrate the product, process, technology,

I am pleased to share some feedback we

and service-related challenges the corrosion

have received from our readers this year and

protection industry faces every day.

I am sure that the upcoming publishing year,

I remember questioning the rebranding

starting with this January issue, will be just as

project of our old ipcm®_Protective Coatings


magazine several times: we wondered how the

Alessia Venturi Editor-in-chief

In the space of twelve

market would react, having been accustomed

“I applaud your very elegant editorial

to receiving a magazine with very precise

style. Thank you for your dedicated, active

characteristics and with a familiar name,


graphics, and editorial style for about ten

Prof. Pierluigi Bonora

years. We were afraid that all the promotion and distribution work we had done over time

“Good job and valuable

would have gone lost.

magazine. Congratulations. You are

However, we decided to go ahead with the

publishing a good magazine and if I can do

rebranding. And today, a year later, we are

anything, I will do it for you and your good

very pleased to have done so. In the space


of twelve months, Corrosion Protection

Prof. Hadi Beirami

has established a very good reputation in the market, attracting new advertisers,

“I am honoured that Corrosion Protection

numerous scientific reports from professors

magazine has found value in our content.

Protection has

and researchers around the world, and media

We, at INSPENET, are pleased to be

established a very

partnerships with many new international

featured in your magazine and see no

events, all extremely relevant to the industries

issue with sharing information. I want to

good reputation in

in which corrosion control is involved.

extend a congratulation for your site and

the market, attracting

We went all the way to Asia-Pacific, more

magazine. I visited your website and it has a

precisely to Indonesia, for the Pacific Coatings

lot of important values to the corrosion and

Show and next February we will participate

coating sector.”

for the first time in MECOC - Middle East

Antonio Zavarce, Director of Operation,

Metallurgy Corrosion & Coatings EXPO in Abu


months, Corrosion

new advertisers, numerous scientific reports, and media



It goes without saying that such a wide

“Congratulations on the successful

with many new

distribution is an added value for our content

transformation of ipcm into Corrosion

and for our advertisers, who can find in

Protection magazine!”

Corrosion Protection a refined journal, with

Heiko Reski, Sales Manager, Blastman

international events.



W H AT ’ S

NEW Belzona successfully provided thermal insulation protection for an oil and gas company The international provider of corrosion protection solutions Belzona

from corroding further. Belzona 5871 is designed to be applied to

has recently announced that it has collaborated with a global oil and

metal pipework, ducting and other industrial equipment in order

gas company in order to provide thermal insulation for a metal tank

to ensure thermal insulation, provide protection against contact-

at one of its lubricant plants. Belzona offered its two-component

burn injuries and eliminate corrosion. It can be applied by brush,

polymeric solvent-free system Belzona 5871 to lower the

cartridge or plural spray, expanding upon application to produce

temperature of the metal surface, prevent burns and halt corrosion.

a lightweight closed-cell foam. Moreover, since it only needs two

The upper surface of the tank, that reaches a temperature of 110° C

coats, the system developed by Belzona enables quick turnaround

(230° F), serves as a walkway for operators, causing a hazard for


the employees that risk receiving contact burns from the hot metal

The surface of the metal tank has been prepared by vapor blasting

substrate. According to the guidance set forth by the Occupational

the substrate to meet SSPC-SP10 (Near-White Metal) standards

Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)1, the maximum

and degreased. Then, the personnel applied Belzona 5871 using a

temperature for exposed surfaces that a person could come into

short-bristled brush at the target thickness of 1000 µm (39 mil) wet

contact with is 60° C (140° F), in line with ASTM C1055. In addition,

film thickness, which results in 3000 µm (118 mil) dry film thickness.

the tank surface had been experiencing pitting corrosion, so it also

The second coat has been applied six hours later. Twelve hours

required pit filling and a protective coating that would prevent it

later, the tank was back to full service.


DÖRKEN Days successfully concluded This year’s DÖRKEN Days took place in Essen on 23rd November.

reported on the topic of coating thickness measurement.

The traditional event has been a staple in the event calendar for

The event concluded with a presentation on “Digital

over ten years. It is a meeting point for customers, market partners

Transformation” by Marvin Urban. Urban is one of two managing

and experts along the entire value chain.

directors of DÖRKEN Digital Ventures GmbH, which is addressing

Christos Tselebidis, Vice President Sales Industrial Coatings at

the market challenges of the future.

DÖRKEN Coatings, welcomed the participants to the ATLANTIC

Christos Tselebidis brought the informative day to a close and

Congress Hotel Essen. After an overview of what’s new at DÖRKEN

transitioned to the joint dinner. Not only there, but also during the

and on the global market, Christian Rabe & Markus Nowak, both

day between the speeches, the participants were able to network

from Product Engineering, gave a follow-up to last year’s event.

and talk about all sorts of things.

Throughout the day, DÖRKEN employees provided interesting

“We are delighted that we were able to welcome numerous partners

insights into current topics. For example, they talked about the

of DÖRKEN live on site again this year - and in even greater

influence of the planned PFAS ban on product development, the

numbers than usual,” says Christos Tselebidis. “We would like to

DELTA-PROTEKT® TC 502 GZ topcoat, which was presented in

express our gratitude for the trust placed in us and the exciting

2023, and room-temperature curing corrosion protection solutions.

input we received from personal discussions. I’m already looking

But business partners also had the opportunity to share their

forward to next year!”

experiences. Beatrice Occhionero from A. AGRATI S. p. A. gave a presentation entitled “Enhancing of Testing Insights: A Deep Dive into massive Data Analysis”. Geoffrey Bruno from Enovasense




AMPP Named Michio Kaku as Annual Conference Keynote Speaker

Sherwin-Williams won the Vaaler Award for CUI-mitigation coatings

The Association for Materials Protection and Performance

The international paints and coatings manufacturer Sherwin-

(AMPP) has announced that Michio Kaku will be the keynote

Williams has won the Vaaler Award with its new line of Heat-

speaker at its upcoming annual conference and exposition. He

Flex® CUI-mitigation coatings.

will address the topic “The Impact of AI on the Workforce” during

The reward was granted thanks to the ability to mitigate the

his presentation, scheduled for March 4th 2024 at the Great Hall A

dangerous condition of corrosion under insulation (CUI). Among

of the Ernest N. Morial Convention Center in New Orleans (United

all currently available coating formulations that have been

States of America). “We are honoured to have Michio Kaku as

tested, the Heat-Flex® ACE (Advanced CUI Epoxy) offers the

our 2024 conference keynote speaker. His extensive expertise in

best performance in mitigating CUI. The ultra-high-solids epoxy

the realms of science and futurism, coupled with his adeptness

novolac features a functional chemical enhancement for CUI

at conveying complex ideas in an accessible manner, positions

mitigation. In addition, the Heat-Flex 650, Heat-Flex 750 and

him perfectly for our event. Attendees can anticipate a thought-

Heat-Flex 1200 Plus feature a high concentration of micaceous

provoking and engaging address that explores the future of work

iron oxide (MIO) pigment for significantly improved CUI-

in the era of artificial intelligence, seamlessly integrating insights

mitigation performance.

relevant to the corrosion prevention and coatings protection

“CUI is a lurking danger in any petrochemical plant that could

industries,” has stated Alan Thomas CEO of AMPP.

potentially lead to catastrophic events. In the interest of safety,

Kaku is the author of five New York Times bestsellers and has

we are constantly looking for new ways to address the problem

been recognised as “one of the most influential physicists in the

and have developed surprisingly effective options with the new

world today” by Academic Influence. His weekly science radio

range of Heat-Flex CUI-mitigation coatings. To be awarded for

program reaches audiences in 100 cities nationwide, including

these efforts is an honour, as well as a testament to our product

hosting numerous science specials on networks such as the

development and research teams, which continue to seek new

Discovery Channel and BBC-TV as well as popular programs

and better ways to combat CUI,” has stated Neil Wilds, Global

such as the David Letterman Show.

Product Director CUI at Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine.

The Hempel foundation celebrates its 75th anniversary The international supplier of paints and coatings Hempel celebrates

shows us that we can make a difference by doing what we do best:

the 75th anniversary of the Hempel Foundation.

deliver trusted solutions that protect assets, beautify spaces and

Over 7,500 Hempel collaborators are celebrating the 75

enhance lives,” has commented Michael Hansen, Group President

anniversary of the Hempel Foundation, founded in 1948 by J.C.

and CEO of Hempel A/S.

Hempel with the aim of ensuring the future development of his

The Hempel Foundation has laid the foundations for a world-

company, Hempel A/S. The Hempel Foundation drives change

leading education, research and innovation centre at the Technical

on some of the world’s most pressing issues. For example, last

University of Denmark, in order to make coatings and surface

year it spent €21 million on philanthropic activities in the areas of

protection more effective and sustainable. In addition, Hempel

Education, Biodiversity and Science.

experts are invited each year to participate in an ‘iWitness tour’ to

“By working at Hempel, all colleagues contribute to the work of the

experience the Foundation’s global work firsthand.


Hempel Foundation through their daily work. The Foundation’s work is a great source of pride and inspiration for all of us at Hempel. It




AkzoNobel supports delivery of China’s first domestic large cruise ship

Carboline launches new urethane mastic coating for emergency maintenance

The first large cruise ship ever to be built in China has set off on

Global protective coatings manufacturer Carboline recently

its maiden voyage, having been coated with International® paint

launched Carbothane DTM Mastic, a one-coat hybrid

supplied by AkzoNobel’s Marine, Protective and Yacht Coatings

urethane formulated for emergency maintenance or

business. Constructed over a period of more than three years,

quick-turn coating projects.

the 5,246-passenger Adora Magic City features the company’s

Carbothane DTM Mastic is intended for direct-to-metal

Intersmooth® fouling control technology. The high-performance

application and adheres very well to minimally prepared

brand was specified on the hull of the milestone vessel due to

surfaces including tightly bound rust. Mastic qualities provide

its high durability, low VOC content and excellent application

excellent corrosion protection while its urethane technology


offers long-term color and gloss retention.

The ship – which is 323.6 meters long and has a 1,292-person crew

“The value of Carbothane DTM Mastic in the market is clear:

capacity – was built by Shanghai Waigaoqiao Shipbuilding Co., Ltd

better corrosion protection and great visual appeal in a single

and the launch heralds a new beginning for the Chinese cruise

coat. It performs exceptionally even over marginal surfaces,

ship new-build sector. “We’re proud that our trusted coatings

so it’s ideal for unplanned spot maintenance or emergencies,”

technology and expertise played an important role and were

said Jeff Anderson, Executive Vice President of Quality, R&D,

extremely impressed during a recent visit to see the final fitting out

and Commercial Resources.

of this landmark vessel,” says Simon Parker, Director of AkzoNobel’s

In July 2023, Carbothane DTM Mastic was trialed on

Marine, Protective and Yacht Coatings business, who adds that

an emergency coating project at a liquid terminal in

the company is also contributing to the new-build of Adora Magic

Philadelphia (United States of America) to address corrosion

City’s sister ship. “We hope to be involved in similar projects in

and discoloration which were not compliant with U.S.

the future and remain committed to supporting the application

Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) rules. The product

and development of advanced coatings that will help propel our

was applied by hand in tough conditions, including a minimally

customers and the industry to a more sustainable future.”

prepared surface, the presence of moisture and very hot

The newly launched ship, which weighs 135,500 tons, contains

summer temperatures. Coating application proceeded

more than 25 million different parts and was produced with the

smoothly and EPA authorities affirmed the piping was back in

cooperation of more than 30 countries and over 8,000 specialized


suppliers. “Our ability to support global projects and supply chains

“This field trial, and other recent success stories like it,

provides value for customers of our Marine Coatings business,”

demonstrate the immediate impact Carbothane DTM

continues Parker. “Our International brand has been meeting

Mastic has had on unplanned or emergency coating project

customer needs in this respect for more than 140 years. We’re

outcomes. Every product we develop is intended to solve

constantly innovating to keep pace with evolving requirements, with

specific problems, so the market’s response to Carbothane

a clear focus on supporting customers in yard efficiency, boosting

DTM Mastic so far as a great sign,” said Justin Manuel,

lifetime performance and reducing both fuel consumption and CO₂

Director of Global Product Line.

emissions in operation.” The company’s International brand offers a leading portfolio of

coatings that protect and enhance vessel performance when


facing different challenges, such as impact and abrasion, chemical resistance and biofouling accumulation. In this area, the product range helps to reduce biofouling build up and mitigate drag over time – which helps to improve fuel efficiency and cut CO2 emissions. Owners and operators can also benefit from the company’s Intertrac software, which uses big data to support underwater hull scheme selection and predict and maximize lifetime performance, while considering key industry regulations.




I-Tech AB signed a license agreement to provide antifouling agents to Paints Korea I-Tech AB has recently announced that it has signed a license

around 33% of the global newbuilding market of all ships.

agreement with International Paints Korea Ltd, the South Korean

“The agreement once again proves the very strong position of

subsidiary of the Protective Coatings division of the international

Selektope in the global antifouling industry. That we deliver our

paints and coatings manufacturer AkzoNobel. The company

substance to so many of the paint manufacturers active in the

now passed the technical hurdles for a future commercial use of

South Korean market is a very good testament to our product

Selektope in IPK products.

and something that benefits our continued global expansion.

I-Tech is a biotechnology company that has developed the

Selektope has proven to be very successful in combating marine

product Selektope®, an active agent that prevents barnacle

fouling of barnacles on ships. Earlier this year, we show that the

attachment on submerged surfaces such as ships and boat hulls,

hospital ship Global Mercy, whose hull was treated with Selektope,

but also other marine installations. By increasing the resistance

remained free from barnacle growth even after being laid idling for

to barnacle growth in marine paint systems, fuel and maintenance

extensive periods over a 22 month operational timeframe in warm

costs are reduced. With the new partnership, the company has

waters” has stated Philip Chaabane, the CEO of I-Tech AB.

now a deal with all the six major paint and coatings producers operating in the South Korean market, which alone accounts for


Hexigone will sign a distribution partnership with Adizol

The ecosparc® graphene product range from Sparc Technologies received commercial evaluation authorization

The corrosion inhibitor manufacturer Hexigone has announced

Sparc Technologies has recently announced that its ecosparc®

a new distribution partnership with Adizol, a specialty chemical

graphene product range for protecting against cracking and

distributor based in Santiago (Chile). The collaboration will

corrosion has received the Commercial Evaluation Authorization

bring Hexigone’s ion exchange corrosion inhibitors to the

(CEA) from the Australian Industrial Chemicals Introduction

Chilean coatings industry. “We are thrilled to partner with

Scheme (AICIS). In addition, Sparc has had completed fully

Adizol to bring our Intelli-ion technology to the Chilean market.

independent lifecycle assessment (LCA) with significant cost

This collaboration is an exciting opportunity, especially given

savings and also CO2 emissions which are in-line with the

the substantial mining and construction industries in Chile

company's broader ESG thematics. “We are delighted to announce

that require anti-corrosion coatings to safeguard equipment

that ecosparc has received governmental regulatory approval from

and infrastructure. A sustainable alternative that excels in

AICIS to enable commercial evaluations to occur. This milestone

performance will be welcomed in this region!” commented Ella

allows Sparc to progress into the next stage of its commercial

Newington, Marketing Manager at Hexigone. Adizol is a specialty

growth, where we can concentrate on the development, marketing,

chemical distributor with a vast experience in supplying

production and sales of ecosparc,” has stated Stephen Hunt, the

technical products to the Chilean coatings market. Their efforts

executive chairman of Sparc Technologies. The CEA allows Sparc

for improving the sustainability of the sector aligns perfectly

to conclude the trials phase in the laboratory, so the company

with Hexigone and its commitment to create environmentally-

will now be able to manufacture larger quantities of its new

friendly solutions. “Our partnership with Hexigone signifies our

graphene product for commercial tests on steel infrastructure

joint commitment to sustainability and cutting-edge solutions in

assets in Australia, while the regulatory approval process for both

the coatings industry. Hexigone’s corrosion inhibitors are unique

Europe and North America has also started. Furthermore, Sparc

and we know our customers are going to be excited to start

Technologies is currently engaged in discussions with several

testing and utilizing something new within our market,” added

industrial asset owners to test the use of ecosparc in protective

Bernardo Bollmann, Development and Technical Manager at

coatings, aiming to improve their crack resistance and corrosion

Adizol. Alongside Adizol and MCassab, Hexigone also had a

mitigation properties. “This is an exciting progression in the

strong presence at the last ABRAFATI event, where they met

business which will see the realisation of ecosparc being used

numerous coatings manufacturers from South America. This

in protective coatings in real world trials which are relevant to

event offered the opportunity to learn more about Hexigone’s

our target markets. The cost savings and positive environmental

smart Intelli-ion technology and how it can improve primer

outcomes for our customers will be substantial,” has added Denis


Wright, the general manager of Sparc Technologies.

Elementis launched NALZIN FA 180 to prevent flash rust in aqueous paint systems Elementis has recently presented NALZIN® FA 180, a new solution

undergoes a transformative process during film drying, converting

specifically developed to prevent flash rust in aqueous paint

into a non-water dispersible and insoluble zinc compound – providing

systems, which is a common occurrence during the drying process

lasting rust protection and a durable finish.The international provider

of waterborne coatings on iron-containing substrates. Additionally,

of specialty chemicals for paint and coatings has designed NALZIN FA

it enhances the resistance of the dried film, effectively preventing

180 for compatibility with a broad spectrum of waterborne coatings

in-can corrosion during storage. The new NALZIN FA 180 product

systems, so it can be incorporate into several applications, such as

exhibits a distinctive composition of organic zinc complex with low

water-dilutable alkyds, acrylics, epoxies and dispersion paints.

nitrite content that offers extended protection against rust and corrosion. Initiated as a water-dispersible solution, the product



INDUSTRIAL COATINGS Graco opened a new application center in Dubai The international producer of fluid handling equipment Graco has recently opened its new Application Center in Dubai


(United Arab Emirates). The new facility will be a major hub for supporting local contractors, distributors and material manufacturers, offering comprehensive training programs and facilitating material validation. The new structure features an innovative spray booth, workbenches and a demonstrative area for texture applications as well as several meeting rooms. In addition, the hub will serve as a unit to test and validate materials in different applications, such as architectural painting, protective coatings or healthcare applications. “This new facility reinforces our commitment to the region and our esteemed network of distributors and material manufacturers. It serves as an avenue for our partners to showcase our comprehensive equipment range, organize training sessions, and collaborate on material testing and validation,” has stated Caroline Chambers, President of Graco for the EMEA region. Lastly, Graco will hold a range of training modules aimed at optimising the use of its equipment. As a matter of fact, a team of specialists will be available to pass on their knowledge and assist distributors, material manufacturers and customers in material demonstrations and validations.

w w w .m iro du r.c om

Waterborne Solventborne High solid



GRIN LUZ joins the Redox excellence network of approved applicators of corrosion protective coatings by Alessia Venturi, ipcm®

GRIN LUZ serves a wide variety of sectors and handles parts with very different dimensions, all with the need for high-quality coatings in common.




Craftsman quality, careful control of all process steps, and fast delivery: it is often thought that these three elements cannot coexist in the same sentence and thus within the same industrial philosophy. GRIN LUZ’s history and growth journey in the powder coating field proves otherwise, as also confirmed by its entry into AkzoNobel’s Redox Excellence network, recently established in Spain.


RIN LUZ was founded in June 1972 by Féliz Herrero together with four other partners who, after some time, chose to leave

the company. As its name itself suggests, GRIN LUZ started out as a manufacturer of lighting equipment: cleaning, galvanic coating with nickel, chrome, and gold, but also liquid coating were the finishing operations performed by GRIN LUZ – which, in the boom years for the lighting industry, mainly produced special designer lamps featuring high-quality finishes obtained through technically and operationally perfect processes. Thanks to the experience gained in the finishing of such peculiar products, GRIN LUZ then decided to change its core business and focus exclusively on contract surface treatments.

Exterior view of the automatic shot blasting machine.

“Learning from our history and the evolution of the market, we have become what GRIN LUZ is today: the company that offers the largest range of surface treatments in the Madrid area,” says Marta Herrero, the founder’s daughter and the current owner of the company. “Shot blasting, vibratory finishing, electro-cleaning, pickling, passivation, and liquid and powder coating are the treatments we now offer to a wide range of industries, including automotive, railway, food, pharmaceutical, recreational, and decorations production. We serve many different sectors and handle very differentsized parts: what they all have in common is their required finishing quality. We have chosen to work in market niches that are interested in the highest quality degree, but to which we can assure very

Automatic shot blasting of stainless steel parts.




fast delivery times. The customers that rely on GRIN LUZ know we put extreme care in finishing their parts and that our coatings have a craftsman quality degree, although achieved with state-of-the-art equipment, technology, and industrial procedures.” Since the beginning, GRIN LUZ has relied on AkzoNobel Coatings, S.L.U. (Vallirana, Spain) for the procurement of powder coatings. From epoxy primers and epoxypolyester hybrids to Qualicoat Class 1 and Class 2 architectural polyesters, the range of products used by GRIN LUZ is very broad. “Working with AkzoNobel guarantees we use high-quality paint products. In turn, the fact that we know very clearly the results we want to achieve is an advantage for AkzoNobel,” notes Marta Herrero. “We are very precise and detailed in our requirements. Therefore, we have managed to establish a fruitful collaboration of mutual growth and technical exchange.” “GRIN LUZ is not the typical high-volume customer,” adds Juan José Sánchez, Sales Representative at AkzoNobel Coatings, S.L.U., “but it is a demanding customer, which sees coating quality as a competitive lever. Among the coating contractors in the Madrid area, GRIN LUZ is undoubtedly the one with the most complete surface treatment offer, while at the same time being capable of meeting adequate delivery times.”

An industrial philosophy of high-quality craftsmanship “Our main strength is our wide variety of finishes and their possible combinations, geared towards meeting any customer specifications,” adds Marta Herrero. “We shot blast some parts because they are heavily contaminated with calamine or welding residues, whereas we send the others directly to the five-stage chemical pre-treatment tunnel with a nanotechnology conversion stage by atomisation.

From top to bottom: The manual shot blasting cabinet for stainless steel components; The pre-treatment tunnel; Pre-treated parts. Next page: The workpiece blowing and masking area and masked parts waiting to be coated.




Using AkzoNobel powder coatings is not enough to be part of the Redox Excellence network: it is necessary to have implemented equipment and processes that, by combining surface preparation, paint application, and quality control procedures, ensure that such corrosion specifications are achieved in compliance with ISO 12944. The application of powders can be either manual or automatic, depending on the shape and size of the workpieces in the batch to be treated, in order to achieve our high coating quality standards. Our target customers are companies looking for the quality and durability levels of the corrosion classes C4 to C5H. This is what differentiates us from other types of coating and surface treatment contractors. “Our second strength is our all-round finishing service, which encompasses all the processes required to achieve perfect, durable, and functional finishes. 90% of our customers entrust us with the treatment of parts intended for outdoor use; components for indoor use also have very high durability requirements. This is why we have been specialising in functional and protective finishes. We take great care of all our customers’ parts from reception to shipping. We carry out quality tests to verify that their substrates comply with their related specifications to make sure that we are going to be able to achieve the required quality degree. We inspect both the incoming material and the end products, which has meant that we have received no complaints from our customers in recent years. It is important to be able to say “no” to customers and educate them about quality. We have also developed such thorough warranty and packaging quality procedures that many companies send the finished parts directly to their customers or installation sites without even checking them. They trust us and, in turn, most of them are very loyal to us.” “I make no secret of the fact that having AkzoNobel by our side as our main supplier of powder coatings, with its products and its daily technical support, is one of the factors that has enabled us to achieve such a high




Powder coating application and inspection and mask removal after coating. reliability and finishing quality level,” states Fernando Martínez,

coatings is not enough to be part of the network: it is necessary

GRIN LUZ’s Quality Manager. The production approach of GRIN

to have implemented equipment and processes that, by

LUZ is also what earned it the approval as a certified applicator of

combining surface preparation, paint application, and quality

the Redox Excellence network established in Spain by AkzoNobel

control procedures, ensure that such corrosion specifications are


achieved in compliance with ISO 12944. “The reason we undertook the creation of the Redox Excellence


Redox Excellence: AkzoNobel’s network of approved applicators

network is that AkzoNobel is increasingly involved by specifiers

Redox Excellence, which is being set up in Spain right at the time

corrosion resistance class is to be identified depending on the

we are writing this report, is a network of applicators approved

intended use of the parts and the location of the project,” explains

by AkzoNobel for the application of corrosion protection and

Juan José Sánchez. “AkzoNobel, therefore, started to rely on a

functional coatings on steel. Over the course of two years of

network of approved applicators. We verify their processes once

plant testing and validation, AkzoNobel has selected a number

a year so that we can recommend them to customers depending

of powder coating contractors capable of guaranteeing the

on where the project site is located. GRIN LUZ is currently the

application of anti-corrosion systems that meet the resistance

only Redox Excellence company in the Community of Madrid to

requirements of classes C4H to C5H. Using AkzoNobel powder

be certified by AkzoNobel with all the processes, procedures, and


in the drafting of construction specifications, where the required


Expanding its offer of processes and treatments and improving its quality and professionalism degree, combined with a great industrial culture and passion for coating, is what enabled GRIN LUZ to be among the first companies to be selected to join the Redox Excellence network.

The whole GRIN LUZ team together with AkzoNobel’s technical and sales support team, Rosa González and Juan José Sánchez (on the right in the photo).

standards needed to achieve a C5H corrosion resistance class

to leave the familiar path, even if the alternative is faster, cheaper,

according to ISO 12944.

and more sustainable and guarantees the same performance

“For now, we have selected a precise number of companies

level. Today, with the market increasingly focussing on

in Spain. AkzoNobel established the rules of access to this

sustainability, using powders also conveys the image of a company

network, assessing pre-treatment, control, and process stability

that is more committed to the environment. Finally, with the Redox

procedures. A key criterion is that the applicators carry out all the

Excellence approval, GRIN LUZ takes a further step on the path

necessary processes in-house, without outsourcing any steps. We

to quality: it puts us at a higher level than other companies and

would also like to point out that any coating applicator meeting

enables us to enter certain market niches that were previously

these requirements can apply to join the Redox Excellence

closed to us. On our part, we have the right means, plants, and

network. AkzoNobel will then assess their processes and approve

professionals to do it.”

them if they meet all the criteria. Once approved for the Redox Excellence network, these applicators will be provided with

Quality as a competitive factor to stand out

training and marketing tools for their growth, while AkzoNobel will

The Madrid market for powder coatings has always been one of

carry out annual audits to check that they continue to reach the

high volumes and adequate prices, based on fast delivery services.

set quality levels.”

Such high volumes have always been entrusted almost exclusively

“Being a Redox Excellence applicator is first and foremost a

to industrial coaters, since the share of companies that apply

matter of prestige for GRIN LUZ,” explains Marta Herrero. “It is a

paints in-house on their own or other manufactured products in

seal on fifty-one years of activity in the coating business, a mark of

this area is very low precisely because there is a very large network

quality. I do not know if it will open up new business opportunities

of powder coaters, although with limited performance capabilities.

for us or increase our production volumes, but it is certainly also

GRIN LUZ’s successful choice was to raise the bar, expanding its

a very powerful marketing lever. Not to mention that if a project

offer of processes and treatments and improving its quality and

comes up in the Madrid area that includes AkzoNobel paints in its

professionalism degree. This distinctive feature, combined with a

specifications, if the size of our plants allows it, we will be chosen

great industrial culture and passion for coating, is what enabled it

for the provision of the coating service. GRIN LUZ is also active in

to be among the first companies to be selected to join the Redox

endorsing powder coatings as an alternative to liquid paint. Being

Excellence network.

in the Redox Excellence network will contribute to our effort to promote powder coating: it is always very difficult for a customer

The future for GRIN LUZ can only be bright. ‹



© AdobeStock


Flame Spray thermoplastic powders and their corrosion protection performance by Susanna Giovannini Ibix Srl Industrial Division – Lugo (Ravenna), Italy


he flame spray application of thermoplastic powder is the only technology that allows using thermoplastic powders directly on site, without the need to set up an actual coating line, thanks to a portable device designed

specifically for this operation. This consists of the deposition of

The flame spray technology for the application of thermoplastic coatings geared towards protecting both metal and concrete substrates against corrosion has many advantages over traditional systems. IBIX has developed equipment and devices suitable for the application of thermoplastic powders in one coat. 14


semi-fused polymer particles on a heated surface whereby the process heat causes the particles themselves to flow and melt into a homogeneous, complete polymer coating. This technology brings several benefits, including long-lasting corrosion protection in terms of electrical insulation and chemical resistance, but also osmosis protection. The flame spray technology can be used in all weather conditions (hot or cold and even rainy, provided that the surface is protected from direct rain). In terms of application, it has several advantages over traditional systems, from the possibility to apply the coating in one step (on metal) to rapid commissioning (after being coated, the parts can be handled and used immediately), up to the complete absence of overspray (so that there is no need to protect nearby equipment, vehicles, etc.). It is 100% environmentally friendly, with no harmful emissions. Finally, touch-ups and repairs are easy and always possible. Let us now look in detail at these advantages and a few application cases.


The benefits of thermoplastic coatings

friendly. Specific flame spray grades are used for Three-Layer

Thermoplastic coatings offer excellent protection of metal

Polyethylene (3LPE) and Three-Layer Polypropylene (3LPP)

or cement structures against corrosion and wear, as well as


considerable chemical resistance. They provide significantly higher performance than other coatings, particularly in terms

The benefits of the flame spray technology

of increased durability, environmental impact, and the ability

This technology is more environmentally friendly, effective, and

to provide protection even at temperatures down to -70 °C.

efficient than multi-layer liquid systems in several respects:

Through the application of selected thermoplastic powders, such

 it produces no overspray;

as PHC PolyHotCote, Polyfusion, FSPP, FSPE, etc., IBIX Srl’s

 it has an advantageous specific weight;

flame spray systems guarantee an environmentally friendly, long-

 it generates the target layer in a single application step and

lasting, extraordinarily uniform coating, certified for use in the

without curing;

food industry and suitable for use with drinking water, as well as

 its climate risk is minimal;

for indoor and outdoor use even in adverse climatic conditions,

 it reduces labour requirements;

thanks to excellent resistance to sunlight, salt spray, water, air,

 it is characterised by fast application times that result into

and chemical pollutants in general.

reduced ancillary costs;

Thicknesses can range from 300 μm to over 3 mm for some

 it ensures immediate commissioning.

selected powder grades. It is possible to achieve smooth and durable finishes, as well as non-slip textures and glow-in-the-dark finishes. Thermoplastic coatings are easy to maintain, clean (being resistant to chemical detergents), and repair, and they are completely environmentally

The Three-Layer Polyethylene (3LPE) system is applied to pipes operating at temperatures between -70 and 95 °C. The Three-Layer Polypropylene (3LPP) system is applied to pipes operating at temperatures between 0 and +110 °C.





The one-coat application process of the flame spray technology as opposed to the multi-layer application of liquid paints significantly reduces the amount of product used, and quality and thickness control is immediately possible with any corrective measures promptly applicable.

Through the application of selected thermoplastic powders, IBIX’s flame spray systems produce coatings that are suitable for both indoor and outdoor use even in adverse climatic conditions.

Its application-related benefits are also considerable. First of all, it allows all the advantages of thermoplastic powder coatings over liquid corrosion protection systems to be transferred to the construction site, in the total absence of solvents or other nasty ingredients (food industry approvals). Secondly, its one-coat application process as opposed to the multi-layer application of liquid paints significantly reduces the amount of product used, and quality and thickness control is immediately possible, therefore, corrective measures, if necessary, can be taken on the spot. Finally, the resulting coating can be repaired at any time thanks to the small size of the flame spray gun version and guarantees excellent, longlasting performance.

Flame spray equipment The equipment is compact, portable, easy to use, and ideal for treating immovable structures and large components, even in the workshop and during on-site maintenance operations. It enables to Thicknesses can range from 300 μm to over 3 mm for some selected powder grades.



obtain various thicknesses thanks to the


application guns coming in three different sizes and capacity levels:  standard, straight flow application guns, available in three sizes (small, medium, and large) and two different versions (with a handle and a trigger for metal and with a straight handle for concrete), which are fully interchangeable;  Centurion guns with IBIX wide spray pattern technology, ensuring: - faster spraying and more uniform layers; - easier overlay and better powder release; - no streaks or powder build-up; - minimised risk of unmelted powder with air trapped in the coating.  new Maxi Hi-Tech guns that pack the power of two guns in one and offer: - 30 cm spray pattern (compared to 15 cm achieved with the large standard Centurion gun); - greater thickness in fewer passes and superior coating uniformity; - halved coating times; - availability of both versions for metal and non-metal substrate (concrete, fibreglass, etc.); - possibility to coat over 300 sqm (on concrete, for example) in a single working day.

Application 4.0: the evolution of the flame spray technology Atlantis, IBIX semi-automatic system, is the only “all-round portable coating system” on the market, also available in a 4.0 version. It is ideal for spraying thermoplastic powders in two modes, flame spray and flock spray, and it includes the following:  flock spray equipment for electrostatic spraying in manual mode, with a fluidised bed tank and an electrostatic gun;  semi-automatic flame spray equipment with an application gun featuring an automatic flame ignition device, available in two

Thermoplastic coatings offer excellent protection of metal or cement structures against corrosion and wear, as well as considerable chemical resistance.

versions (metal or non-metal) and in various sizes.  4.0 hardware equipment;  4.0 software equipment with dedicated software & app including:

pre-treatment method (profile: 40-50 microns – SA: 2.5).

- digital infrastructure

This is followed by preheating with temperatures ranging from 130


to 190 °C, depending on the melting point of the powder grade

- cloud data storage

used, by means of the coating equipment’s gun (flame only, no

- data integration with the user’s management system.

powder spraying), possibly equipped with optional accessories such as super-heaters (for thicker metals).

The application process

The powder is then applied by activating a switch located on the

The application process starts with the preparation of the

gun itself or by pulling the gun trigger. It is carried through the gun

substrate by removing any pre-existing coating, cleaning and/or

by dried compressed air and, once it hits the preheated substrate,

degreasing and shot blasting, which is the recommended

it immediately melts and adheres to the surface.




In the final phase, the substrate is aircooled. If necessary, the process can be speeded up with a water quenching operation. The coating of the metal workpiece is thus complete. Its thickness depends on the number of passes performed; generally, the minimum thickness reached on metal is 300 microns.

A snow shovel bucket coated with PHC-A powder (orange colour) for its release properties, with the blade coated with the higher abrasion-resistant PHC-Plus (black colour).

Advantages in terms of durability and fields of application: a few examples from around the world... We would like to present a few examples of successful applications of the flame spray technology in Europe and Americas. The electrical insulation properties of IBIX flame spray coatings allowed the company Hydro Aluminium in Norway to protect their extrusion fume pipes against extreme marine and electrical corrosion (intense magnetic fields and sea water used to cool down roof structures). The work was divided into several steps from 2003 to 2008. A durability level equal to over twenty years was achieved. An example of increased chemical resistance of parts coated with this technology is the metal tank used for the Navy’s underwater training in Pisa (Italy), which is subject to strong corrosion by chlorinated water. Several layers of twocomponent paint with a thickness of > 1 mm had been applied over the years. IBIX carried out a shot blasting operation and then coated the surface of the tank with PHC AQUA product. This thermoplastic coating will provide far greater durability and resistance than the previous system, without suffering the chemical aggression of chlorine which caused downtime in the Navy base’s diving activities. In the mining industry, the chemical and electrical resistance of ore electro-winning equipment is crucial. For instance, at

The Pesaro seafront railings before and after the application of the PHC product with combined flock spray/flame spray technology.



the Copiapo Mine in Chile, IBIX coated large metal structures of the copper


electro-winning plant. After three years of exposure to sunlight and continuous contact with acid substances, the coating showed no defects or changes and very long life can be expected. In Argentina, the PHC-PLUS coating was applied to some truck beds to increase abrasion resistance and material release properties. It was applied in two colours (black top, white bottom) with a thickness of around 1 mm for better wear control.

...and two successful cases in Italy Seafront railings coating project in Pesaro The railings of the Pesaro promenade had been coated with polyurethane paints that did not withstand the strong corrosive action exerted by the marine environment. The damage caused resulted in the need to carry out several touch-ups over time, which unfortunately did not solve the severe corrosion problem causing great dissatisfaction on the part of the local inhabitants. IBIX chose to intervene by applying PHC-A coatings with combined

Water-proofing and protective coating of condominium concrete roofs, Ferrara, Italy.

flock spray and flame spray technology. A thickness of 900-1000 µm was obtained in one coat. The devices used were the IBIX 25 portable blaster for shot blasting and Atlantis in its 4.0 version for coating. Water-proofing and protective coating

also be used for asbestos encapsulation

project of condominium concrete roofs

as certified according to the UNI

in Ferrara

10686:1998 standard.

The specially engineered thermoplastic

Polyfusion has been applied on the

powder grade for coating non-metal

concrete flat roof of 4 condominiums in

substrates, such as concrete, tiles,

Ferrara, Italy, after repairing previously

fiberglass etc. Polyfusion has been

existing cracks and other concrete

successfully applied on thousands sq.

defects. The project was carried out during

meters flat roofs and covers to provide

the month of December confirming that

long-lasting waterproofing and corrosion

flame spray thermoplastic coatings can


be applied outdoors throughout the year.

Polyfusion coating has been certified as

Polyfusion will keep the concrete roof

fully impermeable in compliance with the

waterproof with excellent weathering

UNI EN 12390-8:2019 standard and it can

resistance for many years to come. ‹

IBIX presented a solution entailing the use of thermoplastic powders and mixed technology, flame spray + flock spray. JANUARY 2024 | CORROSION PROTECTION



Sherwin-Williams launched the new thermal insulative coating Heat-Flex® 7000 By The Sherwin-Williams Company Cleveland (OH), United States




The new Heat-Flex 7000 thermal insulative coating system from Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine offers personnel protection, insulating capabilities and solar heat reflectivity for an array of industrial applications.

Flex 7000 can protect personnel from skin-contact burns on process assets operating at up to 350°F. A single topcoat of this new product also provides a significant level of insulating value that can help to prevent process heat losses or, conversely, to protect against solar radiant heat gain, which can otherwise cause vaporization losses in storage tanks. Other coating products often require multiple coats to provide similar personnel protection and insulating value.” Compared to conventional insulation and cladding systems, which require time-consuming fabrication and installation, the spray-applied Heat-Flex 7000 insulative coating is far easier and less costly to apply and maintain. Although Heat-Flex 7000 does not provide as much R-value as conventional insulation in dry conditions, it forms a closed-cell film that resists moisture penetration — from rain, water sprays or humidity —far more effectively than conventional insulation. Therefore, its thermal efficiency remains consistent in even the wettest conditions. By


contrast, any cracks or seams in insulation/cladding systems can admit and hold water, which displaces insulating air and greatly

he new Heat-Flex 7000 thermal insulative coating

reduces the insulation system’s R-value. This moisture may

system from Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine

become trapped at the insulation/substrate interface, significantly

offers personnel protection, insulating capabilities

raising the risk of the formation and proliferation of CUI.

and solar heat reflectivity for an array of industrial

Because there’s no way for water to penetrate down to the asset

applications. The single-component, spray-applied coating system

substrate and remain trapped there — and because no physical

meets Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards

cladding system is applied on top of the coating — Heat-Flex

for protecting personnel from skin-contact burns on assets

7000 eliminates the risk of CUI altogether. Coated assets are

operating at temperatures up to 350°F (177°C) in one coat.

also easier to inspect and repair, as insulation/cladding systems

A single coat of Heat-Flex 7000 can eliminate the costs of

require periodic removal for inspections or specialized ultrasonic/

installing, inspecting and repairing conventional insulation and

radiography testing for CUI. The Heat-Flex 7000 coating system

cladding systems for personnel skin-contact protection, thereby

requires only a brief visual inspection for damage to the coating

also eliminating the common threat of corrosion under insulation

surface. Repairs are far simpler too, involving application of the

(CUI). In addition, the coating reduces thermal losses on assets

coating over any damaged areas.

that need to stay warmer or diminishes solar heat gain on assets

Heat-Flex 7000 can protect heat-sensitive assets (tanks, fuel

that need to stay cooler.

pipelines, water cooling lines and other assets) from solar

Able to be directly applied to hot substrates, Heat-Flex 7000

heat gain. In these situations, a reflective white formulation is

is spray-applied in a single coat — typically 50-75 mils dry film

recommended to insulate the asset, enabling it to maintain a lower

thickness (DFT) — over a required corrosion-resistant primer. The

internal operating temperature. Lower operating temperatures can

coating system features new technology that yields a thick, fully

help reduce the loss of fuels or cooling water in tanks and pipes

cured coating film with a high volume that effectively resists the

due to vaporization, as well as reduce the need for expensive

transfer of heat from the underlying substrate to the surface, as

vapor-recovery or cooling equipment.

well as from the surface to the substrate.

The Heat-Flex 7000 coating system can be specified for use in

“Heat-Flex 7000 represents a step-change in our insulative

indoor or outdoor environments to protect personnel and insulate

coatings technology,” said Neil Wilds, Global Product Director,

assets and processes involved in oil and gas production and

CUI/Testing for Sherwin-Williams Protective & Marine. “Because

refining, mining, power generation, chemical processing, offshore

of its new chemistry and formulation, a single topcoat of Heat-

and marine operations. ‹



© AdobeStock


Drones Protect Wind Turbines from Ice By Monika Weiner science journalist – Munich, Germany




The project “TURBO — Temporary coating by means of drones”, that was developed by the experts both from the Fraunhofer IFAM and Fraunhofer IPA, is based on the use of drones to prevent the ice formation on the rotor blades.


amp, cold conditions are the enemy of wind power. If a layer of ice forms on the rotor blades, this can result in rotational imbalance and, hence, increased wear. In such cases, the turbines often have to be shut down

for several days, leading to massive losses for the operators due to the pause in electricity production. Now, for the first time, a Fraunhofer team has succeeded in using drones to protect rotor blades against ice. The new technique has been developed jointly by experts from the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials IFAM and the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA in the project “TURBO — Temporary coating by means of drones.”




Up to now, operators who wanted to protect their wind turbines against ice had to dig deep into their pockets heating mats that can be integrated in the blades or systems to pump warm air into the rotors are extremely expensive — as is the use of helicopters to spray de-icing agent onto the turbines. “Drones that are only used when needed offer a cost-effective alternative,” says Andreas Stake, project manager at Fraunhofer IFAM. However, in order to use drones to prevent ice, a number of conditions have to be met: As well as being environmentally friendly, the coating materials need to demonstrate good adhesion and sufficient durability so they remain on the rotors for weeks and protect them from ice. The spraying system used needs to be highly accurate but lightweight at the same time. And finally, the drones need to have a high pay-load and allow for very precise control.

Important for wind turbines: environmentally friendly materials and precise application equipment The Fraunhofer researchers working on the TURBO project succeeded in developing a prototype which fulfills all of these requirements: the coating material designed by the scientists at Fraunhofer IFAM in Bremen is made from urea and wax, is

Coating drone during a spray test: the coating material is applied by the drone via a lance.

environmentally friendly and demonstrates good adhesion. This material can be applied quickly and easily using a spray technique and also dries quickly. The coating underwent testing in an ice chamber at the institute to confirm that it reliably protects against the formation of frost. The team at Fraunhofer IPA built the equipment used to apply the coating. It consists of a small pump which presses the fluid urea/ wax mixture at high pressure into a long, thin lance, at the tip of which is a nozzle with a diameter of just 0.3 millimetres. This airless pump system is able to produce droplets with a diameter of 100 micrometres. Even at wind speeds of 35

About Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, based in Germany, is the world’s leading applied research organization. By prioritizing key

kilometres per hour, these droplets can still be sprayed precisely

technologies for the future and commercializing its

onto the edges of the rotor blades where they then solidify. The

findings in business and industry, it plays a major

edges are particularly important as this is where the icing process

role in the innovation process. A trailblazer and

starts when wet, cold air hits the turbine.

Ensuring success with simulations Dr. Oliver Tiedje, project manager at Fraunhofer IPA, and his team determined the technical parameters — for example, the required pressure, an efficient atomization method and the optimum

trendsetter in innovative developments and research excellence, it is helping shape our society and our future. Founded in 1949, the Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft currently operates 76 institutes and research units

droplet size — using fluid dynamic simulations. “Our decades

throughout Germany. Around 30,800 employees,

of experience in modelling coating processes really helped us

predominantly scientists and engineers, work with an

out. We were able to draw on this expertise,” says the physicist. “However, we did have to adapt the process parameters to the complex geometry of the wind turbines.”



annual research budget of roughly €3.0 billion, €2.6 billion of which is designated as contract research.


The researchers now intend to work with industry partners to develop the technique further and get it ready for series production. There are numerous applications in which drones can be used to apply coatings, ranging from ice protection for wind turbines and overhead lines in rail transport to building refurbishment — for example, repairing defects in render on parts of buildings that are difficult to reach. The “TURBO: Temporary coating by means of drones — Icing protection of wind tur-bines as a case study” project was supported by 19 companies including coating and raw material manufacturers, manufacturers of coating equipment and drones, and operators of wind turbines. The project was submitted to the German Federation of Industrial Research Associations (AiF) via the Research Society for Pigments and Coatings (FPL) as part of the programme for promoting industrial cooperative

Simulation of coating by means of drone under the influence of wind.

research (IGF), and is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action (BMWK). ‹

Micro-Corrosion Inhibiting Coatings Solve A Wide Variety Of Corrosion Problems! Powered by Nano VpCI® from Cortec® Corporation

VpCI® Coatings protect a multitude of metal products. Applying VpCI® Coatings provides fast and economical protection for exterior and interior surfaces. Our technical staff can help you decide which product you need for long lasting and complete protection of your corrosion sensitive products.



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Fatigue corrosion and its prevention by Pier Luigi Bonora AITIVA Association and University of Trento, Italy

Fatigue corrosion is one of the least understood and controlled problems, since it is caused by factors and interactions of different kinds and origins. Here, you can read an in-depth analysis of this phenomenon and how it can be prevented.


atigue corrosion can be classified among the mechano-chemical corrosion phenomena (Table 1), which all have one aspect in common: the synergism

of increased action. In other words, the simultaneous action of the mechanical and chemical and/or electrochemical contribution reduces the service life of the material or structure much more than the sum of the damages caused by corrosion and mechanical stress acting separately, in any order.


Corrosion due tofluid dynamic action: - Under deposit corrosion - Erosion-corrosion - Cavitation - Impingement attack Stress corrosion Static efforts Fatigue corrosion Periodically variable efforts







A metallic material subjected to variable mechanical stresses

For example, the use of s - N curves, initially used to represent the

periodically undergoes structural, physical, and chemical changes

characteristics of the various materials subject to fatigue only, has

that depend on the following parameters:

proven to be extremely useful also with CF.

 the nature, structure, shape, and surface finish of the metal;

In fact, the comparison between the two diagrams makes it

 the amplitude and frequency of the cyclic effort applied;

possible to assess the suitability and possible limits of the use

 the environment.

of specific materials. The s - N curves or Wolher curves are

Especially in relation to the latter parameter, these modifications

constructed by placing the maximum cyclic load value on the

can take the names of “fatigue”, “fatigue assisted by corrosion”,

ordinates and the number of cycles leading to fracture on the

or “corrosion due to fatigue”. In the absence of any contributions

abscissas. The abscissa in particular is logarithmic. There is thus

from the environment, the failure of a material is only due to

an actual contraction in correspondence with long durations,

stresses with intensity values varying over time. This occurs under

since in this area the curve’s slopes are generally very small. Using

considerably lower loads than those corresponding to the static

this diagram, the resistance and fatigue limits can be calculated.

resistance of the part and failure is eminently fragile; that is due

In Figure 1, the line a shows the fatigue resistance of a ferrous

to the effect of cyclic loads and only in a smaller part to time, as

material without a corrosive environment1. The dotted LA line

instead happens in deformation processes under constant loads.

represents the fatigue limit (definable only for ferrous metals)

The definitive fracture of an object can be considered the final act

as the maximum force below which a material can presumably

of a progressive damage process. Indeed, we can interpret fatigue

withstand an indefinite number of cycles. As in case A, line B

life as a succession of three distinct phases:

represents the fatigue resistance value of the same sample but

 Nucleation and grouping of cracks during the incubation phase;

with a superficial notch. Finally, line C represents the fatigue

 Slow propagation of cracks, which progressively increase their

resistance value of the sample previously considered in a

speed up to a critical value in the growth phase;

particularly aggressive environment (corrosion fatigue).

 Finally, a third phase, called fracture, in which macroscopic

The crack nucleation mechanism has been the subject of

damage occurs to the structure.

numerous studies; among the most reliable theories, all involving

Although the phenomena of fatigue and corrosion fatigue (CF)

lattice defects, we would like to mention the following ones:

are fundamentally different, it is common practice to compare the results obtained in the two fatigue situations in homogeneous conditions to analyse the different behaviours of the same material.

Figure 1 - Diagram for the assessment of resistance and fatigue limits.



Fatigue resistance is the maximum force applicable to a metal for a certain number of cycles without causing fractures.


Figure 2 - Formation of surface micro cracks through the pendular movement of dislocations on preferential planes where dislocation sources are located.


 Oding’s theory: fatigue stresses tend to localise point defects, in

All these theories are linked to the experimental evidence of

particular vacancies, which preferably agglomerate in a lenticular

persistent slip bands that lead to the formation of extrusion-

or spherical shape in areas subject to shear stresses, where there

intrusion point couples. However, this is not the place to discuss

is a certain concentration of stresses: the concomitant presence

fracture mechanics in depth: therefore, please refer to the specific

of defects and stresses leads to crack nucleation.


 Shanley’s theory: it explains the formation of surface micro cracks through the pendular movement of dislocations on preferential planes where dislocation sources are located. Reaching the edge of the crystal, the dislocations cause some rows of atoms to emerge, which can undergo alterations such as weakened metallic bonds along those rows, when the crystal tends to regain its primitive structure following the reversal of the sliding’s direction. Such weakening of bonds also extends to adjacent atomic strands; this forms an area in which the cohesive forces between the atomic planes are greatly weakened. A kind of chain reaction is therefore possible that can lead to the formation of a micro crack (Fig. 2).  Hott’s theory: it is linked to the almost elliptical motion of the dislocations which, when moving along closed trajectories, generate for each revolution a raising or lowering of the area inside the path corresponding to a reticular plane.  Cottrell and Hull’s theory: it introduces a mechanism based on the action of two sources of dislocations acting on planes with opposite angles. At each load cycle, these two sources originate an extrusion and an intrusion (Fig. 2). The crack originating from the surface discontinuities created by the extrusions and intrusions begins to propagate following the direction of flow of the latter (Fig. 3a and 3b).

Although the phenomena of fatigue and corrosion fatigue (CF) are fundamentally different, it is common practice to compare the results obtained in the two fatigue situations in homogeneous conditions to analyse the different behaviours of the same material.

Figures 3a and 3b - The crack originating from the surface discontinuities created by the extrusions and intrusions begins to propagate following the direction of flow of the latter.




The role of the environment Figures 4 and 5 summarise the interaction models between oxygen and the slip band and between the oxide layer and the dislocation during crack nucleation. In the first case, the vacancies generated by the applied stress attract a high concentration of oxygen, which prevents the micro crack from healing and accelerates the breakage rate; in the second case, cavities and voids are created by the presence of the oxide and the crack formation is anticipated. The gaseous environment affects crack propagation to a greater extent than crack nucleation. Aqueous environments, on the other hand, play an important part in the nucleation mechanism of fatigue cracking. Four theories explain, at least in part, the possible mechanisms of fatigue corrosion: 1 - Concentration of stresses at the base of the hemispherical pits created by a corrosive environment: this hypothesis has been discussed and refuted several times. It seems clear that, although the presence of pits leads to a reduction in service life, it is to be considered more a consequence than a cause of CF. 2 - Electrochemical attack on a plastically deformed metal area, while the undeformed part acts as a cathode. The action of short-circuited galvanic elements in the presence of structural deformations is undoubtedly the origin of accelerated, localised corrosion. Many electrochemical investigations have brought contributions in support of this theory. 3 - Electrochemical attack on the tears in an otherwise protective oxide surface film. The resulting electrochemical cell could promote rapid dissolution of the metal near the emerging slip band, resulting in accelerated failure (Fig. 6). 4 - Lowered surface energy of the metal due to absorption from the environment with increased speed of propagation of micro cracks. This theory, based on the reduction of surface tension, has received much credit among Russian researchers. Karpenko was the first to suggest that the CF mechanism consisted of two phases: the appearance of fatigue cracks due to environmental adsorption and subsequently a corrosion reaction occurring within the cracks.

From top: Figure 4 - The interaction model between oxygen and the slip band. Figure 5 - The interaction model between the oxide layer and the dislocation during crack nucleation. Figure 6 - Electrochemical attack on the tears in an otherwise protective oxide surface film.




Duquette and Uhilig, studying the effects of dissolved oxygen and of anodic and cathodic currents and potentials in solutions with different pH values, hypothesised a crack initiation mechanism based on the preferential dissolution of the metal on the steps of the slip bands emerging on the surface. Dissolution unlocks several blocked flow processes, accelerates the extrusionintrusion phenomenon, and consequently results in premature crack nucleation and causes its initial growth. Crack propagation is further accelerated by the propagation of the pit created by corrosion at the sample’s surface and preferential dissolution at the top of the cracks. The initial fracture has undoubtedly a mechanical nature resulting from the concentration of stresses at the top of the cracks. Ultimately, it can be concluded that none of these theories alone can clarify all the phenomena related to CF. The complex and varied nature of the interactions involved in CF (chemical, physical, mechanical, structural interactions) actually entails the contribution of one or another of these mechanisms from time to

The complex and varied nature of the interactions involved in CF (chemical, physical, mechanical, structural interactions) entails the contribution of one or another of mentioned mechanisms from time to time.


Our shot blasting systems are made to measure. We take into account the available space, needs and objectives of our customers to structure a product that is functional and that responds to all processing requirements.

Eurotherm S.p.A. based in Turin, Italy PLANT 1: 4.700 m2 of offices, metal work production and painting. PLANT 2: 5.300 m2 for production, preassembling, warehouse and logistics.



with integrated complete grit recovery

NAVAL CONTAINER for shot blasting with integrated grit recovery system


Prevention As already pointed out, in the absence of environmental influences, the effects of the application of loads to a structure can

b) on the metal itself (structure, dimensions, surface state); c) on the environment and the corrosion protection system as a whole (cathodic protection, inhibition…).

be studied through the fracture mechanics method, which enables to predict the time at which a defect or crack is grown to such an

We summarise below the main interventions required in the

extent as to overcome the resistance of the material. This means

design phase.

that stress and fatigue are to some extent dependent on time. The

 Preventive measures:

introduction of corrosion in the system quite completely nullifies

- Choosing suitable materials;

such calculations, since the phenomenon becomes catastrophic

- Minimising or eliminating cyclical efforts;

and, therefore, unpredictable.

- Increasing the size, mass, or strength at the critical sections;

The only way to withstand corrosion fatigue is to prevent the

- Reducing effort concentration or redistributing the efforts;

effects of the presence of corrosion.

- Opting for aerodynamic lines to favour the distribution of forces

A typical example of this is that of railway axles: they are subjected

and balance the forces and stresses along the component;

to a very large number of bending stress reversals during their

- Giving the correct shape to the critical sections;

service life and are therefore designed for infinite life by keeping

- Achieving enough flexibility to reduce overvoltages due to

the expected service stress ranges below the fatigue limit of the

thermal expansion, vibrations, impacts, and works on the

material (Fig. 7a and 7b).

structure and system;

Corrosion nullifies such efforts unless effective protective

- Avoiding rapid variations in load, temperature, and pressure

coatings and frequent inspections are designed and carefully



- Avoiding structural or internal stresses;

The fracture shown in Figure 7b refers to the train derailment that

- Avoiding structures subject to tremors or vibrations and

occurred in 2009 in Viareggio (Italy).

eliminating their causes;

The means for preventing fatigue corrosion can be classified as

- Increasing natural frequency to avoid resonance fatigue



 Stress control

- Increasing ductility and impact resistance.

 Corrosion control

 Specifications:

 Control of synergism (CF) through interventions:

- Elimination of stresses or tensions due to heat treatments,

a) during the design and material choice phase;

hammering, moulding, rolling, etc. to generate compressive

The only way to withstand corrosion fatigue is to prevent the effects of the presence of corrosion. A typical example of this is that of railway axles: they are subjected to a very large number of bending stress reversals during their service life and are therefore designed for infinite life by keeping the expected service stress ranges below the fatigue limit of the material. Figure 7a - Railway axle.




stresses, which are less dangerous for fatigue;

in the presence of CF. Moreover, the inhibitors’ action, be it

- Suitable surface finishes

absorption, oxidation, or complexation, must be particularly rapid,

- Protective coatings (zinc plating, chrome plating, copper

much more than in the presence of other phenomena such as

plating, nitriding etc.) so as not to cause monthly stresses.

corrosion-erosion or stress corrosion cracking.

 Changing or inhibiting the corrosive environment

In conclusion, fatigue corrosion and its prevention are far from

 Analysing efforts through PC software.

being an understood and controlled problem. It is necessary to study the micro mechanisms of this phenomenon, surface-


environment interactions especially in relation to mechanical

The electrochemical protection methods are based on the

properties, the effects of the oscillations’ frequency and

imposition to the structure, through an external power source,

amplitude, the interaction with other concomitant phenomena

a potential value suitable to prevent or minimize the corrosion

such as static stresses and friction corrosion, and the effect of

onset. Cathodic protection involves the imposition of a potential

the fluid dynamic conditions created by the same source of the

in the range where only reduction reactions are possible.

fatiguing stress. ‹

Its implementation to prevent fatigue corrosion is a controversial topic and, although it often brings some benefits, it is not the solution to the issue; in particular, it has recently been ascertained that the most difficult-to-reach areas of the stressed metal (for example, the bottom of a crack) can escape


electrochemical control and be corroded at any point.

For an in-depth approach to corrosion engineering and

Anodic protection, suitable for stainless steels, consists in

the mechano-chemical corrosion of metallic materials, we

imposing and keeping, by means of a potentiostatic power

recommend the following books:

source, a potential value inside the passive state (see static plot

- Robert D. Biederman, Corrosion Fatigue, Hassell Street Press,

in Figure 8). It is extremely dangerous in the presence of CF, as

September 9, 2021

is clearly highlighted in Figure 8, showing that in the presence

- Pietro Pedeferri, Corrosion Science and Engineering

of CF no passive state is available. The use of inhibitors has

(Engineering Materials), Springer Ed., September 21, 2018

been studied by several authors, but the debate is still open. It

- Pietro Paolo Milella, Fatigue and Corrosion in Metals, Springer

is known that inhibitors must be added in higher concentrations

Ed., October 5, 2012

Figure 7b - Fatigue corrosion fracture in a railways axle.

Figure 8 - Anodic protection, suitable for stainless steels, is extremely dangerous in the presence of CF.




Oil & Gas Goods Receipt:

The Hidden Killer of Preservation Planning? by Cortec® Corporation St. Paul (MN), United States -





icture this. An oil and gas facility has gone great lengths to make sure its warehoused goods and spares are preserved and protected against corrosion and therefore ready to install at a moment’s notice.

However, when workers go to install a new piece of equipment that is sealed in foil and was never opened, they suddenly find the vessel covered with rust and no longer viable. What went wrong with their preservation planning? Why did they receive this surprising discovery on a unit that should have been in pristine condition? Cortec® answers these inquiries with another question

In the Oil & Gas industry it is essential TO PUT A PLAN IN PLACE for handling the material that needs to be protected against corrosion. Cortec® has the right preservation solution for this issue.

that demands every facility’s attention: Is your inbound supply chain and material handling the hidden killer of your preservation planning?

Point of failure: goods receipt and material handling While oil and gas facilities should have a sound preservation plan in place during both construction and operation, the point of goods receipt is a critical time that can easily be overlooked due to competing interests of speed, cost, and skill. Although receiving shipments is typically a job for material handlers, it may require the skillset of an engineer or maintenance worker to detect any problems with the quality of the good received— whether in terms of corrosion or mechanical damage. To make matters worse, sometimes incoming goods are so thoroughly packed and crated that it does not seem worth the time and effort to inspect and repackage them. Other times, they are inspected, and an airtight packaging system is breached so equipment that may have been received in good condition is no longer protected during subsequent storage. In each case, corrosion may enter the picture without detection until it is too late to remedy the situation. surfaces, leaving components ready for immediate use without

The importance of a plan

the need to remove greasy rust preventatives.

Oil and gas facilities can save time and money in the long run by

Better yet, if oil and gas facilities request their suppliers to use

knowing the corrosion concerns of goods receipt and having a

specific preservation materials and processes at the time of

plan in place to preempt problems. This can start by creating a

shipment, the likelihood of goods rusting on a long ocean journey

standard operating procedure for handling and inspecting goods

drops significantly. Basic actions such as hydrotesting vessels

received and training material handlers in what to look out for. By

with VpCI®-649, fogging piping modules with CorroLogic® Fogging

catching corrosion on incoming goods, the facility can place the

Fluid VpCI®-339, and shrouding skids in MilCorr® VpCI® Shrink

responsibility to correct the problem back on the supplier and

Film with custom access doors for inspection can go a long way

avoid unwanted corrosion surprises at the last minute when there

toward ensuring goods arrive corrosion free and, in some cases,

is no time left to fix them.

equipped for ongoing protection into months of storage.

If material handlers are expected to open and inspect the

Worth the investment

packages, they should also be trained in proper repackaging with

While an onsite preservation plan is critical for oil and gas

preservation materials. This may include heat shrinking with

facilities, personnel must not overlook what happens or does not

VpCI®-126 HP UV Shrink Film and proper placement of VpCI®

happen at the key moment of goods receipt. Putting a corrosion

Emitters. Both of these offer dry protection in enclosed spaces

plan in place for material handling may take time and effort, but it

through the diffusion of Vapor phase Corrosion Inhibitors, which

will be well worth the investment made to avoid the more serious

are attracted to and form a protective molecular layer on metal

corrosion problems that could otherwise happen. ‹




People I met By Pier Luigi Bonora, AITIVA Association and University of Trento, Italy

© AdobeStock

"In more than fifty years of career, I could assist and contribute a little to the evolution of corrosion science and corrosion control. I had a chance to meet many of the protagonists of this adventure. Many of them have become friends and I will talk of both their achievements and their personalities."





orrosion arose as an issue alongside the Industrial

microscope. Epelboin was among the first to use the techniques

Revolution, but it became a socioeconomic problem

of potentiostatic and potentiodynamic recording of polarization

with the extensive use of both stationary and energized

curves. He was also one of the most enthusiastic advocates of

metal objects, i.e. at the end of the 19 century. As a

the use of impedance methods for the study of electrochemical


Science, Corrosion is the daughter of Electrochemistry and the

kinetics. Thanks to the implementation of experimental

granddaughter of Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Fluid dynamics.

advancements and to the construction in his laboratory of

Time of hard pioneering

potentiostats adapted to transfer function analyzers, impedance could be measured over a very wide range of frequencies. While

Corrosion control by coatings has a different story: the

I was there, the paints of both Concorde and Airbus aircraft

development of metallic coatings started with Brugnatelli’s

were under test in his laboratory. I was the only chemist among

first experiments in 1805, whereas organic protecting coatings

physicists and I enjoyed my fifteen minutes of glory. In the end, the

suffered a stagnant situation up to the 1970s. In those days

first impedance plot of a painted aluminum surface was published,

when I started studying organic coatings (opening afterwards to

signed by Takenouti and me.

metallic, composite, inorganic, ceramic…), durability problems

I came back from France with two passions: EIS and paints,

were easily solved by means of lead and chromium. Corrosion

specifically protective organic coatings. I was soon totally

people knew little (and cared less) about paints. Paint companies

immersed in these two topics thanks to the establishment of a

often covered rust with durable zinc chromate pigmented alkyd

long-term planned collaboration with the Italian branch of PPG

paint, and that was all. This well-established situation was totally

(previously IVI, Industria Vernici Italiane, a FIAT subsidiary). It

unacceptable in the automotive. A revolution in coatings started

should be noted that in the 1970s, FIAT owned a Research Centre

in the transportation industry, and it was characterized by both

with more than 4000 members in Orbassano, near Turin (Italy),

phosphatizing and electrophoretic deposition (EPD). EPD is

whereas FIAT Railways was the first (and the only one for several

a term for a broad range of industrial processes that include

decades) to produce active tilting trains with the trademark

electro-coating, e-coating, cathodic electrodeposition, anodic

Pendolino1. The FIAT Office in Brussels was the base of almost

electrodeposition, and electrophoretic coating, or electrophoretic

all European Projects involving Italy. In this framework, I worked

painting. Before entering into details, I must mention the year 1971,

with all these institutions and also with Ferrari, where it was

the moment when I started to move from dealing with a subject to

my privilege to introduce the implementation of both EPD and

managing it: my first approach to organic coatings happened when

phosphatizing, as well as the concept of a Ferrari as a durable

I spent some months at Sorbonne, in the Laboratory of Israel

object and not only a speedy racing one or a costly toy. During


this period, I started a collaboration and a warm friendship with

Epelboin used to state: “Every experiment should be carried

Giovanni Bianchini, a creative chemist at IVI and after at PPG.

with the aim to put the results in a handbook”. No statistics. Only rigid control of all parameters. He knew what a dangerous


and impervious path is the one of pioneers. But his career was built exclusively out of innovations, even with the risk of taking a wrong turn. Actually, the well-known logo of impedance, the snail (escargot) is in many instances an artifact, which escaped for years the recognition of an experimental mistake, voiding many “selves” of physical meaning. Nonetheless, the “handbook method” is the achievement everybody should tend to. If I tried to compare Epelboin’s laboratory with something understandable, I would choose a cruise ship, with a powerful and efficient engine, elegant fluid dynamics, a skillful crew, a wise and brave captain, exploring unknown horizons. Epelboin, a Romanian Jew living in France, survived and even published under the false name of Bernard during the war. The originality and the added strength of his research lay in the joint use of the methods of electrochemical kinetics and those

Corrosion control by coatings has a different story: the development of metallic coatings started with Brugnatelli’s first experiments in 1805, whereas organic protecting coatings suffered a stagnant situation up to the 1970s.

of material characterization such as X-rays and the electron




With Giovanni, I spent many years focusing on innovative research

all advancements were discussed in an open, cultural, deeply

on EPD, until his premature death in 1992.

involving atmosphere from 1974 to the late 1990s).

The coatings business was gradually moving from craftsmanship

That is the past, of course. However, I cannot forget the explosion

to modern science and technology, pushed and enhanced by the

of new ideas, patents, methods, and technologies that hit the

growing need and demand for both high durability and aesthetics,

coating sector in that period. A time of pioneering discovery. I

giving rise to the flourishing of test methods, quality standards,

attended the Conference three times and Angelos and his wife

new improved resins, additives, and adhesion promoters.

Angelika invited me to the homologous event in the US, on Hilton

Electrochemistry started to be involved, mainly in the academic

Head, an artificial island offshore Charlotte, with 18 greens, 18

environment, while the industry began to trust accelerated

hotels, and the “castle” of Pizza Hut’s owner. Unfortunately, it was

weathering tests, with field exposure in Arizona, Florida, Alaska,

raining all the time and it looked just like Ferrara in November.

and so on. Every car manufacturer patented its own protocol for

The heritage of the Athens Conference was taken on by a great

quality assessment. International Conferences were attended

scientist working in Fargo, North Dakota (USA). There, in the

everywhere by hundreds (in the USA, thousands) of specialists,

middle of nowhere, he was able to build an outstanding Institute

sponsored by extremely generous companies in bloody (but

for Polymers and Coatings research. He honored me with his

constructive) competition with each other.

friendship: his name was Gordon Bierwagen. His achievements

During the last twenty years of the past century, I met the whole

were widespread and recognized all over the US and beyond,

set of people involved in coating science and technology, let

which would require several pages to report about. He was a great

alone industrialists. I organized two workshops in 1981 and 1983

scientist, but for me mainly a lovely person, with spontaneous

in Genoa, Italy, (ETM 1 and ETM 2, the ancestors of AETOC),

empathy (only slightly hindered by his strict, often rather cryptic

where the trend towards innovation but also the reciprocal

Midwest American pronunciation), who had made family patriarchy

blindness of corrosionists towards polymers and of paint

an authentic art. The people I met? A crowd – many of whom I

manufacturers towards corrosion science were fully evident.

had the chance to gather within the Working Party “Coatings” of

Happily enough, this gap was tentatively closed by FATIPEC (which

the European Federation of Corrosion which I founded in 1993

was more application and sales-oriented), the biannual Gordon

and which is nowadays the most attended and prolific Session of

conference on coatings and films (which was more focused on

EUROCORR, even though when I conceived it, some commented

basic science and saw a traditionally strong US participation),

that it was a wishy-washy topic.

the FSCT Conferences (mainly exhibitions, but with lively

For a few years now, the WP has been attended mainly by people

scientific contributions), and last but not least, the International

from the Academy dealing with advanced research, including

Conference in Organic Coatings Science and Technology, the

nanotechnology, self-healing pre-treatment processes, composite

Athens Conference, the Angelos Patsis Symposium (where

electro-coating, and smart coatings. At present, industrial coatings

Israel Epelboin



Angelos Patsis

Gordon Bierwagen


look like a mature technology where durability and reliability play

David acted as a link between Cambridge and Manchester,

a role in competitiveness, whereas advancements are seldom

where he devoted thirty-eight years to research at the UMIST

the object of promotion. Globalization and the concentration

Corrosion Centre founded by Graham Wood in 1972. I met

of brands are contributing to the relative disappearance of

David in 1983, at my second Symposium on electrochemical

companies from international conferences. Over time, the

test methods for coatings, in Genoa. He was deeply involved in

myriad of SMEs that formulated and manufactured most of the

all debates and offered revealing contributions. Unfortunately,

milestones of polymeric coatings have disappeared, like Jonas in

at the official dinner, he was not happy with the menu, which

the mouth of a few whales.

included “tagliatelle chocolate”. While he was leaving the table in

It was not like this in the 1970s and 1980s. That was a time of

discomfort, Professor Llewellin Leach from Reading was anxiously

pioneering in the field of advanced polymeric coatings. The

questioning the cook for the recipe…

contribution of the research centers of many paint companies was

John Edwin Oakley (Jack) Mayne was half academic and half

outstanding and widespread. The most important achievements

industrialist, but mainly a humanist. He crossed my professional

shown at international conferences were brought by scientists

life many times, always leaving a sign of warm human relation, of

such as Harry Post of AMERON, Mike Mitchel of International

peculiar ability to listen and understand, a vivid will to help and

Paints, Clifford Schoff, Peter Kamarchik, and Giovanni Bianchini

contribute. I can only borrow the words of eminent Rumanian

of PPG, as well as Gordon Bierwagen, who was a major scientist at

electrochemist Edeleanu: Jack “has provided both moral and

Sherwin-Williams from 1970 to 1989. I cannot forget Otto Vogt of

in many cases material support to individuals who are now well

SIKA, the mentor of Joerg Vogelsang, and Joerg himself, of course,

known in the field of corrosion. There are any number of us who

our past EFC President, the multifaceted and indefatigable

regard Jack as the most generous man we have ever met and

student of materials science, investigator, and leader, a rock

even people like U.R. Evans and Sam Hoar would not have been

climber in the Alps, a successful applied researcher and, not last

as productive as they were, had it not been for the help Jack had

nor least, a loyal and cheerful friend.

given them.”

Some prominent examples of interest in protective coatings

In the framework of non-academic research, I became familiar,

inside the University world were to be found, obviously, in the UK,

and I would say friend, of Carlo Lavezzari. An industrialist, senator,

following the leadership of Evans and of J.E.O. Mayne: Douglas

patron. Outside his field, he became worldwide famous in 1978 for

Mills, Stuart Lion, Tim Burnstain, and David Scantlebury.

having been kidnapped by the famous criminal band of Francis Turatello. He was freed after twenty days mainly thanks to an intelligence network built up by his own staff. His staff adored him. His life spanned over the story of the new Italy built after Fascism. The son of a poor country family, at the age of 18 he fought as a

At present, industrial coatings look like a mature technology where durability and reliability play a role in competitiveness, whereas advancements are seldom the object of promotion. Globalization and the concentration of brands are contributing to the relative disappearance of companies from international conferences.

Partisan in the Catholic bands. Just before the end of the war, all his family was murdered by a criminal band of Red partisans (I will not comment on this: those were the hardest times). He survived pretending to be dead with a bullet in the head (which he kept all life). He graduated in Engineering while driving an old Dodge truck and selling recovered iron from war wreckage. He understood the importance of steel sheets and, above all, of both galvanized and pre-painted steel (coil coating). In brief, he was able to build the “shaped steel” industry, including pipes and even cars. Together, we went to the USSR, in Togliattigrad, intending to introduce innovative pre-treated iron sheets in the manufacturing of their Lada-Vaz Žiguli cars. Gigi once told me: “Everything one does in life must be linked to beauty to some extent.” His office and his house had their walls covered by skillfully selected paints. He also built an art gallery and, among others, sponsored an exhibition of Chagall paints and drawings. In the end, he made an offer to the Maestro and bought the whole set.




Jack O Mayne

Carlo Lavezzari

Giordano Trabanelli

Leo Cavallaro

On my first steps

with empirical means, with the will of daring – whereas today

It is dangerous to allow an old man to talk. You know when he

such a myriad of papers are presented by Chinese and Korean

starts, but not when he will stop. I was asked to talk about the


people I met, I knew, I heard of in the world of corrosion. I have

In 1963, the Director of our Institute of Chemistry in Ferrara, Leo

started this account from 1971, my own Damascus conversion to

Cavallaro, died at the age of 58. We used to refer to him as “the old

the religion of coatings. However, I had been involved in corrosion

champ”… He crossed my life very briefly, but his work left a mark in

science and technology, as well as in corrosion control since

the European network of corrosion scientists. At this point, I must

about 1961 – although in 1958, I already knew that this had to

name another great man, both a metallurgist and a patron: Aldo

be my career. When I started to study Chemistry, my tutor was

Daccò, a rich, enlightened, generous metallurgical industrialist

Professor Giordano Trabanelli, nicknamed “the Titan”. He was

and a designer of boat engines. During his term as the Chairman

a man of deep Catholic faith, an austere, upright Catholic. At a

of the Italian Association of Metallurgy, together with Cavallaro,

time of fights between Communism and the Church in Italy, he

he founded and sponsored the Aldo Daccò Corrosion Research

was an example of great charisma. I had known him since my

Center, the first successful example of a public-private enterprise

childhood, but when he became my tutor, he insisted we address

and the first School of Corrosion Technology in Europe (I believe).

each other extremely formally. His deep sense of justice, his intellectual honesty excluded any form of privilege or personalism. Not an easy man, but a perfect teacher and an inspiring Master. His work on inhibitors was outstanding. His Symposia in Ferrara (Italy) attracted many Texans, Russians, and Arabians in search of the magic way to spare their steel oil wells. Cars began to have their water cooling systems protected during my graduation thesis. Beyond his field of expertise, inhibitors, Trabanelli was an innovator, a pioneer, a curious person. He was mastering the first potentiostats, the first oscillographs to study transients (speaking of which, I cannot avoid mentioning Luigi Grifone, the President of the AMEL factory, a brave entrepreneur with the “virus” of research, as well as a cultural humanist: for years, he built the best instruments for electrochemistry and corrosion), the semiconducting properties of corrosion products at the time of Gerisher, Myamlin, Pleskov, the photopotentials studied



"It is dangerous to allow an old man to talk. You know when he starts, but not when he will stop. I was asked to talk about the people I met, I knew, I heard of in the world of corrosion. I have started this account from 1971, my own Damascus conversion to the religion of coatings."


Thomas Percy Hoar

Front to back, left to right: (first row) H.H. Uhlig, M.G. Fontana, F.L. LaQue, M.C. Bloom, (second row) Z.A. Foroulis, M. Cohen, T.P. Hoar, R.C. Carlston, (third row) J.D. Sudbury, M. Pourbaix, D. Robertson, H.L. Logan, J.J. Harwood, (fourth row) T.P. May, H. Leidheiser Jr., E.H. Phelps, (fifth row) R.M. Hurd, F.W. Fink, R.T. Foley, H.T. Yolken

Pourbaix’s Christmas greetings postcard

Trabanelli led the Centro up to his retirement, and I am proud to

In 1949, knowledge was not so advanced, when Herbert Hulig

consider it my springboard and the nest where I got the “virus”

asked the United Nations for funds for more extended studies on

that enables me to treat heavily rusted wrecks as fascinating. The

corrosion science. Yet, he had already published his Corrosion

Symposia on inhibitors (SEIC, held every five years since 1960)

handbook, which is still like a Bible for us, while all over the world

were attended by all world gurus in the field and I was involved as

corrosion studies were already being conducted by people I have

a “valet” to take care of many of them, who became familiar faces

never had the chance to meet: Whitman, Tafel, Evans, Langelier,

and respected colleagues in the following years.

Frumkin, Kirkov. Their achievements actually concerned corrosion

It was not so with Thomas Percy Hoar (Tippy), who died in 1978.

science, but corrosion technology and especially corrosion

In 1965, I took him to lunch as a “valet” and it was clear that he

protection were still far away. Metal industrialists shouted to

was also an expert in both food and beverages: his culture in

Evans: “You guys stop fighting corrosion: we need to sell!”.

terms of cheese and single malts was universally renowned.

Two of those people of the “thirties” I had the chance to meet

He often looked like he was sleeping during talks but after the

were George Chaudron and Marcel Pourbaix. With the latter in

applause, you could be sure that his questions would have

particular, I had a warm, friendly relationship. Marcel Pourbaix was

been sharp and focused. After being awarded a PhD by the

my idol in the 1960s because of his creation: the CEBELCOR, an

University of Cambridge, Dr. Hoar conducted detailed research

outstanding laboratory where not only science advancements,

into the corrosion mechanisms of tin and tinplate in neutral and

but testing methods, rules, and standards were developed. It was

acid solutions, which among other things led to the process

so renowned that, although private, it was one of the founding

of chromate inhibition for tinplate and the recognition of the

institutions of CITCE, later named ISE, International Society of

importance of steel-base compositions, as demonstrated in one of

Electrochemistry. Pourbaix was a man of culture, a musician, a fan

the early applications of statistical analysis to corrosion research.

of Ravel. “Gaspar de la Nuit” was played when he passed away at

However, I would like to remember him mainly for the (still?)

the age of 94. He was a strong little man full of feelings: I saw him

famous Hoar report. The original survey on the cost of corrosion,

crying when I told him that, contrary to his knowledge, his (and

the “Hoar Report”, was commissioned in 1966 by the British

my) friend Patrizio Gallone was still alive. I would also like to spend

Parliament and estimated that the cost for the UK economy was

some words for Patrizio, the father of the Chlor-soda industry, a

between 3-4% of GNP per year. Similar surveys undertaken in the

European gentleman: Italian father, Irish mother, both French and

USA and Japan shortly afterwards also calculated similar annual

German education. It was a privilege to work with him in one of my

costs. Nowadays, the fact that the social cost of corrosion is still

exciting adventures in the field of electrochemistry. He was the

so high shows that the awareness of its danger is still far from

President of ISE and organized the ISE Meeting in Venice, where

being widespread and effective. Knowledge of corrosion is almost

I first met Koloturkin, the Director of Karpov Institute Moscow.

total, but it is a privilege of a few.

Going back to Pourbaix, he was a Belgian born in Russia by




chance in 1904. In 1938, he introduced his famous theory of E/pH diagrams in his PhD thesis. It was not easy to get it understood and appreciated in the academic environment. Only after the war did it actually achieve universal consensus. Since then, he was so happy about his discovery and so proud to show and explain it in detail on any occasion that academic Georges Chaudron, his tutor for his PhD thesis, used to nickname him “bolero” like the obsessive music of Marcel’s beloved Ravel. His “Atlas of E/pH diagrams” is the best link between thermodynamics and kinetics – between possible and feasible. His theory of pitting breakdown potential enhanced the use of passivable alloys. My path crossed again with Georges Chaudron (nicknamed “le chaton”) as his effigy was placed on the medal I got from CEFRACOR in 2001. The events that have led me to get some of the awards I have received are strictly linked to some of the people whom I have met and who have pushed me with both example and help. One of the most important was Jos Weber, a great technologist, a leader, the

Marcel Pourbaix with Evans in Cambridge

Materials Manager at company Sulzer. We met in Budapest, at Corrosion Week, in 1974, and from then on Jos was always a shade behind my shoulders at every step, including my nomination as the President of EFC. He was an innovator and a promoter of so many activities in the field of corrosion, of testing, of education, of innovation. I consider him the best example of the synergistic fusion of science and development, of culture and technology, of joy of living and hard work. When I met him at the Corrosion Week in Budapest, the plenary lecture had to be delivered by Yakov Koloturkin, the Director of Karpov Institute. However, he did not come and he was replaced by Pourbaix. I would have been curious to meet him, the only Russian corrosion specialist who had never attended the SEIC in

The CEFRACOR golden medal

Ferrara. Russians were the welcome guests of Cavallaro, who used to take the few, old, precious instruments the Institute owned out of the closets on those occasions… I actually met Koloturkin later on, in 1980, at ISE Meeting in Venice. From my close friends Lajos Meszaros and Tibor Garai (I will talk about them in a while), I learned that he was not only the Director of Karpov Institute and a “Red Star” Deputy in Moscow but also the Director of a hidden Institute where research was much more secret. He died of a heart attack. He used to take a long cold bath every morning. Was there any link? In Venice, I also met Raphael Agladze. He himself later told me the following story. In the late 1930s, as a young research fellow of the Karpov Research Institute of Moscow, he published a paper about the electrochemical production of pure manganese in the laboratory. One night, at the beginning of WW2, a loud

Jos Weber receiving the 1991 European Corrosion Award

knocking at his door announced a visit by the KGB. As it is easily understandable, his frightened thoughts went to Gulags (and he hid all his rubles in an internal pocket of his overcoat...) but




actually, after a long Daedalic detour on a big black car, at 3 a.m.,

It is now time for me to introduce the memory of Lajos Meszaros.

he found himself in front of Stalin, surrounded by the whole

His life was practically the opposite of the ones I have just

Politburo. “Are you Raphaelin, the son of Elia Agladze, my Georgian

mentioned. A great mathematician, an experimentalist, a humanist

childhood friend?” “I am.” “Are you able to produce manganese?”

of wide, deep culture, a leader in a sense. He never accepted

“I got some grams.” “I need some tons in two months.” “But...”

the political situation in Hungary, he never spoke a word of

“With this paper and my signature, you can get all the means you

Russian, and he was never allowed to get a higher role than that

need.” Raphael went to Georgia (where there are rich manganese

of “technician”. Yet, he succeeded in managing the research plans

ore mines, besides several wineries), took all the huge grape

of his laboratory from behind the scenes. Science, art, music,

stomping barrels he could find to build electrochemical cells, got

literature, his cigarettes, the paleolithic Moskvich car with which

the required power sources through flights from trans-Uralian

he used to reach his dream country: I remember his childish joy

factories, and produced the first tons of pure Mn, with which

during his visits to Ferrara, to Genoa, to Trento. “Tutto è buono a

the ballistic steel needed for USSR’s tanks and hence the tanks

Italia”, was his awkward-Italian motto.

themselves were made available. Stalin had not followed the

Following Patrizio Gallone during his term of Presidency at ISE

advice of his own intelligence about the need for such metal

in 1976-1983, I practically lived inside the International Society of

before. Raphael Agladze (1911-1989) then got the Stalin Prize and

Electrochemistry, studying a flow-bipolar cell for purifying water.

became a scholar, first in the USSR and then in Georgia. A great

Professor Gallone developed his activity in the field of applied

scientist and a great technologist, he was the founder and the


director (1956-1960) of the Institute of Applied Chemistry and Electrochemistry (now the Raphael Agladze Institute of Inorganic Chemistry and Electrochemistry). This is one of the least known of the very many adventures that have occurred in the world of electrochemical engineering. In Venice, he asked me to welcome his younger son George in my Laboratory in Genoa, which I did and, I suppose consequently, in 1983 I was invited as the only foreign researcher and a personal guest of Koloturkin at the USSR Conference of Electrochemistry, and then in Tbilisi as the personal guest of the Agladze family. Tamaz Agladze, his elder son, was a prominent scientist and a wise politician. His charming wife Marina was the daughter of the

"The events that have led me to get some of the awards I have received are strictly linked to some of the people whom I have met and who have pushed me with both example and help."

pianist Neuhaus and the adopted daughter of Boris Pasternak.

Portrait of Yakov Koloturkin

Rafael, George (Gogy), and Tamaz Agladze

Left to right: T. Garai, L. Meszaros, Academician A. Devaj, a student, P.L. Bonora, B. Lengjel




Digby MacDonald

Roger Staehle

Susan Smialowska

His work was documented by various publications not only in

as flint. He joined SEIC in Ferrara while I was carrying out my

electrochemistry but also in electrotechnics and radiology. For more

graduation research and gave me remarkable advice. I remember

than twenty years, he worked for electrochemistry company Oronzio

Roger’s three worlds, i.e. A) a world with corrosion costs as they

De Nora. He was not only its Director of Research, but he also led

are, B) a world with minimized corrosion-related costs, and C) an

important industrial projects, including the realization of some of the

imaginary world without corrosion, resulting in as follows:

biggest electrochemical plants in the world. Besides the industrial

A – C = costs of corrosion, our fault

applications of electrochemistry, Professor Gallone also dealt with

A – B = realm of awareness, education, standards

metal corrosion and cathodic protection issues. He wrote two books

B – C = realm of research

that were appreciated not only in Italy but abroad as well: Principles

I met him for the first time in Ferrara, when he visited the

of Electrochemical Processes (1970) and Treatise of Electrochemical

laboratory where I was learning how to use the first Italian (AMEL)

Engineering (1973).

potentiostat in 1960.

Following Patrizio as his Assistant during this period, I met the

Let me now talk about a few women. It is not a bad topic, at

whole electrochemistry and corrosion Gotha. I recall Gosta

the end of the day... There are not many renowned women in

Wranglen and his fight to convince the USSR to allow Veniamin

corrosion, but this is mostly due to overwhelming machismo

Levich to leave the country, although it was Gallone, with his soft

since, if one looks at the technical literature or the audiences at

Italian diplomacy, who succeeded in this (officially, it was thanks

conferences, many outstanding women are there to be found.

to Edward Kennedy’s recommendation, but that was publicized for a matter of image. For the whole official story, please refer to “Electrochemistry in a divided world”, F. Scholz, Ed., Springer, 2015). I also remember Digby MacDonald, who used to give consults on corrosion in the US travelling on his own plane: undoubtedly the most authoritative mathematician in our field, but also a nice companion at the table, as I experienced during a meeting on the Mediterranean coasts of Apulia during which we “fought” together against a grilled monster sea bass. Digby’s work involved electrochemistry, thermodynamics, and corrosion science, with an emphasis on the growth and breakdown of passive films, the chemistry of high-temperature aqueous solutions, electro-catalysis, advanced batteries and fuel cells, stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue, materials for nuclear power reactors, and the deterministic prediction of localized corrosion damage. On many occasions, I encountered Roger Staehle, the Editor of Corrosion (Nace) magazine, whose editorials were hard and sharp



From the metaphysic approach to corrosion (ferrum corrumpitur) of Pliny the Elder to our present time, an unbelievable amount of materials and structures marks the difference. What has remained from his times are merely marble, stones, bricks, some bronze, some gold. What will remain of our times are the objectives of those people in corrosion control, many of which I am proud to have met.


About the author: Pier Luigi Bonora

Erika Kalman

Pliny the Elder

Chemist, Master in Corrosion Science and Technology, Full Professor of Materials Corrosion and Corrosion Control, Past President and Honorary Fellow of the European Federation of Corrosion, European Corrosion Award of EFC and Gold Medalist of the French Corrosion Society, founder of the Working Party “Coatings” of EFC. His main interests include coatings, electrochemical methods in corrosion research, design and corrosion control, failure analysis, and cathodic protection of on/off-shore structures.

I am going to mention three of them: Susan, Erika, and Dora.

years as Editor many contributors came to know Dora Brasher

Susan Smialowska attended SEIC in Ferrara and I met her there,

as a friend, and very many more – especially those for whom

although I only got to listen to her talks. In 1977, however, at ISE

English is a foreign tongue – have had cause to be grateful for the

Meeting in Varna Bulgaria, we had some long, interesting talks,

evenings and weekends that she spent editing, even to the point

and I was admired by her curiosity, her enthusiasm for her next

of rewriting, papers that she felt were of scientific or practical

visit (she hoped to stay, and she did!) to the Mars Fontana Center

value but were not in clearly understandable English”. I was one

of Columbus, Ohio (USA). She became an outstanding person

of them. Dora spent one full day with me – while sharing some

there and I was often in touch with her, attracted by her work on

sandwiches – to analyze and correct my two papers. Dora Brasher

localized corrosion, on inhibitors, on hydrogen embrittlement…

spent her career at the National Physical Laboratory of Teddington

and by her smile, her brightness, her elegant Slavic charm. She

(UK), the same NPL where Hoar’s idea for sparing money through

passed away a few years ago. I am proud to have met her and I

widespread anti-corrosion procedures was practically developed.

regret we had not enough time to be friends.

NPL was the school for a lot of smart corrosionists, including Tony

Incidentally, a few years before, in the 1960s, Francesco Mazza

Mercer, Paul McIntyre, and Alan Turnbull.

had also worked in Ohio, a good friend of mine (after having been a teacher and an admired Master): he was a young researcher at

I would like to conclude my excursus by mentioning the whole

that time, but he became famous for having grasped the reason

crowd of people who, over the last sixty years, have been fighting

for the explosion of fuel tanks in the Apollo project. The fuel used

the battle of corrosion control and protective paint aimed

was pure methanol and the tanks were made of titanium. Methanol

at durability and reliability, environmental compliance, and

was wholly dehydrated, so that the least amount of water

sustainable costs and battling to provide coatings with innovative

indispensable for titanium passivation was absent – an excess of

functions (touch your smartphone display!) and spend time,

zeal, and so much for common sense.

knowledge, and dedication to widespread corrosion knowledge.

Erika Kalman was a person it was impossible to ignore.

From the metaphysic approach to corrosion (ferrum corrumpitur)

Hyperactive, curious, committed, with that touch of narcissism

of Pliny the Elder (whom I did not meet) to our present time,

that can help a lot, aggressive in science and friendly possessive in

an unbelievable amount of materials and structures marks the

human relationships. An organizer, a builder, a leader, a strategist,

difference. What has remained from his times are merely marble,

a cultured person, with a cult of family and friends. I would like to

stones, bricks, some bronze, some gold. What will remain of our

spend no words on her outstanding scientific and professional

times are the objectives of those people in corrosion control,

achievements, but to warmly honor the memory of her naturally

many of which I am proud to have met.

friendly openness to share both feelings and interests. The papers I wrote in France in 1974 were submitted to the British Corrosion Journal and Miss Dora Brasher, the forerunner of all studies on organic coatings, was its Editor. When she retired

Acknowledgments: Agnese, Vincenzo, Giacomo, Lucio, Lorenzo,

in 1980, a praising editorial mentioned: “…during her thirteen

Flavio, Stefano, Luca, Maria, Vesna, Ilario, Ula, and others. ‹



© Tiqets


Development of novel and cost-effective corrosion resistant coatings for high temperature geothermal applications by Dagur Ingi Ólafsson and Baldur Geir Gunnarsson - Tæknisetur (IceTec), Reykjavík, Iceland Helen Ósk Haraldsdóttir, Kolbrún Ragna Ragnarsdóttir, and Sæmundur Guðlaugsson - Orka Náttúrunnar (ON Power), Reykjavík, Iceland Francesco Fanicchia, and Namrata Kale – TWI Ltd, Cambridge, United Kingdom





eo-Coat ( is an EU-funded collaborative project that has investigated newly developed coatings and Metal Matrix Composite bulk materials for use in high erosion and corrosion

environments. Specifically, the project has focused on improving the lifetime of materials used in plants for geothermal energy production by the use of specialized coatings. In 2021, at the end of this project, it was decided to coat a turbine component with one of the most promising coatings developed, the LMDHEA2 coating, and to have it tested in-situ at Hellisheiði power plant, the eighth-largest geothermal power station in the world and largest in Iceland. A diaphragm, made from A470 steel, was sectioned and a part of the section laser cladded with LMDHEA2. The part was then exposed in geothermal environment for a 8-week period and afterwards analysed for corrosion.

Materials and methods Materials A turbine diaphragm section made of A470 steel was laser cladded with the LMD-HEA2 high-entropy-alloy coating solution developed in Geo-Coat. To prevent cracks from forming in the coating, the substrate was preheated prior to deposition and the cooling of the part after deposition was controlled. Three sections of the turbine part were coated as can be seen in Figure 1. Patch C was subsequently chosen for testing in-situ at ON Power, the company which owns and runs the Hellisheiði power plant.

The Geo-Coat project1 began in 2018

© ON Power

with the goal of developing cost-effective, novel corrosion-resistant coatings for high temperature geothermal applications. We report the results of the in-situ test of an LMD-HEA2 coated turbine component section in geothermal environment. This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme. Grant agreement 764086.


Figure 1 - Turbine component for testing at ON Power with three coating areas.




Test conditions The sample was tested in an aerated pressure vessel at

not represent the conditions turbine diaphragms are generally

Hellisheiði power plant. The aerated test equipment was

exposed to as the fluid composition is different and erosive

designed, manufactured, and used to test the coatings in a highly

effects were not generated in the pressure vessel. This

corrosive aerated environment (Fig. 2). The aerated equipment

environment is however quite aggressive due to the presence of

simulates the conditions materials experience in the axial seal

oxygen which sped up the corrosion process. This was considered

system suction path in geothermal powerplants. This is a pathway

a good starting point to provide the first observations on how

where steam coming from the turbine in sub-atmospheric

this combination of coating and substrate on an actual turbine

pressure conditions is sucked away from the last stage of the

component behave in corrosive geothermal environment.

geothermal turbine. In this location, steam and ambient air

The sample was situated in the equipment for 8 weeks,

mixes and creates a very corrosive oxygenated environment.

experiencing significant oxygen-induced corrosion during the

Additionally, the aerated pressure vessel simulates to a certain

exposure period. The experimental conditions can be seen in

extent the corrosive environment found in hot production

Table 1. Chemical sampling data of the fluid inside the equipment

water piping prior to de-oxygenation. This environment does

is presented in Table 2.

Figure 2 - The aerated pressure vessel equipment in operation.




Liquid analysis (w/electrodes and titration)*


Exposure time



Cl [mg/kg]





F [mg/kg]





SO4 [mg/kg]







Table 1 - Experimental conditions of the aerated pressure vessel test.


Figure 3 - The sample after transferral to IceTec.


* Sampled 31st of January 2021

Table 2 - Chemical sampling of the fluid within the aerated pressure vessel.


Geo-Coat is an EU-funded collaborative project that has investigated newly developed coatings and Metal Matrix Composite bulk materials for use in high erosion and corrosion environments. Results Overview After testing, the sample was transferred to IceTec, where it was inspected and subsequently analysed for corrosion in an optical and scanning electron microscope. The sample was heavily corroded around the coated patch, and the A470 base material showed strong discolouring, rust patches and flaking of the material. Meanwhile, the coated patch seemed to have resisted the conditions significantly better. The edges of the coated patch were discoloured while the central parts seemed much less affected, with some small, yellow-brownish dots here and there. This indicates corrosion of the base material underneath the edges of the coated patch. It is also possible that the discolouring of the coated part of the sample is rust that has migrated from the base material surface onto the coating (Fig. 3). Surface analysis The surface of the sample was analysed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The bare A470 substrate was found to have iron-oxides covering the surface, as could be seen from optical inspection.

From the top: Figure 4 - Scanning electron microscopy image of the bare substrate surface. Figure 5 - SEM image of the coated surface of the sample, showing spherical sputter on the coating. Three areas and one point were chosen for elemental analysis. Table 3 - Elemental analysis of sites shown in Figure 5.
































































The rust layer was cracked and, in some places, grainy (Fig. 4).

surface of the coating. Meanwhile, the bare base material had

EDX analysis of the coated surfaces showed most of the coating

thick patches of iron oxides on its surface due to the interaction

having reacted to the oxygen-heavy test conditions by forming

with oxygen. Corrosion was found to have started to penetrate

a thick chromium-oxide layer on top of the coating. Some iron

slightly underneath the coating at the coating-substrate interface.

oxides are also seen on the surface. The coating surface was

The substrate under the coating away from the interfaces was

grainy in places, littered by spheres of coating material from the

found to be unaffected by exposure while the bare substrate

cladding process. Some of these spheres seemed to have formed

was heavily affected (Fig. 6). At the coating-substrate interface,

iron oxides on their surfaces (Fig. 5 and Table 3).

corrosion was seen to have occurred underneath the coating itself, emphasizing the importance of good coating coverage

Cross-sectional analysis

and prevention of cracks in the coating during manufacturing.

A cross-sectional sample was cut from the larger piece and

In addition to corrosion of the underlying substrate, the coating

analysed with an SEM and EDX. The cross-sectional analyses

composition at the intersection was found to have much larger

confirmed the formation of thick chromium oxide layers on the

portion of iron in comparison to the other four elements that

Figure 6 – i) Cross-section of the coated sample, showing the coating and the underlying substrate, ii) surface of the exposed substrate, showing a rust layer on top of the A470 steel up to 75 μm thick as well as pits.

Figure 7 - EDX analysis of the coating-substrate interface, showing locations marked for chemical analysis.



Figure 8 - SEM image of the surface of the coating, showing spherical artifacts from the cladding process along with chromium oxide layer.











































































































































Table 4 - Elemental analysis of locations marked in Figure 7.

Table 5: Elemental analysis of locations marked in Figure 8.

make up the LMD-HEA2 coating. This could be due to diffusion of the elements out of the coating or simply an artifact of the cladding process. An SEM image, showing EDX analysed locations can be seen in Figures 7 and 8 along with the elemental analysis itself in Tables 4 and 5.

Conclusions Based on the corrosion analysis results performed on the LMD-HEA2 sample described in this report, the following conclusions can be summarized for the coating:  The coating showed good resistance to the corrosive effect of the oxygenated test environment which it was subjected to for 8 weeks.  The substrate underneath the coating was not affected by the hostile environment, apart from areas underneath the coating at the coatingsubstrate interface, as the coating did not cover the whole part.  The bare and exposed A470 substrate suffered heavy corrosion, with rust layers up to 75 μm in thickness on top of the substrate.  The top, exposed, surface of the coating was mostly covered in a chromium-oxide layer, protecting the coating from the oxygen heavy environment. The coating shows good corrosion resistance to this environment indicating its usefulness for service in this and similar oxygen-heavy environments. ‹

After a 8-week period of the part being exposed to geothermal environment, the coating showed good corrosion resistance for high temperature geothermal applications, and in similar oxygenheavy environments. JANUARY 2024 | CORROSION PROTECTION




Hempel has announced the launch of HEET Dynamic, an innovative new coating software specially designed to make intumescent coating estimations on steel sections quicker, easier and accurate for structural engineers and estimators.


Easy to download and simple to use, HEET Dynamic is up to date with latest industry standards, providing an innovative software that makes light work of complex situations. Using in-built calculators for automated thickness and volume calculations, HEET Dynamic features a simple copy and paste functionality to give the user full control.

Key features of HEET Dynamic HEET Dynamic includes section factor calculations, default limiting temperatures, cellular beam calculations, a customisable user interface and project dashboard with libraries feature. These

empel Engineering and Estimation Technology ‘HEET’

combined features deliver efficient calculation accuracy, without

Dynamic empowers users to make efficient and

the need for overly complex technologies.

effective fire protection decisions quickly and easily,

For advanced users, the HEET Dynamic licence can be upgraded

offering up to 10 times faster calculations, without

using a feature called Structural Fire Design. The SFD upgrade

consulting third party engineering services or PFP (passive fire

allows suitably qualified engineers to flexibly calculate project

protection) coating providers.

specific design temperatures, leading to overall cost savings and

Built with the user in mind, Hempel’s HEET Dynamic software

increased productivity. In addition, the optimised PFP volume

automatically performs volume calculations with 100% estimation

and thickness calculations require less materials and utilise best

accuracy to detail the intumescent coating required for a project.

engineering practices.

In accordance with location and design codes, calculations are

Another addition available with HEET Dynamic is its BIM

based on steel profiles, fire ratings and fire testing standards.

plug-in tool. This intelligent, modifiable tool allows users to

J&D Pierce (Contracts) Ltd, said: “It is a very good piece of software for our engineers and designers. It allows us a lot of flexibility when designing structures without the need to keep contacting Hempel”.




About Hempel As a world-leading supplier of trusted coating solutions, Hempel is a global company with strong values, working with customers in the decorative, marine, infrastructure and energy industries. Hempel factories, R&D centres and stock points are established in every region. Across the globe, Hempel’s paints and coatings can be found in almost every country of the world. They protect and beautify buildings, infrastructure and other assets, and play an essential role in our customers’ businesses. They help minimise maintenance costs, improve aesthetics and increase energy efficiency. At Hempel, our purpose is to shape a brighter future with sustainable coating solutions. We firmly believe that we will succeed as a business only if we place sustainability at our heart. Not only is it the right thing to do, it will strengthen our competitive position, make ourselves more resilient and reduce our risk. Hempel was founded in Copenhagen, Denmark in 1915. It is proudly owned by the Hempel Foundation, which ensures a solid economic base for the Hempel Group and supports cultural, social, humanitarian and scientific purposes around the world.

work seamlessly alongside BIM software, creating automated calculations for 3D models and construction details. This intelligent tool also facilitates information flow both ways for realtime design and estimation. A representative from Billington Structures Ltd, stated: “The new HEET Dynamic software is simple and intuitive to use and the SFD and BIM integration is very beneficial for our technical staff when designing various elements of our projects.”

HEET Dynamic at a glance  Developed to accurately estimate intumescent volume calculations on steel sections  Designed with estimators and structural engineers in mind  100% estimation accuracy  Up to 10 times faster calculations  Minimises the risk of coating failure with maximum accuracy  BIM plug-in tool for 3D models and construction details  Structural Fire Design upgrade available for advanced users  Easy to download, simple to use. ‹




THE INDUSTRY The countdown to IVS – Industrial Valve Summit 2024 has started VALVEcampus, the association that gathers Italian industrial valve manufacturers. The event analysed corporate innovation and sustainability issues, delving into the strategic perspectives of the energy sector, which is currently experiencing a phase of transformation. During the conference, the results of the Market Perspectives report on the Oil & Gas Industrial Valve Industry, carried out by Roland Berger, were presented. The report showed that in the Oil&Gas sector, the industrial valve industry enjoys a very positive outlook in the short to medium term, supported by solid demand. New projects that further extend the geographical reach of local companies, starting in the Americas, then in the Middle East and Asia,


will lead the development. In the two-year period 2023-2024, VS – Industrial Valve Summit, the most important

investment in new plants is expected to grow by an average of

international event dedicated to reference technologies and

16% over 2022 (USD 183 billion per year versus USD 158 billion),

flow control solutions, is only a few months away. The fifth

the year in which the global situation stabilised after the rebound

edition of the event, organised by Confindustria Bergamo and

in 2021 from the great contraction recorded in 2020. Despite the

Promoberg, will take place at the Bergamo Exhibition Centre, in

positive projections, investments in 2023 will stay below those of

Italy, on May 15th and 16th, 2024.

the pre-pandemic period (in 2019, USD 200 billion).

In view of 2024, the organisers are enriching the offer of events

As for alternative energy sectors, growth in hydrogen and CCUS

and opportunities for networking by creating a true valve

(carbon capture use and storage) is largely expected after 2030,

week, continuing along the event’s growth path. Starting on

with the largest share of investments in the Americas, Europe,

14 May with the opening ceremony, followed by the opening

and Asia. Demand in nuclear power is also solid, both in the

of the pavilions reserved to exhibitors, IVS will offer a valuable

short and long term.

opportunity for the players in the supply chain to meet and

In the long term, Oil & Gas is expected to experience an

discuss. The event will get into full swing on 15th and 16th May

increasing overcapacity of components compared to the market

with the halls opening the doors to the international public. In

demand. The price pressure is also expected to increase at the

2022, the Summit welcomed 12,000 visitors (+12% compared

same time. The growth sectors (in particular, those related to

to 2019) representing over 60 countries, marking a record

renewables) will only partly compensate for the contraction of

number of visitors, in addition to 300 exhibiting companies (+17%

the more traditional segments. For companies in the sector, it

compared to 2019) representing 12 countries.

will be essential to introduce a series of strategies focusing on

At the same time, the extensive calendar of conferences,

three pillars: more specialisation, product, and market; more

round tables, workshops, and laboratories of the IVS scientific

added value, moving from the production of components alone

programme will continue, proving to be a space where change

to entire solutions and systems; and more presence worldwide

can be interpreted and the latest technological innovations can

with offices and labs (local content). Objectives to be achieved

be explored, identifying and analysing the new challenges. And

through company size growth and aggregation, opening the

after the two-day exhibition, there will be a further opportunity for

market to new segments, products and services. A recipe that

foreign delegations attending the fair to meet the players in the

would enable European operators to withstand the growing

extended Oil & Gas supply chain on Friday 17 May.

pressure of global and, especially, Asian players.



Recently, important players in the industrial valve supply chain featured “IVS Valve Industry Think Tank”, the event promoted by IVS - Industrial Valve Summit in cooperation with




MECOC 2024: Shaping the Future of the Oil and Gas Industry of sessions, and panel discussions led by recognized experts. MECOC 2024 is designed to equip attendees with valuable insights and strategic networking prospects, ranging from innovations in corrosion prevention to the latest metallurgy advancements and their direct applications in the oil and gas sector. In addition, MECOC 2024 introduces an exhibition alongside


the conference, serving as a vital bridge connecting technology he stage is set for the much-anticipated 3rd edition of the

providers and end-user companies. It showcases the latest

Middle East Metallurgy Corrosion and Coatings Expo

breakthroughs and innovative products. The exhibition’s primary

2024 (MECOC 2024), a transformative event that will

goal is to foster collaboration, accelerating technology adoption

unite industry leaders, experts, and enthusiasts from across the

for industry growth. This collaborative spirit defines MECOC

globe. MECOC 2024, scheduled to take place from 06 to 08

2024, shaping a more innovative, sustainable, and prosperous



February 2024 in Rixos Marina, Abu Dhabi, UAE, underscores

future for metallurgy, corrosion, and coatings.

our unwavering commitment to the critical role of Metallurgy,

“Our objective is to foster a comprehensive approach to industry

Corrosion & Coatings in shaping the future of the oil and gas

challenges,” said Romin Mathew, Director of MECOC 2024.

industry and beyond.

“We firmly believe that MECOC 2024 will serve as the ultimate

The central theme of MECOC 2024, “Shaping the Future of the

platform for the exchange of ideas, the formation of partnerships,

Oil and Gas Industry through Metallurgy, Corrosion & Coatings,”

and the exploration of solutions that will define the future of the

highlights the indispensable nature of these fields in ensuring the

oil and gas industry.”

integrity, safety, and efficiency of the oil and gas sector. These

MECOC 2024 is set to redefine the industry’s future, with

critical disciplines play a pivotal role in optimizing operations,

an anticipated audience of over 1000 attendees and 100+

enhancing asset longevity, and mitigating environmental impact.

Participating leading organizations, 60+ enlightening

MECOC 2024 features two significant conferences:

presentations, and a cutting-edge expo with 60+ exhibiting


Companies showcasing the latest technological breakthroughs.

focuses on advancements and best practices in steel and non-

Registration for MECOC 2024 is now open. Join us in shaping the

metallic materials. Industry experts share insights into cutting-

future of the oil and gas industry through Metallurgy, Corrosion,

edge technologies and innovations.

and Coatings. Visit MECOC 2024 Website or contact us at


+971 4 2790 800 for further information.

explores crucial aspects of corrosion prevention and the latest developments in coatings. Attendees gain valuable knowledge

About MECOC 2024

and strategies to protect critical assets in the oil and gas sector.

MECOC 2024 is the foremost Middle East Metallurgy Corrosion

 MECOC 2024, guided by an esteemed committee comprising

and Coatings Expo 2024, dedicated to promoting innovation,

industry luminaries and experts from renowned organizations

fostering collaboration, and driving revolutionary change within

such as ADNOC, Sadara, Petronas, SABIC, Saudi Aramco, Saudi

the industry. Focusing on Metallurgy, Corrosion, and Coatings,

Electricity Company, OQ, Conocophillips, Sipchem, Borouge,

the event serves as a platform for industry leaders, experts, and

Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute, RISE Kimab,

enthusiasts to explore the latest trends, technologies, and best

and MAADEN. This assembly of visionaries and decision-makers,


each with a wealth of experience, stands at the forefront of safeguarding the industry’s infrastructure and championing sustainable growth. Participants will have the privilege to engage in a diverse array




PaintExpo: exhibitors optimise the coating processes of the future

to products that are harmless and odourless. Unlike conventional solutions for treating exhaust air, this purely biochemical process needs very little external thermal energy, making it a costeffective method of treating solvent-charged exhaust air streams without needing to concentrate the pollutants first. In the case of hot exhaust air flows, waste heat recovery systems can be positioned upstream from the air treatment system to make use


of the excess heat and channel it into other processes. he industrial coating technology industry is increasingly focussing on sustainable and energy-efficient processes.

Optimising energy consumption in existing systems

This is reflected in the numerous technological

Among its customers in Europe, the company Eisenmann has

developments that exhibitors will be showcasing at PaintExpo

observed a shift from greenfield to brownfield projects. The

2024. These include energy-saving system concepts, applications

latter refers to efforts to save materials and reduce emissions

that use fewer resources and modern software that all help

by investing in modernisation and energy optimisation for

companies consume less energy, thus saving valuable resources

plants that, in some cases, are 25 to 30 years old. This is an

in their painting and coating processes.

understandable shift, given increasing prices in the energy-

At the upcoming edition of PaintExpo from 9 to 12 April 2024 in

intensive paints and coatings industry and the desire for cost-

Karlsruhe, for example, application and plant manufacturers will

effective value retention. Eisenmann addresses this by developing

be showcasing innovative solutions and products for greater

customised solutions that allow clients to conserve valuable

sustainability and energy efficiency. While exhibitors at the world’s

resources through the use of innovative products in a variety of

leading trade fair for industrial coating technology will be taking

fields. One example here is the company`s ongoing development

a variety of approaches, they will all be pursuing the same goal of

of conveyor technology in an important step towards painting and

optimising coating processes to use as little energy as possible,

coating processes that are skidless and therefore more energy

thereby protecting the environment.

efficient. Building on this success, the company then went on to develop VarioMover, a driverless transport system covering the

Energy-efficient, biological exhaust air treatment system

full automotive paint shop process.

AFOTEK, a coating systems manufacturer from Bad Hersfeld

paint-separation processes, offering an answer to the growing

in Germany, will be presenting its “AFOTEK Clean” biological

demand for alternatives to the wet paint-separation processes

exhaust air treatment system at PaintExpo 2024. “The systems

widely used in the past. The potential energy savings here are

dominating the market right now are thermal afterburners, which

huge, in part through the conversion of paint booth ventilation

generally need to be heated with gas. Our patented product offers

systems from fresh/exhaust to recirculated air modes of

an alternative by taking very little energy to break down pollutants


in air contaminated with substances such as solvents. This is

The SmartOven from Eisenmann delivers an outstanding energy

possible because the AFOTEK Clean breaks down materials

balance in the drying process while maintaining excellent paint

exclusively through biological oxidation,” says Kai Sinning, a

quality. The oven can be heated with electricity, gas, thermal oil or

member of AFOTEK’s Executive Board.

hydrogen, thus offering a great deal of economic latitude thanks

The key component of the biological exhaust air treatment system

to the wide selection of possible energy sources.

Eisenmann’s E-Cube is the ideal technology for efficient, dry

consists of two cylindrical reactor towers filled with a unique substrate. This substrate is then moistened using an agent that

Sustainable heat sources and modern software

has been enriched with nutrients. The mode of action is based on

The Swiss coating systems manufacturer e. Luterbach will be

aerobic microorganisms that oxidise carbon dioxide and water via

at PaintExpo 2024 presenting various ideas for making coating

a biochemical process that converts gaseous, organic pollutants

technologies and systems more sustainable. For drying and




firing ovens, CEO and co-owner Fabian Luccarini envisions a

solutions for energy management, quality, efficacy and economic

renaissance of old heating media: “There’s a lot of talk about

efficiency in paint shops.

using hydrogen as a heating source but the physical parameters of existing ovens and systems make them impossible to retrofit.

Less material usage and process optimisation

Thermal oil, on the other hand, can be transported at a high level

WAGNER will be exhibiting its wide array of wet coating and

from a central district heating source to the places where it is

powder coating solutions at PaintExpo 2024. For wet coating

used. Currently, such projects are being driven forward.”

applications, the company’s focus is on sustainability as well as

Other developments promising greater sustainability and

reducing the amount of solvents, materials and energy used.

predictive maintenance can be found in the e. Luterbach software

Furthermore, the easy operability and optimised process control

and IT portfolio. The company has expanded its IoT portal,

of their products and systems make the coating process more

for example, providing predefined telephone calls and voice

productive. Exceptionally effective application and conservative

messages to alert responsible parties of any irregularities. The on-

use of materials are the hallmarks of the company’s many

site PLC makes real-time networking easier. Data are stored for

different manual and automatic airless, AirCoat and air spray

up to two weeks as an MQTT protocol and remain intact even in

guns. The new generation of high-speed rotation atomisers for

the event of internet or electricity outages.

solvent- and water-based coatings plays a major role in making

Development work on the PinCH software has also continued.

highly automated wet coating systems and robotic solutions a

“We can use pinch analyses to find the optimum pinch points

reality while at the same time focusing on using fewer resources.

between various energy flows with the aim of minimising the

The company supports this development with regular updates to

overall scope of investment and energy costs. The analysis is then

its control technology.

used in strategic planning to develop heat recovery measures

WAGNER has also made its pumps for wet coating significantly

aimed at improving the supply of energy. The potential reduction

easier to flush. The Cobra high-press double diaphragm pump,

in primary energy use can be as much as 40 per cent with a

for instance, has been optimised to dramatically reduce the

pinch analysis,” says Luccarini, explaining the advantages of this

amount of flushing agent, therefore also significantly cutting the

system-oriented method.

amount of time needed for changing colours. The highly efficient processes employed in WAGNER 2K systems help to reduce the

Efficient, environmentally friendly painting processes

environmental footprint of the coating process.

SEHON Innovative Paint Systems offers an extensive product

planning projects, taking a holistic approach to finding the ideal

and service portfolio for sustainable, environmentally friendly

system for each coating job, thus optimising surface quality on

and efficient painting processes. Customers building new

the one hand and resource usage on the other.

WAGNER assists its customers in designing systems and

systems or modernising existing ones regularly contract SEHON to future-proof overall operations in terms of energy use and

About PaintExpo

sustainability. As a result, paint shops will need only a fraction of

At PaintExpo 2022, around 430 exhibitors from 27 countries

the energy consumed in the past and may even achieve energy

presented their products and services and more than 9,000

self-sufficiency. As CEO Tiemo Sehon notes, “Environmental

trade visitors from 57 countries attended. The next edition of

protection, energy savings and sustainability have been part of

PaintExpo will take place from 9 to 12 April 2024 in Karlsruhe. The

our product and corporate philosophy for over 40 years. Even

world’s leading trade fair for industrial coating technology serves

before we receive a contract, we give our customers precise

as a showcase for innovations, applications, future technologies

written facts, figures and data showing the positive impact of

and trends in all areas of the coating industry. PaintExpo will

sustainability measures. This goes well beyond just the theoretical

cover the entire range of international products and services

targets. It allows our customers to budget precisely for every

in the industrial coating technology supply chain. This global

planned sustainability investment and maximise the amount

get-together of companies from the industry is unparalleled

of state grants they receive. When it comes to paint system

worldwide, making it highly attractive for coating service providers

technologies, painting processes or entire facilities, it’s always

and in-house coating companies from around the world.

worth talking to us when you are building from scratch, retrofitting equipment or modernising.” SEHON will also be at PaintExpo 2024 showcasing its innovative




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EDITORIAL BOARD Annalisa Acquesta, University of Naples

Jérôme Crouzillac, BAC Corrosion Control

Francesco Andreatta, University of Udine

Marina Delucchi, University of Genoa

Mehdi Attarchi, Senior Materials & Corrosion Specialist

Sergio Lorenzi, University of Bergamo

Andrea Balbo, University of Ferrara

Tullio Monetta, University of Naples

Hadi Beirami, Cathodic Protection Certified Specialist

Tomáš Prošek, University of Prague

Maria Bignozzi, University of Bologna

Edoardo Proverbio, University of Messina

Stefano Caporali, University of Florence

Stefano Rossi, University of Trento

Marco Cattalini, AMPP Italy Chapter Chairman

Monica Santamaria, University of Palermo


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