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∏ ª√¡∆∂§√¶√π∏™∏ ∆∏™ ∞£§∏∆ƒπ∞™ ∫∞π ∆√À ∞£§∏∆∏ ∫∞π ∏ ∫ƒπ™∏ ™∆√¡ °À¡∞π∫∂π√ ∞£§∏∆π™ª√

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12. √È ·ıÏËÙ¤˜ Lauren Jackson Î·È David Williams42

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ºˆÙÔÁڷʛ˜ Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Ù˘ ηϷıÔÛÊ·›ÚÈÛ˘ Lauren Jackson ÛÙÔ Sports Illustrated, 2008 «Athletes in Swimsuits», 2008 ÛÙÔ: http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/gallery/featured /GAL1165686/1/index.htm Î·È ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙ‹ ÙÔ˘ Ú¿ÁÎÌÈ David Williams ÛÙÔ COSMOPOLITAN Î·È ÛÙÔ http://eyecandy.abzolute.net/2010/01/28/eyecandy%E2%80%99s-top-12-sexiest-menof-sport-david-williams.


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∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi º‡ÏÔ, ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ∫ÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, ¶ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ· & ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜

∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ∞˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ÂÍÂÙ¿˙ÂÈ ÙȘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ ÂÈÙÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÈÎÔÓÈο ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ӈÓ, ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÔÔÈË̤ӈÓ-ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·ıÏËÙÒÓ/·ıÏËÙÚÈÒÓ ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. –Ì ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÛÙËÓ ÎÚ›ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÚÚ¤ÓˆÓ Ì ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜, ÙËÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋ ›ÂÛË ÙˆÓ ÌËÓ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ ÙˆÓ ª.ª.∂. Ô˘ ‰¤¯ÔÓÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· Ù· ·ÁfiÚÈ· Î·È ÔÈ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ «Ò˜ Ú¤ÂÈ» Ó· Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜– ÙÔÓ Â͈ڷ˚ÛÌfi ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÈÎÒÓ ·ıÏËÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÙ¢ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙËÓ ˘Ô‚¿ıÌÈÛË ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈΛˆÓ, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ÙˆÓ ∏.¶.∞., Ù˘ ∞˘ÛÙÚ·Ï›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ∂ÏÏ¿‰·˜. ∂‰Ò ηٷ‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ÙÔ Î‡ÚÈÔ ÂÌfi‰ÈÔ Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÂÈ Ô Á˘Ó·ÈΛԘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ë ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· Û‹ÌÂÚ· Â›Ó·È Ë ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹. ∏ ÛÎfiÈÌË ·Ú¿ÏÂÈ„Ë ÙÔ˘ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· ·fiÎÏÈÛË ·fi ÙË ‰ËÌÔÛÈÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋ ‰ÂÔÓÙÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È ¤¯ÂÈ ˆ˜ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· ÙËÓ ˘Ô‚¿ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÚÂÌfi‰ÈÛË Ù˘ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ·Ó¿Ù˘Í‹˜ ÙÔ˘. ∏ ÎÚ›ÛË ÛÙÔÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÙ·È ÂȉÈο ÛÙȘ ∏.¶.∞., fiÔ˘ Ë ÙËÏÂÔÙÈ΋ Î¿Ï˘„Ë ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈΛˆÓ ·ÁÒÓˆÓ Â›Ó·È ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚË ·fi fi,ÙÈ ‹Ù·Ó ÚÈÓ ·fi 20 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Î·È ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ Î·Ì›· ¤Ó‰ÂÈÍË ‹ ÏfiÁÔ˜ Ó· ÈÛÙ‡ԢÌ fiÙÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë Ù¿ÛË ı· ·ÏÏ¿ÍÂÈ, ÂÎÙfi˜ ·Ó ÔÈ ÙËÏÂÔÙÈÎÔ› ·Ú·ÁˆÁÔ› ·ÔÊ·Û›ÛÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ Î¿ÙÈ Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ı· ‹Ù·Ó ÚÔ˜ fiÊÂÏfi˜ ÙÔ˘˜. ∞fi ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÛÎfiËÛË Ù˘ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÚfiÛÊ·ÙˆÓ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂˆÓ Î·È ÔÛÔÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÈÔÙÈÎÒÓ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂˆÓ Á›ÓÂÙ·È Ê·ÓÂÚfi –ÌÂٷ͇ ¿ÏψӖ fiÙÈ: ÚÒÙÔÓ, Ë ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· ·ÔÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ, Û ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË Ì ÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ, ÌÈ· ÂÎÚËÎÙÈ΋ ·ÚÔ˘Û›· ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ∏ ÂÈÎÔÓÈο ηٷÛ΢·Ṳ̂ÓË ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ «È‰·ÓÈ΋˜ Á˘Ó·›Î·˜» ÙÔ˘ 21Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· Ô˘ ÚÔˆıÂ›Ù·È Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂., fi¯È fï˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ȉÈfiÙËÙ·. ŒÓ·˜ ÎÒ‰Èη˜ ıËÏ˘ÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÙ·È Â·ÓÂÈÏËÌ̤ӷ ÁÈ· Ó· Ô˘‰ÂÙÂÚÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ù˘ ˘ÂÚ‚·ÙÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ú¿Í˘ Î·È Ù˘ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ȉÈfiÙËÙ·˜/Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜. ¢Â‡ÙÂÚÔÓ, ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÔÓÙ·È «›Û˜ ¢ηÈڛ˜» ÛÙËÓ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÔÔ›ËÛË-ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ Î·È Ù˘ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜: ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔÈËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·ıÏËÙÒÓ/·ıÏËÙÚÈÒÓ, ÙˆÓ ¿Ê˘ÏˆÓ ·ıÏËÙÒÓ/·ıÏËÙÚÈÒÓ, ıËÏ˘ÎÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙ‹ Î·È ·ÚÚÂÓÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜. ∆Ú›ÙÔÓ, ÛÙ·‰È·Î¿ ηٷÚÚ›ÙÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ıˆڋÛÂȘ fiÙÈ ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ÛÒÌ· ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÔÔÈ›ٷÈ. √È ÂÍÔÌÔÏÔÁ‹ÛÂȘ ¯ÈÏÈ¿‰ˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È ·ÁÔÚÈÒÓ Ô˘ ˘ÔʤÚÔ˘Ó ·fi ÙÔ «™‡Ó‰ÚÔÌÔ ÙÔ˘ Õ‰ˆÓË» –ÎÚ›ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÚÚ¤ÓˆÓ Ì ÙÔ ÛÒÌ· ÙÔ˘˜– ·ÔηχÙÔ˘Ó Û ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈΤ˜ Î·È Â˘Úˆ·˚Τ˜ ¤Ú¢Ó˜ Ù· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· ÙˆÓ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÒÓ Î·È Â͈Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÌËÓ˘Ì¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ∆¤Ù·ÚÙÔÓ, ·Ú·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È ÌÂÁ¿ÏË ÔÛÔÛÙÈ·›· Î·È ÔÈÔÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË ÛÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Û ۇÁÎÚÈÛË Ì ÙÔÓ ·Ó‰ÚÈÎfi. ∆¤ÏÔ˜, Ú·ÁÌ·Ù¢fiÌ·ÛÙ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈο ·ıÏËÙÈο ÌÔÓ٤Ϸ, ÌÈ· ÔÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, ÂÓfi„ÂÈ Ù˘ ÂÌÔÚÈ΋˜ ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È Ù˘ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ·˜. √È ÎψÓÔÔÈË̤ÓÔÈ ·ıÏËÙ¤˜/·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Ô˘ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ‰ÂÓ ÂÎÚÔÛˆÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ÏÂÈ-


∏ ªÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ∞ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ∞ıÏËÙ‹ Î·È Ë ∫Ú›ÛË ÛÙÔÓ °˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi

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ÔÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ·Ó‰ÚÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡. ŒÓ·˜ ·˘Í·ÓfiÌÂÓÔ˜ ·ÚÈıÌfi˜ ·ıÏËÙÒÓ/·ıÏËÙÚÈÒÓ, Á˘ÌÓ·ÛÙÒÓ/Á˘ÌÓ·ÛÙÚÈÒÓ, ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÒÓ/ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÚÈÒÓ Î·È ·ÎÙÈ‚ÈÛÙÒÓ/·ÎÙÈ‚ÈÛÙÚÈÒÓ ‰Ô˘ÏÂ‡Ô˘Ó ¤Íˆ ·fi ÙË ‰ÂÛfi˙Ô˘Û· Ù¿ÛË Ù˘ ÂÔ¯‹˜ Î·È ·ÁˆÓ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ·ıÏËÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÏˆÓ Î·È ÚÔÙ‡ˆÓ, ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÙ·Û›· Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÎÂÚ·ÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙ‹ / Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜, ÙËÓ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÔÓÙÔÏÔÁ›·, ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÙ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜, ÙËÓ ÂÍ¿ÏÂÈ„Ë Ù˘ ‰ÈÂıÓÈ΋˜ ۈ̷ÙÂÌÔÚ›·˜ Î.¿.

2.1 ∞ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· ›‰ˆÏÔ-›Ó‰·ÏÌ· Ù˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜ - ∆Ô «∫›ÓËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÎÔ‡ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜» ∞fi 1995 ¤ˆ˜ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÚÔˆıÂ›Ù·È ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ÙˆÓ ∏.¶.∞. ¤Ó· ηÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈÔ ·Ú¯¤Ù˘Ô, ÌÈ· Ó¤· ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ ·ÈÛıËÙÈ΋, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ¤Ó· ηÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈÔ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ÚfiÙ˘Ô Î·È È‰Â҉˜ Ô˘ ·Ó·‰‡ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙË Ì˘˚΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË, Ì ¤ÓÙÔÓË ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ÛÙÔ ‰˘Ó·Ùfi Î·È Á˘ÌÓ·Ṳ̂ÓÔ ÎÔÚÌ› ÛÂ Û˘Ó‰˘·ÛÌfi Ì ÙÔ ÛÂÍ·›Ï. ¶·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· Ó¤· ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ·ıÏÔ‡ÌÂÓ˘ Á˘Ó·›Î·˜: Ë ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· Ù˘ ηÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈ·˜ ¯ÈÏÈÂÙ›·˜ ÂÎ¤ÌÂÈ Î·È ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈÛÌfi, ·ÔÊ·ÛÈÛÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·, ¯ÂÈڷʤÙËÛË Î·È «ıËÏ˘ÎfiÙËÙ·». ∏ ÂÈÎfiÓ· Ù˘ ȉ·ÓÈ΋˜ Á˘Ó·›Î·˜ ÙÔ˘ 21Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· ·ÔÙÂÏÂ›Ù·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ·fi ÙË Ì˘˚΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË ÛÂ Û˘Û¯ÂÙÈÛÌfi Ì ÙÔ ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘Ô ÂÚˆÙÈÎfi-ÚÔÎÏËÙÈÎfi ÛÙÔÈ¯Â›Ô (Pfister, 2010aØ ∫·ÌÂÚ›‰Ô˘ 2005Ø Heywood & Dworkin, 2003Ø Penney, 2002Ø Hargreaves, 2000Ø Duncan & Messner, 2000Ø Fisk, 1996Ø Hall, 1996Ø Clark & Humberston, 1997Ø Birre & Cole, 1994Ø Duncan et al., 1994Ø Guttman, 1991). ∂ÈÚÔÛı¤Ùˆ˜, ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È ÌÈ· Ì·˙È΋ ηٷӷψÙÈ΋ ¤ÏÍË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·, Ë ÔÔ›· ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ›‰ˆÏÔ, ¤Ó· ›‰ˆÏÔ-›Ó‰·ÏÌ· Ù˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋˜ ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú·˜. ¶ÚÔˆıÂ›Ù·È ÙÔ «∫›ÓËÌ· ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÎÔ‡ Á˘Ó·ÈΛԢ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜»,43 Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ¤ÓÙÔÓ· Î·È Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο Û ÙËÏÂÔÙÈΤ˜ ÂÎÔÌ¤˜ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˘ ·ÎÚÔ·Ì·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, ‰ÂÛfi˙Ô˘Û˜ ÂÌÔÚÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ Ù·Èӛ˜ Î·È ÂÚÈÔ‰Èο ¢Ú›·˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›·˜ (Duncan & Messner, 2000Ø Heywood & Dworkin, 2003Ø Messner et al., 2010). T· ª.ª.∂. ÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ¤Ó· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ Â›‰Ô˜ ıËÏ˘ÎfiÙËÙ·˜, Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂÂÎÙ·ı› Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ¤Ó· ÈÔ Ì˘Ò‰Â˜ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ÛÒÌ·, ÌÈ· ÈÔ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ Î·È «¯ÂÈÚ·ÊÂÙË̤ÓË» Á˘Ó·›Î·, ¿ÓÙÔÙ fï˜ Ì ÚÔÙ›ÌËÛË ÛÙË Ì·ÎÚÈ¿ ÎfiÌË, ÛÙ· Ì·ÎÚÈ¿ ‚·Ì̤ӷ Ó‡¯È· ‹ Û ¿ÏÏ· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ô˘ ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È ıËÏ˘Î¿, ÂÙÂÚfiÊ˘Ï· ‹ Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈο.44

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µÏ. "The movement of the athletic female body" ÛÙËÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ ÙˆÓ Duncan & Messner (2000).

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√È ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Martina Î·È Billie Jean ‰ËÏÒÓÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ ¤¯·Û·Ó ÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. Î·È ÙË ¯ÔÚËÁ›· ÙÔ˘˜ fiÙ·Ó ·ÔηχÊıËÎÂ Ô ÛÂÍÔ˘·ÏÈÎfi˜ ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏÈÛÌfi˜ ÙÔ˘˜, Ë ÔÌÔÊ˘ÏÔÊÈÏ›· ÙÔ˘˜ (‚Ï. Reece & Karbo, 1997).


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∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi º‡ÏÔ, ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ∫ÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, ¶ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ· & ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜

∏ ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Û·ÊÒ˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› οÙÈ Î·ÈÓÔ‡ÚÁÈÔ. ™ÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ Û¿ÓÈ· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Û ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏ· ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÒÓ Â˘Ú›·˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›·˜ Î·È ·ÎfiÌ· ÈÔ Û¿ÓÈ· Û ·ıÏËÙÈο ÂÚÈÔ‰Èο ‹ ÛÙÔÓ ·ıÏËÙÈÎfi ∆‡Ô (∫·ÌÂÚ›‰Ô˘, 2005). ¶·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο, Ô Á˘Ó·ÈΛԘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙȘ ∏.¶.∞. ‹Ù·Ó ¿ÁÓˆÛÙÔ˜ ÛÙ· ̤۷ Ì·˙È΋˜ ÂÓË̤ڈÛ˘ – ¤ÓÙ˘Ô, Ú·‰ÈfiʈÓÔ Î·È ÙËÏÂfiÚ·ÛË. °È· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, Ù· ÚÒÙ· 25 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÁÓˆÛÙÔ‡ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ Sports Illustrated ·Ú·ÙËÚÂ›Ù·È fiÙÈ ÔÈ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·Ó Û ÌfiÓÔ 4,4% ·fi Ù· 1.250 ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏ· (Guttmann, 1991: 215). ∆· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· 60 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· –̤¯ÚÈ ÙÔ 2010– ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ 4% ÙˆÓ ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏˆÓ ÙÔ˘ Sports Illustrated ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛ·Ó ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 13. ∂ÍÒÊ˘ÏÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÔ‡ Playboy Á˘Ó·›Î˜.45 øÛÙfiÛÔ, Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÂÌÔÚÂ˘Ì·ÙÔÔÈË̤Ó˜-ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔÈË̤Ó˜ ËÚˆ›‰Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ·Ó··Ú¿ÁÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘Ô ÔÚÈÛÌfi ÂÚ› «ıËÏ˘ÎfiÙËÙ·˜» –fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Serena Williams, Mary Sauer, Haley Cope, Clair Bidez, Lacy Schnoor, Hannah Teeter– Î·È Ï›Á· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÚÈÓ ÔÈ ÚÔοÙÔ¯Ô› ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙË ÌÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜, ÔÈ Lisa Leslie, Flo-Jo, Marion Jones Î.¿. °È· ÚÒÙË ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔÓ π·ÓÔ˘¿ÚÈÔ ÙÔ˘ 2001 ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· ÛÙÔ ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ Vogue. ¶Ò˜ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È; ∏ Marion Jones ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ˆ˜ «‰˘Ó·Ù‹ Î·È Û¤ÍÈ» Î·È ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ÛÙÂÓfi ÎfiÎÎÈÓÔ ¤Ó‰˘Ì·. ªÔÓÙÂÏÔÔÈË̤Ó˜ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ˆ˜ ÚÔÌËı‡ÙÚȘ ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ Û ÌÂÁ¿Ï· ÂÚÈÔ‰Èο, fiˆ˜ Ù· Jump, Teen People Î·È Life. ¢ÂÓ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ȉÈfiÙËÙ·, ·ÏÏ¿ 45

µÏ. LaVoi (2010).

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 14. ∏ Marion Jones Û ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎÔ‡ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ Vogue


∏ ªÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ∞ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ∞ıÏËÙ‹ Î·È Ë ∫Ú›ÛË ÛÙÔÓ °˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi

67

·ÂÈÎÔÓ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û·Ó ı¤˜, ˆ˜ ÛÔ‡ÂÚ-ıËÏ˘Î¤˜, ˆ˜ ÛÔ‡ÂÚ ÛÙ·Ú, ˆ˜ ÂÚˆÙÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ· ‹ ˆ˜ ÌÔÓÙ¤ÚÓ˜ Á˘Ó·›Î˜ Ô˘ ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ıÔ‡Ó ÙȘ Ù¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ Ìfi‰·˜ Î·È Ù· «Ê˘ÛÈÔÏÔÁÈο» ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο ÛÙÂÚÂfiÙ˘· ÂÚ› ʇÏÔ˘ (Heywood & Dworkin, 2003Ø Penney, 2002Ø Hargreaves, 2000Ø Hall, 1996Ø Clark & Humberston, 1997Ø Birrel & Cole, 1994Ø Guttman, 1991). ŒÓ·˜ ÎÒ‰Èη˜ ıËÏ˘ÎÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÙ·È Â·ÓÂÈÏËÌ̤ӷ ÁÈ· Ó· Ô˘‰ÂÙÂÚÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ·ÔÙ¤ÏÂÛÌ· Ù˘ ˘ÂÚ‚·ÙÈ΋˜ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋˜ Ú¿Í˘ Î·È È‰ÈfiÙËÙ¿˜ ÙÔ˘˜ (∫·ÌÂÚ›‰Ô˘, 2011·Ø 2005). ∞Ó·ÌÊ›‚ÔÏ·, ÔÈ ÛËÌÂÚÈÓ¤˜ ËÚˆ›‰Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌÔ‡ (Serena Williams, Mary Sauer, Haley Cope, Clair Bidez, Lacy Schnoor, Hannah Teeter Î.¿.) Û˘Ó¯›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ ‰ÚfiÌÔ ÙˆÓ ÚÔηÙfi¯ˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜:

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 15. ∏ Serena Williams ÛÙÔ Sports Illustrated.46 °˘Ó·›Î˜ ÔÏ˘ÌÈÔӛΘ ÛÙÔ Ù‡¯Ô˜ Sports Illustrated Swimsuit 2010

46

ºˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Walter Iooss Jr. / "Athletes in Swimsuits", in Sports Illustrated. πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/gallery/featured/GAL1165686/3/25/index.htm (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).


68

∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi º‡ÏÔ, ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ∫ÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, ¶ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ· & ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 16. ∏ ∞ÌÂÚÈηӛ‰· ÔÏ˘ÌÈÔӛ΢ Hannah Teter

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 17. ∏ ∞ÌÂÚÈηӛ‰· snowboarder Clair Bidez47

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 18. ∏ ∞ÌÂÚÈηӛ‰· ÛÎÈ¤Ú Lacy Schnoor48

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 19. ∏ ∞ÌÂÚÈηӛ‰· snowboarder Hannah Teter49

47

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/swimsuit/modelfeatured/clair_bidez/2010/ winter_stars/index.htm (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).

48

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/swimsuit/modelfeatured/lacy_schnoor/2010/ winter_stars/index.htm (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).

49

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/swimsuit/modelfeatured/hannah_teter/2010/ winter_stars/index.htm (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).


∏ ªÔÓÙÂÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ∞ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ∞ıÏËÙ‹ Î·È Ë ∫Ú›ÛË ÛÙÔÓ °˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi

69

∂ÓÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, ¤ÓÙÔÓ˜ ‰È·Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›Â˜ Î·È ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÚÔÎÏ‹ıËÎ·Ó fi¯È Ì ÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË Ù˘ ·ÏÈÓ›ÛÙÚÈ·˜ Lindsey Vonn Ì ̷ÁÈfi ÛÙÔ Sports Illustrated Swimsuit 2010, ·ÏÏ¿ Ì ÙËÓ ·ÔηÏÔ‡ÌÂÓË ÚÔÎÏËÙÈ΋ ÛÙ¿ÛË Ù˘ ÛÙÔ ÂÍÒÊ˘ÏÏÔ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÔ‡ Olympic Sports Illustrated ÙÔ 2010: "America’s Best Woman Skier Ever".51 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 20. ∏ ∞ÌÂÚÈηӛ‰· ÔÏ˘ÌÈÔӛ΢ Lindsey Vonn50

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 21. ¶ÚÔοÙÔ¯Ô˜ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÙˆÓ Î·ÏÏÔÓÒÓ ÔÏ˘ÌÈÔÓÈÎÒÓ Ë Anna Kournikova (ÛÙÔ Sports Illustrated 2008) ºˆÙÔÁÚ¿ÊÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Tiziano Magni (SI)52 50

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/vault/swimsuit/modelfeatured/lindsey_vonn/2010 /winter_stars/index.htm (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).

51

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://communities.canada.com/vancouversun/blogs/soundoff/archive/2010/02/06 /642338.asp (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).

52

πÛÙÔÛÂÏ›‰· http://sportsillustrated.cnn.com/swimsuit/collection/athletes/anna_kournikova.html. µÏ. Â›Û˘ http://snarkerati.com/celebrity-gossip/anna-kournikova-sports-illustrated (ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÚfiÛ‚·ÛË: 11/08/2011).


70

∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi º‡ÏÔ, ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi ∫ÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ, ¶ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ· & ∞ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi˜

√ Gary Hoenig, ÂΉfiÙ˘ ÙÔ˘ ESPN The Magazine, ·Ú·ÙËÚ› fiÙÈ ·˘Í¿ÓÂÙ·È Ë Î¿Ï˘„Ë Ù˘ Á˘Ó·›Î·˜ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ ÛÙ· ª.ª.∂. ηÈ, fiÛÔ ÂΛÓË Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÈÔ fiÌÔÚÊË, Ë ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ Ù˘ ı· ·˘ÍËı› ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ, ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÔÈ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ ·ÔηÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È Û¤ÍÈ, η˘Ù¤˜ Î.¿.: "Today, you hear words like ‘sexy’, ‘hot’, and even ‘fuckable’". ∂ÈÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Â›Û˘ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂȉÈÎÔ› ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó fiÙÈ Ë Ì·˙È΋ ¤ÏÍË ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ· Anna Kournikova ¤¯ÂÈ ÂËÚ¿ÛÂÈ ÙÔÓ Á˘Ó·ÈÎÂ›Ô ·ıÏËÙÈÛÌfi. «∏ Anna ¿ÏÏ·Í ÙÔ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ÔÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ ‚ϤÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ. ∏ Anna ‰ÂÓ ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÂÙ·È ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙÔ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÛÙ·Ú ÛÙÔ ¿ıÏËÌ¿ Ù˘ [Ù¤ÓȘ]. £¤ÏÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Î·È ÛÙ·Ú Û Â›ÛË̘ ÂΉËÏÒÛÂȘ, ÛÙÔÓ ÎÔ˘ÙÛÔÌÔÏ›ÛÙÈÎÔ ∆‡Ô Î·È Û ËÌÂÚÔÏfiÁÈÔ Ô˘ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È Ì ̷ÁÈfi. ∆Ô fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ Î¤Ú‰ÈÛ ÔÙ¤ ·ÙÔÌÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ÚÓÔ˘¿ Î·È fiÙÈ ÌÂÙ¿ ‚›·˜ ¤ÊÙ·Û ÛÙÔ˘˜ ‰¤Î· ÎÔÚ˘Ê·›Ô˘˜ ηٿ ÙËÓ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ ηÚȤڷ Ù˘ ‰ÂÓ ·ÏÏ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ˘¤ÚÔ¯· η˘Ù‹ Ì ÙÔ ·ıÏËÙÈÎfi Û˘ÓÔÏ¿ÎÈ Ù˘» (Cherwa, 2003: 258). ªÂ ·ÊÔÚÌ‹ ÙËÓ ÚÔÎÏËÙÈ΋ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË Ù˘ Anna Kournikova ÛÙÔ Sports Illustrated ÙÔÓ πÔ‡ÓÈÔ ÙÔ˘ 2000, fiÔ˘ Ë ›‰È· ÊÔÚÔ‡Û Áfi‚˜ ÛÙÈϤÙÔ Î·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ, Ë ∞ıÏËÙÈ΋ √ÌÔÛÔÓ‰›· °˘Ó·ÈÎÒÓ (Women’s Sport Foundation) ÛÂgg ÁÚ·Ù‹ ‰‹ÏˆÛ‹ Ù˘ ‰È·Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú‹ıËÎÂ Î·È Î·Ù·‰›Î·Û ÙËÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ Á˘Ó·›Î·˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ˘ÔÙ›ÌËÛË Ù˘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚÈ·˜ ÛÙÔ ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi, ÂÈÛËÌ·›ÓÔÓÙ·˜ fiÙÈ «ÙÔ Sports Illustrated ˙ËÙ¿ÂÈ ·fi ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Ó· ‚Á¿˙Ô˘Ó Ù· ÚÔ‡¯· ÙÔ˘˜ ‹ Ó· ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó Û¤ÍÈ ÂÓ‰‡Ì·Ù· ‹ Ó· ˘ÈÔıÂÙÔ‡Ó Û¤ÍÈ ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Î·È Ó· ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ÌË ·ıÏËÙÈο ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·/ÙÔÔıÂۛ˜, ÂÓÒ ‰ÂÓ ˙ËÙ¿ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ˘˜ ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 22. ∏ Anna Kournikova Ì ÙÔ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ ·ıÏËÙ¤˜ Ó· Ô˙¿ÚÔ˘Ó Ì ·˘ÙfiÓ ·ıÏËÙÈÎfi Û˘ÓÔÏ¿ÎÈ Ù˘ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ. √ ¿Ó‰Ú·˜ ·ıÏËÙ‹˜ ʈÙÔÁÚ·Ê›˙ÂÙ·È Ó· ÂȉÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ ÙȘ ÈηÓfiÙËÙ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ Ì˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÊÔÚÒÓÙ·˜ ·ıÏËÙÈ΋ ÂÓ‰˘Ì·Û›· Î·È Û ·ıÏËÙÈΤ˜ ÙÔÔıÂۛ˜ […]. [∆Ô ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎfi] Û¿ÓÈ· ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÈ ÙȘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ ÁÈ· Ù· ·ıÏËÙÈο ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÙ‡ÁÌ·Ù·» (Kaufmann, 2003: 238). ∏ ÔÌÔÛÔÓ‰›· Â›Û˘ ηٷ‰›Î·Û ÙȘ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Ô˘ ÂÈϤÁÔ˘Ó Ó· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È Á˘ÌÓ¤˜ ‹ ËÌ›Á˘ÌÓ˜: «‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˘ fiÙÈ Ë Á˘Ó·›Î˜ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó 80-90% ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚË Î¿Ï˘„Ë/ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ ·ıÏËÙÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÈÙ¢ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÛÙÔÓ ¤ÓÙ˘Ô Î·È ÛÙÔÓ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎfi ∆‡Ô Û ۇÁÎÚÈÛË Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ó‰Ú˜ Û˘Ó·‰¤ÏÊÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜, ÔÈ ·ıÏ‹ÙÚȘ Ô˘ ÂÈϤÁÔ˘Ó Ó· ÂÎÌÂÙ·ÏÏ¢ÙÔ‡Ó ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ Â˘Î·ÈÚ›· ÁÈ·


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