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∏ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ

µ¿Ûˆ ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˜ π°’ ∂ÊÔÚ›· ¶ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ & ∫Ï·ÛÈÎÒÓ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔًوÓ, µfiÏÔ˜, rondiriv@yahoo.gr

¶ÂÚ›ÏË„Ë √È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ Ù˘ ¶ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ˆ˜ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÔ‡ ̤ÛÔ˘ ·ÔÎÙÔ‡Ó È‰È·›ÙÂÚË ‚·Ú‡ÙËÙ· fiÙ·Ó Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Î·È ÈÔ ÙÂÎÌËÚȈ̤ÓË ÁÓÒÛË Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÛÙ· ÓÂÔÏÈıÈο ¯ÚfiÓÈ·. ∏ ÂÓ·Û¯fiÏËÛË Ì ÙËÓ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰›ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ Â˘Î·ÈÚ›· Û ÂÎ·È‰Â˘Ù¤˜ Î·È ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ¤˜ Ó· ·ÓÙÈÏËÊıÔ‡Ó Î·È Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ì ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ Ù· ÛÙ¿‰È· ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Î·È Ì ¤ÌÌÂÛÔ ÙÚfiÔ ÙË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙˆÓ ··Ú¯ÒÓ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ ˆ˜ ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ «πÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜» ÛÙÔ ∆Ì‹Ì· «∆¯ÓÈÎfi˜ ÃÂÈÚÔÔ›ËÙ˘ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜» ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌÔÙÈÎÔ‡ πÓÛÙÈÙÔ‡ÙÔ˘ ∂·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈ΋˜ ∫·Ù¿ÚÙÈÛ˘ µfiÏÔ˘ ÂÊ·ÚÌfiÛÙËÎ·Ó Î·Ù¿ ηÈÚÔ‡˜ ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈΤ˜ ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÛÎÔfi ›¯·Ó ÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÂÍÔÈΛˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ Ì ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙËÓ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ Ù¤¯ÓË ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ· ̤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ·. ™ÙËÓ ·ÚÔ‡Û· ·Ó·ÎÔ›ÓˆÛË ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÙÚfiÔÈ Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ ÔÈ ‰Ú¿ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÏÂÈÙÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ¤˜ ›Ù ıÂÙÈο ›Ù ·ÚÓËÙÈο Î·È ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ· ÔÈ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙȘ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÂÍÔÚÌ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ›‰ÈÔ ÛÎÔfi.


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∏ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ

Abstract The potentials of Experimental Archaeology as an educational tool are contributing to a well documented knowledge of ceramic technology during the Neolithic period. The actual participation of the students to the ceramic process gives them the opportunity to understand and perceive the different stages of pottery production and the important issues of the earliest stages of ceramic art through space and time as part of the material culture. Within the framework of the sessions of the History of Pottery given in the Pottery Section of the Municipal Institute of Vocational Training in Volos different kinds of transactions were used in order for the students to get acquainted with the subject of the specific lesson, meaning the art of ceramics from Antiquity till today. In the present paper a description is given of the means by which the specific educational tools functioned and the experiences from the field trips that took place for the same goal.

∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ∏ ÌÂϤÙË Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÛÙ· ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈο ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ¤¯ÂÈ È‰È·›ÙÂÚË ÛËÌ·Û›· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ıÂÛÛ·ÏÈÎfi ¯ÒÚÔ, ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓÔ˘ fiÙÈ ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ·˘Ùfi ¤¯ÂÈ Û˘ÌÏËÚÒÛÂÈ ‹‰Ë 100 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ (ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË, 2009· & 2009Á). ∂ȉÈÎfiÙÂÚ· Ë Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· Ù˘ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Â›Ó·È Û˘Ó˘Ê·Ṳ̂ÓË Ì ٷ ÓÂfiÙÂÚ· ıˆÚËÙÈο ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ô˘ ı¤ÏÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ˘ÏÈÎfi ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi Ó· ·ÔÎÙ¿ ÓÔ‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ÛË̷ۛ˜ Ô˘ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÔ‡˜ ÚfiÏÔ˘˜ Î·È Ù·˘ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÛÙȘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ (∫ˆÙÛ¿Î˘, 1998-99). ∏ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ·Ó›¯Ó¢Û˘ fiÏˆÓ ·˘ÙÒÓ ÛÙË ÓÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ Î·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ, ‚Ú›ÛÎÂÙ·È ÛÙȘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈΤ˜ ‚ÈÔÁڷʛ˜, ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈÎÔ‡ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÍfiÚ˘ÍË Ù˘ ÚÒÙ˘ ‡Ï˘ ̤¯ÚÈ ÙËÓ ·fiÚÚÈ„‹ ÙÔ˘ (Jones, 2002), ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·˘Ùfi Ó· Â›Ó·È ÔÙ¤ ÍÂÎÔÌ̤ÓÔ ·fi ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ οو ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ ηٷÛ΢¿ÛÙËÎÂ Î·È ÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ‚Ú¤ıËÎÂ. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ· ÂӉȷʤÚÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ Ë ÂͤٷÛË ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ «·Ï˘ÛȉˆÙÒÓ» ÛÙ·‰›ˆÓ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ‹ ÈÔ Â›ÛËÌ· Ë «ÂÁ¯ÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÈ΋» Ù˘ «·Ï˘Û›‰·» (Lemonnier, 1993Ø ∫˘ÚÈ·Ù˙‹, 2000).


µ¿Ûˆ ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË

109

¶ÔÏϤ˜ ÌÂϤÙ˜ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈÎÒÓ ¯ÚfiÓˆÓ ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ‡·ÚÍ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÓÙ·ÙÈÎÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ÂıÓÔÁÚ·ÊÈ΋˜ Î·È ·ÓıÚˆÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ Î·È Ù˘ ¯Ú‹Û˘ ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ 20Ô˘ ·ÈÒÓ· (Rice, 1987). ∆Ô ÂıÓÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ·ÚfiÓ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ› ˆ˜ ‚¿ÛË Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ ÔÔ›·˜ ÔÈ ÌÂÏÂÙËÙ¤˜ ηٷÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó ÏËÚÔÊÔڛ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Î·È Ì ·˘Ù¤˜ ÚÔ¯ˆÚÔ‡Ó Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ Û ÂÚÌËÓ›˜, ÌÈ· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· Ô˘ ÔÈ ·ÓıÚˆÔÏfiÁÔÈ Î·È ÔÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ·ÔηÏÔ‡Ó ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›· (Hodder, 1982Ø Krause, 1984). ∏ ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›· ‚·Û›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛË ˆ˜ fi,ÙÈ ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ì ·fi ÙÔ ·ÚÂÏıfiÓ ÁÈ· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈΤ˜ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¤˜, ‰Ôͷۛ˜ ‹ ¿ÏÏ· Ô˘ ·ÊÔÚÔ‡Ó ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ÙË ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·›ˆÓ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÒÓ, ÂÈÙ˘Á¯¿ÓÂÙ·È Ì ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ˜ ηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚfiÓÙÔ˜ (Clark, 1954Ø Binford, 1967Ø Ucko, 1969Ø Gould, 1978Ø Tringham, 1978Ø Hodder, 1982). ∆· ÂȯÂÈÚ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ Û¯ÂÙ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›· Û˘Ó‰¤ÔÓÙ·È ¿ÌÂÛ· Ì ÙȘ ·Ú¯¤˜ Î·È ÙË ÌÂıÔ‰ÔÏÔÁ›· ‰‡Ô ·ÎfiÌË ‰›ˆÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜: Ù˘ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ (Coles, 1973 & 1979Ø Rice, 1987) Î·È Ù˘ ÂıÓÔ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›·˜ (Hodder, 1982Ø Binford, 1978Ø Gould, 1978). ∫·È Ù· ‰‡Ô ·˘Ù¿ ‰›· ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙË ÌÂϤÙË Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚÈ΋˜ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ (Deal, 1998). ∏ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÚÒÙˆÓ ˘ÏÒÓ Î·È ÂÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ ÌÈ·˜ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ·˜, ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ó· ·ÓÙÈÁÚ¿„ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹˜, ‰È·Î›ÓËÛ˘ ‹ ¯Ú‹Û˘ ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ (Hodder, 1982Ø Rice, 1987). ¡· ÚÔÛı¤ÛÔ˘ÌÂ Â‰Ò fiÙÈ Ù· ÛÙÔȯ›· Ô˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÔ˘Ó ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ Î·È ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· Ù˘ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋˜ ÚÔÛÔÌÔ›ˆÛ˘ (Hodder, 1982Ø µÔ˘˙·Í¿Î˘, 1998). ∏ ÂıÓÔ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ·fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË (ÂÈÎfiÓ· 1) ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ˆ˜ ÙÔ ÈÔ ÂÚÈÂÎÙÈÎfi ‰›Ô ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓۈ̿وÛË ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘, ıˆڛ·˜ Î·È ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ô˘ ˘·ÁÔ∂ÈÎ. 1: ∫·Ù·Û΢‹ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈÎÔ‡ Û·Ԣ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÚÂ‡Ô˘Ó Ù¤ÙÔȘ ·Ó·ÏÔÁÈ∫¤Ó˘· (Hodder, 1982, fig. 20, i). Τ˜ Î·È ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈΤ˜


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∏ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ

Û˘ÁÎÚ›ÛÂȘ, ηıÒ˜ ÔÈ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔÈ ÌÂÏÂÙÔ‡Ó Ù· ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓ· ÙÔ˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡ (Hodder, 1982Ø Rouse, 1972). √È ÙÚfiÔÈ, Ì ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÔ›Ô˘˜ fiÏ· Ù· ·Ú·¿Óˆ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÛÙÔ‡Ó, ÂÍ·ÚÙÒÓÙ·È ·fi ÔÏϤ˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ô˘ Â‰Ò Î·È ·‰‡Ó·ÙÔÓ Â›Ó·È, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ‰ÂÓ ı· ÂӉȤÊÂÚ ›Ûˆ˜ Ó· ·Ó·Ï˘ıÔ‡Ó. £· Ú¤ÂÈ fï˜ ηÓ›˜ Ó· ÛÙ·ı› ÛÙË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙË ıÂÙÈ΋ ‹ ·ÚÓËÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛÊÔÚ¿ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ‰›ˆÓ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜, ÛÙËÓ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ÂÚÌËÓ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ Ù˘ ÚÔ˚ÛÙÔÚ›·˜ (Hodder, 1982). ø˜ ÏÂÔÓ¤ÎÙËÌ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈ΋ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘ Ó· Â·Ó·Ï¿‚ÂÈ ¤Ó· ›ڷ̷ ÔÏϤ˜ ÊÔÚ¤˜, ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÌÔÚ¤ÛÂÈ Ó· ·ÔÌÔÓÒÛÂÈ ÙÂÏÈο Î·È Ó· ηٷÁÚ¿„ÂÈ ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ οو ·fi ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈÂ›Ù·È ÌÈ· ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ·. ™ÙËÓ ÂıÓÔ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· fï˜ Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· ·˘Ù‹ ‰ÂÓ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ·Ú¿ ÌfiÓÔ Ì¤Û· ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÚı‹ ·Ú·Ù‹ÚËÛË Î·È ÙË ‰È·Ù‡ˆÛË Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏˆÓ ÂÚˆÙ‹ÛˆÓ. ∞fi ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË, fiÔÈÔ˜ ·Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ù·È Ì ÙËÓ ÂıÓÔ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÓÙ¿ÍÂÈ ÙË ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ· Ô˘ ·Ú·ÙËÚ› ÛÙË Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· Ô˘ ·˘Ù‹ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ‹ıËÎÂ Î·È Ó· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÂÈ fiϘ ÙȘ Èı·Ó¤˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ (Hodder, 1982Ø Jones, 2002). ∂ÈϤÔÓ, fiÙ·Ó Î·Ó›˜ ·Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ù·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· Ì ¤Ó· ›ڷ̷ Â›Ó·È ÏÔÁÈÎfi Ó· ÂËÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ Î·È ÙȘ ÁÓÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ‰˘ÙÈ΋˜ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜ ÛÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ˙ÂÈ (Hodder, 1982Ø Rice, 1984Ø Vitelli, 1984 & 1994). ∫·È ÂÓÒ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂıÓÔ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁ›· ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋ χÛË, ·ÊÔ‡ ‰ÂÓ ·Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ù·È Ì ‰˘ÙÈΤ˜ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜, fï˜ ¤¯ÂÈ Â·ÓÂÈÏËÌ̤ӷ ηÙËÁÔÚËı› Î·È ÂΛÓË ÁÈ· ÂÁˆÎÂÓÙÚÈÛÌfi. ∂Ô̤ӈ˜ Î·È ÛÙË Ì›· ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Î·È ÛÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ÚÔÛÂÎÙÈÎfi˜, fiÙ·Ó ·Û¯ÔÏÂ›Ù·È Ì ÙËÓ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ¤Ú¢ӷ˜ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈ΋˜.

∆Ô ∆Ì‹Ì· ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌÔÙÈÎÔ‡ π∂∫ µfiÏÔ˘ ∆Ô ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎfi ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ∆Ì‹Ì· ÃÂÈÚÔÔ›ËÙ˘ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù˘ ™¯ÔÏ‹˜ ∂Ê·ÚÌÔÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ∆¯ÓÒÓ Ô˘ ÌÂÙÔÓÔÌ¿ÛÙËΠÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Û ¢ËÌÔÙÈÎfi π∂∫ Î·È ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ ÛÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘ (ÂÈÎfiÓ· 2), ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ¤ÚÁÔ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÙ¤ÂÈÙ· ·ÔÊÔ›ÙˆÓ, ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο ÛÙÔÓ ·ÚfiÓÙ· ÙfiÌÔ ·fi ÙËÓ Î. ÃÚ‡Û· ¢Ú·ÓÙ¿ÎË. ∂‰Ò Ì·˜ ÂӉȷʤÚÂÈ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ ÙÔ Ì¿ıËÌ· Ù˘ πÛÙÔÚ›·˜ Ù˘ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜, ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔÈ‹ıËΠÙÔ ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈÎfi ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ Ô˘ ı· Ì·˜ ··Û¯ÔÏ‹ÛÂÈ ÈÔ Î¿Ùˆ, ÛÂ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· Ì ٷ Ú·ÎÙÈο Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜.


µ¿Ûˆ ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË

111

ÃÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È fï˜ ÚÒÙ· Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó Î¿ÔÈ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈο ÛÙÔȯ›·, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Î¿ÔÈÔÈ ÛÙ·ıÌÔ› ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÚÈÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ó Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· ÙË ‰Ô˘ÏÂÈ¿ ÙˆÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ Î·È ÙË Û¯¤ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ Ì ÙÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÁÈ· Ó· Û¯ËÌ·Ù›ÛÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÌÈ· ÈÔ ÔÏÔÎÏËڈ̤ÓË ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ı¤Ì·. ∆Ô Ì¿ıËÌ· ‹Ù·Ó ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Î·È Âͤٷ˙ ÙËÓ πÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ∆¤¯Ó˘ ·fi ÙȘ ··Ú¯¤˜ Ù˘ ̤¯ÚÈ Û‹ÌÂÚ·. ŸÏ· Ù· ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ô˘ ÙÔ ‰È‰¿¯ÙËÎ·Ó ÔÈ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ¤ÁÈÓ ÌÈ· ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÔ‡Ó Ù· ΢ÚÈfiÙÂÚ· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ Û ‰‡Ô ‚·ÛÈΤ˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜: ∆Ô ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È ÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ. ŒÙÛÈ, οı ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô˜ ÂÍÂÙ·˙fiÙ·Ó ¿ÓÙÔÙ Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ÂÔ¯‹ Ù˘ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Ù˘ Î·È ÔÙ¤ ÍÂÎÔÌ̤ÓË ·fi ·˘Ù¿. ∏ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›ÛÙËΠˆ˜ ¤Ó· ‚·ÛÈÎfi ÚÔ˚fiÓ ÙÔ˘ ˘ÏÈÎÔ‡ ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÔ‡, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô ‰ËÌÈÔ‡ÚÁËÛ·Ó ÔÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ Î·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ·˘Ùfi ÚÔ˚fiÓ ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛ ÂÔ¯¤˜ Î·È ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ ̤۷ ·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÙÔ˘. ∂Ô̤ӈ˜, ÂΛÓÔ Ô˘ ÂӉȤÊÂÚ ‹Ù·Ó

∂ÈÎ. 2: ™Ô˘‰¿ÛÙÚȘ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ «Â› ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔÓ» (·fi ÙÔ ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈÎfi ·Ú¯Â›Ô ÙÔ˘ ¢π∂∫).


112

∏ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ

ÔÈ ›‰ÈÔÈ ÔÈ Ù¯ӛÙ˜ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜, Ù· ΛÓËÙÚ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È ÔÈ ÂÈı˘Ì›Â˜ ÙÔ˘˜, ÔÈ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂȤ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Î·È Ë ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙÔ˘˜ Û ۯ¤ÛË ¿ÓÙÔÙ Ì ٷ ÚÔ˚fiÓÙ· Ô˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û·Ó. ∏ ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈÎfiÙËÙ·, Ë ÔÈÎÈÏÔÌÔÚÊ›·, ÔÈ ÓˆÙÂÚÈÛÌÔ›, Ë ÔχÏ¢ÚË ¯Ú‹ÛË, Ë ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Î·È Ë ·ÁÎÔÛÌÈfiÙËÙ· ‹Ù·Ó Ù· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ÛÙÔȯ›· Ô˘ ÂÚÓÔ‡Û·Ó ÛÙÔ˘˜ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ˆ˜ ÌËӇ̷ٷ, ÎÚ·ÙÒÓÙ·˜ ·Ì›ˆÙÔ ÙÔ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ „Ë̤ÓÔ ËÏfi. ∆Ô Ì¿ıËÌ· Ù·Í›‰Â˘Â ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ¤˜ ÛÙÔ ¯ÚfiÓÔ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ ¤Î·Ó ӷ ÁÓˆÚ›ÛÔ˘Ó Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚ· Î·È Ó· ‰·Ì¿ÛÔ˘Ó Ù· Ì˘ÛÙÈο Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ·Ó¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÈÒÓ˜. ∂ÎÙfi˜ fï˜ ·fi ÙÔ Î·ı·Ú¿ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ, ÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·ÓÂ Î·È ÌÈ· ÛÂÈÚ¿ ·fi ‰Ú·ÛÙËÚÈfiÙËÙ˜ Ô˘ ‚ÔËıÔ‡Û·Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ÎÂÚ·Ì›ÛÙ˜ Ó· ·ÊÔÌÔÈÒÛÔ˘Ó Ì ‚Ȉ̷ÙÈÎfi ÙÚfiÔ fiÛ· ‰È‰¿ÛÎÔÓÙ·Ó. ∞Í›˙ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·ÊÂÚıÔ‡Ó ÌÈÎÚ¤˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›Â˜ ‹ ÛÂÌÈÓ¿ÚÈ· Ì ‰È·¯ÚÔÓÈο ı¤Ì·Ù·, fiˆ˜ «Ë πÛÙÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ∫Ô˘ÙÈÔ‡», ÂÓÓÔÒÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ Û·Ԙ Ì η¿ÎÈ, ‹ «Ë πÛÙÔÚ›· Ù˘ ∫·Ó¿Ù·˜», ¿ÓÙÔÙ ÛÂ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· Ì ٷ Ú·ÎÙÈο Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù·. ∆Ô ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ Ù˘ ∞Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ·˜ Û˘ÌÏ‹ÚˆÓ·Ó ÔÈ ÂÚÈËÁ‹ÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ªÔ˘ÛÂ›Ô ÙÔ˘ µfiÏÔ˘, ÔÈ Ôԛ˜ ·ÓÙÈηıÈÛÙÔ‡Û·Ó ÙÔ Ì¿ıËÌ· ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙË ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÚ›Ô‰Ô. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÙÔÓÈÛÙ› ÛÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ·˘Ùfi Ë Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Û ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÙÔ˘ ›‰ÈÔ˘ ªÔ˘Û›Ԣ, fiÔ˘ ÎÏ‹ıËÎ·Ó ÛÂ Û˘ÓÂÚÁ·Û›· Ì ÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ Î. ∞ÈÌÈÏ›· ∫·ÏÔÁÈ¿ÓÓË, ˘‡ı˘ÓË ÙˆÓ ∂Î·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ¶ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ, Ó· ·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎfi ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌfi Î·È ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Ó· ‚ÔËı‹ÛÔ˘Ó Ù· ·È‰È¿ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·fi ËÏfi (ÂÈÎfiÓ· 3). √ ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÌfi˜ ˘‹ÚÍ ·ÌÔÈ‚·›Ô˜! ™ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙÈ ·Ó‹ÎÔ˘Ó Î·È ÔÈ ÍÂÓ·Á‹ÛÂȘ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ÂÚÈÔ¯‹˜. ∞˘Ùfi ‚ÔËıÔ‡Û ÛÙÔ Ó· ·ÔÎÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË ÂÈÎfiÓ· ÙˆÓ ¯ÚÔÓÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÂÚÈfi‰ˆÓ ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ Î·È Ó· ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÔ˘Ó ÙË ‰È΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ¿Ô„Ë ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÚfiÏÔ Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ÛÙȘ ·Ú¯·›Â˜ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ˜. ™Â ¤Ó· ¿ÏÏÔ ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ·Ó‹Î·Ó ÔÈ ÂÈÛΤ„ÂȘ Û ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈ· ·ÁÁÂÈÔÏ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ̤۷ Î·È ¤Íˆ ·fi ÙÔ µfiÏÔ Ô˘ ÛÎÔfi ›¯·Ó ÙË ÁÓˆÚÈÌ›· ÙˆÓ ·È‰ÈÒÓ Ì ÙȘ ·ÏÈfiÙÂÚ˜ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÏÏÔÓÙÈÎÔ‡ ÙÔ˘˜ Â·ÁÁ¤ÏÌ·ÙÔ˜ Î·È Ì ÙËÓ ÂÍÔÈΛˆÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙȘ «ÎÂÚ·ÌÈΤ˜ Û˘Ó¤¯ÂȘ». ∂‰Ò Ë ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË, fiˆ˜ ı· ‰Ô‡Ì ÈÔ Î¿Ùˆ, ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁÔ‡Û ˆ˜ οÙÈ ˙ˆÓÙ·Ófi Î·È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ, ··Ú·›ÙËÙÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¤¯Ó˘ ·Ó¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÈÒÓ˜. ∞ӷʤÚÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ÂΉÚÔÌ‹ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÁÈ¿, ÛÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ÙÔ˘ ·ÁÁÂÈÔÏ¿ÛÙË Î. ∂˘¿ÁÁÂÏÔ˘ ¶··¯Ú‹ÛÙÔ˘ (ÂÈÎfiÓ· 4), Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜,


µ¿Ûˆ ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË

113

·Ó Î·È Û˘ÓÙ·ÍÈÔ‡¯Ô˜ È·, ‹Ù·Ó Úfiı˘ÌÔ˜ Ó· Ì·˜ ‰Â¯Ù› Î·È Ó· Ì·˜ ‰Â›ÍÂÈ ÙËÓ Ù¤¯ÓË ÙÔ˘. ™ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ·Ó‹ÎÂÈ ÙÔ ÛÂÌÈÓ¿ÚÈÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Èı·ÚÈÒÓ Ô˘ ‰fiıËΠÛÙÔ ¢π∂∫ ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂȉÈÎfi ÛÙÔÓ ÙÔ̤· ·˘Ùfi ‰ËÌÔÊÈÏ‹ ·ÁÁÂÈÔÏ¿ÛÙË Î. °È¿ÓÓË ™Ù·ÁÁ›‰Ë, Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ Ó· ÚÔÛı¤Ûˆ fiÙÈ ‰›‰·ÛΠ·ÏÈfiÙÂÚ· ÙÚÔ¯fi ÛÙÔ ∆Ì‹Ì·. ∂Ì›˜ ·ÓÙ·Ô‰ÒÛ·Ì Ì ÙËÓ Â›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÛÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈfi ÙÔ˘ ÛÙ· ¶·ÏÈ¿ÌÂÏ· ¶ÈÂÚ›·˜, fiÔ˘ ÔÈ Ì·ıËÙ¤˜ ‰È‰¿¯ÙËÎ·Ó fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷΤ˜ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Î·Ù·Û΢‹ Èı·ÚÈÒÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÂÈÚ·Ì·ÙÈΤ˜ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·Ó·‚›ˆÛË Ù˘ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ÛÙËÓ ·Ú¯·ÈfiÙËÙ·. π‰È·›ÙÂÚË ¤ÌÊ·ÛË ‰fiıËΠ·fi ÙÔÓ ·ÁÁÂÈÔÏ¿ÛÙË ÛÙȘ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Î·È ‰È·ÎfiÛÌËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÓÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜, ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ Ô˘ ¤Ì·ı ηϿ Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ·Ú¯·ÈÔÏfiÁÔ˘˜ Ô˘ Ûο‚Ô˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ÔÌÒÓ˘ÌË ı¤ÛË.

∂ÈÎ. 3: ∂›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÛÙÔÓ ∞Ú¯·ÈÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ªÔ˘Û›Ô: ∫·Ù·Û΢‹ ‹ÏÈÓˆÓ ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌ¤ÓˆÓ ·fi Ù· ·È‰È¿ Ì ÙË ‚Ô‹ıÂÈ· ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ.


114

∏ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋ ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋ ˆ˜ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ

£· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û· Ó· ÌÈÏ¿ˆ ÁÈ· ÒÚ˜ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ÂÌÂÈڛ˜ Ô˘ ·ÔÎfiÌÈÛ· Ù· 24 ¯ÚfiÓÈ· Ù˘ ıËÙ›·˜ ÌÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ¢ËÌÔÙÈÎfi π∂∫. ∆Ô ı¤Ì· Ì·˜ fï˜ Â‰Ò Â›Ó·È ¿ÏÏÔ. ◊ıÂÏ· ÌfiÓÔ ÚÈÓ ÚÔ¯ˆÚ‹Ûˆ Ó· οӈ ÌÈ· ÌÈÎÚ‹ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ Û ÌÈ· ŒÎıÂÛË Ô˘ ÁÈ· ̤ӷ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÛÙ·ıÌfi ÛÙËÓ ÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Î·È Ô˘ ÈÛÙ‡ˆ fiÙÈ ÙËÓ ›‰È· ¿Ô„Ë ¤¯Ô˘Ó ¤Ú· ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ÔÓÙ˜ Î·È ÔÏÏÔ› ¿ÏÏÔÈ. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¤ÎıÂÛË Ô˘ ‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛÂ Ë ∫ÔÈÓfiÙËÙ· ª·ÎÚ˘Ó›ÙÛ·˜ Ì ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›· Ù˘ ∞ÛË̛ӷ˜ ∫ÔÓÙÔ˙‹ÛË Î·È ÙË Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ Ù˘ £¿ÏÂÈ·˜ ª·ÎÚ‹-™ÎÔÙÈÓÈÒÙË, ÁÈ· ÙË Û˘ÌÏ‹ÚˆÛË 12 ¯ÚfiÓˆÓ ·fi ÙÔ ı¿Ó·ÙÔ ÙÔ˘ Ï·ÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘ ∫›ÙÛÔ˘ ª·ÎÚ‹, ÂÌÓ¢ÛÙ‹ ÙÔ˘ ∆Ì‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ (¶·ÏÈÔ‡Ú·˜ & ƒÔÓÙ‹ÚË, 2001). ∞ӷʤڈ ÙËÓ ¤ÎıÂÛË ÁÈ· ‰˘Ô ÏfiÁÔ˘˜: ¶ÚÒÙÔÓ, ÁÈ·Ù› ¤ÁÈÓ Ì ٷ ¤ÚÁ· ‰‡Ô Ì·ıËÙÒÓ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÚÒÙÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÙÌ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ∫ÂÚ·ÌÈ΋˜ ÛÙËÓ ÙfiÙ ™¯ÔÏ‹ ∂Ê·ÚÌÔÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ∆¯ÓÒÓ, ÙÔ˘ ™Ù¤ÚÁÈÔ˘

∂ÈÎ. 4: ∂›ÛÎÂ„Ë ÛÙÔ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ·ÁÁÂÈÔÏ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘ Î. ∂. ¶··¯Ú‹ÛÙÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÁÈ¿ §¿ÚÈÛ·˜.

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