Page 1

¶ÚfiÏÔÁÔ˜

T· ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛ·ÚÌÔṲ̂ӷ ÛÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ÛÔ˘‰ÒÓ ÙˆÓ Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ Û¯ÔÏÒÓ. TÔ Î¤ÓÙÚÔ ‚¿ÚÔ˘˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·, Ô˘ ηıÔÚ›˙ÂÙ·È Î˘Ú›ˆ˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ E˘Úˆ·˚ÎÔ‡˜ K·ÓÔÓÈÛÌÔ‡˜ (EN), Ô˘ ÛÙËÓ EÏÏ¿‰· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ E§OT EN. ¶·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ·, ÛÙÔ ¯ÒÚÔ ÙˆÓ ÂÁηٷÛÙ¿ÛˆÓ, ÔÈ ÈÛ¯‡ÔÓÙ˜ ηÓÔÓÈÛÌÔ› ÙˆÓ ·¤ÚÈˆÓ Î·˘Û›ÌˆÓ ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË ¯Ú‹ÛË ÙˆÓ ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔȯˆÓ ηÓÔÓÈÛÌÒÓ DIN. H ‰È¿Ù·ÍË Ù˘ ‡Ï˘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο. ¶Ôχ¯ÚˆÌ˜ ʈÙÔÁڷʛ˜, Û¯¤‰È·, ›Ó·Î˜ Î·È ‰È·ÁÚ¿ÌÌ·Ù· ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔ Î›ÌÂÓÔ Î·È ‚ÔËıÔ‡Ó ÙÔ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ‹ Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÂÈ ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ô˘ ÌÂÏÂÙ¿. ªÂ ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ‡Ï˘ ηχÙÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ ÛÎÔÔ› ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÒÛÙ ÌÂÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚˆÛË Ù˘ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ ÔÈ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙ¤˜ Ó· Â›Ó·È ÈηÓÔ› Ó·: ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó Ù· ̤ÚË ÙˆÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙˆÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ñ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ›‰Ë ÙˆÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ η˘Û›ÌˆÓ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó Ù· ̤ÚË ÙˆÓ ·ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÒÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙˆÓ ·ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÒÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó Ù· ̤ÚË ÙˆÓ ÈÂÛÙÈÎÒÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó ÙË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙˆÓ ÈÂÛÙÈÎÒÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ñ ‰ÈÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ó Ù· ›‰Ë ÙˆÓ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ñ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÔ˘Ó Ù· ̤ÚË ÙˆÓ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ñ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ı¤ÛÔ˘Ó Û ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÌ· η˘ÛÙ‹Ú· – Ϥ‚ËÙ· ñ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· Û˘ÓÙËÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙÔ Û˘ÁÎÚfiÙËÌ· η˘ÛÙ‹Ú· - Ϥ‚ËÙ· ñ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ·›ÚÓÔ˘Ó ÌÂÙÚ‹ÛÂȘ η˘Û·ÂÚ›ˆÓ ñ ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙȘ ··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ ÂÁηٿÛÙ·Û˘ Ï‚ËÙÔÛÙ·Û›ˆÓ ñ ‰È·ÛÙ·ÛÈÔÏÔÁÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ Î·ÓÔ‰fi¯Ô ÙÔ˘ Ϥ‚ËÙ· ñ Â›Ó·È ÈηÓÔ› Ó· ÂÈϤÍÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ Î·Ù¿ÏÏËÏÔ Ï¤‚ËÙ· – η˘ÛÙ‹Ú· ÁÈ· οı ÂÁηٿÛÙ·ÛË. E˘¯·ÚÈÛÙԇ̠ÂÎ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÙ¤ÚˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜ ¯Ú‹ÛÙ˜ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ Ô˘ ı· ÙÔ ÌÂÏÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó Î·È ı· Ì·˜ ÂÓËÌÂÚÒÛÔ˘Ó Û¯ÂÙÈο Ì Èı·Ó¤˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›Â˜ ‹ ·Ú·Ï›„ÂȘ.

°ÂÒÚÁÈÔ˜ ¶·Ú›ÎÔ˜


¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ - ™ÎÔfi˜ ..........................................9

ª¤ÚÔ˜ ∞: ∫∞À™∆∏ƒ∂™ ............................11 1 2

√ ¯ÒÚÔ˜ η‡Û˘ ÁÈ· ÛÙÂÚ¿ η‡ÛÈÌ· .12 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ......................14

2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.2.5

∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú·˜ ÂÍ¿ÙÌÈÛ˘ ..............................14 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ „ÂηÛÌÔ‡...............................14 ∞ÎÚÔʇÛÈÔ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘.............................14 ƒ‡ıÌÈÛË ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›·˜ η˘Û›ÌÔ˘/·¤Ú· .........15 ∫›ÙÚÈÓÔÈ Î·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ...................................16 ªÏ η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ .......................................16 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ Û˘ÌÈÂṲ̂ÓÔ˘ ·¤Ú· Î·È „ÂηÛÌÔ‡ ............................................17 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÂÚÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹˜-„ÂηÛÌÔ‡........18 ™ˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜........................18 ªÔÓÔÎÏ·‰ÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ................................................18 µ·Ï‚›‰· ‰È·ÎÔ‹˜ Ù˘ ·ÚÔ¯‹˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ................................................19 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ·ÛÊ·Ï›·˜ ·ÁˆÁÒÓ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ................................................19 ¢ÈÎÏ·‰ÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ................................................20

2.2.6 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4

3

∞ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ .....21

3.1 3.2 3.3

°ÂÓÈο.........................................................21 ∂›‰Ë ·ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÒÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ .............21 ∞ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ „ÂηÛÌÔ‡ ‹ ·Ó·ÚÚÔÊ‹Ûˆ˜ ....................21 ¢Â˘ÙÂÚ‡ˆÓ ·¤Ú·˜ ...................................21 ∆Ô ·ÎÚÔʇÛÈÔ............................................21 ∞ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ Ì ÎÂÚ·ÌÈΤ˜ Ú¿‚‰Ô˘˜..............................22 ∞ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ Ì ÚÔ·Ó¿ÌÈÍË ·¤Ú· ......................................22 ∂Ûٛ˜ (η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜) Û˘Û΢ÒÓ ÁÈ· Ì·Á›ÚÂÌ· ‹ „‹ÛÈÌÔ ...........................22 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ (ÂÛٛ˜) Û ÎÔ˘˙›Ó˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘.........................................23 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÎÔ˘˙›Ó·˜ Ì ÎÂÚ·ÌÈ΋-Á˘¿ÏÈÓË Ͽη...........................24 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÎÔ˘˙ÈÓÒÓ-ıÂÚÌ·ÛÙÚÒÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘.24 ∞ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ η˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ÛÙȘ ÎÔ˘˙›Ó˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ .................................24

3.3.2 3.3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10

4

¶ÈÂÛÙÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ (Ì ·ÓÂÌÈÛÙ‹Ú·) ..................................26

4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2

§ÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· η˘ÛÙ‹Ú· Ì ·ÓÂÌÈÛÙ‹Ú· ......26 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ‰ÈÏÔ‡ η˘Û›ÌÔ˘....................26 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ‰ÈÏ‹˜ ‚·ıÌ›‰·˜....................26 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ¤Ó·˘Û˘ 1Ô˘ η 2Ô˘ ·ÎÚÔÊ˘Û›Ô˘ Î·È Ú˘ıÌ›ÛÂȘ ȤÛÂˆÓ .........26

5

¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ·ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ·˜, ·Ó¿ÊÏÂ͢ Î·È ÂÈÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÊÏfiÁ·˜ ...............28

5.1

£ÂÚÌÔËÏÂÎÙÚÈ΋ ·ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ·

5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

·Ó¿ÊÏÂ͢ .................................................28 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ÂÈÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ Ù˘ ÊÏfiÁ·˜...........29 µ·Ï‚›‰· ‚Ú·‰Â›·˜ ·Ó¿ÊÏÂ͢ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ .....30 ∞ÛÊ¿ÏÂȘ ·ÓÙÂÈÛÙÚÔÊ‹˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘...........30 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ·Ó¿ÊÏÂ͢ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘....................30

6

µÈÔÌ˯·ÓÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ....................32

6.1

∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·Ó¿ÌÂÈ͢ ÛÎfiÓ˘ ¿Óıڷη Î·È ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘...........................32 º˘ÁÔÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ (ÎÒÓÔ˘ ‹ ΢¤ÏÔ˘) ................32 ¶ÈÂÛÙÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ .............33 ¶ÈÂÛÙÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘.....................33 ∫·˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÎÙÈÓÔ‚ÔÏ›·˜ ..........................33 ¶ÈÂÛÙÈÎÔ› η˘ÛÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ¯·ÌËÏÔ‡ ¡√x Ì Â·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ...............34

6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6

ª¤ÚÔ˜ µ: §∂µ∏∆∂™ ................................35 7

™È‰ËÚÔ‡¯· ˘ÏÈο ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ - Ã˘ÙÔÛȉËÚÔ› Î·È ¯·Ï‡‚‰ÈÓÔÈ Ï¤‚ËÙ˜.............................36

7.1 7.2 7.3 7.3.1

°ÂÓÈο.........................................................36 ∫·Ù¿Ù·ÍË ÙˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ................................36 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓÔ‡˜ Ûȉ‹ÚÔ˘...........37 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓÔ‡˜ Ûȉ‹ÚÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ ˘„ÈοÌÈÓÔ ..........................................37 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓÔ‡˜ Ûȉ‹ÚÔ˘ Ì ·¢ı›·˜ ·Ó·ÁˆÁ‹ .............................39 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ¯¿Ï˘‚·....................................39 ªÂÙ·ÙÚÔ‹ ÚˆÙÔÁÂÓÔ‡˜ Ûȉ‹ÚÔ˘ Û ¯¿Ï˘‚·...................................39 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ¯¿Ï˘‚· Ì ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ÂÌÊ˘Û‹Ûˆ˜ Ô͢ÁfiÓÔ˘.............................40 ¶·Ú·ÁˆÁ‹ ¯¿Ï˘‚· Ì ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ËÏÂÎÙÚÈÎÔ‡ ÙfiÍÔ˘ ......................................41 ¶ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ú¢ÛÙÔ‡ ¯¿Ï˘‚·.................................41 ·) ∞ÔÍ›‰ˆÛË ..........................................41 ‚) ∞·¤ÚˆÛË Ì ÎÂÓfi ...............................42 ÇÙ¢ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯¿Ï˘‚· ÛÙÔ ¯·Ï˘‚Ô˘ÚÁÂ›Ô .42 ∂ÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÁÈ· ÚÔ˚fiÓÙ· ¯¿Ï˘‚·..........42 ŒÏ·ÛË ÂÓ ıÂÚÌÒ .......................................43 ∫·Ù·Û΢‹ ۈϋӈÓ-§Â‚ËÙÔÔÈ˝·˜ Î·È ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ η˘Û›ÌˆÓ.......................................44 æ˘¯Ú‹ ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË..................................45 ∆˘ÔÔ›ËÛË ÚÔ˚fiÓÙˆÓ ¯¿Ï˘‚· (Ù˘ÔÔ›ËÛË ÌÔÚÊÒÓ)...............................46 ∫·Ù¿Ù·ÍË Î·È Û‡ÓıÂÛË ÙˆÓ ¯·Ï‡‚ˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ¯˘ÙÔÛȉ‹ÚˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ....................47 ∫·ı·ÚÔ› ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ......................................47 ∫Ú·Ì·ÙÔ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ......................................48 ∫·ÙËÁÔڛ˜ ÔÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ¯¿Ï˘‚·.................48 Ã¿Ï˘‚˜ ηٷÛ΢ÒÓ Î·È Ï‚ËÙÔÛÙ·Û›ˆÓ48 ∫·ı·ÚÔ› ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ÛȉËÚÒÓ Î·Ù·Û΢ÒÓ..48

7.3.2 7.4 7.4.1 7.4.2 7.4.3 7.4.4

7.4.5 7.5 7.5.1 7.5.2 7.5.3 7.5.4 7.6 7.6.1 7.6.2 7.6.3 7.7 7.7.1


7 7.7.2

Ã¿Ï˘‚˜ Ï‚ËÙÔÛÙ·Û›ˆÓ Î·È Ì˯·ÓÒÓ .....49 ·) Ã¿Ï˘‚˜ ‚ÂÏÙÈÒÛˆ˜............................49 ‚) ∫·ı·ÚÔ› ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ‚ÂÏÙÈÒÛˆ˜ .............49 Á) ∫Ú·Ì·ÙÔ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ‚ÂÏÙÈÒÛˆ˜ .............49 ‰) Ã¿Ï˘‚˜ ÂÓ·˙ˆÙÒÛˆ˜ ........................50 ∞ÓÔÍ›‰ˆÙÔÈ ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ ................................50 Ã˘ÙÔÛȉËÚ¿ ˘ÏÈο .....................................52 Ã˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˜ Ì ÁÚ·Ê›ÙË Û ʇÏÏ· (Ê·Èfi˜ ¯˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˜).................................52 Ã˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˜ Ì ÛÊ·ÈÚÔÂȉ‹ ÁÚ·Ê›ÙË......52 ª·Ï·ÎÙfi˜ ¯˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˜............................53 Ã˘ÙÔ¯¿Ï˘‚·˜.............................................53 ™˘ÓÙÔÌÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÙˆÓ ¯˘ÙÔÛȉËÚÒÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ........................................................53 ∞ÚÈıÌÔ› ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ÁÈ· ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ Î·È ¯˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˘˜............................................54 ∫‡ÚȘ ÔÌ¿‰Â˜ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ..............................55 ∞ÚÈıÌÔ› ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ ÁÈ· ¯¿Ï˘‚˜ Î·È ¯˘ÙÔÛ›‰ËÚÔ˘˜............................................55 ∞ÚÈıÌÔ› ··ÚÈıÌ‹Ûˆ˜.............................55 Ã˘ÙÔÛȉËÚÔ› Î·È ¯·Ï‡‚‰ÈÓÔÈ Ï¤‚ËÙ˜ .......55

9.5.4 9.5.5

8

ªË ÛȉËÚÔ‡¯· ̤ٷÏÏ· (ª™ ̤ٷÏÏ·) .57

8.1 8.2 8.3 8.3.1 8.3.2

√ÓÔÌ·Û›· Î·È Û˘ÓÙÔÌÔÁÚ·Ê›·..................57 °ÂÓÈΤ˜ ȉÈfiÙËÙ˜.......................................58 ÷ÏÎfi˜ Î·È ÎÚ¿Ì·Ù· ¯·ÏÎÔ‡ ....................58 ÷ÏÎfi˜ .......................................................58 √Ú›¯·ÏÎÔ˜ (∫Ú¿Ì·Ù· ¯·ÏÎÔ‡„¢‰·ÚÁ‡ÚÔ˘)...........................................59 ªÚÔ‡ÓÙ˙ÔÈ-∫Ú·ÙÂÚÒÌ·Ù· (∫Ú¿Ì·Ù· ¯·ÏÎÔ‡-ηÛÛÈÙ¤ÚÔ˘) ................60 ∞ÏÔ˘Ì›ÓÈÔ Î·È ÎÚ¿Ì·Ù· ·ÏÔ˘ÌÈÓ›Ô˘ ..........60 ∫·ı·Úfi ·ÏÔ˘Ì›ÓÈÔ.....................................60 ∫Ú¿Ì·Ù· ·ÏÔ˘ÌÈÓ›Ô˘ .................................61 §ÔÈ¿ ̤ٷÏÏ· Ì ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ¤˜ ÛÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÈ΋ .......................................................63

10.8 10.9

7.7.3 7.8 7.8.1 7.8.2 7.8.3 7.8.4 7.8.5 7.9 7.9.1 7.9.2 7.9.3 7.10

8.3.3 8.4 8.4.1 8.4.2 8.5

9

∫·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈ΋ ‰È·ÌfiÚʈÛË Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ...............................................64

9.1 9.1.1 9.1.2 9.2 9.3 9.3.1 9.3.2

∫·ÙËÁÔڛ˜ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ.................................64 ºÔÚ¤·˜ ıÂÚÌfiÙËÙ·˜ ‹ ıÂÚÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ̤ÛÔ .64 ∫·ÙËÁÔڛ˜ η‡ÛÈÌˆÓ ˘ÏÒÓ......................65 ∫·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙÈΤ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ............67 √ ı¿Ï·ÌÔ˜ η‡Û˘ ...................................68 §¤‚ËÙ·˜ Ì ÊÏÔÁÔۈϋӷ .......................69 §¤‚ËÙ·˜ Ì ÊÏÔÁÔۈϋӷ Î·È ·ÂÚÈ·˘ÏÔ‡˜................................................70 À‰Ú·˘ÏˆÙÔ› Ϥ‚ËÙ˜.................................70 §¤‚ËÙ˜ Ê˘ÛÈ΋˜ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›·˜ ................70 §¤‚ËÙ˜ Ì ˘‰ÚÔı·Ï¿ÌÔ˘˜-Û˘ÏϤÎÙ˜ ....71 §¤‚ËÙ˜ Ì ηٷÎfiÚ˘ÊÔ˘˜ ۈϋÓ˜ .......71 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ·ÎÙÈÓÔ‚ÔÏ›·˜...............................72 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ÂÍ·Ó·ÁηṲ̂Ó˘ ΢ÎÏÔÊÔÚ›·˜ ..72 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ÌÔÓÔۈϋÓÈÔÈ (ÂÍ·Ó·ÁηṲ̂Ó˘ ‰È·‰ÚÔÌ‹˜) ..................73 µÔËıËÙÈο Ì˯·Ó‹Ì·Ù· Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ .............74 ∞ÓÙÏ›· ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ÓÂÚÔ‡ ......................74 ¶ÚÔıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ ÓÂÚÔ‡ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ....74 ¶ÚÔıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ ·¤Ú·.............................75

9.4 9.4.1 9.4.2 9.4.3 9.4.4 9.4.5 9.4.6 9.5 9.5.1 9.5.2 9.5.3

9.5.6 9.5.7

º˘ÛËÙ‹Ú˜ ·Èı¿Ï˘ (·ÓÂÌÈÛÙ‹Ú·˜) .........75 ÀÂÚıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜.....................................76 ·) ÀÂÚıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ ·ÎÙÈÓÔ‚ÔÏ›·˜..........77 ‚) ÀÂÚıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ ÌÂÙ·ÊÔÚ¿˜ ‹ Â·Ê‹˜...............................................77 ∂ÁηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ê›ÏÙÚˆÓ ÛÎfiÓ˘ ..............77 ¶ÚÔ·Ú·Û΢‹ ÙÔ˘ ÓÂÚÔ‡ .......................78

10

§¤‚ËÙ˜ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ÁÈ· ı¤ÚÌ·ÓÛË ¯ÒÚˆÓ Î·È ˙ÂÛÙÔ‡ ÓÂÚÔ‡....................79

10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4

∂›‰Ë Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ................................79 ∞ÙÔÌÈÎÔ› Ϥ‚ËÙ˜ (ηÏÔÚÈʤÚ)..................79 ™˘Ó‰˘·Ṳ̂ÓÔÈ ·ÙÔÌÈÎÔ› Ϥ‚ËÙ˜...............80 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ ıÂÚÌ¿ÓÛÂˆÓ Ì ·¤ÚÈÔ .....................................................83 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ ıÂÚÌ¿ÓÛÂˆÓ Ì ÈÂÛÙÈÎfi η˘ÛÙ‹Ú· ...............................83 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ ıÂÚÌ¿ÓÛÂˆÓ Ì ·ÙÌÔÛÊ·ÈÚÈÎfi η˘ÛÙ‹Ú·......................83 §¤‚ËÙ˜ ˘ÁÚÔÔÈ‹Ûˆ˜ ˘‰Ú·ÙÌÒÓ Ì ·¤ÚÈÔ .....................................................84 £ÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ Ì ·¤ÚÈÔ .................85 ªÂÙ·ÙÚÔ‹ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ·fi η‡ÛÈÌÔ ÂÙڤϷÈÔ ÛÂ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ·¤ÚÈÔ ......................87

10.5 10.6 10.7

ª¤ÚÔ˜ °: ∂°∫∞∆∞™∆∞™∏ §∂µ∏∆ø¡ ∫∞π ∫∞À™∆∏ƒø¡.....................89 11

∂ÍÔÏÈÛÌfi˜ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ Î·È Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ..90

11.1 11.2

∂›‰Ô˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ Ù˘ ÂÁηٿÛÙ·Û˘.....90 £ÂÚÌÔÎÚ·Û›· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ Î·È Â›‰Ô˜ η˘Û›ÌÔ˘....................................................91 ŸÚÁ·Ó· ·ÛÊ·Ï›·˜ Î·È ÂϤÁ¯Ô˘ ..............92 ¢Ô¯Â›· ‰È·ÛÙÔÏ‹˜......................................92 µ·Ï‚›‰Â˜ ·ÛÊ·Ï›·˜.................................94 ƒ˘ıÌÈÛÙ‹˜ ıÂÚÌÔÎÚ·Û›·˜.........................95 À‰ÚÔÛÙ¿Ù˘ ·ÛÊ·Ï›·˜............................95 ª·ÓfiÌÂÙÚÔ Î·È ÂÍ·ÂÚÈÛÙ‹Ú˜ ..................95 ƒ˘ıÌÈÛÙ‹˜ ·¤Ú· η‡Û˘...........................96

11.3 11.3.1 11.3.2 11.3.3 11.3.4 11.3.5 11.3.6

12

£¤ÛË Û ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Î·È Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ-Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ ...........................98

12.1 12.2 12.3 12.4

°ÂÓÈο.........................................................98 ƒ‡ıÌÈÛË Î·˘ÛÙ‹Ú· ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘................98 ª¤ıÔ‰ÔÈ Ú‡ıÌÈÛ˘ η˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ....98 √ÁÎÔÌÂÙÚÈ΋ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Ú‡ıÌÈÛ˘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ η‡Û˘ ..........................................99 ƒ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ η‡Û˘ Ì ÙË Ì¤ıÔ‰Ô ÙÔ˘ ·ÎÚÔÊ˘Û›Ô˘...............100 £¤ÛË Û ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· Ù˘ ÂÁηٿÛÙ·Û˘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘.............................101 ∂ÈÛÚÔ‹ ÓÂÚÔ‡ ÛÙȘ ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ .............101 ƒ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘Û΢ÒÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ..............103 ∂›‰ÂÈÍË ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ ÛÙÔ ¯Ú‹ÛÙË ..........103 ŒÏÂÁ¯Ô˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ..............................103 ªÂÙÚ‹ÛÂȘ η˘Û·ÂÚ›ˆÓ ..........................103 ŸÚÁ·Ó· ̤ÙÚËÛ˘ ..................................103 ª¤ÙÚËÛË ·Èı¿Ï˘....................................103

12.5 12.6 12.6.1 12.6.2 12.6.3 12.6.4 12.7 12.7.1 12.7.2


8 12.7.3 ª¤ÙÚËÛË ‰ÈÔÍÂȉ›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ ¿Óıڷη (CO2).....................................104 12.7.4 ª¤ÙÚËÛË ıÂÚÌÔÎÚ·Û›·˜ η˘Û·ÂÚ›ˆÓ ....105 12.8 ™˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË Î·˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ-Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ............107

15.3

13

™ˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ η˘Û›ÌˆÓ ...........................................109

15.3.2

13.1 13.2 13.2.1 13.2.2

°ÂÓÈο.......................................................109 ∆ÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›· ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘.........................109 À·›ıÚȘ ‰ÂÍ·ÌÂÓ¤˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ..........109 ¢ÂÍ·ÌÂÓ¤˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ·fi Ï·ÛÙÈο ÂÓÙfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘ ....................................109 ÷χ‚‰ÈÓ˜ ‰ÂÍ·ÌÂÓ¤˜ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ÂÓÙfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘ ....................................110 ™ˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ .........................110 ∆ÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›· ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ................................111 √È ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘............................113 ∆· ˘ÏÈο ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ Î·È ÔÈ ÙÚfiÔÈ Û‡Ó‰ÂÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘˜..................113 ∂͈ÙÂÚÈΤ˜ ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ............113 ∂ÛˆÙÂÚÈΤ˜ ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂȘ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ............115 √‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛË ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎÒÓ ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ..........115 ¶ÚÔÛÙ·Û›· ·fi ‰È¿‚ÚˆÛË ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ...............................117 ∫·ıÔ‰È΋ ·ÓÙȉȷ‚ÚˆÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛÙ·Û›· ....117 ∂›‰Ë ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ Û‡Ó‰ÂÛ˘ Û˘Û΢ÒÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ....................................118 ªfiÓÈÌË Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ..118 §˘fiÌÂÓË Û‡Ó‰ÂÛË ÛˆÏËÓÒÛÂˆÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ 118

13.2.3 13.2.4 13.3 13.4 13.4.1 13.4.2 13.4.3 13.4.4 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.7.1 13.7.2

14

√‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÂÁηٿÛÙ·Û˘ Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ Î·È Î·ÓÔ‰fi¯ˆÓ................................120

14.1

°ÂÓÈÎÔ› ηÓfiÓ˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛ˘ ...........................................120 ¶ÚfiÛıÂÙ˜ Ô‰ËÁ›Â˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ¯ÒÚÔ˘˜ ÙÔÔı¤ÙËÛ˘ Û˘Û΢ÒÓ ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ .............121 ™ˆÏ‹Ó˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ (ηÓ·ÁˆÁÔ›).......121 °ÂÓÈΤ˜ ‰È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ··ÁˆÁ‹˜ η˘Û·ÂÚ›ˆÓ122 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ·¤Ú· η‡Û˘ Î·È Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ˘ ÂÍ·ÁˆÁ‹˜ η˘Û·ÂÚ›ˆÓ ...123 ¢È·Ù¿ÍÂȘ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ‰Â˘ÙÂÚ‡ÔÓÙÔ˜ ·¤Ú·.........................................................124 ∞·ÁˆÁ‹ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ Ì ۈϋÓ˜ ‰È·Ì¤ÛÔ˘ ÛÙ¤Á˘.....................................126 ∞ÁˆÁÔ› ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ ÁÈ· ηÓ·¤ÚÈ· ¯·ÌËÏ‹˜ ıÂÚÌÔÎÚ·Û›·˜ ..........................126

14.2 14.3 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9

15.3.1

15.3.3 15.4 15.4.1 15.4.2 15.4.3 15.4.4 15.4.5 15.4.6 15.5 15.5.1 15.5.2

∫·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛË Î·˘Û›ÌˆÓ-ŸÁÎÔ˜ ·ÔıÂÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ ........................130 ∞Ó¿ÁΘ Û η‡ÛÈÌ· ÁÈ· ÙË ı¤ÚÌ·ÓÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘...............................................130 ∞Ó¿ÁΘ Û η‡ÛÈ̘ ‡Ï˜ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ˙¤ÛÙ·Ì· ÓÂÚÔ‡ ........................................130 ∞Ó¿ÁΘ Û η‡ÛÈÌ· ÁÈ· Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· ı¤ÚÌ·ÓÛ˘ Ì ͇ÏÔ.................................131 §‡ÛË ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÏ¿ÙË...............................132 ∂ÂÍÂÚÁ·Û›· ÙˆÓ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÎÙÈÚ›Ô˘132 ÀÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÙ‹ÛÈˆÓ ·Ó·ÁÎÒÓ Û η‡ÛÈÌË ‡ÏË .......................................132 ¶·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ ÂÁηٿÛÙ·Û˘ 133 ™˘˙‹ÙËÛË Ì ÙÔÓ ÂÏ¿ÙË.........................133 §›ÛÙ· ··ÈÙÔ‡ÌÂÓˆÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ...................133 ™Ù¿‰È· ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ .....................................133 ∂ÍÂÙ·˙fiÌÂÓ˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ.....................134 ∂ÍÂÙ·˙fiÌÂÓË ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË 1......................134 ∂ÍÂÙ·˙fiÌÂÓË ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË 2......................136

16

∂ÁηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ-η˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ η˘Û›ÌˆÓ ..............................137

16.1 16.1.1 16.1.2 16.2 16.3 16.4 16.4.1

™¯Â‰›·ÛË Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ...................................137 ™‡ÓÙ·ÍË ÙˆÓ Û¯Â‰›ˆÓ..............................137 ™‡ÓÙ·ÍË Î·Ù·ÏfiÁÔ˘ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ....................138 ∫·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛË ·ÂÚ›Ô˘ ÁÈ· ı¤ÚÌ·ÓÛË........140 πÛ¯‡˜ Û˘Û΢ÒÓ Î·È ‚·ıÌfi˜ ·fi‰ÔÛ˘ 142 ∆È̤˜ Û‡Ó‰ÂÛ˘ Î·È Ú‡ıÌÈÛ˘ ................144 ∫·Ù·Ó¿ÏˆÛË ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘ Î·È ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ·ÎÚÔʇÛÈˆÓ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ Î·˘ÛÙ‹Ú· ..............147 ∞ÒÏÂȘ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ‚·ıÌfi˜ ·fi‰ÔÛ˘ Ù˘ ÂÛÙ›·˜..............................149 ŸÁÎÔ˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ÛˆÏ‹Ó˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ..............................................152 §‡ÛË ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÏ¿ÙË...............................154 ¶ÚÒÙ˜ ÛΤ„ÂȘ Î·È ÙÚfiÔ˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜ ..154 ™˘˙‹ÙËÛË ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ ÂÏ¿ÙË .......................155 ÀÔÏÔÁÈÛÌÔ› ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ï¤‚ËÙ·.....................156 ™˘ÁΤÓÙÚˆÛË ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ..............................156 ∆ÔÔı¤ÙËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ϥ‚ËÙ· .........................156 £¤ÛË Û ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘ Ϥ‚ËÙ· ............158 £¤Ì·Ù· ÁÈ· ıÂÚÌ·ÓÙ‹Ú˜ Î·È Ï¤‚ËÙ˜...159 ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ı¤Ì·ÙÔ˜ 1...........................159 ¶·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ı¤Ì·ÙÔ˜ 2...........................160

16.4.2 16.4.3 16.5 16.5.1 16.5.2 16.5.3 16.5.4 16.5.5 16.5.6 16.6 16.6.1 16.6.2

17

¢È·ÛÙ·ÛÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Î·ÓÔ‰fi¯Ô˘ ........162

17.1

∞ÒÏÂȘ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ‚·ıÌfi˜ ·Ô‰fiÛˆ˜ ÂÛÙ›·˜ ..................................162 ŸÁÎÔ˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ Î·È ÛˆÏ‹Ó˜ ηÓ·ÂÚ›ˆÓ..............................................163 ¢È·ÙÔ̤˜ ηÓÔ‰fi¯ˆÓ ............................165

15

∂ÁηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ï‚‹ÙˆÓ-η˘ÛÙ‹ÚˆÓ Î·È ‰ÂÍ·ÌÂÓÒÓ ÂÙÚÂÏ·›Ô˘...............128

17.2

15.1 15.2

°ÂÓÈο.......................................................128 ∂ÁηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ï¤‚ËÙ· Î·È ıÂÚÌÔۛʈӷ Ì η‡ÛÈÌÔ ÂÙڤϷÈÔ.............................128

17.3

∂˘ÚÂÙ‹ÚÈÔ ŸÚˆÓ...............................167

6-E-103_PERIEX kaysthres kai lebhtes