Page 1

¶π¡∞∫∞™ ¶∂ƒπ∂Ã√ª∂¡ø¡

¶ƒ√§√°√™ ....................................................................................................................................5

ª∂ƒ√™ ¶ƒø∆√: ¶∂ƒπ ∆ø¡ ∂¡¡√πø¡ .........................................................................21 1. ∂π™∞°ø°∏ ..............................................................................................................................23 1.1 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘............................................................................................23 1.2 √ ÛÎÔfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ...................................................................................................24 1.3 ∏ ‰È¿ÚıÚˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ .............................................................................................26 1.4 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ «ÂÓÓÔ›·˜» ........................................................................................................27 2. √π °∂¡π∫∂™ ∂¡¡√π∂™ ...........................................................................................................31 2.1 ∏ ÁÓÒÛË ˆ˜ ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛË Ù˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜...................................................................31 2.2 √È ·Ú·‰Ô¯¤˜ ...............................................................................................................33 2.3 °ÂÓÈο ÂÚ› ÙˆÓ ÂÓÓÔÈÒÓ ...............................................................................................35 2.4 ∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›·....................................................................................................................40 2.4.1 °ÂÓÈο..............................................................................................................40 2.4.2 ∏ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ ÛÙ·ıÂÚfiÙËÙ· .................................................................................40 2.4.2.1 2.4.2.2 2.4.2.3

2.4.3 2.4.4 2.4.5 2.4.6

∏ ÔÏ˘ÏÔÎfiÙËÙ· ............................................................................................46 ∏ Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ·...................................................................................................47 ∏ ÏËÚÔÊÔÚ›·.................................................................................................48 √È ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ› Î·È Ô ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ ...............................................................49 2.4.6.1 2.4.6.2

2.4.7 2.4.8 2.4.9

∆· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο .......................................................................................41 ∆Ô ·Ôχو˜ ÌÂÙ·‚ÏËÙfi ...............................................................................42 ∆Ô ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ÛÙ·ıÂÚfi ....................................................................................42

∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈÎÚ‹ Èı·ÓfiÙËÙ·.............................................................50 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Â›Ó·È ÙÔÈ΋ Î·È ÚfiÛηÈÚË.....................................................52

∏ Û¯¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ «·˘ıfiÚÌËÙÔ˘» Ì ÙÔ «¤ÓÛÙÔ¯Ô» ...................................................55 ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ «ÂÓÙÚÔ›·˜» ................................................................................56 ∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· ÛÙȘ ‰È¿ÊÔÚ˜ ÂÈÛً̘................................................................58 2.4.9.1 2.4.9.2 2.4.9.3

∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· ÛÙË º˘ÛÈ΋................................................................................60 ∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· ÛÙË ™Ù·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋............................................................................62 ∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· ÛÙËÓ ¶ÏËÚÔÊÔÚÈ΋....................................................................63


10

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· 2.4.9.4

2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17

∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋........................................................................68

2.4.10 ∏ ÂÓÙÚÔ›· Î·È Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜ .................................................................................69 ∏ ·Ó¿ÁÎË......................................................................................................................70 ∏ ÂχıÂÚË ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË Î·È Ë ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË ....................................................................71 ∞›ÙÈ· Î·È ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· .................................................................................................73 √È ¤ÓÛÙԯ˜ Ú¿ÍÂȘ......................................................................................................74 ∏ ¢ÛÙÔ¯›· Î·È Ë ·ÛÙÔ¯›·..............................................................................................74 √ ˘ÔÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi˜ Î·È Ô ·ÓÙÈÎÂÈÌÂÓÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜ .......................................................75 ∏ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Î·È Ë Û‡ÓıÂÛË ............................................................................................77 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ...............................................................................................................80 ∏ ÔÈfiÙËÙ· Î·È Ë ÔÛfiÙËÙ· ...........................................................................................81 ∏ ̤ÙÚËÛË.....................................................................................................................82 ∏ ‚ÂÏÙÈÛÙÔÔ›ËÛË..........................................................................................................84 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË Î·È Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜..........................................................................................85 ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁ›·˜ .............................................................................................85

ª∂ƒ√™ ¢∂À∆∂ƒ√: ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ¢π∞¢π∫∞™π∞ ........................................................ 87 ∂ÈÛ·ÁˆÁ‹ ÛÙÔ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ........................................................................................................89 3. √π √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∂™ ∂¡¡√π∂™.................................................................................................93 3.1 °ÂÓÈο ...........................................................................................................................93 3.2 ¶ÂÚ› ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi˜, -‹, -fi».............................................................................93 3.2.1 √ Ô›ÎÔ˜............................................................................................................93 3.2.2 ∆Ô ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ.................................................................................................95 3.2.3 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ-‰ÔÌ‹....................................................................................................97 3.2.4 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹ Î·È Ô ÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌÔ˜ ..........................................................................99 3.2.4.1 3.2.4.2

3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8

∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹ .................................................................................................99 √ ÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌÔ˜..............................................................................................102

3.2.5 √È ·Ú¿ÁˆÁÔÈ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÔ› fiÚÔÈ ....................................................................105 ¶ÂÚ› ÙÔ˘ fiÚÔ˘ «·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎfi˜, -‹, -fi» .......................................................................108 ∏ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ Ù›ÙÏÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ ‚È‚Ï›Ô˘ ................................................................................115 √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ‹ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋; ......................................................................................117 ™ÙÔȯ›· °ÏˆÛÛÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ...............................................................................................120 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ·Ô‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛ˘ ...........................................................122 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ..............................................................................124

4. ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ∞¡∞°∫∏...................................................................................................125 4.1 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ·Ó¿Á΢........................................................................................................125 4.2 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Á΢ ...................................................................................125 4.3 √È ÂÈ̤ÚÔ˘˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈΤ˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ.............................................................................126 4.3.1 ∆· ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈο ÎÚÈÙ‹ÚÈ· ...................................................................................127 4.3.2 ∏ ÂȉÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó¿ÁÎË .........................................................................129 4.4 √È ÚԉȷÁڷʤ˜ ··ÈÙ‹ÛˆÓ.....................................................................................130 4.5 √È ÚԉȷÁڷʤ˜ ·Ô‰fiÛˆÓ.....................................................................................131 4.6 ∏ ‚¤ÏÙÈÛÙË Î¿Ï˘„Ë Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·Ó¿Á΢ .............................................................131 5. √π √π∫√¢√ªπ∫√π ¶∞ƒ∞°√¡∆∂™ .......................................................................................133 5.1 °ÂÓÈο .........................................................................................................................133 5.2 √ οÙÔÈÎÔ˜..................................................................................................................135


11

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

5.3

5.2.1 √ ¤ÓÔÈÎÔ˜ ......................................................................................................135 5.2.2 ∏ ÔÏÈÙ›·......................................................................................................137 √ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ ...............................................................................................................139 5.3.1 ∞ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó¿ÁΘ .................................................140 5.3.2 ∆Ô ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡ .................................................................................142 5.3.2.1 5.3.2.2

5.3.3

√È ÂȉÈÎfiÙËÙ˜ ÙˆÓ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÒÓ........................................................................144 5.3.3.1 5.3.3.2 5.3.3.3 5.3.3.4 5.3.3.5

5.4

5.5

∏ ÂÈÛÙ‹ÌË ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡.........................................................................142 ∆Ô Â¿ÁÁÂÏÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ....................................................................143 √ ÙÔÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ ..........................................................................144 √ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ·˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ .........................................................................145 √ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜...............................................................................146 √ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÏfiÁÔ˜, Ô Ì˯·ÓÔÏfiÁÔ˜ Î·È Ô ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎfi˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ ..............146 ÕÏϘ ÂȉÈÎfiÙËÙ˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÂÈÛÙËÌfiÓˆÓ..........................................146

√ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙ‹˜ ........................................................................................................147 5.4.1 √ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙ‹˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ‹/Î·È ÛÙÔȯ›ˆÓ.................................147 5.4.2 √ ¤ÌÔÚÔ˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ ‹/Î·È ÛÙÔȯ›ˆÓ...........................................148 5.4.3 √ ÂÚÁÔÏ‹Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ¤ÚÁˆÓ (ÂÚÁÔÏ¿‚Ô˜) ...........................................149 √È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ Ù¿ÛÂȘ (π)...............................................................................................149

6. √ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫√™ ™Ã∂¢π∞™ª√™........................................................................................153 6.1 ¶ÂÚ› ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÚÔÙ‡ˆÓ................................................................................153 6.2 ∏ ·Ó·ÁηÈfiÙËÙ· ÙÔ˘ ۯ‰ȷÛÌÔ‡.................................................................................154 6.3 ∏ ıˆڛ· ÙÔ˘ ۯ‰ȷÛÌÔ‡...........................................................................................155 6.4 ∆Ô ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ, ÙÔ ÔÈÎfiÂ‰Ô Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÁÔÙ¿ÍÈÔ.............................................................156 6.4.1 ∆Ô ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ...............................................................................................156 6.4.2 ∆Ô ÔÈÎfiÂ‰Ô ..................................................................................................157 6.4.3 ∆Ô ÂÚÁÔÙ¿ÍÈÔ .................................................................................................158 6.5 ∆Ô ÓÔËÙÈÎfi ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi ÚfiÙ˘Ô (¶1).........................................................................158 6.6 ∏ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ÂÈÏÔÁ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì˯·ÓÈÎÔ‡ ........................................................................162 6.7 ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‰ÔÛË ÙÔ˘ ¶1(∞) Î·È Ë ÌÂÙ·ÙÚÔ‹ ÙÔ˘ Û ¶1(µ)................................................165 6.8 ∆Ô ˘ÏÈÎfi ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi ÚfiÙ˘Ô (¶2) ............................................................................166 6.9 √È ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈΤ˜ ÂÓfiÙËÙ˜ .............................................................................................167 6.9.1 ∞Ó·Ï˘ÙÈΤ˜ Î·È Û˘ÓıÂÙÈΤ˜ ·ÏÏËÏÂÍ·ÚÙ‹ÛÂȘ ..................................................167 6.9.2 ŒÓ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ·Ú¿ÏÏËÏ˘ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘ Î·È Û‡ÓıÂÛ˘.................................169 6.9.3 ∞Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ‰ÔÌ‹ ........................................................172 6.9.4 ∞Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Ì ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ................................................174 6.10 ∏ ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÛÙÂÁ·ÓÒÓ ..............................................................................177 6.11 ∏ ¤ÁÎÚÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ¶2 .......................................................................................................178 6.12 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÓÔÌÔıÂÛ›· ............................................................................................178 6.13 ∏ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙ‹ ......................................................................................179 6.13.1 ∏ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú·ÁˆÁÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔ˘ ÂÌfiÚÔ˘ ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ...180 6.13.2 ∏ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁÔÏ‹ÙË ..............................................................................181 6.14 ∏ ÌÂÙ¿‰ÔÛË ÙÔ˘ ¶2 ....................................................................................................182 6.15 ¶ÂÚ› ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ ..................................................................................184 6.15.1 °ÂÓÈο ÂÚ› ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ................................................................................184 6.15.2 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ ..........................................................................185 6.15.3 ∏ ÓÔÌÔıÂÛ›· ÙˆÓ ÌÂÏÂÙÒÓ .............................................................................186 6.15.4 ∏ ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÌÂϤÙË ..................................................................................186


12

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· 6.15.5 ∏ ÎÙËÚȷ΋ ÌÂϤÙË.........................................................................................187 6.15.6 ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ÌÂϤÙË .................................................................................188

7. ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ∫∞∆∞™∫∂À∏ ............................................................................................191 7.1 √ ÚÔÁÚ·ÌÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÂÓfi˜ ¤ÚÁÔ˘ .................................................................................192 7.2 ∏ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ ..............................................................192 7.3 ∏ Û‡ÓıÂÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ÌÂÚÒÓ ...........................................................................193 7.4 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Ù˘ÔÔ›ËÛË...........................................................................................194 7.4.1 √ ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ù· ›‰Ë ...................................................................................194 7.4.2 √ÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ› Ù˘ÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Î·È ÔÈ ‰È¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÙÔ ‰È·‰›ÎÙ˘Ô ...................196 7.5 √È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ Ù¿ÛÂȘ (ππ)..............................................................................................198 7.6 √È Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ Ù¿ÛÂȘ (πππ).............................................................................................201 7.6.1 ∏ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋ ۯ‰›·ÛË (CAD) ....................................................................201 7.6.2 √È ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈÎÔ› ÂÎÙ˘ˆÙ¤˜ ............................................................................203 7.6.3 ∏ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈ΋ ηٷÛ΢‹ (CAM)..................................................................203 7.6.4 √È ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈΤ˜ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙÈΤ˜ Ì˯·Ó¤˜ (CNC) ........................................204 8. ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ∞•π√§√°∏™∏ .........................................................................................205 8.1 ªÈ· ÚÒÙË ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ...............................................................................................205 8.2 √ ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜...................................................................................................................207 8.3 √È ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜ Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘..................................................................................208 8.4 ∆Ô Â›Â‰Ô Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘ .......................................................................................208 8.5 √ ÔÈÔÙÈÎfi˜ Î·È Ô ÔÛÔÙÈÎfi˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·˜ Ù˘ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘.........................................210 9. ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ∞™∆√Ãπ∞..................................................................................................213 9.1 ∆· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛ˘ .........................................................213 9.2 ∏ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜ ............................................................................................214 9.3 ∏ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜ ...................................................215 9.4 ∆· ·›ÙÈ· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜ ..............................................................................217 9.4.1 ∏ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·, Ë ÔÓÙfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÔÈ ·ÏÏËÏÂȉڿÛÂȘ Ù˘ ........................................217 9.4.2 ∏ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·, Ë ‡ÏË, Ë ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· Î·È Ë ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·............................................218 9.5 ∆· ÛÙ¿‰È· Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜...........................................................................222 9.5.1 ∏ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· ηٿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÛÙ·‰›Ô˘ ..................................222 9.5.2 ∏ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· ηٿ ÙË ‰È¿ÚÎÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ηٷÛ΢·ÛÙÈÎÔ‡ ÛÙ·‰›Ô˘ (ηÎÔÙ¯ӛ·) .......234 9.5.2.1 9.5.2.2 9.5.2.3 9.5.2.4

9.6 9.7

9.8 9.9

∏ ΛÓËÛË....................................................................................................235 ∫›ÓËÛË Î·È Î·Ù·Û΢‹................................................................................236 ∏ ÂÚ› Ù˘ ΛÓËÛ˘ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· .......................................................................236 ŒÓ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ηٷÛ΢‹˜ ..............................................236

∏ ‰˘Ó·ÌÈ΋ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜........................................................................245 ∏ Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· Î·È Ù· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù¿ Ù˘ ..........................................246 9.7.1 ∏ Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·....................................................................247 9.7.2 ∏ Û˘ÓÔÏÈ΋ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·.......................................................................................247 9.7.3 ∏ ÂÚÈ‚·ÏÏÔÓÙÈ΋ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· .............................................................................248 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ̤ÙÚËÛË................................................................................................249 ∏ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜ ..................................................................255 9.9.1 ∆È ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ «·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛË» Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›·˜ ...................................255 9.9.2 ∏ ÂÈÛ΢‹ Î·È Ë Â·Ó¿¯ÚËÛË ......................................................................256 9.9.3 ∏ «‚ÂÏÙÈÛÙÔÔ›ËÛË» .......................................................................................258 9.9.4 ∏ «ÁÓÒÛË».....................................................................................................259


13

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

ª∂ƒ√™ ∆ƒπ∆√: ∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À∆π∫∏ ¢π∞¢π∫∞™π∞ .........................................................261 10. ∏ √π∫√¢√ªπ∫∏ ∂∫¶∞π¢∂À™∏ ..........................................................................................263 10.1 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘.............................................................................263 10.2 ¶ÂÚ› ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ .............................................................................266 10.3 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ..............................................................267 10.4 ∆Ô Â‡ÚÔ˜ Î·È Ô ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ .................................................269 10.5 ∏ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜ Ù˘ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ ÙˆÓ (ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ) Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ.......................................272 10.5.1 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ........................................................................272 10.5.2 √ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·˜ Ù˘ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ .....................................................................275 10.5.2.1 10.5.2.2 10.5.2.3

∏ ·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ ‰Â‰ÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁÒÓ ..........................................................276 ∏ ·Ó·˙‹ÙËÛË Ó¤ˆÓ ÌÂıfi‰ˆÓ......................................................................277 ∏ ÂÈÏÔÁ‹ ÌÂıfi‰Ô˘ ...................................................................................278

10.6 ∆· ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈο Ì·ı‹Ì·Ù· Î·È Ô ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ ..................................................281 10.7 ∏ ÈÛÙÔÚÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ.................................................282 11. √ ™Ã∂¢π∞™ª√™ ∆ø¡ ª∞£∏ª∞∆ø¡ ................................................................................287 11.1 ∏ ·Ó·ÏÔÁ›· ÂÎ·›‰Â˘Û˘ Î·È ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ ..............................................287 11.2 ∏ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·..........................................................................................288 11.3 ∏ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ·Ô‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË .................................................................................288 11.4 ∏ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿ÁÎË...............................................................................................289 11.5 ∏ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË ....................................................................................289 11.6 ∏ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈ΋ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ........................................................................................289 11.7 √ ÂÎ·È‰Â˘ÙÈÎfi˜ ۯ‰ȷÛÌfi˜ ......................................................................................290 11.7.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................290 11.7.2 ∆Ô ÔÚÁ·ÓfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· ‰Ú¿Û˘ Î·È ÔÈ Û¯ÂÙÈΤ˜ ÛËÌÂÈÒÛÂȘ..................................290 11.7.3 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ......................................................................291 11.7.4 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜...........................................................................291 11.7.5 ∏ Û˘ÓıÂÙÈ΋ Î·È Ë ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ .....................................292 11.7.6 √ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ...............................................................................292 11.7.7 ∏ ıˆڛ·.......................................................................................................293 11.7.7.1 11.7.7.2 11.7.7.3

∆Ô ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ· Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ .......................................................................294 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜......................................................................294 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ .................................................................295

11.7.8 ∆Ô ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ...............................................................................................295 11.7.8.1 11.7.8.2 11.7.8.3 11.7.8.4 11.7.8.5 11.7.8.6

∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ......................................................................295 ∏ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘................................................................296 √È ‰È·Ï¤ÍÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚ›Ô˘.....................................................................296 ∏ ·ÚÔ˘Û›·ÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘.......................................................................297 ∏ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘..........................................................................297 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ .................................................................298

11.7.9 ∏ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÂÚÁ·Û›· ...................................................................................298 11.7.10 ∂ÈÛÙ‹ÌË Î·È Â¿ÁÁÂÏÌ·................................................................................299 11.7.11 ∏ ‰ÔÌ‹ ÙˆÓ ÛËÌÂÈÒÛÂˆÓ ...............................................................................300 12. ∆√ ∞ƒÃπ∆∂∫∆√¡π∫√ ™Ã∂¢π√.............................................................................................303 12.1 °ÂÓÈο .........................................................................................................................303 12.2 √È ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜ Î·È ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ.......................................................................................304 12.3 √ ‰ÈÏfi˜ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú·˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ .........................................................................306


14

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· 12.4 12.5 12.6 12.7

∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· Î·È ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ...................................................................................309 ∏ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË .....................................................................................................................310 √ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ Ù˘ ‰È‰·Ûηϛ·˜ ÙÔ˘ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ۯ‰›Ô˘...............................................311 ∏ ıˆڛ· Î·È ÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÓfiÙËÙ˜..........................................................................313 12.7.1 ∏ ∂ÓfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹˜ .............................................................................314 12.7.2 ∏ ∂ÓfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ∞Ó·‰Ú·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ™¯Â‰›·Û˘ .......................................................315 12.7.3 ∏ ∂ÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ™¯Â‰›ˆÓ.................................................................................316 12.7.3.1 12.7.3.2 12.7.3.3 12.7.3.4

∆· ›‰Ë ÙˆÓ Û¯Â‰›ˆÓ..................................................................................317 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙˆÓ Û¯Â‰›ˆÓ ...........................................................................317 ∆· ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈο ۇ̂ÔÏ·............................................................................323 √È Û¯Â‰È·ÛÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Ì‚¿ÛÂȘ.........................................................................324

12.7.4 ∏ ∂ÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ¢È·ÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ÃÒÚÔ˘ .........................................................330 12.7.4.1 12.7.4.2 12.7.4.3 12.7.4.4

∆· ·ÍÔÓÈο Î·È Ù· ÚÔÔÙÈο Û¯¤‰È·..........................................................331 √È ÊˆÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈΤ˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ Î·È Ô ÊˆÙÔÚ·ÏÈÛÌfi˜ ................................332 ∆· ÚÔÏ¿ÛÌ·Ù· (¯ÂÈÚÔÔ›ËÙ· Î·È ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈο)........................................332 ∆· ÎÈÓËÌ·ÙÔÁÚ·ÊÈο ̤۷ (‚›ÓÙÂÔ) Î·È Ô ¯ÚfiÓÔ˜.......................................333

12.7.5 ∆· Û¯¤‰È· Úfi‚Ï„˘ Î·È Ù· Û¯¤‰È· ·ÔÙ‡ˆÛ˘ .........................................334 12.7.6 ∏ ∂ÓfiÙËÙ· ÙˆÓ ™¯Â‰È·ÛÙÈÎÒÓ ∂ÚÁ·Ï›ˆÓ .......................................................336 12.7.6.1 12.7.6.2 12.7.6.3

∏ ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË ÁÈ· Ù· ÂÚÁ·Ï›· ...............................................................337 ∆· ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷο ÂÚÁ·Ï›· .........................................................................339 ∆· ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÓÈο ÂÚÁ·Ï›·...........................................................................341

12.8 ∆Ô ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ............................................................................................................344 12.8.1 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ..........................................................................344 12.8.2 ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿‰Ú·ÛË............................................................................345 12.8.3 ∏ ‰È¿ÚıÚˆÛË ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ (ÙÔ ÚfiÁÚ·ÌÌ·) .............................................346 12.8.4 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎÒÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ...................................................349 12.8.5 √È Î·ÓÔÓÈÛÌÔ› ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚ›Ô˘.....................................................................357 12.8.6 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ.....................................................................357 12.9 ∏ ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ۯ‰›Ô˘ ...............................................................357 12.10 ∏ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÙÔ˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘ ..............................................................358 13. ∏ ∞ƒÃπ∆∂∫∆√¡π∫∏ ∆∂á√§√°π∞ .....................................................................................359 13.1 °ÂÓÈο .........................................................................................................................359 13.2 ∏ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜..........................................359 13.3 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ........................................................................................360 13.4 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜....................................................................................362 13.5 √ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ Î·È Ù· fiÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ..........................................................................364 13.5.1 √ ÔÚÈÛÌfi˜ .....................................................................................................364 13.5.2 ∏ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È Ô ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi˜ Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜................................365 13.6 ∏ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÔ‡ ™¯Â‰›Ô˘..............................................367 13.7 ∞fi ÙÔ ™¯¤‰ÈÔ ÛÙËÓ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ .................................................................................369 13.8 ∏ °ÂÓÈ΋ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋, Ë ∂ȉÈ΋ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Î·È ÔÈ ∂ÛˆÙÂÚÈΤ˜ ∂ÁηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ..........371 13.9 ∏ ıˆڛ· Ù˘ °ÂÓÈ΋˜ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ............................................................................372 13.9.1 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ ..............................................................................376 13.9.2 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ .....................................................................378 13.10 ∆Ô ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ Ù˘ °ÂÓÈ΋˜ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ....................................................................380 13.10.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................380 13.10.2 ∆Ô ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi Û¯¤‰ÈÔ ...................................................................................381


15

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

13.10.3 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ı¤Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ....................................................382 13.10.4 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÌÈ·˜ Û‡ÓÙÔÌ˘ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋˜ ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜...................................383 13.10.5 √È ‰ÈÔÚıÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘...........................................................................384 13.10.6 ∆· ˙ËÙÔ‡ÌÂÓ· Î·È Ë ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘..................................................386 13.11 ∆Ô ‰È·ÁÒÓÈÛÌ· ............................................................................................................387 13.12 ∏ ıˆڛ· Ù˘ ∂ȉÈ΋˜ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ............................................................................387 13.12.1 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜...........................................................................387 13.12.1.1 √È ¤ÓÓÔȘ «‰fiÌËÛË» Î·È «ÎÙ‹ÚÈÔ»..............................................................387 13.12.1.2 ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· «Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ˜, -Ë, -Ô» ....................................................................388 13.12.1.3 ∏ Û‡ÓıÂÙË ¤ÓÓÔÈ· «Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ‰fiÌËÛË ÎÙËÚ›ˆÓ» ........................................389

13.12.2 13.12.3 13.12.4 13.12.5

∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Î·È Ô ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜..................................................390 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ .........................................................................392 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Î·È Ë ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜...............................................393 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Î·È Ë ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÁ·ÛÙËÚ›Ô˘..........................................394 13.12.5.1 √È ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈΤ˜ ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂȘ .....................................................................394 13.12.5.2 ∏ ÂÚ¢ÓËÙÈ΋ ÂÚÁ·Û›·................................................................................395 13.12.5.3 √È ‰ÈÔÚıÒÛÂȘ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ .......................................................................396

13.12.6 ∏ ÂȉÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË .....................................................................................396 13.12.7 ∆· ˙ËÙÔ‡ÌÂÓ· Î·È Ë ·Ú¿‰ÔÛË ......................................................................396 13.13 ∏ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ÛÔ˘‰·ÛÙÒÓ Ù˘ ∂ȉÈ΋˜ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ..........................................397 13.13.1 ∆Ô ‰È·ÁÒÓÈÛÌ·...............................................................................................397 13.13.2 ∏ ‚·ıÌÔÏÔÁ›· ...............................................................................................397 13.14 ∏ ÂÊ·ÚÌÔÁ‹ ÙˆÓ Î·Ù¢ı‡ÓÛÂˆÓ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ∂ȉÈ΋˜ √ÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ .................397 13.15 √È ÂÈÛΤ„ÂȘ..............................................................................................................398 13.16 ∏ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜........................................................398 14. ∏ ∞ƒÃπ∆∂∫∆√¡π∫∏ ™À¡£∂™∏ ..........................................................................................399 14.1 °ÂÓÈο .........................................................................................................................399 14.2 ∏ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ™‡ÓıÂÛ˘ ..............................................399 14.3 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ........................................................................................400 14.4 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜....................................................................................400 14.4.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................400 14.4.2 ∏ ·ÓÙ›ÏË„Ë ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘ ..................................................................................402 14.4.3 ∏ Û‡ÓıÂÛË.....................................................................................................404 14.4.4 ∏ ÎÙËÚȷ΋ Î·È Ë ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Û‡ÓıÂÛË .......................................................405 14.4.4.1 14.4.4.2

14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8

∏ ÎÙËÚȷ΋ Û‡ÓıÂÛË ..................................................................................405 ∏ ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Û‡ÓıÂÛË ...........................................................................407

√ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ Î·È Ù· fiÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ..........................................................................408 ∏ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›·˜ .......................................408 ∞fi ÙËÓ Ù¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· ÛÙË Û‡ÓıÂÛË................................................................................410 ∏ ıˆڛ· ....................................................................................................................411 14.8.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................411 14.8.2 ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ..............................................................................412 14.8.3 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Ù˘ ıˆڛ·˜ ..............................................................................414 14.8.4 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Î·È ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ™ÙÔȯÂÈÒ‰Ô˘˜ ∫ÙËÚÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Î·È ¶ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ™‡ÓıÂÛ˘ ...........................415 14.8.5 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË Î·È ÙÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙˆÓ Ì·ıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ∫ÙËÚÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ¶ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋˜ ™‡ÓıÂÛ˘...................................................................417


16

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· 14.9 ∆· ‚ÔËı‹Ì·Ù· Î·È ÔÈ ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÛÙË ıˆڛ· .................................................................420 14.10 ∆Ô ÂÚÁ·ÛÙ‹ÚÈÔ ............................................................................................................421 14.10.1 ∆Ô ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ ı¤Ì·ÙÔ˜ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ....................................................421 14.10.2 ™Ùfi¯Ô˜ Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ......................................................................................422 14.10.3 ŒÓ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ............................................................................422 14.10.3.1 ∏ ÔÏÂÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ ......................................................423 14.10.3.2 ∏ ·Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ¿ÛÎËÛ˘ .....................................................425 14.10.3.3 ÀÔ¯ÚÂÒÛÂȘ Î·È ‚·ıÌÔÏÔÁ›· ....................................................................426

14.11 ∏ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· Ù˘ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋˜ ™‡ÓıÂÛ˘ ............................................................426 15. √π ∞ƒÃπ∆∂∫∆√¡π∫∂™ ∞¶√∫∞∆∞™∆∞™∂π™ .........................................................................427 15.1 ∆· fiÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜...............................................................................................427 15.2 ∏ ¤ÓÙ·ÍË ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ∞ÔηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ .................................429 15.3 ∏ ÔÓÔÌ·Û›· ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ........................................................................................429 15.4 ∆Ô ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ ÙÔ˘ Ì·ı‹Ì·ÙÔ˜....................................................................................430 15.4.1 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ...............................................................................430 15.4.2 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·ÍÈÔÏfiÁËÛË .............................................................................430 15.4.3 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·ÛÙÔ¯›· ...................................................................................430 15.4.4 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Â·ÓÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È Ù· ›‰Ë Ù˘..........................................433 15.4.5 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÂÈÛ΢‹ .................................................................................433 15.4.5.1 15.4.5.2 15.4.5.3 15.4.5.4 15.4.5.5 15.4.5.6 15.4.5.7

√È ÁÂÓÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛ΢¤˜..................................................................................434 √È ÂȉÈΤ˜ ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ ..................................................................................436 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ Û˘Ì‚·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÙËÚ›ˆÓ .............................................................437 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ ·Ú·‰ÔÛÈ·ÎÒÓ ÎÙËÚ›ˆÓ ........................................................437 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ʤÚÔÓÙÔ˜ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ (Ê.Ô.) ..........................................437 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ ÙˆÓ ‰ÈÎÙ‡ˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ËÏÂÎÙÚÔÌ˯·ÓÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ ÂÁηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ (∏/ª) ...................................437 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÚÁ·ÓÈÛÌÔ‡ Ï‹ÚˆÛ˘ (Ô..)..........................................438

15.4.6 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛË ..............................................................................439 15.4.7 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·Ó·Î·›ÓÈÛË (·Ó··Ï·›ˆÛË) .....................................................440 15.4.8 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÚÔÛı‹ÎË (ηı’ ‡„Ô˜ ‹/Î·È Î·Ù’ Â¤ÎÙ·ÛË) ............................442 15.4.9 √È ÂÈÛ΢¤˜ Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ.....................................................................443 15.5 ∏ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÙˆÓ ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎÒÓ ∞ÔηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ...............................................444 16. √π ∆ƒ∂π™ ¶ƒ√Ω¶√£∂™∂π™.................................................................................................445 16.1 °ÂÓÈο .........................................................................................................................445 16.2 √ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ Î·È Ë ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË Ù˘ ˘Á›·˜ ÙÔ˘..............................................................446 16.2.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................446 16.2.2 √ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜, Ë ÔÈΛ·, Ë ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹ Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ....................................447 16.2.3 ¶ÂÚ› Ù˘ ˘Á›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ ......................................................................449 16.2.3.1 16.2.3.2

∆· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ÙÔ˘ Ì·ÎÚÔÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ .............................................449 ∆· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο ÙÔ˘ ÌÂÛÔÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙÔ˜ (Ù˘ ÔÈΛ·˜).............................450

16.2.4 ∆· ÂȉÈο ÎÙ‹ÚÈ· ............................................................................................453 16.2.5 √È ÂȉÈÎÔ› ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ› .....................................................................................453 16.2.6 √È ÂȉÈΤ˜ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ...................................................................................454 16.3 √È ÂÚ› Ù˘ ˘Á›·˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈΤ˜ ·ÛÙÔ¯›Â˜.....................................................................454 16.3.1 ∞ÛÙÔ¯›Â˜ Î·È ·›ÙÈ· ..........................................................................................454 16.3.2 ∏ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙÒÈÛË..............................................................................................456 16.4 ∆Ô ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Î·È Ë ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛË ÙˆÓ fiÚˆÓ ÙÔ˘ .........................................................457


¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

17

16.4.1 °ÂÓÈο............................................................................................................457 16.4.2 ∏ ‡ÏË Î·È Ë ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ·.....................................................................................459 16.4.3 ∆· ÛÙ¿‰È· ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ Ù˘ ‡Ï˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ·˜ .........................................460 16.4.4 ¶·Ú¿ÏÏËϘ ÂÍÂÏ›ÍÂȘ ....................................................................................462 16.4.5 ∏ ıÂÙÈ΋ Û˘Ì‚ÔÏ‹ ÙÔ˘ ·ÓıÚÒÔ˘ ..................................................................463 16.5 ∆Ô Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È ÂÎ·›‰Â˘ÛË....................................465 16.5.1 ∆Ô Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ Î·È ÙÔ ·Ó·¯ÚÔÓÈÛÙÈÎfi ...............................................................465 16.5.2 ∆Ô ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi Î·È ÙÔ ·Ó·¯ÚÔÓÈÛÙÈÎfi ..................................................................466 17. ∂¶π§√°√™ ...........................................................................................................................467 µÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ........................................................................................................................ 471 °ÂÓÈ΋ µÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·.........................................................................................................472 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................472 •ÂÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·...........................................................................................474 ∂ȉÈ΋ µÈ‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ............................................................................................................. 474 ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈÎfi ™¯¤‰ÈÔ........................................................................................................474 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................474 •ÂÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·...........................................................................................474 ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ∆¯ÓÔÏÔÁ›· ................................................................................................475 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................475 •ÂÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·...........................................................................................476 ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈ΋ ™‡ÓıÂÛË.....................................................................................................476 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................476 •ÂÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›·...........................................................................................477 ∞Ú¯ÈÙÂÎÙÔÓÈΤ˜ ∞ÔηٷÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ........................................................................................478 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................478 ¶·È‰·ÁˆÁÈ΋ ....................................................................................................................478 ∂ÏÏËÓfiÁψÛÛË ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· .......................................................................................478 ∞ÔÛ¿ÛÌ·Ù· ‚È‚Ï›ˆÓ ........................................................................................................... 479 ∂Àƒ∂∆∏ƒπ√ √ƒø¡ ....................................................................................................................493


¶π¡∞∫∞™ ∂π∫√¡ø¡ ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 1.1-1·. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 1.1-1‚. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.6.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.6.2-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.6.2-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.9.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.9.2-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.9.3-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.9.3-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 2.4.10-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.2-1.

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.3-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.3-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.4.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.4.1-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.4.1-3. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.4.2-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.5-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.2.5-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.3-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.3-2. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.3-3.

∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.3-4. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 3.3-5. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 4.3.2-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.1-1.

√ µÈÙÚÔ‡‚ÈÔ˜....................................................................................................24 √ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ µÈÙÚÔ˘‚›Ô˘ ............................................................................24 √ Â˙ÔÁÚ¿ÊÔ˜ ™ÙÚ·Ù‹˜ ª˘ÚÈ‚‹Ï˘ (1892-1969) .............................................31 ∆Ú·¤˙È ¯ˆÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ Û 42 fiÌÔȘ ı¤ÛÂȘ ..........................................................51 ™¯ËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·˘ÙÔÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ «™1» ......................................................................................52 ™¯ËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ ÙˆÓ ·˘ÙÔÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÂÙÂÚÔÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌÒÓ ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ «™» ............................................54 √È: (·) Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894), (‚) William Thomson ‹ ‚·ÚÒÓÔ˜ Kelvin (1824-1907) Î·È (Á) Rudolf Clausius (1822-1888)...............61 √ Ludwig Boltzmann (1844-1906)...................................................................63 ™¯ËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂȘ Ù˘ «Ù¿Í˘» Î·È Ù˘ «·Ù·Í›·˜» .....................................66 √ Claude Elwood Shannon (1916-2001).........................................................67 √È: (·) ∏Ú¿ÎÏÂÈÙÔ˜ (544-484/475 .X.) Î·È (‚) Arthur Eddington (1882-1944) ...................................................................71 √ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜, Ë ÔÈΛ·, Ë ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹ Î·È ÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ ......................................94 ∏ ÚÒÙË ÂÈÎfiÓ· fiÏÔ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ô˘Ú·ÓÔ‡, ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ¤Ï·‚ ÙÔ ‰È·ÛÙËÌÈÎfi ÛοÊÔ˜ Ù˘ ·ÔÛÙÔÏ‹˜ Planck Ù˘ ∂˘Úˆ·˚΋˜ ÀËÚÂÛ›·˜ ¢È·ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ESA .......................................................95 ∏ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË Î·È Ë Û‡ÓıÂÛË ...............................................................................97 ∏ ÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË, Ë ‰ÔÌ‹ Î·È Ë ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ›·.............................................................98 ∏ ·ÏÏËÏÂ›‰Ú·ÛË «¿ÓıÚˆÔ˜ – ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ».................................................100 ∞˘ıfiÚÌËÙ˜ Î·È ¤ÓÛÙԯ˜ ·ÏÏËÏÂȉڿÛÂȘ....................................................100 ∞Ô‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË, Ù¯ÓËÙfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ Î·È ·Ó·‰ÈÔÚÁ¿ÓˆÛË ............................101 ∏ Ù¯ÓÈ΋ §Â‚·ÏÏÔ˘¿ (Levallois)....................................................................103 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ...............................................................................106 ∏ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔ›ËÛË..........................................................................107 ™ËÏ·ÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ..............................................................................................110 ªÂÁ·ÏÈıÈÎfi ÌÓËÌ›o (dolmen) ÙÔ˘ 7000 .Ã. .................................................110 To Stonehenge («ÎÚÂÌ·ÛÙÔ› Ï›ıÔÈ»), ÓÂÔÏÈıÈÎfi ÌÂÁ·ÏÈıÈÎfi ÌÓËÌÂ›Ô ÛÙÔ Salisbury Ù˘ ªÂÁ¿Ï˘ µÚÂÙ·Ó›·˜ (Ê¿ÛÂȘ ηٷÛ΢‹˜: 3100 .Ã., 2500 .Ã., 2000 .Ã.) .................................111 ∏ ∑ÈÁÎÔ˘Ú¿Ù Ù˘ √˘Ú, ÙÔ˘ √˘Ú-¡·ÌÔ‡, ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ 2113 Î·È ÙÔ˘ 2096 .Ã. ...........................................................................................114 ∞Á·ÏÌ·Ù›‰ÈÔ Ô˘ ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›˙ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ·Ú¯·›Ô ∞ÈÁ‡ÙÈÔ ·Ú¯ÈÙ¤ÎÙÔÓ· π̯ÔÙ¤ .......................................................................................115 ∞ÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ›· ÛÙÔȯÂȈ‰ÒÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ·Ó·ÁÎÒÓ Î·È ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÒÓ ˘ÏÈÎÒÓ.......................................................................................129 √È ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎÔ› ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜............................................................................133


20 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.2.1-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.2.2-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.3-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.4-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.5-1. ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 5.5-2.

¶ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ·

√ ÚÒÙÔ˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜, Ô ¤ÓÔÈÎÔ˜ ..............................................136 √ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜, Ë ÔÏÈÙ›·...........................................137 √ ÙÚ›ÙÔ˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜, Ô Ì˯·ÓÈÎfi˜ ............................................139 √ ٤ٷÚÙÔ˜ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi˜ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·˜, Ô Î·Ù·Û΢·ÛÙ‹˜ .................................147 ¶ÂÚÈÛÙÚÂÊfiÌÂÓÔÈ Ô˘Ú·ÓÔ͇ÛÙ˜ ÛÙÔ Dubai....................................................151 ∏ Á¤Ê˘Ú· Hangzhou Bay, Ì‹ÎÔ˘˜ 36 ¯ÈÏÈÔ̤ÙÚˆÓ Î·È Ï¿ÙÔ˘˜ 6 ψڛ‰ˆÓ, ÛÙËÓ ∫›Ó· .......................................................................151 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 6.1-1. ∆Ô ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌÈÎfi ÚfiÙ˘Ô .................................................................................153 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 6.9.1-1. ∏ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ – Û˘ÓıÂÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ¯ÒÚÔ˘...........................................168 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 6.9.1-2. ∏ ·Ó·Ï˘ÙÈ΋ – Û˘ÓıÂÙÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹˜.....................................168 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 7.6.5-1. ºˆÙÔÚ·ÏÈÛÙÈ΋ ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË ÙÌ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ·˘ÙÔÎÈÓ‹ÙÔ˘ ........................................202 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 9.6-1. ∞ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· ÛÂÈÛÌÔ‡...................................................................................245 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 9.7-1. (·) Ÿ„Ë Ù˘ ¶·Ú·ÔÚÙÈ·Ó‹˜ ÛÙË ª‡ÎÔÓÔ Î·È (‚) ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂÈ· «·ÛÙÔ¯ÈÒÓ» ÛÙË ÏÈıÔ‰ÔÌ‹ Ù˘................................................246 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 9.9.2-1. ∞ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ Á‹Ú·ÓÛ˘ ..........................................................................257 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.3.2-1. ∫ÂÓÙÚÈ΋ Î·È ÔÚı‹ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ ...........................................................................318 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.3.2-2. ∏ ÙÔÌ‹ ÂÓfi˜ ÛÙÂÚÂÔ‡......................................................................................320 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.3.2-3. ∏ ۯ‰ȷÛÙÈ΋ ÙÔÌ‹, Ô˘ ÔÓÔÌ¿˙ÂÙ·È «Î¿ÙÔ„Ë» ..............................................321 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.3.2-4. ∆ÂÌÓfiÌÂÓ· Î·È ÚÔ‚·ÏÏfiÌÂÓ· ÛÙÔȯ›· Ù˘ οÙԄ˘ .....................................321 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.4.3-1. ¶‹ÏÈÓ· ÚÔÏ¿ÛÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ¡ÂÔÏÈıÈ΋˜ ∂Ô¯‹˜................................................333 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.7.4.3-2. ™‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· ÚÔÏ¿ÛÌ·Ù· ·fi ÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÎÙ˘ˆÙ¤˜.................................333 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-1. ™¯¤‰È· ‰È·ÎÔÛÌËÙÈÎÒÓ ‰È·ÌÔÚÊÒÛÂˆÓ ..........................................................350 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-2. ∏ ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÚÔ‚ÔÏ‹ Î·È Ë „¢‰ÔÙÚÈۉȿÛÙ·ÙË ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË ............................351 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-3. ∞ÍÔÓÔÌÂÙÚÈÎfi Î·È Î¿ÙÔ„Ë ..............................................................................352 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-4. •˘ÏfiÙ˘ÔÈ ıÂÌÂÏ›ˆÓ (·) Î·È ÔÚÔÊ‹˜ (‚).........................................................353 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-5. ∏ (ηٷÎfiÚ˘ÊË) ÙÔÌ‹.....................................................................................354 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-6. ∏ fi„Ë ............................................................................................................355 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 12.8.4-7. √È ÏÂÙÔ̤ÚÂȘ..............................................................................................356 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 15.4.3.1. ∏ ÈÛÔÛÎÂÏ‹˜ ˘ÂÚ‚ÔÏ‹ ..................................................................................432 ∂ÈÎfiÓ· 16.2.2-1. √È ÂȉڿÛÂȘ Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔ‰ÔÌ‹˜ ÛÙÔÓ ¿ÓıÚˆÔ Î·È ÛÙÔ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ ..................447

6-Ε-022 - ΜΑΘΑΙΝΟΝΤΑΣ ΟΙΚΟΔΟΜΙΚΟ ΣΧΕΔΙΑΣΜΟ - ΠΕΡΙΕΧΟΜΕΝΑ  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you