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ROMÅNIA INTERBELICå

INTERBELLUM ROMANIA


Matei Cazacu

ROMÅNIA INTERBELICå INTERBELLUM ROMANIA


Descrierea CIP a Bibliotecii Na]ionale a Rom창niei Cazacu, Matei Rom 창nia Interbelic~ / text: Matei Cazacu; concep]ie grafic~: Mihaela Dulea; ed.: Ovidiu Morar. - Bucure[ti: Noi Media Print, 2006 ISBN: 973-85881-7-0 I. Dulea, Mihaela (il.) II. Morar, Ovidiu (ed.) 726.6


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SUMMARY

Iluzia Rom창niei Mari

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The Illusion of Greater Romania

Istorie [i tradi]ie

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History and Tradition

Produc]ie [i consum

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Production and Consumption

Bucure[ti

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Bucharest

Peisaje citadine

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Cityscapes

Turism balnear [i de agrement

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Spa and Leisure Tourism

CUPRINS


ILUZIA ROMÅNIEI MARI România interbelic~, supranumit~ România Mare, era cu cei aproape 20 milioane de locuitori [i 295.000 km2 cel mai important stat din Balcani. Crearea statului na]ional prin alipirea la Vechiul Regat a provinciilor orientale (Basarabia), occidentale (Transilvania, Banat, Cri[ana), septentrionale (Bucovina, Maramure[) [i meridionale (Dobrogea de sud sau Cadrilaterul) a fost rezultatul pr~bu[irii imperiilor [i a afirm~rii principiului wilsonian al dreptului popoarelor la autodeterminare. Noile frontiere stabilite prin tratatele de pace din 1919 includeau puternice minorit~]i etnice (unguri, evrei, germani, slavi, ]igani, turci [i t~tari), 28,5% din totalul popula]iei nefiind de origine român~, o particularitate comun~ tuturor statelor balcanice, central- [i est-europene. Aflat~ în tab~ra înving~torilor din Primul R~zboi Mondial, România a f~cut parte în perioada interbelic~ din „cordonul sanitar“ al Europei în fa]a bol[evismului Rusiei sovietice. De altfel \n 1919, armata român~ a ocupat Ungaria [i Budapesta punând astfel cap~t experien]ei comuniste din Ungaria, iar între 1918 [i 1934 s-a aflat în stare de r~zboi cu URSS. România era o monarhie constitu]ional~ având în fruntea ei un monarh din dinastia german~ de Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, devenit~ din 1917 dinastia „de România“: Ferdinand I (1914-1927), Mihai I (1927-1930, 1940-1947) [i Carol al II-lea (1930-1940) se succed la tron. Scena politic~ este dominat~ de dou~ mari partide politice, Partidul Na]ional Liberal [i Partidul Na]ional ¥~r~nist care guverneaz~ în alternan]~ în alian]~ cu o serie de partide mici. Ca [i în perioada anterioar~, ]ara este guvernat~ de fapt de o elit~ restrâns~, în majoritate liberal~: circa 300 de persoane dup~ calculele unui observator (Petre Pandrea), un grup bine sudat denumit chiar „mafie“ de un adversar politic (Alexandru Vaida-Voevod). Aceste elite realizeaz~ dup~ r~zboi un program ambi]ios de reforme - printre care reforma agrar~ [i votul universal care acorda drepturi politice imensei majorit~]i a ]~rii - [i impun m~suri economice de liberalizare sabotate \ns~ de afacerism [i nepotism.

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Iluzia României Mari

România ocupa primul loc în Europa în privin]a ponderii popula]iei active (59% din totalul popula]iei), dar aceasta era concentrat~ cu prec~dere în agricultur~. De asemenea, ocupa locul întâi la capitolul natalit~]ii, dar tot locul întâi \l de]inea [i la mortalitate, în special la mortalitatea infantil~. Venitul anual pe cap de locuitor era de 243 de dolari (298 în 1914), cel mai sc~zut în Europa central~ [i de sud-est, mai sc~zut decât cel din Bulgaria (284), Polonia (352) [i Ungaria (359); venit care, pentru compara]ie, în Anglia era de 1069 de dolari. Principalele produse de export erau petrolul [i produsele rafinate (33% din total), cerealele (29%), lemnul (14%) [i vitele (6%). Valoarea unei tone metrice exportat~ de România era de 121 de franci elve]ieni (în perioada 1922-1930), în vreme ce o ton~ de produse importate valora 815,8 franci elve]ieni. çn 1931, îns~ raportul era catastrofal: 68,5 franci tona la export [i 853,9 la import. çncordarea situa]iei interna]ionale [i interne dup~ 1936 îl conduc pe regele Carol II la o politic~ autoritar~: Constitu]ia din 1923 este abolit~, partidele politice [i sindicatele sunt interzise, se iau o serie întreag~ de m~suri pentru eliminarea popula]iei evreie[ti din via]a politic~, economic~ [i social~. Toate acestea nu au putut împiedica pr~bu[irea României Mari în 1940, pr~bu[ire datorat~ în primul rând situa]iei geopolitice: România Mare dispare a[a cum au disp~rut peste o duzin~ de alte ]~ri europene indiferent de regimul lor politic, victime ale coluziunii imperialismului german [i sovietic. Acest rezultat final fusese presim]it de elitele tinere ale României care sim]eau c~ „timpul le era m~surat“ [i c~ erau deci obligate s~ creeze repede opere de valoare universal~ în scurtul interval de pace care le sta la dispozi]ie dup~ 1919. A[a se explic~ dezvoltarea f~r~ precedent a artelor, a literaturii, a arhitecturii. Se deschid noi s~li de expozi]ie, iar muzeele sunt mai vizitate ca oricând. Teatrele de tot felul [i s~lile de concert atrag sear~ de sear~ mii de spectatori, iar editurile se întrec în a promova noua genera]ie de scriitori români precum Eugen Ionescu, Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade, Mihai Sebastian [i mul]i al]ii.


THE ILLUSION OF GREATER ROMANIA Interwar Romania, also know as Greater Romania, was the most important state in the Balkans with its nearly 20 million inhabitants and 295,000 sq. km. The nation state emerged after the union to the Old Kingdom of the eastern province of Bessarabia, the western provinces of Transylvania, Banat and Crisana, the northern provinces of Bukovina and Maramures, and the southern province of southern Dobruja or the Quadrilateral. This was brought about by the collapse of empires and the assertion of Wilson’s principle of the peoples’ right to self-determination. Under the peace treaties of 1919 the new frontiers came to encompass several powerful ethnic minorities (Hungarians, Jews, Germans, Slavs, Gypsies, Turks, and Tartars), with 28.5 percent of the total population of other origin than the majority, a feature common to all the states in the Balkans, in Central and Eastern Europe. On the winning side in the First World War, in the interbellum Romania stood as part of Europe’s “sanitary belt” against Soviet Russia’s Bolshevism. Thus, in 1919, its armies occupied Hungary and Budapest in order to put an end to the communist experiment there, while between 1918 and 1934 Romania was in a state of war with the Soviet Union. A sovereign from the German dynasty of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, which from 1917 was considered “a Romanian dynasty”, ruled the country, a constitutional monarchy. In the period in point to the throne first came Ferdinand I (1914-1927), then Mihai I (1927-1930, 1940-1947), and Carol II (1930-1940). Two important formations, the National Liberal and the National Peasant Parties hogged the political stage, steering the country in turn, with a series of smaller parties in tow. Just like in the previous period, a small elite, mostly Liberal, swayed the country: all in all no more than 300 persons, according to the calculations of an observer (Petre Pandrea), a well knitted group that a political opponent (Alexandru Vaida-Voevod) called a “Mafia”. After the war, this elite carried out an ambitious program – to mention only the land reform and the universal suffrage granting political rights to the majority of the population – and instituted liberal economic measures

that, unfortunately, nepotism and group interests undermined. Romania ranked first in Europe in point of active population, 59 percent of all the inhabitants, but most of them worked mainly in agriculture. This country also placed first in the number of births as well as deaths, particularly as regards the child death rate. Per capita yearly income stood at 243 dollars (298 in 1914), the lowest in Central and South-Eastern Europe, smaller than in Bulgaria (284), Poland (352) and Hungary (359), as compared to 1,069 dollars in the United Kingdom. The principal exports were petroleum and refined products (33 percent of the total), grains (29 percent), wood (14 percent,) and cattle (6 percent). A metric ton exported by Romania was worth 121 Swiss Francs (between 1922-1930), while a ton of imported products was worth 815.8 Swiss Francs. In 1931, the ratio appeared downright catastrophic: 68.5 Francs per exported ton and 853.9 per imported ton. The tense international and domestic situation after 1936 prompted King Carol II to pursue an authoritarian policy: the 1923 Constitution was abolished, the political parties and trade unions were banned, and several measures were taken to eliminate the Jewish population from the political economic and social life. Nonetheless, all this could not prevent the collapse of Greater Romania, in 1940, mostly as a result of the geopolitical situation. Thus, Greater Romania vanished like more than a dozen other European countries, irrespective of their political regime, falling pray to the collusive German and Soviet imperialism. The young elite of Romanian artists intuited the dire end and felt their days were numbered. So they strove to create works of catholic scope in the brief interval after 1919. This explains the boom of the arts, of literature, and architecture. New exhibition halls opened, and museums welcomed more and more visitors. Various genres of theaters and concert halls drew thousands of spectators, while publishing houses vied to promote the new generation of Romanian writers: Eugen Ionescu, Emil Cioran, Mircea Eliade, Mihail Sebastian, and others.

The Illusion of Greater Romania

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ISTORIE ßI TRADI¥IE Realizarea statului na]iune în 1919 a resuscitat interesul pentru trecutul mai îndep~rtat sau mai apropiat: monumentele [i siturile arheologice sunt cercetate, restaurate, renovate sau recl~dite în spiritul respectului pentru forma ini]ial~, în special cu sprijinul Comisiei Monumentelor Istorice. M~n~stirile [i bisericile formau atunci, ca [i ast~zi, unul din cele mai remarcabile capitole ale

Tropaeum Traiani, Adamclisi Ruinele monumentului roman (109 d.Hr). Trapaeum Trajani, Adamclisi The ruins of the Roman monument (A.D. 109)

istoriei artei române[ti. Ele reprezint~ sinteze locale ale influen]elor bizantine [i occidentale evoluând c~tre forme specifice spa]iului românesc în ciuda diferen]elor regionale. Satul românesc interbelic continu~ s~ existe în dimensiunile sale tradi]ionale diferite între zonele de câmpie, unde se întâlnesc locuin]e de tip bordei îngropat total sau par]ial în p~mânt; cele de deal, unde abunden]a materialelor de construc]ie a permis formarea unui stil arhitectural specific: case cu etaj, în~l]ate pe o vast~ pivni]~, cu pridvor deschis

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Istorie [i tradi]ie

împodobit cu stâlpi de lemn adeseori sculpta]i, cu foi[or [i cu acoperi[ în pant~; în fine, cele de munte, unde predomin~ lemnul [i acoperi[urile impun~toare de stuf sau de [indril~. Fantezia me[terilor se manifest~ în sculptura monumentalelor por]i de lemn din Maramure[ [i Oa[, iar în interior în exuberan]a ]es~turilor [i a podoabelor, în special feminine. Transilvaniei îi sunt specifice stilurile gotic [i baroc, civiliza]ia urban~ de tip german cu ora[e [i biserici înconjurate de ziduri [i turnuri de ap~rare ridicate împotriva pericolului otoman. Satele s~se[ti din Transilvania [i sv~be[ti din Banat difer~ puternic de cele române[ti: primele sunt de tipul a[ez~rilor de colonizare, axate pe o strad~ principal~ dreapt~ [i larg~ flancat~ de dou~ fronturi de case de zid cu cur]i îngr~dite [i ele cu zid. çn contrast, în satele române[ti domin~ habitatul de tip risipit, cu forme neregulate, gr~dini [i livezi. La rândul ei, Oltenia muntoas~ este p~str~toarea unui tip de cas~ fortificat~, cula, adev~rat turn amintind de locuin]ele fortificate ale patricienilor genovezi. Economia ]~r~neasc~ tinde c~tre autarhie cultivarea p~mântului, cre[terea animalelor, viticultura, pomicultura [i mica industrie local~. O seam~ de îndeletniciri ancestrale sunt pre]uite acum: sculptura în lemn, ceramica de o mare varietate, ]es~turile, toate promovate în particip~rile României la expozi]iile interna]ionale ale vremii începând cu cea de la Paris din 1867. Caracteristic~ este p~strarea costumului popular de toate zilele [i de s~rb~toare (adoptat în special de doamnele din înalta societate sub influen]a Reginei Maria) cu variante regionale bine definite. Satul continu~ s~-[i p~streze caracteristicile arhitecturale [i vestimentare, prea pu]in concurate înc~ de industria or~[eneasc~. Doar satele din împrejurimile Bucure[tilor [i a unor mari ora[e din r~s~rit - Gala]i, Br~ila - cunosc un început de urbanizare haotic~ dar f~r~ rezultate probante.


HISTORY AND TRADITION The establishment of the nation state in 1919 rekindled the interest in the more or less remote past. Thus, the Commission of Historical Monuments lent its support to most of the projects that studied, restored, renovated or refurbished archaeological monuments and sites in respect of their original. Then, just like now, monasteries and churches represented one of the most outstanding chapters in the history of Romanian art. A local synthesis of Byzantine and Western tradition, they evolved into specific forms of the Romanian space, despite regional differences. Interwar Romanian villages continued their life within traditional dimensions that varied function of their location: plain areas, with totally or partly buried huts; hill areas where the wealth of building materials allowed for the creation of a specific architectural style featuring storied houses with a big cellar on the basement, an open porch often adorned by sculptured wooden posts, then a turret and sloping roof; and finally mountain areas, with preeminently wooden houses topped by imposing roofs. Master craftsmen left their fantasy play freely when sculpting the monumental wooden porches of Maramures and Oas, while women artists put their genius into exuberantly woven cloth and various ornaments. The Gothic and Baroque styles, a Germantype civilization with towns and churches surrounded by defense walls and towers meant to cope with the Ottoman peril characterized Transylvania. The Saxon villages of Transylvania and the Swabian villages of Banat differed considerably from the Romanian ones as the former were of the colony settlement type, with a straight wide main street, flanked by two rows of brick houses with wall-fenced yards. By contrast, the Romanian villages were scattered, irregular in shape, with gardens and orchards. In its turn, the mountainous region of Oltenia evinced the tradition of the fortified house, the socalled cula, actually a tower reminding of the fortified mansions of Genovese patricians.

Peasant economy tended to autarchy – land cultivation, animal rearing, viticulture, pomiculture, and local cottage industry. Several old skills came to be much appreciated: wood sculpture, highly variegated ceramics, textiles, all promoted thanks to Romania’s participation in the time’s international exhibitions, starting with the 1867 Paris event.

Re[edin]a lui Duca Vod~ de la Cet~]uia (1672), jude]ul Ia[i The residence of Prince Duca at Cetatuia, Iasi County (1672)

The preservation of everyday and festive folk costumes (adopted in particular by the ladies of the high society under the influence of Queen Maria) represented a characteristic of the time, with welldefined regional variants. Villages stuck to their architectural and vestmental traditions, for which city industries put up too little competition. A chaotic start of urban planning could be noted in the big towns of eastern Romania – Galati, Braila – and the localities around Bucharest, only slight results tough.

History and tradition

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Biserica Olari (1687) din Curtea de Arge[ Olari Church (1687) of Curtea de Arges Biserica mare din C창ineni (1807), jude]ul V창lcea Pe fa]ad~ sunt picta]i sibile [i filosofi. The big Church of Caineni (1807) The facade features paintings with sibyls and philosophers.

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Schitul [i pe[tera Ialomi]ei Construit \n 1818, ars ĂŽn 1940 [i ref~cut \n 1942. The Ialomita Cave and Skete The latter was built in 1818; it caught fire in 1940, and was remade in 1942.

Biseric~ de lemn din N~da[a, jude]ul Mure[ The wooden Church of Nadasa, Targu Mures

Biserica din Br~det (sec. XVI), Jude]ul Arge[ The Church of Bradet, Arges County (16th century)

Biserica (sec. XVIII) din Fildul de sus, jude]ul S~laj Fidul de Sus, Salaj County. The Church (18th century)


Biserica Fundenii Doamnei (1699), Bucure[ti Stucaturi lucrate de me[teri persani: un palat, o fântân~, glastre cu flori. Fundenii Doamnei Church, Bucharest (1699) Stucco crafted by Persian artisans: a palace, a fountain, vases with flowers.

M~n~stirea Horezu (1694), jude]ul Vâlcea, Pronaosul M~n~stirea V~c~re[ti (1722), Bucure[ti Interiorul bisericii. Cea mai întins~ din Europa (180.000 m2), demolat~ în 1986.

Horezu Monastery, Valcea County (1694), the narthex

Vacaresti Monastery, Bucharest (1722) Interior of the church, the largest in Europe (180,000 sq. m.) demolished in 1986.

History and tradition

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M~n~stirea Cozia (1388), jude]ul Vâlcea Locuin]a egumenului, vedere din pridvor. Cozia Monastery, Valcea County (1388) The abbot’s house, view from the porch.

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Patriarhul Miron Cristea îl întâmpin~ pe Regele Carol II în biserica m~n~stirii Curtea de Arge[ cu ocazia funeraliilor Reginei Maria (iulie 1938). Patriarch Miron Cristea welcoming King Carol II to the church of the Curtea de Arges Monastery on the funerals of Queen Maria (July 1938).

M~n~stirea lui Neagoe Basarab (1517), Curtea de Arge[ The Monastery of Neagoe Basarab, Curtea de Arges (1517)

Grup de c~lug~ri Group of monks

History and tradition

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Parcul palatului Reginei Maria, Balcic The park of Queen Maria’s palace, Balcic

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Printre ruine la picnic A picnic among ruins

Gorunul lui Horea, ¼ebea Horea’s evergreen oak, Tebea

History and tradition

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Catedrala Catolic~ din Alba Iulia Sarcofagele lui Iancu de Hunedoara (†1456), Ladislau de Hunedoara, fiul s~u (†1457) [i Regelui Ioan Sigismund Zapolya (†1571). Opere influen]ate de rena[terea italian~. The Catholic Cathedral of Alba Iulia The sarcophagi of Iancu of Hunedoara (d. 1456), Ladislau of Hunedoara, his son (d. 1457), and of King Johannes Sigismund Zapolya (d. 1571), works influenced by the Italian Renaissance

Biserica s~seasc~ fortificat~ din Prejmer (Tartlau), c~m~ri de provizii în curtea interioar~ (sec. XV). The Fortified Saxon Church of Prejmer (Tartlau), storehouses in the inner court (15th cen.)

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Biserica s~seasc~ fortificat~ din Cisn~die (Heltau), (sec. XV) The Fortified Saxon Church of Cisnadie (Heltau), the 15th cen

History and tradition

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Bra[ov, Pia]a Sfatului or~[enesc (sec. XV-XVIII): „Aici se adun~ toate popoarele învecinate ca într-o hal~ comun~ de m~rfuri“ - Giovan-Andrea Gromo Brasov, the Town Hall Square (15th-18th cen.): “Here all the neighboring folks gather like in a common market hall” Giovan Andrea Gromo (1518 – after 1567)

Castelul Bran (1377) Ref~cut de Regina Maria (1930). Bran castle (1377) Refurbished by Queen Maria (1930).


History and tradition

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Cetatea Alb~, cetate greac~ în antichitate, mai apoi bizantin~, genovez~, t~t~reasc~, moldoveneasc~, turceasc~, ruseasc~ [i în fine româneasc~ (1919). Încorporat~ în Ucraina (1944). Cetatea Alba, a Greek stronghold in the antiquity, turned then Byzantine, Genovese, Turkish, Russian and finally Romanian (1919), to be incorporated into Ukraine later (1944).

Portul Cet~]ii Albe Cetatea Alba, the Harbour


Turnul Chindiei (1462) [i ruinele bisericii domne[ti (1583), Târgovi[te Chindia Tower (1462) Targoviste and the ruins of the princely church (1583)

Castelul Hunedoara (sec. XV) Construit de Iancu de Hunedoara (1440-1446, 1447-1453) [i terminat de fiul s~u Matei Corvin (1458-1490). Hunedoara Castle (15th cen.) Started by Iancu of Hunedoara (14401446, 1447-1453) and finished by his son, Matthias Corvinus (1458-1490).

Casa în care s-a n~scut regele Ungariei, Matei Corvin la 23 februarie 1443 (rege între 1458-1490), Cluj The house where Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary was born on February 23, 1443 (king between 1458-1490), Cluj

History and tradition

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Cetatea Hotin, vedere dinspre Nistru Hotin Stronghold, view from the Dniester River

Cetatea Hotin, ruinele geamiei, l창ng~ biserica ortodox~ Hotin Stronghold ruins of the mosque near the Romanian Orthodox Church

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Cetatea Hotin, fortifica]iile [i curtea interioar~ Hotin Stronghold, the fortifications and the inner courtyard

History and tradition

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Ada-Kaleh, bazarul Ada-Khaleh, the bazaar

Ada-Kaleh Cl~direa comandamentului construit~ de austrieci (1720), transformat~ ĂŽn geamie dup~ 1730. Ada Kaleh General headquarters building, erected by the Austrians (1720) and turned into a mosque after 1730.

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Ada-Kaleh Insul~ fortificat~ pe Dun~re, ĂŽnghi]it~ de lacul de acumulare Por]ile de Fier ĂŽn 1970. Geamia [i fortifica]iile. Ada Kaleh A fortified island on the Danube swallowed by the Iron Gates storage lake in 1970. The mosque and the fortifications.

Vedere general~ General view

History and tradition

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Troi]~ monoxil~, Foc[ani One-wood road altar, Focsani

Cimitir turcesc, Balcic Turkish graveyard, Balcic

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Cimitir din S~t창lnea[, Dobrogea The cemetery of Satalneas, Dobruja

Cimitir din Deleni, nord de Ia[i The cemetery of Deleni (north of Iasi)

History and tradition

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Femei la sfat \n ¥ara Mo]ilor „Ascult~ de la mine c~-s mai b~trân!“

Women’s get-together in Motzi land

“Believe me, I’ve been there!”

History and tradition

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„Nu mai exist~ tâlhari în Carpa]i!“ “There’re no bandits left in the Carpathians!”

Cariatide în drum spre târg, Dr~goeni, jude]ul Gorj Caryatids: Peasant women going to the fair, Dragoeni, Gorj County Negustori de opinci: „un model, toate m~rimile” Vendors of strapped moccasins: “One model, all sizes!”

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Istorie [i tradi]ie

¥~rani din Maramure[ în fa]a bisericii Peasants from Maramures in front of the church


Haute couture ĂŽn Bucovina, Oa[ [i Gorj Haute couture, Bukovina, Oas, and Gorj style Descul]e, dar g~tite Barefoot, yet dolled up

History and tradition

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Cas~ cu coloane \n Burila, jude]ul Mehedin]i House with columns, Burila, Mehedinti County

O moar~ pe râu În jos A mill down on the river

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Arhitectur~ ]~r~neasc~ Peasant architecture

History and tradition

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Cas~ din S~li[te cu m창ndrii ei proprietari House in Saliste and its proud owners

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


Cas~ din zona N~s~ud, interior House in the Nasaud area, interior

Ă&#x;ez~toare Social of village women

History and tradition

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La târgul de oale pe muntele G~ina

Secui din Tome[ti, Miercurea Ciuc

At the pottery fair on Gaina Mount

Szecklers from Tomesti, Miercurea Ciuc

„Am pus-o de m~m~lig~“ “I’ve really got into hot water with this polenta!”

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Istorie [i tradi]ie


¥~ranc~ din Muscel Countrywoman from Muscel

„Ziua bun~ am dat”... “Should I say Hello again?”

History and tradition

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Copii la altar din Ghinda Children at the altar of Ghina

รงn drum spre biseric~, V~li[oara On the way to the church, Valisoara Coafur~ de s~rb~toare Festive hairdo

Joc ]~r~nesc \n Drag, jude]ul Cluj Country-dance at Drag, Cluj County


Doamne ajut~! La Maglavit Loc de pelerinaj ini]iat de Petrache Lupu. “God help us!” Maglavit, a pilgrimage spot initiated by Petrache Lupu

çn drum spre biseric~, Viscri, jude]ul Bra[ov Going to church, Viscri, Brasov County

History and tradition

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„Paparud~-rud~, vino de ne ud~!“ Rain invocation: “Paparuda, break the bain/ Paparuda, let it rain!”

Bivoli vara, F~g~ra[ Buffalos in summer, Fagaras


Ne a[teapt~ nunta Let’s start the wedding party

La Turtucaia At Turtucaia


Zi de târg în Arge[ Fair day in Arges

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Istorie [i tradi]ie

Târgul de fete de pe muntele G~ina The girl fair on Gaina Mount


¥igani nomazi în B~r~gan Nomad Gypsies in the Baragan

Coloni[ti macedoromâni în Dobrogea Macedo-Romanian colonists in Dobruja

History and tradition

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PRODUC¥IE ßI CONSUM Structura economiei române[ti s-a diversificat dup~ Primul R~zboi mondial: noile teritorii erau extrem de bogate în p~duri, animale de ras~, z~c~minte de c~rbuni, fier, aur, argint, cupru. Vechiul Regat exploata numai sarea [i petrolul a c~rui produc]ie urc~ de la un milion de tone la 1920 la 8,7 milioane în 1936. Industriile care au cunoscut o puternic~ dezvoltare erau cea extractiv~, metalurgic~, de prelucrare a lemnului, a materialelor de construc]ie, chimic~, alimentar~, textil~, a hârtiei, piel~riei, sticl~riei [i ceramicii. În 1930, România avea 140.000 întreprinderi industriale cu 600.000 de muncitori, dintre care îns~ 130.000 erau mici ateliere cu 1-5 persoane. ¥ara avea un important poten]ial economic, dar ducea lips~ de capitaluri [i investi]ii care s~-l valorifice. De[i România ocupa locul întâi în Europa în privin]a ponderii popula]iei active (59% din totalul popula]iei), aceasta era concentrat~ în agricultur~. Doar 7,2% din români lucrau în industrie [i 14% în servicii, iar valoarea produc]iei unui ]~ran român era de zece ori mai mic~ decât aceea furnizat~ de un muncitor industrial. De[i crescuse, produc]ia la hectar la cereale era inferioar~ celei a tuturor statelor balcanice cu excep]ia Greciei, iar valoarea inventarului agricol pe cap de locuitor era de 15 ori mai redus~ decât cea a Germaniei. Venitul pe cap de locuitor al României era cel mai redus din Europa r~s~ritean~ [i balcanic~, existând mari discrepan]e între mediul rural [i cel urban. Astfel, bugetul ]~r~nesc era consacrat în propor]ie de 65-70%

hranei [i 5-10% b~uturilor alcoolice. Consumul de carne anual pe cap de locuitor eviden]ia o enorm~ diferen]~ între mediul rural (3 kg) [i cel urban (52 kg). ¥~ranul român avea un consum extrem de redus de zah~r (2 kg anual de familie), în schimb consumau pân~ la 3 kg de m~m~lig~ pe zi pe cap de locuitor în Vechiul Regat [i în Basarabia. Alimenta]ia frugal~ [i s~rac~ în calorii se explic~ [i prin reducerea drastic~ a p~[unilor în favoarea culturilor cerealiere destinate exportului (subven]ionat masiv de stat) [i avea drept consecin]~ r~spândirea bolilor nutri]ionale ca pelagra specifice zonelor de monocultur~ (în special porumb) nu numai din România, ci [i din sudul Statelor Unite. Toate statisticile privind locuin]a, asisten]a medical~, educa]ia [i analfabetismul (43% din totalul popula]iei) dovedesc c~ ]~ranul român avea unul din standardele de via]~ cele mai joase din Europa. O situa]ie abia mai bun~ avea muncitorimea. Absen]a unor programe de construc]ii de locuin]e ieftine, sl~biciunea sindicatelor [i paternalismul patronilor au dus la proletarizarea acestei clase sociale care î[i p~stra vechile tradi]ii doar în Transilvania, Bucovina [i Banat, regiuni în care votul social-democrat [i socialist era cel mai puternic. În Vechiul Regat, lipsit~ de aceste tradi]ii, ea a fost mult mai sensibil~ la propaganda extremei drepte legionare din Bucure[ti [i Ia[i, iar implica]iile politice dezastruoase nu s-au l~sat mult a[teptate.

„Mun]ii no[tri aur poart~”, b~ie[i din Mun]ii Apuseni “Our mountains, rich in gold”. Gold washers in Apuseni Mountians

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PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION The Romanian economy diversified after the First World War as the new territories boasted plenty of woods, thoroughbred animals, coal, iron, gold, silver and copper ores. In the Old Kingdom only salt and petroleum were tapped, the production of the latter rising from one million tons in 1920 to 8.7 million in 1936. The mining, metallurgical, wood processing, building material, chemical, food, textile, paper, leather, glassware and ceramics industries greatly flourished. In 1930, Romania numbered 140,000 industrial enterprises with 600,000 employees, of which 130,000 were small workshops manned by 1-5 workers. The country posted a considerable economic potential but lacked capital and investment to turn it to good account. Romania ranked first in Europe in point of active persons (59 percent of the total population) but they were employed mainly in agriculture. Only 7.2 percent of the Romanians worked in industry and 14 percent in services, and a peasant produced ten times less than an industrial worker. Per hectare grain yield, although on the rise, was smaller than that in the other Balkan states with the exception of Greece, and the value of the per capita farming stock was 15 times lower than Germany’s. Romania’s per capita income was the most diminutive in Eastern Europe and in the Balkans, with considerable discrepancies between the provinces and the towns. Thus, 65-70 percent of a peasant household budget went on food, and 5-10 percent on alcoholic beverages. There was a big difference between meat

consumption in the rural (3 kg) and in the urban environment (52 kg). Likewise, Romanian peasants used an extremely small amount of sugar (2 kg per family yearly), instead they ate 3 kg of polenta per day in the Old Kingdom and in Bessarabia. The scanty malnutritious food, poor in calories, can be explained also by the drastic reduction of the pastureland in favor of grain cultures for exports (massively subsidized by the state). The consequence thereof were ever more numerous cases of nutrition diseases, such as pellagra, specific for one-crop areas (in particular maize), not only in Romania but also in the south of the United States. All statistics with regard to accommodation, medical assistance, education and illiteracy (43 percent of the total population) indicate that the Romanian peasants had one of the poorest living standards in Europe. The working class fared just a little better. The absence of inexpensive housing projects, the inconsistency of trade unions and the paternalism of employers triggered the proletarization of this social class that managed to preserve its old traditions only in Transylvania, Bukovina and Banat, regions where the social-democrat and the socialist electorate was stronger. In the Old Kingdom, deprived of such traditions, the workers proved much more open to the propaganda of the extreme right Iron Guard in Bucharest and in Iasi. The disastrous aftermath of this situation ensued promptly.

Catedrala subteran~ de sare de la Sl~nic

Pu]urile de iod de la Pucioasa The iodine wells of Pucioasa

The underground salt cathedral at Slanic

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Torent de lemne Torrents of wood

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Produc]ie [i consum


Depozit de lemne la Ă&#x;ugag Timber yard at Sugag

Valea Sebe[ului Sebe[ Valley


Rafin~riile Astra Rom창n~ Astra Romana refineries

Furnalele de la Re[i]a The furnaces of Resita


Sonde de petrol ĂŽn Prahova Oil wells in Prahova valley

80 de cai putere versus un m~gar putere 80 HP vs. 1-donkey power


Hal~ [i atelier din uzinele Malaxa Bay and workshop at the Malaxa Works


Re[i]a, uzina de locomotive Resita: The Locomotive Plant

Bucure[ti, Gara de Nord Bucharest, North Railway Station

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Via]a ĂŽn vremea recoltei Life during harvest

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Treieratul, mai mult sau mai pu]in mecanizat More or less mechanized trashing

Plug mecanic experimental Experimental mechanical plough


Din vie, ĂŽn teasc [i apoi ĂŽn sticle From vineyard into press and then in bottles

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„Bate vântul, moaranvârte“... “Blows the wind, turns the mill”…

...în Dobrogea... ...[i la bâlci... …at the fair...

…in Dobruja...


Le train, “...comme à la guerre!”


Delfinul, primul submarin al flotei române The Dolphin, the first Romanian submarine

Distrug~toare române[ti în portul Constan]a (1938) Membri ai familiei regale în context nautic (1938) Members of the Royal Family in a maritime milieu (1938)

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Romanian destroyers in Constanta harbor (1938)


Nave acostate la Br~ila ... Ships moored at Braila‌ ... [i la Mangalia. ... and at Mangalia.

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BUCUREßTI Capitala unei ]~ri de 20 de milioane de locuitori, Bucure[tii au devenit o metropol~ european~ puternic marcat~ de originile sale. Considerat cel mai de seam~ din sud-estul Europei dup~ Istanbul, ora[ul se întindea pe o suprafa]~ de 7000 ha iar popula]ia sa s-a triplat în 20 de ani, de la 350.000 de locuitori la aproape un milion. Fa]a ora[ului s-a schimbat considerabil în aceast~ epoc~. Sistematizarea din anii '30 a deschis pie]e largi [i noi bulevarde. Regiuni întinse din suburbii las~ locul unui brâu de lacuri, parcuri [i spa]ii expozi]ionale în zonele de nord [i est. Vechi gropi de gunoaie, fabrici dezafectate, mahalale insalubre sunt înlocuite de cartiere de vile. ßi totu[i Bucure[tii r~mân un ora[ al contrastelor, întocmai ca Parisul pre-haussmanian [i Londra victorian~: opulen]ei afi[ate în firmele luminoase [i vitrinele elegante din centru i se opune aspectul pauper al mahalalelor unde satul [i ora[ul se întâlneau într-o stranie coexisten]~. Arhitectura centrului istoric [i comercial poseda virtualit~]i care ar fi putut s~ evolueze în pas cu urbanismul modern. Din p~cate, modernizarea for]at~ a înlocuit multe din aceste cl~dirile istorice cu construc]ii în stil neoclasic de influen]~ francez~. Stilul neoromânesc ini]iat de arhitectul Ion Mincu domin~ perioada 1920-1928 când majoritatea arhitec]ilor se str~duiesc s~ defineasc~ acest stil cu rezultate mai pu]in concludente în cazul marilor cl~diri administrative [i de locuit, dar care impresioneaz~ pl~cut când e vorba de locuin]e.

În vremea [i dup~ criza economic~ din anii 19291933, capitalurile retrase din b~nci sunt reinvestite majoritar în construc]ii, valori sigure. Din imobilele realizate, 75% sunt locuin]e. Cele mai reu[ite dintre ele sunt casele-vil~ realizate de arhitec]ii Horia Creang~, Octav Doicescu, Marcel Iancu [i Duiliu Marcu într-un stil care ]ine cont de revolu]ia estetic~ realizat~ de mi[carea Bauhaus. În paralel, se constat~ o adev~rat~ campanie de construc]ii de blocuri de 6 pân~ la 11 etaje cu apartamente de închiriat. Cl~dirile realizate de stat sau de institu]ii na]ionale prezint~ [i ele caracteristicile modernit~]ii: palatul Telefoanelor, cel al Ministerului de Externe, Biblioteca Academiei Române sau palatul Patriarhiei sunt exemple definitorii. Arhitectura industrial~ p~[e[te [i ea hot~rât pe calea moderniz~rii: Bucure[tii v~d astfel ridicându-se uzine somptuoase ca Malaxa (1929-1930, 1933) sau Ford din cartierul Floreasca. Simbol al transform~rilor prin care trece ora[ul este Arcul s~u de Triumf, construc]ie din o]el [i marmur~ ridicat~ între 1936-1938 care înlocuia o alta provizorie. Gr~dinile de var~, restaurantele, cafenelele, parcurile [i terasele, plimb~rile cu tr~sura sau cu ma[ina la ßosea, spectacolele de teatru, conferin]ele, mitingurile politice - adev~ratul ritual al vie]ii burgheze - toate acestea reprezentau ritmul de via]~ al lumii capitalei interbelice [i f~ceau din Bucure[ti, „micul Paris“, un ora[ râvnit de cei care î[i doreau o via]~ în pas cu modele timpului.


BUCHAREST The capital of a 20-million inhabitants country, Bucharest was turning into a European metropolis, though still marked by its origins. Considered the most remarkable in southeastern Europe after Istanbul, the city stretched over 7,000 hectares, and its population trebled in a 20-year span, from 350,000 to nearly one million. The looks of Romania’s major city changed considerably in that period. The town development undertaken in the 1930s opened up wide plazas and new boulevards. A belt of lakes, parks and exhibition areas in the northern and eastern zones emerged in the suburbs. Districts of villas replaced old dumps and dismantled plants. Still, Bucharest remained a city of contrasts, just like preHaussman Paris or Victorian Britain: the opulence exuded by elegant stores with bright signs downtown contraposed the pauper slums where village and town coexisted. The architecture of the historic and commercial center had potential, which could have allowed for development in step with modern city planning. Unfortunately, forced upgrading replaced many of its historical buildings of French neo-classical extraction. The neo-Romanian style masterminded by architect Ion Mincu dominated the period 1920-1928, when most architects strove to define it with more or less conclusive results in the case of big administrative constructions, and with often impressing results in the case of dwellings. During and after the economic crisis of 1929-1933, the capital withdrawn from banks was mostly reinvested in

Vedere de pe Dealul Mitropoliei cu statuia repozi]ionat~ a Lupoaicei

Vedere din avion a Bucure[tiului: amenajare \n curs a bulevardului Br~tianu. Bird’s eye view of Bucharest. Bratianu Blvd. under arrangement.

View from the Metropolitan Hill with the repositioned statue of the She-Wolf

constructions, safe assets. Seventy-five per cent of the constructions undertaken represented housing projects. The most accomplished are the villa-homes created by architects Horia Creanga, Octav Doicescu, Marcel Iancu, and Duiliu Marcu, in a style that included the aesthetic revolution achieved by the Bauhaus movement. In parallel, a brisk construction spree could be noted of blocks of flats six to eleven stories high. The buildings sponsored by the state or by national institutions also featured elements of modernity: to mention thus the Telephone Palace, the Palace of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the Library of the Romanian Academy, and the Patriarchy Palace. Industrial architecture also took the path of modernization: thus, Bucharest saw the elevation of the sumptuous plants Malaxa (1929-1930, 1933) and Ford in the Floreasca district. An epitome of the transformations undergone by the city was the Arch of Triumph, a steel and marble construction erected between 1936 and 1938 to replace a makeshift one. Summer gardens, restaurants, cafes, parks, terraces, carriage rides on the Promenade, theater shows, conferences, political meetings – here are some of the landmarks of bourgeois life in the inter-war Romanian capital of Bucharest, “the Paris of the east”, craved after by all who wanted to live fashionably.


Cu muscalul la promenad~ Going for a ride in a brougham

Intrarea Teatrului Na]ional Entrance of the National Theater


Primul ministru Alexandru Vaida Voevod [i concurentele pentru Miss România Prime Minister Alexandru Vaida Voevod and participants in the Miss Romania pageant

Cl~direa Cercului Militar Construit~ ĂŽn stil Empire. The Military Club built in Empire style


Pia]a „8 Iunie“ (1936), Pia]a Unirii de azi The 8 iunie Plaza, present-day Unirii (1936) Pia]a Bibescu Vod~ cu Spitalul Brâncovenesc în fundal Bibescu Voda market with the Brancovenesc Hospital in the background

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Bucure[ti


Strada Lipscani Lipscani street

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Evacuare for]at~ Forced eviction

Pompieri ĂŽn ac]iune cu ma[ini moderne Firefighters and their modern cars in action

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Bucure[ti


Tramvai cu un cal; la urcu[ se mai înh~mau doi cai „pr~[tieri“ One-horse tramway: on going up two additional horses were used

Calea Mo[ilor [i noile tramvaie electrice Mosilor Road and the new electric trams


„Braga dir, Luther mir“ “Braga dir and Luther beer”

Reclama, „sufletul comer]ului” Advertising brings in customers


B~c~nia, „La leu“ At the Lion’s Grocery

Calea Victoriei, cu biserica Doamnei, palatul Nifon [i Casa Greceanu

„Fiat lux!” Bec cu gaz Auer “Fiat lux!” Auer-gas lamp

Victoriei Road, Doamnei Church, Nifon Palace and Greceanu Mansion

Papagalul Coco [i fla[neta Parrott Coco and the hurdy-gurdy

Pe cheiul Dâmbovi]ei, „anticarii“ Antiquarians on Dambovita’s banks

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Bulevardul Br~tianu, victim~ a dou~ cutremure [i a sistematiz~rii Bratianu Blvd., shook up by two earthquakes and one zoning project


…[i dinspre nord … its northern side

Pia]a I.C. Br~tianu Vedere dinspre sud. I.C. Bratianu Circle View from the south. Pia]a I.C. Br~tianu Vedere aerian~. I.C. Bratianu Circle Bird’s eye view.

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Bursa The Stock Exchange

Strada Edgar Quinet, Universitatea [i Institutul de Arhitectur~ Blocul Societ~]ii Adriatica Edgar Quinet Street, the University, and the Architecture Institute

The Adriatica Society Building


„Doi lei, domnilor, ocaziune, domnilor!“ “Only two lei, gents, a real bargain!”

Strada Eugeniu Carada în cartierul b~ncilor Eugeniu Carada Street in the banking district

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Monumentul Take Ionescu Detaliu.

Bulevardul I.C. Br~tianu Instantanee.

Blocul ARO (Asigurarea Rom창neasc~) [i Hotel Ambasador

The Take Ionescu Monument Detail.

I.C. Bratianu Boulevard Snapshot.

The ARO Building (Romanian Insurance) and Ambasador Hotel

Blocul Malaxa pe Bulevardul I.C. Br~tianu. Malaxa Building on I.C. Bratianu Blvd.

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Cartierul Prim~verii, blocuri ĂŽn construc]ie Primaverii District, apartment buildings under construction

Pia]a Aviatorilor Aviatorilor Circus

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Bucure[ti


Monumentul infanteriei, azi disp~rut Monument of the Infantry, now gone

Palatul Sturdza, Ministerul Afacerilor Externe, demolat ĂŽn 1945 Sturdza Palace, headquarters of the Foreign Ministry, demolished in 1945

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Aeroportul B~neasa Instantanee. Baneasa Airport Snapshots.

Automobilul \n trei ipostaze Automobiles in three versions

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Mar[ul de protest al negustorilor olteni Protest march of Oltenia peddlers

Amazoan~ de la Circul Sidoli Amazon at the Sidoli Circus

Trei leoaice Three Lionesses

Cinema la minut Instant cinema

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ßtrandul Kisseleff Kiseleff recreation facility

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Bucure[ti

Piscina Lido

¥igareta de ora cinci

Lido swimming pool

Five o’clock cigarette


La balul de s창mb~t~ seara Saturday night ball

Extragerea lozului cel mare The great lottery draw


PEISAJE CITADINE Un procent de 21% din popula]ia României interbelice locuia în mediul urban în cele 172 de ora[e ale ]~rii. Douazeci dintre ele au fost declarate municipii, iar [ase aveau peste 100.000 de locuitori. În ele era concentrat 45% din totalul întreprinderilor industriale. Marile uzine cu sute sau mii de muncitori, pu]ine la num~r, se aflau în zona Transilvaniei [i la Bucure[ti. Ponderea redus~ a muncitorimii [i a burgheziei, concentrate în ora[e, conferea acestora un aspect tradi]ional în care num~rul func]ionarilor, al intelectualilor [i al inactivilor dep~[ea pe cel al popula]iei active. O caracteristic~ general~ a ora[elor României interbelice este tendin]a de racordare la moda [i spiritul european al epocii. Arhitectura urban~ se modific~ treptat gra]ie investi]iilor de capital [i talentului arhitec]ilor. O aten]ie special~ este acordat~ ora[elor Transilvaniei în care statul dore[te s~-[i imprime caracterul s~u românesc într-un mediu dominant unguresc [i german. Enormele catedrale ortodoxe de la Alba Iulia (1922), Cluj (1923-1925) [i Timi[oara sunt expresia cea mai clar~ a acestui demers, ca [i construc]ia de palate culturale [i cl~diri administrative în centrul ora[elor. Al~turi de ele, vile somptuoase, blocuri elegante în diverse stiluri marcheaz~ efortul de urbanizare. Se generalizeaz~ mai apoi iluminatul public, transportul în comun [i serviciile de salubritate; o lege din 1929 oblig~ toate ora[ele s~-[i conceap~ planuri de urbanism pe zece ani, o ini]iativ~ pozitiv~ cu urm~ri inegale îns~. Cu toate acestea, în 1930, 74 de a[ez~ri urbane erau lipsite de alimentare cu ap~, 123 nu aveau re]ele de canalizare, iar suburbiile r~mân în continuare în mizerie sau cu un accentuat caracter agrar. Marea majoritate a ora[elor României î[i p~streaz~ înc~ nota provincial~ de centre administrative [i pie]e pentru produsele agricole sau industriale. Peste tot aceea[i strad~ principal~, cu vitrine [i pr~v~lii, loc de plimbare, dar [i vad comercial în care se îngr~m~desc vânz~torii de ziare sau negustorii ambulan]i, birjele de

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pia]~ [i automobilele, un lux din ce în ce mai accesibil (45.000 în 1941, adic~ unu la 430 locuitori). Un [trand la periferie - de obicei pe malul unui râu - câte un teatru (ref~cut acum ca cel din Timi[oara), circurile ambulante [i cafenelele, cinematografele care adopt~ rapid instala]iile pentru filme vorbite, sunt tot atâtea locuri de sociabilitate care constituie marea atrac]ie a ora[elor, adev~rate oaze în mijlocul unui peisaj predominant rural.

Palatul Colegiului Academic, Cluj The Palace of the Academic College, Cluj


CITYSCAPES Twenty-one percent of Romania’s interwar population lived in the country’s 172 towns. Twenty of them were considered municipalities, and six had over 100,000 inhabitants. They concentrated 45 percent of the total industrial enterprises. The big plants with hundreds or even thousands of workers, few in number, stood in Transylvania and in Bucharest. The small weight of workers and bourgeois in towns accounted for their traditional aspect, with clerks, intelligentsia and inactive population exceeding the number of those engaged in work. All of Romania’s interwar towns tended to keep abreast of the time’s fashion and spirit in Europe. Urban architecture was gradually changing thanks to capital investment and the talent of architects. Special attention went to the towns of Transylvania where the state wanted to impress its Romanian character on an environment mostly Hungarian and German. The large Romanian Orthodox cathedrals of Alba Iulia (1922), Cluj (1923-1925), and Timisoara clearly expressed this intention, just like the cultural palaces and administrative buildings put up in the center of towns. To this added sumptuous villas, elegant apartment blocs in various styles, underlining a definite endeavor of town planning. Public lightening, public transportation and sanitation services developed, a law of 1929 compelling all towns to devise planning projects for ten years, a positive initiative with odd results. In 1930 though, 74 urban settlements had no drinking water or sewage system, while suburbs continued their miserable, basically agricultural life. Most Romanian cities preserved a provincial air of administrative centers or markets for farming or industrial products. Every single one featured a main street with stores and nice windows and signs, a fine place for a stroll and at the same time a commercial knot, teeming with news vendors and peddlers, carriages and cars – an ever more affordable luxury (45,000 in 1941, that is one per 430 inhabitants). Then

a swimming pool at the outskirts or a similar facility on the banks of a river, a theater (refurbished, like the Timisoara one), a traveling circus, cafes, cinema theaters quickly geared up with talking movie equipment. All these were as many attractive places of socialization, as many oases in the midst of a prevailingly rural landscape.

Teatrul Na]ional din Cluj The National Theater of Cluj

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Cluj, vedere general~ (1933) General view, Cluj (1933)

Gr~dina Botanic~ din Cluj Botanical Gardens, Cluj

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Pia]a Unirii din Oradea Union Square, Oradea

Palatul „Vulturul Negru“, Oradea The Black Eagle Palace, Oradea

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Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand ĂŽnainte de construc]ia Catedralei Ortodoxe, Timi[oara King Ferdinand Blvd. before the Romanian Orthodox Cathedral was built, Timisoara

Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand, Timi[oara King Ferdinand Boulevard, Timisoara

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Intrarea ĂŽn Sala Unirii din Alba Iulia Dup~ slujba de duminic~

Entrance to the Union Hall of Alba Iulia

After the Sunday mass

Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand, Arad

Teatrul or~[enesc din Deva

King Ferdinand Boulevard, Arad

The town theater, Deva

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Sibiu, Ora[ul vechi The old town, Sibiu

Pia]a Regele Ferdinand, Sibiu King Ferdinand Plaza, Sibiu

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Sighi[oara, t창rgul de duminic~ Sunday fair, Sighisoara


Media[, zi de t창rg Fair day in Medias

Catedrala Ortodox~, T창rgu Mure[ The Romanian Orthodox Cathedral, Targu Mures

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Bulevardul Regele Ferdinand [i Sfatul Or~[enesc din Bra[ov King Ferdinand Blvd. and the City Council, Brasov

Bra[ov, vedere de pe T창mpa View from Tampa Mount, Brasov

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Târgu Jiu, centrul Downtown Targu Jiu

Coloana f~r~ sfâr[it în construc]ie, numit~ de ]~rani „sula lui Titulescu“ Under construction: The Endless Column, which the peasants called “Titulescu’s rod”

Podul peste Jiu Bridge across the Jiu River


Teatrul din Turnul Severin, v~zut de la Monumentul Eroilor

Teatrul Na]ional din Caracal

C~l~ra[i, strada Ă&#x;tirbey Vod~

The National Theater of Caracal

Stirbey Voda Street, Calarasi

The Theater of Turnul Severin seen from the Monument of the Heroes

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Craiova, Calea Unirii Union Road, Craiova

Hai-hui, prin Craiova Strolling in Craiova

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Halele Centrale, Gara [i Centrul din Ploie[ti The central market halls, the railway station and the center, Ploiesti


Portul Gala]i The harbor, Galati

Strada Domneasc~ [i statuia lui Costache Negri, Gala]i Princely Street and the statue of Costache Negri, Galati

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Centrul [i Prim~ria ora[ului Chi[in~u The center and the town hall, Chisinau

Buz~u, Palatul comunal The Town Palace, Buzau

Boto[ani, Prim~ria The City Hall, Botosani

Chi[in~u, vedere general~ General view, Chisinau

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Ia[i, Pia]a Unirii Union Circle, Iasi

Ia[i, Palatul administrativ, vedere aerian~ The Administrative Palace of Iasi, bird’s eye view

Palatul lui Al.I. Cuza din Ia[i Fotografie din 1938, an \n care a fost transformat \n muzeu dup~ ce servise [i altor scopuri, printre care [i cel de bordel. The Al.I. Cuza Palace, Iasi Photo from 1938, when, after having served various purposes including that of a brothel, the construction turned into a museum.

Taxiul cu patru ro]i sau cel cu patru picioare \n centrul Ia[iului Four-wheeled or four-legged cabs downtown Iasi

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TURISMUL BALNEAR ßI DE AGREMENT Caracteristic~ perioadei interbelice este apari]ia primelor forme de organizare oficial~ a turismului na]ional: Touring-Clubul României (1926), Automobil Clubul Regal Român [i Oficiul Na]ional de Turism (1936), precum [i a unui mare num~r de asocia]ii [i societ~]i locale, regrupate în Federa]ia Societ~]ilor de Turism din România. Cele mai multe dintre sta]iunile montane de agrement sunt concentrate pe Valea Prahovei [i sunt frecventate în special de turi[tii veni]i din capital~. Sporturile alpine cap~t~ o popularitate crescând~: schiul, bobul [i alpinismul au tot mai mul]i adep]i începând cu familia regal~, ca [i avia]ia [i cursele de ma[ini, vân~toarea [i pescuitul. Românii continu~ totu[i s~ practice cu entuziasm vechile sporturi na]ionale, azi complet abandonate, oina (echivalent perfect al baseball-ului) [i poarca (cricket-ul românesc). Izvoarele de ap~ mineral~ au dus la apari]ia a zeci de noi sta]iuni balneo-climaterice în zona montan~ [i submontan~, organizate în adev~rate or~[ele cu case de vilegiatur~ [i tratament, utilate mai mult sau mai pu]in modern. Sta]iunile î[i fac apari]ia [i pe litoralul M~rii Negre, lung de 400 de kilometri de la limanul Nistrului pân~ la Coasta de argint. Bugaz, Budachi, Sobalat [i Burnas în Basarabia, Mamaia, Carmen Sylva, Techirghiol, Caliacra [i Balcic mai în sud sunt martorele democratiz~rii turismului pentru care statul român [i diferitele institu]ii [i organiza]ii (cum ar fi Prietenii M~rii,

Cazinoul [i statuia Reginei Carmen Sylva din Constan]a The Casino and the statue of Queen Carmen Sylva, Constanta

societate de camping înfiin]at~ în 1930) fac mari eforturi de cazare [i agrement. Acum se construiesc marile hoteluri Rex [i Bellona de la Mamaia, Continental de la Constan]a, cazinouri [i tot felul de instala]ii care fac deliciul unei clientele cosmopolite. Dar cei mai asidui vizitatori ai litoralului sunt pictorii [i arti[tii care transform~ Mangalia [i Balcicul în adev~rate colonii de crea]ie de tipul celei de la Barbizon. În ajunul celui de-al Doilea R~zboi Mondial, turismul era pe cale de a se transforma într-o important~ industrie a României. Dup~ r~zboi turismul î[i va relua dezvoltarea, dar în cu totul al]i parametri.

Pia]a Independen]ei din Constan]a Independence Square, Constanta


SPA AND RECREATION TOURISM The first forms of official national tourist organization emerged in the interwar period: Touring Club Romania (1926), Romanian Royal Club and the National Tourism Office (1936), as well as numerous associations and local societies grouped in the Federation of Tourism Societies in Romania. Most of the mountain resorts were concentrated in the Prahova Valley and received mostly tourists from the capital city. Gradually, winter sports gained ever more buffs. To mention only skiing, bobsledding and mountaineering, which had fans in the royal family, too. Also aviation and car racing, hunting and fishing. The Romanians continued to indulge in their national sports, today completely forgotten, oina (a quasi perfect equivalent of baseball) and poarca (a sort of cricket). Mineral water sources favored the emergence of many new spas in the mountain and sub-mountain areas, organized as small towns of recreation and treatment, with more or less top-of-the line equipment. Along the 400 kilometers of the Black Sea coast, from the Dniester firth to the Silver Coast, numerous resorts shot up: Bugaz, Budachi, Sobalat and

Burnas in Bessarabia, Mamaia, Carmen Sylva, Techirghiol, Caliacra, and Balcic to the south. They stood proof of the democratization of tourism, pursued with great efforts – to provide accommodation and relaxation – by the Romanian state and various institutions and organizations (such as The Friends of the Sea, a camping society set up in 1930). In the respective period were commissioned the impressive hotels Rex and Bellona of Mamaia, Continental of Constanta, as well as casinos and all sorts of installations that delighted the cosmopolitan clientele. The most steadfast visitors of the sea coast, painters and artists, turned Mangalia and Balcic into art and creation schools like that of Barbizon. On the eve of the Second World War, tourism was turning into an important industry for Romania. After the flare-up, tourism resumed its development in completely different conditions.

Centrul [i moscheea Regele Carol II, Constan]a The center and the King Carol II Mosque, Constanta


Peisaj polar la Constan]a Polar landscape, Constanta

Constan]a, pesc~ria Constanta fishery

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


Nava [coal~ Training ship

Serb~rile marinei, Constan]a Navy-day celebrations, Constanta

SPA and Recreation Tourism

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Mamaia, restaurant pe plaj~ Restaurant on the beach, Mamaia Budachi-Cordon, faleza [i plaja Budachi-Cordon, the sea wall and the beach


Mamaia, hotelul Rex, Cazinoul, Terasa Vraja M~rii Rex Hotel, the Casino, the Vraja Marii Terrace, Mamaia

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Mamaia, terase pe plaj~ Terraces on the beach, Mamaia

Noile sta]iuni Eforie [i Carmen Sylva The then posh resorts of Eforie and Carmen Sylva

Carmen Sylva, plaja The beach, Carmen Sylva

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


Mamaia, Cazinoul [i toboganul Cele trei gra]ii

Mamaia, the Casino and the slide

The three Graces

„Eu Tarzan, tu Jane” la Mamaia “Me Tarzan, you Jane” in Black Sea version


Balcic, cas~ cu trepte de piatr~

Balcic, turcoaice la ci[mea

House with stone steps at Balcic

Turkish women at the water pump, Balcic

Palatul Reginei Maria din Balcic The Palace of Queen Maria at Balcic


Balcic, plaja Balcic, vedere general~ The beach, Balcic General view, Balcic


A fost odat~ un nisetru ... Once upon a time there was a sturgeon‌

Cu pluta la pescuit Going fishing on a raft

Livr~ri la prima or~ First-hour delivery

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


SPA and Recreation Tourism

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Bugaz, vedere din port spre limanul Nistrului Bugaz: view from the harbor to the Dniester firth

Podul peste Nistru, ĂŽnainte [i dup~ sabotaj The bridge over the Dniester before and after being sabotaged

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


De straj~ patriei Guarding the motherland

Cavarna, Coasta de Argint The Silver Coast, Cavarna

SPA and Recreation Tourism

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Hotel Ferdinand, B~ile Herculane Ferdinand Hotel Baile Herculane

B~ile Ocna Sibiului Ocna Sibiului Baths

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


Popas la intrarea în C~lim~ne[ti Stop before going into Calimanesti

C~lim~ne[ti-C~ciulata, de s~rb~toarea „Izvorul T~m~duirii“ Calimanesti-Caciulata, the Healing Source

SPA and Recreation Tourism

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Sanatoriul T.B.C. de la Moroieni The lungs sanatorium from Moroieni

La picnic On a picnic

Lacul Ursu, Sovata “Ursu� (Bear) Lake, Sovata

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


Crestele Carpa]ilor al~turi de paznicii lor Carpathian ridges and their guards


Babele The Old Biddies

Muntele Detunata The Detunata Mount

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Turismul balnear [i de agrement


V창n~torii de munte Mountain hunters

Cheile Bicazului The Bicaz Gorges

Pe drumuri de munte Mun]ii Retezat On mountain trails Retezat Mountains


Schi la Predeal Skiing at Predeal … [i în Mun]ii F~g~ra[ … and in the F~g~ra[ mountains

Caban~ în Mun]ii Bucegi Chalet in the Bucegi mountains


Poveste de iarn~ Winter tale


Cazinoul din Sinaia The Casino at Sinaia

Castelul Pele[ Pele[ Castle

Sinaia, vedere general~ General view of Sinaia


Valea R창[noavei, sanatoriul Rasnoava Valley, the sanatorium

Vatra Dornei The Dornei Valley

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Text

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Text

Matei Cazacu Concep]ie grafic~

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Graphic Design

TANIT DESIGN Srl. – Mihaela Dulea Mecena Consult – Adrian Sorin Georgescu Sursa imaginilor

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Photograph Credits

Funda]ia ARTEXPO NOI Media Print Biblioteca Academiei Române Colec]ii private DTP Gabriel Nicula Rodica Gâlea Roxana Enciu Redactare

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Editing

Ovidiu Morar Versiune englez~

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English version

Alina Cârâc

Corectur~

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Proof reading

Dana Voiculescu Irina Spirescu

Coordonatori proiect

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Project co-ordinators

Ovidiu Morar Arpad Harangozo

© NOI MEDIA PRINT B-dul. Nicolae B~lcescu nr. 18 bloc Dalles, Bucure[ti Tel.: 021 222 79 72 Fax: 021 202 91 82 e-mail: nmp@nmp.ro www.nmp.ro


Romania interbelica