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Disclaimer IOM has carried out the gathering of information with great care. IOM provides information at its best knowledge and in all conscience. Nevertheless, IOM cannot assume to be held accountable for the correctness of the information provided. Furthermore, IOM shall not be liable for any conclusions made or any results, which are drawn from the information provided by IOM. 1

COUNTRY FACT SHEET TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS I. GENERAL INFORMATION II. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 1. General Information 2. Communication network 3. Public transport III. SOCIAL WELFARE 1. General Information: legislation 2. Preconditions for obtaining allowances 3. Required personal documentation 4. Child allowance IV. PENSIONS 1. General information: legislation 2. Preconditions for obtaining a pension 3. Required personal documentation V. MEDICAL CARE 1. General Information: health care system 2. Number of hospitals 3. Conditions for the coverage of medical treatment 4. Availability and costs: medicines 5. Required personal documentation VI. HOUSING 1. General information 2. Housing space and renting costs 3. Availability of social grants for housing 4. Ways to find accommodation VI. ECONOMIC SITUATION AND EMPLOYMENT 1. Labor market situation 2. Unemployment assistance: preconditions, documents, insurance 3. Procedures to start self-employment (micro credits etc.) 4. Further education possibilities, vocational trainings VIII. EDUCATION 1. Educational system. General information 2. Needed documents for returning pupils/students 3. Approval and verification of foreign diplomas 4. Costs, loans and stipends IX. OBTAINING OF TRAVEL DOCUMETNS X. REINTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE 1. Financial and administrative support XI. VULNERABLE PERSONS 1. Assistance to women and mothers 2. Assistance to old persons and invalids 3. Assistance to persons with mental disorder XII. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS XIII. REGIONAL PROFILES 1. North Caucasus 2. Dagestan 3. Ingushetia 4. Chechnya XIV. USEFUL LINKS 2

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Population: 140,041,247 (July 2010 est.) Area: 140,041,247 (July 2010 est.) Capital: Moscow Head of State: President Dmitriy Anatolyevich Medvedev (since 7 May 2008) GDP/capita: $15,100 (2009 est.) Religions: Russian Orthodox 15-20%, Muslim 10-15%, other Christian 2% (2006 est.), remarkable percentage of population is non-believers. Official language: Russian Ethnic Groups: Russian 79.8%, Tatar 3.8%, Ukrainian 2%, Bashkir 1.2%, Chuvash 1.1%, other or unspecified 12.1% Life expectancy: 66.03 years Monetary unit: Ruble (RUR), kopek (1 EUR=40,78RUR as Sept. 2010)

Founded in the 12th century, the Principality of Muscovy, was able to emerge from over 200 years of Mongol domination (13th-15th centuries) and to gradually conquer and absorb surrounding principalities. In the early 17th century, a new Romanov Dynasty continued this policy of expansion across Siberia to the Pacific. Under Peter I (ruled 1682-1725), hegemony was extended to the Baltic Sea and the country was renamed the Russian Empire. During the 19th century, more territorial acquisitions were made in Europe and Asia. Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-05 contributed to the Revolution of 1905, which resulted in the formation of a parliament and other reforms. Repeated devastating defeats of the Russian army in World War I led to widespread rioting in the major cities of the Russian Empire and to the overthrow in 1917 of the imperial household. The Communists under Vladimir Lenin seized power soon after and formed the USSR. The brutal rule of Iosif Stalin (1928-53) strengthened Communist rule and Russian dominance of the Soviet Union at a cost of tens of millions of lives. The Soviet economy and society stagnated in the following decades until General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev (1985-91) introduced glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring) in an attempt to modernize Communism, but his initiatives inadvertently released forces that by December 1991 splintered the USSR into Russia and 14 other independent republics. Since then, Russia has shifted its post-Soviet democratic ambitions in favor of a centralized semi-authoritarian state whose legitimacy is buttressed, in part, by carefully managed national elections, former President Putin’s genuine popularity, and the prudent management of Russia’s windfall energy wealth. Russia has severely disabled a Chechen rebel movement, although violence still occurs throughout the North Caucasus. II. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION 1. General Information Russian Federation is a federal legal state, with republican system of government leaded by a President. The President is the head of the State, elected for 4 years, and can be reelected for the second term. Being independent of any branch of governmental power, the President ensures its coordinated functioning and cooperation. The Parliament of Russia – Federal Congress - consists of two chambers: Federation Council and State Duma. The government represents the executive power in the country. The President, with the consent of the Duma, nominates the head of the government. The Russian Federation is a federal system composed by 21 republics, 9 territories, 46 provinces/regions, 1 autonomous region, 4 autonomous areas, 2 federal cities including Moscow as the capital of the State. Overall, 83 administrative units, grouped in 8 Federal Districts. 3

COUNTRY FACT SHEET 2. Communication network Telephone The prefix to call to Russia from abroad is 7. The prefix to call to Moscow from abroad is 7-495 or 7- 499. Since 1 February 2007, the new tariffs for payment for outgoing calls from the city telephones have been established (that have changed the previous system when a person paid only a fixed sum a month and could make calls from his/her telephone (the so called “outgoing calls”) without any limits and calculation of time; now if a person calls from his/her telephone (outgoing call) this time is calculated in case a person has subscribed to one of two special tariffs mentioned below): 1) limitless; 2) by minutes; 3) combined. It is based on the payment for services that is RUB 155 (USD 5) a month, in case of a limitless tariff a certain fixed sum is paid on the top (and minutes are not calculated); in case of a tariff by minutes there is a fixed sum for each minute (RUB 0.36 / USD 0.01 per minute); in case of a combined tariff, 400 minutes are included into the monthly payment, and the excess minutes are also paid on the fixed tariff. The prices for some tariffs differ in regions: a limitless tariff costs in general from RUB 250 (USD 8) up to RUB 430 (USD 14); for instance, in Moscow it costs RUR 405 (USD 13) per month. Mobile communication The system of a mobile communication has been developed swiftly in recent years. Mobile telephones are quite accessible to the general public. It is possible to buy a second hand mobile telephone for USD 50-80, prices for new mobile phones start from USD 100. There are three major mobile network providers in Russia: MTS, BeeLine, and Megafon. The prices, coverage, and the services offered by these operators are quite similar. Their networks cover most cities and rural areas in European Russia, and some major Siberian cities. There are some “blank” spots, that is, even major networks do not cover some countryside areas and small villages. There are also several local operators, but they only have local networks and phone calls outside of their networks are very expensive. For example, BaikalWestCom (Irkutsk) cover Irkutsk, Bratsk, Ulan-Ude and small cities in Irkutsk region only. If you use them to phone to Moscow, it might be very expensive. 3. Public transport Road transportation In Russia there is a system of overland, underground, air and sea transportation. Roads of Russia include: Roads of common use and roads of non-common use (i.e. roads in the possession of juridical physical persons which are used to suit their own ends). There are no paid roads in the Russian Federation, although Government is planning to introduce them soon. Car roads are mostly developed in the cities,; in 9 cities, namely Moscow, St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Samara, Nizhniy Novgorod, Kazan, Novosibirsk, Volgograd, Omsk, there is a metro system. The bus transportation is also developed between cities, for not very long distance, within the limits of 300-400 kilometers. Railroad Transportation Open joint-stock company “Russian railroads” (RR), which was created by the Russian Federation government, has the monopoly of passengers and cargo transportation. 4

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Its network consists of 17 railroads. Today it is one of the three biggest transportation companies in the world. There are different types of trains: freight trains and passenger trains. For each one there are local long distance services. In long distance trains different types of carriages are available: carriages with numbered reserved seats; hard-seated carriages; sleeping-cars; soft-seated carriages; palace cars. The price of a ticket depends on the level of a carriage. Tickets are not very cheap in general; for instance, the cost of a ticket from Moscow to St. Petersburg in sleeping-car starts from USD 80. Civil aviation There are 69 international airports in Russia (including the one in Makhachkala, Dagestan), 61 federal airports, 189 companies of civil aviation. Different means of transport available between major cities Local trains and buses are more commonly used to cover short distances, due to the comparative cheaper prices. However, as the Russian territory is extremely vast, sometimes the only way to reach a specific place is by plane or the long-distance train. Examples of indicative prices: Price for a local bus and train for a distance of 100-150 km: USD 4-9; for a long distance train (Moscow – St. Petersburg, the distance is 650 km) – from USD 80, an air ticket Moscow – St. Petersburg costs about USD 161. III. SOCIAL WELFARE 1. General Information: legislation The Ministry of Health and Social Development of RF puts into practice the development of state supporting of some groups of citizens who need social assistance. First of all the State tries to strengthen the social protection of families, elderly citizens and invalids, orphans, children-invalids, etc. In 2005 a special federal list was formed for persons who have the right to receive state social assistance and a monthly payment. A special program – so called “social package” which includes free medical support, sanatorium treatment and use of suburban railroad transport - was also elaborated. The special attention is given to maintenance of effective interaction of bodies of social protection and employment with non-governmental organizations, whose activity is directed on rendering assistance to requiring categories of the population, and also with representatives of business community. At present the following special federal programs are functioning in Russia: 1. “Social Development of Village” (until 2010); its target is to develop social sphere and infrastructure in rural areas; 2. “Social Assistance for Invalids” (2006-2010); its target is to create possibilities for rehabilitation and integration of invalids into society. 2. Preconditions for obtaining allowances The persons entitled to social benefits in Russian Federation are listed below: 1. Invalids and veterans of the Great Patriotic War; 2. Invalids and veterans of military operations; 5

COUNTRY FACT SHEET 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Invalids of I,II and III degrees; Handicapped children; Labour veterans; Workers of the Home Front (Great Patriotic War); Emergency workers involved in controlling the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident; 8. Victims of political repressions; 9. People having merit for country (Heroes of the Soviet Union and Russia, Commanders of the Order of Labour Glory etc); 10. Other categories according to regulatory legal acts and regional programmes of Russian Federation subjects. These categories of citizens receive a monthly payment and social assistance, including: • medicines prescribed by doctors; • sanatorium treatment; • covering transportation expenses (free suburban railroad transport, intercity transport to and from the place of treatment). • Invalids should pay only 50% of public utilities price and can study in special educational institutions. 3. Required personal documentation To receive social assistance all above mentioned categories of citizens should possess documents (IDs) that confirm they belong to these groups. 4. Child allowance Since January 1st, 2010 the size of a monthly child allowance (children of less than 1,5 years old) for employed women is 2,060 RUB (USD 66) during the period of maternity leave for the first child and 4,121 RUB (USD 133) – for the second and following children. The maximum monthly child allowance is 13,833 RUB (USD 446). The kindergarten fee cannot exceed 20% of running costs (for the families with one child). Families with two children receive 50% compensation, families with three or more children – 70 %). The full amount is transferred to the bank account of one of the parents in time. The kindergarten fee is not charged for the families with children with behavioral disorder going state kindergartens. The monthly kindergarten fee is about 1500 RUB (USD 48), it may vary in different cities. IV. PENSIONS 1. General information: legislation All insured Russian citizens have the right to obtain a labor pension benefits by the state, according to federal law. There are several types of pensions: pension for old age; retirement pension (for police and military men), social pension, widows/widowers pension, invalidity pension; Pensions can include: 1) Basic part – RUB 2,460 (USD 79) per month; 2) Insurance part; 3) Accumulation part. There may also be additional financial support in some regions, where more funds are available, like Moscow. Additionally, some regions may offer extra help by wider range of services. 6

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Usually employers pay to the pension funds for their employees. The state calculates and manages the first two parts of the pension, whilst the third one is under the pensioners’ control. Accumulation part was introduced in 2002, and according to the existing pension system this pension part is applicable to citizens born in 1967 or later (starting from January 1st, 2008 – 6% from labor compensation fund). Starting from January 1st, 2009 accumulation part can be given to all citizens on a voluntary basis. From 2013, citizens will have possibility to use their accumulation pension part as they want. Granting, recalculation and payment of labor pensions are governed by local correspondent institutions according to the law “On obligatory pensions’ insurance in RF”. In spite of all measures taken, the average pension in Russia today is 24 % of average wage. In 2010 the minimum pension in Moscow is RUB 10,275 (USD 331); in Novosibirsk – RUB 4.900 (USD 158); in Nizhniy Novgorod – RUB 4,500 (USD 145). 2. Preconditions for obtaining a pension The pension age for women is 55 years and for men it is 60. Pension for old age is given to persons who have at least 5 years of insured service. Foreign citizens or persons without citizenship who are permanent residents in Russia have the same rights to receive pension as the Russian citizens, except special cases indicated in the federal law. As for non-resident foreigners, the pension as well as the seniority is recognized in case Russia has signed and ratified a corresponding agreement (these agreements were singed almost with all CIS countries and with some of non-CIS states). Citizens, who are not entitled to receive a labor pension receive social pension according to the law “On state pensions in the Russian Federation”. The invalidity pension consists of a basic component and an insurance component. The insurance component depends on individual seniority and salary up to 2002 (i.e. on the sum of paid pension dues). The fixed basic component depends on the level of disability (I, II or III levels). Starting from 1 January 2010, the fixed basic component of invalidity pension are as follows: I group – RUB 5,124 (USD 165); II group – RUB 2,562 (USD 83); III group – RUB 1,281 (USD 41). Benefits for unemployed people looking after disabled children, invalids of the first level of disability or elderly people were increased from RUB 500 (EUR 11.6) to RUB 1,200 (EUR 28) from July 2008. 3. Required personal documentation To receive pension a person should apply to local administration of the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation at the place of residence and submit a set of documents: official application for pension; passport; pension insurance card; book of employment records (original and copy); earnings certificate for any 60 months until 2002 during work experience; documents confirming support of dependants (children less than 18 years of age or children of 18-23 years old) – certificates confirming study at day-time department, earnings certificate from all family members; change of name certificate. For more details the applicants should contact the Pension Fund of the Russian Federation.


COUNTRY FACT SHEET Foreign pensions are recognized if there are bilateral or multilateral international agreements on that. There is the Agreement on Social Affairs between Estonia and Russian Federation effective from 16.10.2007. Returnees have to hand in document on their participation in pension system or track of working record in Estonia to the Pension Fund of Russian Federation, so that they could be registered for receiving the pension. Pension Fund of Russian Federation 4, Shabolovka str., Moscow, 119991, Russia Tel.: +7 (495) 959-8011 Tel.: +7(495) 987-8030 (Department of Pension Benefits for Russian citizens living abroad) Hot line: 8-800-200-0-122 Website: V. MEDICAL CARE 1. General Information: health care system In the Russian Federation medical care is provided both by the state and private medical institutions. The majority of existing medical institutions are the state ones; however the private sector is developing rapidly. Nevertheless, the situation with the health care in Russia is quite difficult: It is insufficiently financed from the state budget - at the half of the amount required, according to the Minister of Health and Social Development. Some 80% of state medical institutions are financed from the regional and/or municipal budgets which do not have enough financial resources for it and cannot secure a highlevel medical care. Medical equipment is usually obsolete; basic medical institutions are understaffed, as only 60% of the required staff is employed. As a result, the quality of free of charge medical service decreases. During the first two years of the national project implementation (2006-2007), RUB 182.2 billion (USD 5.9 billion) was allocated, RUB 132 billion (USD 4.2 billion) in 2008, RUB 149.1 billion (USD 4.8 billion) in 2009. This year the national project “Health” will be expanded. Several new areas will be developed including programs against oncological diseases and tuberculosis, additional preventive medical examination for adolescents. In 2009-2012 six federal and 47 regional oncological centers will be provided with diagnostic equipment. The high-technology medical treatment will be available for 1.13 million of patients, RUB 43.1 billion (USD 1.4 billion) was allocated for construction of high-technology medical centers. In recent years, the necessity to improve the quality of medical care for the population became one of the priorities for policy-makers, and it has been included in the national plan for Health – it has been given a status of a National Project. Under the conditions of the demographic crisis in Russia (a yearly population decrease of 800,000-1,000,000 persons) and ageing of population, one of the main goals that medical care has to pursue is to decrease the infant mortality, increase the lifetime of the population through more effective and professional medical services and timely prophylaxis. Ministry of Health and Social Development of the Russian Federation continues implementation of the reform within the frames of the national project «Health». 2. Number of hospitals Within the frames of the national project “Health” construction of 15 federal medical centers was planned, 4 of them started working in 2007. Centers of high medical technologies were established (cardiovascular surgery, traumatic surgery, orthopedy and endoprosthesis 8

COUNTRY FACT SHEET replacement, neurosurgery) and are able to accept 170 patients (neurosurgery center – 100 patients). Each center will be operating 6000 patients per year. In 2008 it was planned to complete the construction of 11 new federal high-technology medical centers of traumatology, orthopedics, endoprosthesis replacement, cardiovascular surgery and neurosurgery and upgrading trainings for medical staff, however in view of economical crisis terms of building can be extended. Thanks to the “Health” project high-technology medical assistance coverage has quadrupled since the beginning of the project. The changes have concerned not only federal centers but regional hospitals that made such assistance available at the place of sojourn. The implementation of “Health” project foresees continuation of the programs as follows: - development of fist aid treatment and disease prevention; - availability and quality of medical assistance including high-technology medical assistance; - development of medical assistance for mothers and children, continuation of the program “Social maternity certificate”. Within the frames of these programs it is planned to start new programs: - development of oncological centers; - medical examination of population in order to find, treat and prevent tuberculosis; - development of medical assistance for deaf children and invalids; - preventive medical examination of adolescents in 2011-2012; - prenatal diagnostics (examination of pregnant women for hereditary diseases). Funds for implementation of fist two programs were allocated in 2009. 3. Conditions for the coverage of medical treatment All Russian citizens have the right to a free of charge medical care that is guaranteed by the state through a system of an obligatory medical insurance (OMS) - (insurance companies are selected by the state in each region) financed from the state budgets at all levels, insurance tax payments, and other sources. In general, free of charge medical care covers the following services: emergency medical care; ambulatory care including preventive treatments, diagnostics and treatment of deceases both at home and in policlinics; hospitalization care; medical care in daily hospitals of all types. Every person within the OMS system has a special plastic insurance medical policy card with an individual number (it is issued on the basis of an agreement between a person and an insurance company; citizens are provided with this agreement and a plastic card when they are registered within this system) which guarantees access to medical care on the territory of the Russian Federation, irrespective of the place of residence. When applying to the policlinic or clinic it is necessary to show a plastic insurance medical policy card (or an agreement with an insurance company which is the basis for issuing of the plastic card), except cases of applying for emergency medical care as ambulance service is provided to all RF citizens free of charge, at the expense of the municipal budgets. A system of free pediatrician care covers children from 0 until 14 years inclusive, with specialized policlinics and clinics. Such system applies to children who are covered by the system of the obligatory medical insurance (OMS) to which all children of the Russian Federation citizens are entitled. Children, who are older than 14 years, are assisted by medical institutions for adults. 9

COUNTRY FACT SHEET It is also possible to get a free of charge on line medical consultations via the Internet. These consultations are provided by some clinics (both state and private). Foreign citizens in Russia have access only to the basic medical care, i.e. emergency medical care. Other medical services are provided on a chargeable basis, whether through direct payments to clinics or through insurance companies in case the foreigner has private insurance coverage. As for the paid medical care, there are private medical institutions that provide medical services to population irrespective of citizenship. According to the polls, some 35% of the Russian population has used at least once paid medical services; however, due to high prices this option is not accessible for the vast majority of the population. Apart from the system of the obligatory medical insurance, both Russian citizens and foreigners can opt for a system of the voluntary medical insurance (DMS) on a paid basis, which is developing swiftly in the country. A net of insurance companies have been set up in Russia and provide these services; the price for insurance varies from USD 400 to several thousand dollars, depending on the level of medical institutions and the package of medical assistance services requested. These companies prefer to work with legal institutions; however, during recent ten years insurance programs for private persons are developing rapidly. 4. Availability and costs: medicines Medications are provided as follows: 1) in ambulatory clinics, city and “oblast” (regional) hospitals and in case of hospitalization at home - at the expense of citizens, excluding categories of population who benefit from the state funded system of preferential provision of medication; 2) in twenty-four-hour and daily hospitals - at the expense of the state insurance companies (OMS) and local budgets. This means that in these cases, free of charge medication is provided to all Russian citizens who are covered by obligatory medical insurance (OMS); 3) in cases of all kinds of emergency and ambulance services not only in clinics but in case of on an outpatient basis care - at the expense of the state budget (free of charge for any Russian citizen even those who are not covered by OMS system). In general all Russian citizens – both holders of the OMS and members of the other insurance systems - who under the law are not entitled to medication provision benefits - buy medications at their own expense. However, there are special groups that are provided with free of charge medication. For instance, Russian citizens entitled to benefits financed from the federal budget, such as social package, have access to free of charge medicaments depending on the nature of disease. Those who suffer from certain diseases can also be entitled to medical provision benefits financed from the regional budgets. RF citizens suffering from the following diseases have the right for a free of charge medicaments: macrogenitosomia; disseminated sclerosis; myasthenia; myopathy; cerebellar ataxia; Parkinson’s disease; glaucoma; mental diseases; adrenocortical insufficiency; AIDS and HIV; schizophrenia and epilepsy; system chronical skin diseases; bronchial asthma; rheumatism and rheumatic gout and lupus erythematosus; Bechterew’s (Strümpell’s) disease; diabetes; hypophysial syndrome; cerebral spastic infantile paralysis; hepatolenticular (progressive) lenticular; phenylketonuria; intermittent porphyria; oncological diseases; hematologic diseases; radiation sickness; leprosy; tuberculosis; acute brucellosis; chronic urological diseases; syphilis; patients who had cardiac infarction (during first 6 months); aortic and mitral valve replacement; transplantation of organs as well as children suffering from mucoviscidosis; children under three years and children 10

COUNTRY FACT SHEET under six years from families with many children. In case of a bed-patient, a relative or a social worker can receive medicaments using the prescription document. The price of medications varies depending on the region and even on the specific location of the drugstore, as there are no fixed prices for medications in the Russian Federation. As an example of a price for a common medication, e.g. aspirin tablets: in pharmacies of Moscow it costs from RUB 36 (USD 1.2) up to RUB 106 (USD 3.4). 5. Required personal documentation To receive medical assistance a person should possess a passport, obligatory medical insurance policy (OMS) or voluntary medical insurance policy (DMS). VI. HOUSING 1. General information In general, the housing situation in the Russian Federation is considered to be difficult. The average size of individual houses and flats per person is 19-20 square meters (that is two-three times less as compared to developed European countries). However, only less than 50% of the population has the dwelling of this kind; According to statistics, in Russia there are some 4,2 million of families (156,562 families or 511,777 people in Moscow) who are standing in a queue for improvement of housing conditions and should be provided by the new flats by the state. Time for standing in a queue to get dwelling premises under the social program is around 15-20 years. Categories entitled to improved housing conditions are as following: persons with certain diseases; persons living in conditions with less than 10 square meters per a person; families with 4 and more children, etc. As one of the goals of the national project “Accessible dwelling” it is planned to increase the rate of construction up to 80 million square meters a year in order to satisfy the existing needs. In 1991, the process of privatization of state dwelling at no cost for the citizens was launched. At the moment, about 60% of the Russian citizens have privatized their flats; according to the law, the term for a free of charge privatization has been extended until 01 March 2010. The right for a free of charge privatization is granted only once. After 2010 privatization will be implemented on a paid basis, setting the price at the market rates. In the Russian Federation different social systems for dwelling provision are in place. For instance, there is a system of so called “social renting”, which means that the dwelling from the state or municipal housing resources is provided to persons who are awaiting an improvement of their housing conditions, e.g. persons with low income and some other categories of citizens. In accordance to the Dwelling Code, the standard is 12 square meters per person. Dwelling is provided on the free of charge basis, on the decision of the corresponding state executive body. Also there are programmes that give benefits to young families with children (both parents are under 30) that means that they could receive a special subsidy, or the state covers a part of the dwelling cost, or they could receive a loan on favorable conditions, etc. In the frames of the national “Accessible dwelling project” young families and young specialists receive benefits for housing, the government amended the Tax Code of the RF, tax deduction increased from RUB 1 million to RUB 2 million (USD 32,258-64,516), the moratorium on the use of maternity capital for mortgage was called off, and the families can invest money in dwelling since 2009.


COUNTRY FACT SHEET Orphan children from orphanages have the right to obtain social dwelling from the state when they reach 18 years old. Forced migrants and refugees – those who were recognized by the state and got a status can also be temporarily placed on a free of charge basis in specialized state owned premises. There is also a system of specialized state institutions for elderly persons, disabled adults and children where they can reside on the free of charge basis and get an access to necessary medical services. There are also state crisis centers and shelters both for adults and for children, established under the Ministry of Health and Social Development, and a net of social institutions aimed at assisting children and families. There are also a number of non-state shelters mostly run by the NGOs. As state funding for these structures is exceptional, most of the NGOs which run these shelters are financed by international and foreign organizations. Due to lack of funds, availability is reduced and it is not possible to provide assistance to all persons in need. 2. Housing space and renting costs Due to the fact that the prices for dwelling are increasing swiftly, that makes it very difficult and sometimes even impossible for general public with the average income to purchase dwelling. The prices for dwelling vary greatly depending on the region. In general, the average price for square meter in an apartment makes up some RUB 26,500 (equivalent to approximately USD 855) in the first quarter of 2009. The most expensive dwelling is in the city of Moscow and Moscow region, followed by St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Sochi and other cities in regions with a favorable economic climate and good employment opportunities. The average price for one square meter in the following cities/regions is: • Moscow - RUB 73,800 / USD 2,381; i • Moscow region – RUB 42,950 / USD 1,385, • St. Petersburg – RUB 44,300 / USD 1,429; • Southern Federal District – RUB 20,977/ USD 677 • Dagestan - RUB 22,650 / USD 731 • Chechen Republic - RUB 18,450 / USD 595 • Ingushetia - RUB 17,150 / USD 553 • North Ossetia - RUB 16,350 / USD 527 Prices for renting vary greatly in the RF regions. The highest prices are in Moscow, followed by St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Sochi etc. Moreover, rental prices depend on the prestigiousness of the city’s district, quality of the dwelling, period of renting, etc. In 2009 the rent in big cities came down. The lodgers cannot pay the same price for rent as before. A lot of temporary workers have left Moscow and other big cities because they lost their job. The average one and two-room apartment rental prices in following cities: • Moscow costs 450-500 USD. Two-room apartment monthly cost is about 600-800 USD. • St. Petersburg is 500 USD, two-room apartment – 600 USD; • Groznyi: one-room apartment – starts from 90 USD, two-room apartment – from 170 USD. Prices for house rental in the Moscow region start from USD 850 per one month; for other regions the information is scanty. It is important to remember that prices vary greatly depending on the region, remoteness from the city, housing conditions, etc. so it is difficult to give any average figure and these issues should be considered on an individual basis.


COUNTRY FACT SHEET In Russia every citizen has the right to purchase or to rent the real estate. No specific requirements are foreseen in this respect. As it was mentioned earlier, purchasing a dwelling in Russia is quite unaffordable for the general public with average income. As a possible alternative option, the population chooses the system of mortgages, which has been developing rapidly in recent years. However, in spite of the high rate of development of the mortgage crediting, not many people can use it as mortgage rates are still quite high. There are specialized internet sites where one can calculate the monthly mortgage payments for various types of loans, for various regions and type of dwelling. Foreigners are entitled to purchase dwelling houses and apartments; however, foreign citizens are not allowed to purchase plots of land. 3. Availability of social grants for housing Apart from the state program of assistance to categories of the Russian citizens entitled by the state to improvement of their housing conditions there are some other programs aimed at assisting vulnerable groups among the population. One of the systems through which assistance is provided, is the system of social mortgages. This system includes assisted mortgage crediting combined with state financial support for improvement of housing conditions for vulnerable categories of Russian citizens. Improvement of housing conditions is implemented within the fixed social norm that is at present 18 square meters per person. In the first place persons who are entitled to improvement of housing conditions can apply to obtain a social mortgage. Other categories of Russian citizens can also benefit from the system of social mortgages, namely youth, state officials, military men, young families, etc. A recent law has provided, since 1 January 2007, that Russian women who have more than two children have the right to receive RUB 343,379 (USD 11,077) from the state (the second or the following child must be born after 1 January 2007). This sum is called “maternity capital”. It is deposited in a special banking account, and women are given certificates proving their right to “maternity capital”. The sum can be used only after the child turns 3 years old (i.e. women who received the “maternity capital” in January 2007 will be able to use it in January 2010). It cannot be taken out as cash but only invested in improvements to a family’s housing conditions, a child’s education, or for the cumulative part of a woman’s pension. The allowance is provided to a woman only once, irrespectively of the number of children she has. Starting from 1 January 2009 this “maternity capital” may be used for a mortgage loan repayment irrespective of the age of a child. 4. Ways to find accommodation There are only two ways to find accommodation: 1) private real-estate agencies – citizens should pay service fee to the agency; 2) newspapers’ announcements (the biggest newspapers publishing information concerning selling and renting of lodging are “Iz ruk v ruki” (published practically in all Russian regions) and “Nedvizhimost I tseny”); the Internet, announcements on the streets, information via relatives. VI. ECONOMIC SITUATION AND EMPLOYMENT World financial and economic systems are in crisis. From 2008 economics in many countries including Russian Federation is in recession, the forecast is pessimistic. The number of economic active population corresponds to 74.6 million persons by the end of January 2010, which is approximately 52 % of the country’s population. The overwhelming share of the employed population is concentrated in big and medium scale organizations, not belonging to small-scale business. 13

COUNTRY FACT SHEET The highest incomes are registered in Moscow (RUB 37,840 / USD 1,220 - per person), followed by the regions with petroleum and gas production. The salary varies not only depending on the job but on the region as well. As it was mentioned above, the regions with oil and gas industry are in a more favorable position. The highest level of income is in Moscow (RUB 43,259.6 / USD 1,395) and oil and gas producing regions: Nenets and Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Areas (RUB 68,144.9 / USD 2,198) and regions which are close to them: Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Area (RUB 51,582.1 / USD 1,664), Sakha Republic (Yakutia) (RUB 30,306 / USD 977), Krasnoyarsk region (RUB 22,053 / USD 711) and Moscow region (RUB 26,789.9 / USD 864). Regions with low level of income are Kalmykia Republic (RUB 9,887.1 / USD 319), Chuvashia (RUB 10,282 / USD 332), and Mordovia (RUB 10,875.2 / USD 351). 1. Labor market situation The RF Constitution provides the right for employment for each Russian citizen. The law also foresees a preferential right for Russian citizens over foreigners to take vacant jobs. A person has the right to work since 14 years when a passport – principal internal document – is issued. However, there are regulations on the reduced working hours for persons under 18 years old. Persons of the pension age who get a state pension also have the right to work. There are systems of benefits aimed at protecting labor rights of some categories of citizens, such as pregnant women and mothers with children under 3 years old. Regarding necessary documents to be employed, a passport is obligatory. In addition, in Russia there is a system of keeping records (job history) in a special book called “labor book”. The “labor book” is kept by the employer, who gives it to the employee when he leaves the job place. The issues of employment are mainly regulated by the Russian Federation Labour Code. There is a specialized governmental body that deals with employment issues– the RF Federal Service on Labour and Employment – that has representative offices in all regions in Russia. There are different ways of searching for the job in Russia: 1) through the Federal Service for Labour and Employment, which has a data basis of vacant jobs in each region. In this case the job search is free of charge for a potential candidate; 2) through private job placement agencies – in this case either individual candidates pay fees to the agency for employment or these expenses are born by the employer. 3) independently, through alternative sources – advertisement in newspapers (one of the largest is “Is Ruk V Ruki”, that is published in almost all Russian regions), the Internet, streets ads, etc . When employing in the region other than the region of their permanent residence, Russian citizens do not have to get a special permission, as they have free access to the labor market country wide. With regard to employment for foreign citizens in Russia, the following issues could be highlighted: • citizens of Belarus have the same rights as the Russian citizens to access the Russian labor market (within the framework of the Union Agreement between Russia and Belorussia) • Employment of foreigners from other countries is regulated by specific legal acts and has a series of peculiarities. It is implemented on the basis of quotes fixed by the Russian Government on a yearly basis: for 2008 the quote for foreign nationals is 1.8 million workers. 14

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Principal legal acts are as follows: “On the Legal Status of the Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation”, “On the Migration Registration”, etc. In the context of financial crisis it was decided to reconsider the foreign labor quotas accepted in the Russian Federation and to correct downwards. So the foreign labor quota in 2009 will be halved by the decision of the Government of Russia. Previously the Federal Migration Service of the RF suggested approving accepting of 3.97 million labor migrants in 2009 which is almost a double quota as compared to 2008. This year the quota in Moscow corresponds to 190 thousand persons (380 thousand migrants in 2008). In the Russian Federation in general there is a need for work force. However, the employment situation is characterized by an unbalance in the labor market between the labor demand and the work force supply both at national and regional levels. The unemployment could be characterized as a structural one, while there is a demand in highly and medium skilled workers in many industries, as well as in the area of services. Banking and Human Resources systems, which are developing rapidly, also need qualified personnel. The demand for low skilled workforce is also high but it is partially filled in by labor migrants in Russia. The 83 administrative units composing the Russian Federation present various economic and social climates. Some of them are focused on specific industry, as for instance Tyumen, a region where gas industry is largely developed. It is, therefore, quite difficult to give general average estimations on the labor demand. From 1999 increases the share of hired workers but as for the farms this share is constantly low, diminishes the quantity of working places in big and middle organization. The biggest quantity of working places is in light industry, oil, timber coal, chemical medical, ferrous metal industries and in agriculture. The quantity of working places increases in social organizations, financial and insurance spheres. The same situation characterizes the non-formal sector of economy, formed by enterprises without official registration. In this sector work more than 20% of economically active population of Russia. Leading positions are occupied by trade, agriculture and forestry. The quantity of temporary and nonpermanent working persons is growing fast. 2. Unemployment assistance: preconditions, documents, insurance While experts assure that it’s difficult to give a faithful account of the course of process in the labor market and to make the forecast, the part of employees has already lost the job without any preliminary notices and resignation benefits prescribed by the law. Mainly it concerns financial, car business, construction and tourist spheres. However there are cases of mass layoffs at the industrial enterprises. According to Ministry of Public Health and Social Development about 1,070 enterprises declared about forthcoming dismissals approximately 45 thousand persons. There is no precise information about the number of dismissed employees. In the first months as a rule people try to find a new job not applying to job search agencies. As experts believe, the main impact will concern the workers of mechanical engineering and chemical industry, metallurgy, road building, cargo transportation. Unemployment will strike on different regions in different ways, but the hardest situation will be in so-called monocities where the whole economic life is connected with one or two local economic mainstays. Such monocities located in Ural, Siberia, Voronezh, Vologda and a number of other regions, will become the centers of unemployment and will demand considerable support of state funds. Workers of these enterprises will not leave their jobs even in case of reduction in salaries because there is no place to go in case of dismissal. In many ways it is a result of mistakes of the state which practically did not pay attention to internal migration in prior years encouraging work of low skilled workforce from the Central Asia. 15

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Now even officials recognize that presence of 10 million illegal migrants in country does not promote stability on labor market. According to Federal State Statistics Service, in January 2010 the general unemployment level in the Russian Federation was 6.8 million people or 9.2 % from economic active population. The number of officially registered unemployed was 2.2 million people. The average age of unemployed corresponds to 34.6 years. The number of young people under 25 years among unemployed is 29.9 %; people at the age of 55 and older – 7.1 %. 12 % of unemployed has university degree and almost 20 % - secondary professional education. Among subjects of the Russian Federation the lowest level of unemployment is in Moscow and corresponds to 0.7 %. In St. Petersburg it is 2.0 %, in Republic Mordovia – 2.3 %, in Moscow region – 2.5 %, in Tula, Belgorod, Kostroma, Chelyabinsk and Tver regions - 3,4-4,0 %. The highest level of unemployment according to research is in Chechen Republic and Ingushetia – 36.3 % and 47.4 % accordingly; in Dagestan, Tyva and Kalmykia republics the level of unemployment is 16-18 %. In Russia, anyone, except pupils, students and pensioners, who are without a job, are entitled to an unemployment benefit, which is 20% of the living wage. In order to obtain unemployment assistance, a Russian citizen must be registered as unemployed at the local representative office of the Federal Service on Labour and Employment (Rostrud). The allowance is calculated on the basis of the average salary which a person received in their last job. During the first three months of the allowance being paid, the subsidy is 75% of the average salary. During the next four months it is 60% of the salary, and it is 45% from the seventh month onward. However, a minimum and a maximum allowance are fixed by law. Since the beginning of 2009, the minimum amount is RUB 850 (USD 27.4 per month) and maximum – RUR 4,900 (USD 158 per month). The subsidy is paid monthly, starting from the first day a citizen is officially recognized an unemployed. Usually those who are looking for a job ask help of their friends, relatives, etc. Others can ask administration, entrepreneurs and some also write announces in papers or answer them. Federal Labour and Employment Service has opened the first on-line state all-Russian bank of vacancies «Work in Russia» - It contains the updated information from 85 regional employment services and 2.5 thousand municipal employment services. The main purpose of this information source is availability of full information concerning the situation on the Russian labor market, new workplaces, the rights and guarantees while employed. The website provides with professional legal assistance, labor regulations, contact information of regional services and employment centers. Currently the portal “Work in Russia” contains information about more than 880 thousand workplaces (882,358 places). 3. Procedures to start self-employment (micro credits etc.) Generally a person who wishes to start-up a small-scale business in Russia has to register the enterprise or be registered as individual employer (non-juridical person) according to the rule prescript in the Civil Code of RF and Federal Law “State registration of juridical persons and individual owners”. In Moscow registration is done by the MIFNS No. 46 (Interdistrict Inspectorate of the Federal Tax Service) and the one of juridical persons in local tax inspection. In first case one has to possess a passport. After that one has to be registered as a juridical person in a corresponding organization, in tax inspection and in Pension Fund. In the Federal Law No.128 (08.08.2001), Federal Law No. 128 (04.05.2008) on introduction of changes and amendments into points 1 and 17, there is a list of activities allowed to be 16

COUNTRY FACT SHEET realized only under the license and the list of federal institutions of executive power where one can receive the license. The term of license must be not less than 5 years. The license fee, according to Federal law No. 128 in 2008 is 1,300 RUB/ 42 USD. The owner has also to take permission from fire service, and, if the business is related to medicine, food or beverage, etc have to take a certificate from sanitary inspection. The situation with small-scale business is difficult due to state officers’ corruption and influence of criminal structure. In North Caucasus it is impossible to start-up a small-scale business without relatives’ help, social connections, supporting of local power. The credit system to start small and medium scale businesses started in Russia not so many years ago, and is now developing. The average credit to set up a small enterprise could range from RUB 50,000 to 300,000 (USD 1,613 – 9,677). In the context of global financial crisis obtaining a loan for a small-scale business is still a major, frequently insolvable problem. In the period of crisis banks have ceased to give loans to the representatives of this segment first of all. Many banks have already reduced volumes of financing and toughened requirements to loaner. Now the banks are more willing to give loans to enterprises operating in the retail sector or wholesale trade. As a rule, the bank needs guarantees that the money will be paid back, and such a guarantee could be a security or a bail. The scheme of a solitary bail of a group of individual entrepreneurs is possible. Small-scale business loaning is a high priority for many Russian banks. But in fact it is very difficult to obtain a loan for a small company. Banks do not provide loans at the beginning of business activities; they hesitate over small scale business, not properly prepared business plan, low level of literacy of loan debtor, incorrect documentation. Very often business owners cannot use bank’s services because of high interests, short repayment period, lack of initial capital, very long and complicated procedure of receiving of loan. Furthermore small-scale businesses unwillingly show real finance results in accounting reports, so it diminishes a chance to obtain a loan for refilling circulating funds and investment purposes. However at the present time banks try to meet the wishes of business owners. Interest rates in banks also vary depending on the size of the loan, features of business activity and period of payments for a loan. 4. Further education possibilities, vocational trainings Russian citizens can attend short-term vocational trainings to get education and receive a new qualification. Unemployed persons registered in Federal Labour and Employment Service have a right to attend free trainings to upgrade skills. There are a lot of private schools, training centers and institutes where the candidates or their employers pay for education. Costs of vocational training depend on the city/ region and the field of study. For example, in Moscow the average costs for design software computer training are RUB 14,610 (USD 471), hairdresser training – RUB 18,610 (USD 600), HR management training – RUB 15,450 (USD 498). VIII. EDUCATION 1. Educational system. General information In Russia, the educational system consists of both state and private educational institutions. 17

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Every citizen has the right to a free education. This right is met through state educational institutions at all levels in each citizen’s place of residence. There are private institutions at all levels: day nursery; kindergartens; schools; colleges; institutes; and universities. They must all have a license and be accredited in order to award diplomas. There are also faculties and departments which charge fees in many state institutions (mainly higher education facilities). Additional education is also available outside schools for adults and children. Educational courses are available in a variety of forms: full-time; evening classes; by correspondence as long distance education, etc. Since 2006, a national priority project, “Education�, has been rolled out. The state has introduced innovative education programs into 57 high schools, 9,000 secondary schools, and 246 institutions of basic and intermediate vocational education. Two federal universities and two business schools have been created. Over 52,000 educational institutions have obtained Internet access and are equipped with licensed software. Primary education Pupils start to study at the age of 6 or 7. Education is compulsory from the 1st to 9th grade, i.e. during elementary school (grades 1-4) and middle school (grades 5-9). At the end of primary school, pupils receive certificates of basic secondary education. After finishing the 9th grade, pupils may enter secondary professional colleges providing a complete secondary education and a qualification. Secondary education Studying in the 10th and 11th grades is optional. Since 2009, pupils in the 11th grade have had to pass a Unified State Examination (USE), a standardized test in basic school subjects, which serves both as a graduation school test and as an entrance test to higher educational institutions. It is mandatory for all graduates to pass the USE in mathematics and in the Russian language. The USE in other school subjects is optional. Pupils finish secondary school at the age of 17 and obtain a certificate of complete secondary education. There are a number of specialized schools which offer an in depth study of particular subjects: foreign languages, physics and mathematics, chemistry and biology, etc. Usually pupils have to pass entrance examinations to be enrolled in these schools. Higher education To enter an institute or a university a student must possess a certificate of completed secondary education. Since 2009, students have entered higher educational institutions on the basis of their USE results in relevant subjects. Some universities (e.g. Moscow State University) are allowed to introduce additional entrance examinations. The education model includes the following levels: bachelor program, specialist program and master program. The corresponding course may be followed as a whole or in stages. The usual period of study is five years for full-time education, and six years for distance (correspondence) education programs. Graduates of secondary professional colleges may be allowed to complete their higher education course in 3-4 years. There are courses that offer the final stages in professional education: post-graduate courses; training to raise the level of competence and improve professional skills; additional training, generally. Russian citizens can, if they choose and are capable of it, obtain two or more professional qualifications, including in higher education. The creation and development of five federal universities is planned to provide regions with the qualified personnel for social and economic development. A new initiative within this project is the creation and support, on a competitive basis, of fifteen national research universities, which should provide for the permanent updating of research and industrial 18

COUNTRY FACT SHEET technologies in the most competitive branches of the Russian economy. There are two large federal universities in Siberia and in the south of Russia, and two business schools in Moscow and Saint-Petersburg. Vocational training Free re-training may be available to unemployed people, who are registered at the labor exchange office in the Federal Labour and Employment Service. There are many educational institutions in Russia that offer vocational training on a paid basis. Sometimes, employers pay for vocational training courses for their personnel. Grants for education are also provided by some commercial organizations, international organizations and foreign institutes. 2. Needed documents for returning pupils/students Children of Russian citizens have the right to a free of charge school education and, as a rule, they can easily join the primary and high school of the place of residence. In this case a person cannot be refused admission to school. However, if a child applies to a school which is not located in the place of the residence, the school can refuse admission in case there are no vacant places, thus privileging children residing in the school’s district. Nevertheless, a child must be accepted to one of the schools. The following documents have to be presented for admission to a school: • application from any of the parents; • child’s medical records regarding analysis, vaccinations and medical conclusion about general state of a child’s health epicrisis; • copy of the child’s medical insurance card (obligatory insurance or voluntary insurance); • photo of a child and in some cases – copy of parent’s passport. In order to apply to university or an institute of higher education, the applicant has to present: • a diploma of a secondary (or professional secondary) education, • a photo, • copy of the passport. Usually the same documentary is needed when entering both state and private institutions. 3. Approval and verification of foreign diplomas There is no automatic recognition of foreign diplomas in Russia. In order to get a diploma recognized it is necessary to obtain a certificate from the Ministry of Education or corresponding assigned regional structures. The decision of issuing the certificate stating recognition of the diploma is taken on the basis of: • a positive assessment of the educational certificate; • positive expert evaluation of the correspondence of the nature of the education and correspondence of general requirements to the educational structure in Russia and in the country where the diploma is issued; • international agreements on the recognition of the equivalent diplomas and obligations signed and ratified by the Russian Federation.


COUNTRY FACT SHEET During the expert evaluation the following points are considered: • contents of the educational programmes; • presence of entering exams; • systems of exams and checks; • marks of a student during the period of study; • volume of the disciplines, presence, and period of a student practice, etc. In some cases a personal interview could be required. In case a country where a diploma is issued has a corresponding agreement with Russia, the procedure of recognition is a bit facilitated. However, even under the conditions of a signed international agreement no automatic recognition exists. There are international agreements with Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belorussia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Lithuania, Moldova, Tajikistan, and Ukraine. 4. Costs, loans and stipends It’s very difficult to enter free of charge a full-time department at a prestigious university, or sometimes even an average one. Since 2000, the number of free places has fallen by 50%. Some of the annual tuition fees are as follows: • Moscow State Institute of International Relations, Management and Economics Department is RUB 249,400 (USD 8,045). • The Higher School of Economics is the second most expensive: RUB 234,800 (USD 7,574) for the same discipline. • The Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation charges RUB 180,800 (USD 5,832) for the same discipline. • The most expensive annual tuition fee for mechanical engineering is Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas: RUB 65,000 (USD 2,096). The cheapest for the same discipline is Moscow State Industrial University: RUB 33,000 (USD 1,065). • The leading university for studies into the gas and petrochemical industry is Lomonosov Moscow State University: RUB 124,100 (USD 4,003). The cheapest is Moscow State Academy of Fine Chemical Technology: RUB 28,000 (USD 903). Nowadays more than 60% of Russian university students pay for their study. Because of economic crisis many students are unable to pay tuition fee. The President of the RF proposed that Russian universities subsidize studies from the state budget for distinguished students studying in commercial departments. Education loans are a new banking service in Russia and very few banks provide such services. However, more and more students are taking an interest in them. The average size of education loans is USD 47,000, made available for 4-5 years. From 2009 until the end of 2010, there will be an experiment in supporting educational loans. Only distinguished students will receive educational loans: the State intends to encourage people to be good students. The Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation will amend the provisions for state support of loans: the state will take on the role of guarantor of a loan. The Ministry has also insisted that interest on an education loan must not exceed 11.5% a year. Also, the student is not obliged to make repayments until three months after the period of study. The loan should then be paid over various periods. The state will prefer to support students majoring in subjects which are in demand, and studying at universities which have a good reputation.


COUNTRY FACT SHEET Banks allowing education loans: Bank percentage rate per year (rubles) Joint-Stock Commercial Innovation Bank “Education” from 11,5 % Bank “Uralsib” 17,5 % Russian Agriculture Bank 13 % Saving Bank of Russia 17 % Probusinessbank 11 % 18 % 19 % Natsprombank 20 % Bank Soyuz 10 % in USD International Investment Bank 15 %

Terms of loan from 3 months up to 5 years up to 10 years up to 11 years up to 3 years 1 year 2 years 3 years up to 10 years Depends on individual case

Students at free state-run day-schools receive monthly stipends of RUB 1,100 (USD 35). Students at specialized secondary schools receive RUB 400 (USD 13). IX. OBTAINING OF TRAVEL DOCUMETNS Obtaining a passport Issue of passport (for foreign travel) to the citizen of RF is designated by Governmental Resolution of the Russian Federation as of July 8, 1997 No 828. Internal Affairs Agencies at the place of residence are responsible for issue and change of passports. To obtain/change a passport a citizen presents: • Application form (2 copies), • Original and one copy of the birth certificate • or expired passport • or other ID confirming Russian citizenship • or an official note from the Police about the loss of the passport • Copy of Estonian residence permit • 4 photographs (size of 35 x of 45 mm). • Confirmation of paid tax – 240 EEK The passport is issued approximately within 3 months period. Consular sections of Russian Federation abroad issue Certificate for Returning to Russia to citizens of Russia in case of loss or damage of their travel documents during their stay abroad. In order to obtain a Certificate for returning the following documents should be submitted: • an official note from the Police about the loss of the passport; • 2 photographs (size of 35 x of 45 mm); • Application form in 2 copies. The Certificate is issued in 10-15 days. General Consulates of Russian Federation in Estonia Lai tn. 18, Tallinn 10133, Tel. +372 646 4166; Fax +372 646 4130 e-mail


COUNTRY FACT SHEET Kiriku 8, Narva 20308 Tel. +372 35 913 67; +372 35 606 52; +372 35 606 53 Fax +372 35 606 54 E-mail: Ülikooli 1, Tartu 51003, Tel. +372 7 403 024; Fax +372 7 403 562 X. REINTEGRATION AND RECONSTRUCTION ASSISTANCE In June 2006 the State Assisted Voluntary Return Program for compatriots living abroad to RF has been established and started in the second part of 2007. The participant and his family members of the Program “Compatriots” according to category of repatriation territory have a right for relocation grant, money support and benefits. Taking part in State program the returnee and his family (if they are foreign citizens or stateless persons) have a right for obtaining permanent residency and citizenship of the Russian Federation. To participate in program the returnee needs to obtain a certificate of participant in representative offices of Federal Migration Service abroad. But it’s important to mention that the program involves some limitations. 1. Financial and administrative support Consulates of RF in the CIS countries and other foreign countries where the Federal Migration Service of Russia has a presence will accept documents for participation in State Assisted Voluntary Return Program to the Russian Federation. Financial support of State program is provided by federal budget, budgets of constituents of the Russian Federation, local budgets and financial assistance of legal and physical persons. The returnee participating in State program obtains a standard certificate established by the Government of the Russian Federation. The participant of State program and his family members being returned to the Russian Federation has the right for social assistance including: • Reimbursement of money spent for relocation financed by federal budget; • Reimbursement of fees for preparing ID documents; • Lump-sum reintegration grant financed by federal budget; • Monthly benefits during six month period for unemployed people who have not obtained Russian citizenship yet. The amount depends on living wage established in each constituent of the Russian Federation. • Compensatory package of participant of the State program (includes services of state and municipal educational institutions, social, medical and unemployment service financed by relevant budgets). XI. VULNERABLE PERSONS 1. Assistance to women and mothers On the top of some ways of financial support to vulnerable or target groups mentioned (unemployed, pensioners, young families) it is possible also to emphasize the following: 1. Allowances for pregnant women – starting from January 1st, 2007 they are provided with a special social maternity certificate (equivalent to RUB 11,000 – approximately USD 355) which they can use for covering expenses of gynecological clinics’ services during pregnancy and childbirth; 22

COUNTRY FACT SHEET 2. Allowances for children – • lump sum paid to parents after the childbirth – RUR 10,988 (USD 354) • a monthly allowance until the baby is 1.5 yeas old – RUB 2,060 (USD 66) for the first child and RUB 4,121 (USD 133) for the second and further children. In different regions of Russia there are programs of additional support to single mothers. For example, Moscow program except financial assistance provides with additional municipal benefits transferred to “social card of Moscovite” (monthly food allowance for a child of less than 3 years of age – RUB 600 (USD 19), for a child of less than 16 years of age – from 250 to 650 RUB (USD 8-21). Singe parent can purchase fast moving consumer goods and some medicines at a discount. Owners of these cards receive a list of shops, drugstores and companies where they can get discounts. According to federal and municipal legislation single parent has priority right for municipal housing. In framework of gender projects in several regions of RF non-government shelters of NGOs are opened. Most of these NGOs and shelters are financed by international and foreign organizations. Unfortunately because of insufficient financing very few people can receive such assistance. Crisis women centers currently work in many Russian regions. They are sponsored by government institutions (social service) and international programmes. Such centers provide consultations of psychologists, lawyers, social workers as follows: • women suffered from domestic violence (including minors) • women who lost close relatives • women with disabled children • disabled women • single mothers • pregnant women (including single women and minors) • women with children from single-parent families • women who are in conflict with family • women who are on maternity leave 2. Assistance to old persons and invalids At the present time 29.4 million pensioners (21% of total population) live in the Russian Federation. The main assistance for elderly people is pension. According to Decree of President of the Russian Federation (13.05.2008) “On Additional measures of social support for disabled citizens” starting from July 1, 2008 the benefits for unemployed people looking after disabled children, invalids of 1st group an old persons have been increased from 500 (USD 16) to 1,200 rubles (USD 39). Additional financial support to pensioners: in some RF regions pensions are higher due to the regional increase (for instance, in Moscow). However, the system of additional financial support from public institutions (apart from the one that is secured by the federal and regional legislation) is not developed. Nevertheless, it might exist not in the way of funds but in the way of free of charge consultations on various aspects (legislative, reference, psychological, etc.) both to the general public and special target groups. There is a system of specialized state institutions for old persons, invalids (for adults and children) where they live and receive medical treatment free of charge. There are state social centers and shelters for adults and children governed by the Ministry of Health Protection and Social Development, as well as the network of social institutions 23

COUNTRY FACT SHEET assisting vulnerable families and children. At the moment there are 1,400 stationary social institutions of different types in Russia, where more than 240 thousand of old, critically ill and disabled people live. Social workers assist single people at home (mostly in cities). In 2009 the Ministry of Health Protection and Social Development and the Moscow Government has signed the agreement of delegation of federal authority to the Moscow government who will be responsible for providing invalids with rehabilitation equipment, sanatorium treatment, covering transportation expenses to the place of treatment and back. According to the agreement, the Social Protection and Health Protection Departments of Moscow will receive funds from federal budget for providing invalids with rehabilitation equipment, increase their number and range from municipal budget resources. Metropolitan authorities take different action to support invalids. For implementing these functions almost 2 billion rubles were allocated from federal budget. Such regions as St.Petersburg and Samara express their willingness to take the tack of Moscow. The national project “Education” includes development of distance learning programmes for disabled children as a prior kind of assistance to invalids. 3. Assistance to persons with mental disorder Russian Federation in Federal Law “On psychiatric assistance and citizens’ rights” establishes legal, organizational and economic principles of psychiatric treatment. According to this Law patients can receive free of charge services: emergency psychiatric aid, consultations and diagnostics; psycho prophylactic and rehabilitation assistance in outpatient department and clinics; all kinds of psychiatric examination; temporary disability determination; social assistance and employment of people with mental disorder; guardianship problems; legal assistance in psychiatric clinics; education of invalids and minors with mental disorder; psychiatric assistance in case of disasters and catastrophes. XII. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HUMANITARIAN ORGANIZATIONS NGOs are focused on work in the field of humanitarian activity and development. Their activity promotes development of social structure, independence and a level of selforganizing of a society, helps to create new workplaces for young active workers and gives more various kinds of the help (including psychological, in the field of health services of a primary part) at a micro-level to vulnerable groups of the population. Target groups of the nongovernmental organizations are the refugees, the forced migrants, youth, the people who have suffered owing to confrontations and etc. In 1996 in Russian Federation the program of creation of network providing refugees, forced migrants and internally displaced persons with legal assistance was founded. It is one of the programs of human rights Centre “Memorial” experienced in field of human rights protection in Russia. The main object is creating a system of free legal assistance efficient and accessible for forced migrants. At the present time the network “Migration Right” includes 57 departments and covers 45 regions (55 cities of Russia). Qualified and experienced lawyers render legal assistance. The Coordination Centre of “Memorial” is situated in Moscow. The program is supported by UNHCR, Ford Foundation, Mott Foundation, European Commission, and the Dutch Government through the international organization ECRE. The main task of program is human rights protection of forced migrants’ interests: 24


free consultations of affairs of legal character, preparation of applications and inquiries; drawing up of writs and petitions to court instances; appeals to administrative and law enforcement bodies.

The Centre assists: • Refugees and forced migrants with official status; • Persons applied for the status of refugee and forced migrant; • Persons refused in status; • Persons considered as refugees who lost the status; • Persons who are in the same situation as refugees and forced migrants, but can’t apply for status; • Victims of military and ethnic conflicts. The contacts of legal assistance centers for refugees and forced migrants can be found on

Type of support


Contact information

Committee “Civic Protection of Moscow assistance” human rights; legal (“Grazhdanskoye assistance, job sodeystviye”) search “Memorial” Protection of Dagestan Human Rights human rights; lega Center assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

103030 Moscow, Dolgorukovskaya st. 33, building 6 tel. +7 (499)973-54-43 Tel./fax: +7(495)251-53-19 e-mail: Head: Svetlana A. Gannushkina 368830 Dagestan, Kizliar Mayakovskogo str. 2 l Tel./fax +7(872) 392-35-86 E-mail:

“Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Dagestan human rights; legal assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

368022 Dagestan, Hasaviurt, Musaiasula st. 40 tel.: +7(872) 310-43-21 e-mail: Rassiyat Yu. Yasiyeva


Legal and social assistance for forced migrants

The center on protection of human rights in Republic Dagestan

Protection of Dagestan human rights; legal education; realization of representation in court; a work with letters and complaints of the population

Dagestan Tel./Fax: +7 928 058 58 34

Bld. 58, Prospekt I.Shamilya, Makhachkala, Dagestan Tel: +7 (8722) 61 64 75 Fax: +7 (8722) 65 02 89 E-mail:


COUNTRY FACT SHEET Russian children’s fund Dagestan Regional branch


Realization in Dagestan Russia Conventions of the UN on the rights of the child, rendering assistance to children-orphans, children-invalids, children injured with wars, interethnic conflicts (a direction on treatment in various regions of Russia of sick children, and also work under applications and references of inhabitant of republic)

Dagestan Republican Department 367005 Makhachkala, Ploshchad Lenina, Dom Pravitelstva, office 197 Tel.: +7 (8722) 67 31 65 Gadzhiev Datsi

Committee of Protection of Dagestan Dagestan’s human rights; legal Mothers – Human assistance Rights”

Tel.: +7 963 402 55 99 (Svetlana Isaeva), +7 928 297 55 42 (Gyulnara Rustamova)

“Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Chechnya human rights; providing legal assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

364000, Grozny, Maiakovskogo str. 84. tel./fax: +7(8712)22-21-87 e-mail: Tangiev Shamsuddin

“Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Chechnya human rights; providing legal assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

366900, Gudermes, Tereshkovoy str.7/ 38 Tel/fax: +7(871-52) 2-22-72 Lilia Yusupova

“Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Chechnya human rights; providing legal assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

366701 Chechen Republic, Sunzhensky district, Sernovodsk, Sovetskaya str., 2/3 Tel/fax: +7 (871) 545-22-86 Sultan U. Irabaiev

COUNTRY FACT SHEET “Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Chechnya human rights; providing legal assistance for the regions, bordering with the territories, which became permanent source of migration

366500 Chechen Republic, Urus-Martan, Lenina str., 1а Tel.: +7 (871) 452-22-26 Dokka S.Itzlaev


Legal and social Chechnya Tel./Fax: +7 (8712) 22-34-79 assistance for E-mail: forced migrants

Russian children’s fund Chechen Regional Branch Russia

Realization in Chechnya Conventions of the UN on the rights of the child, rendering assistance to children-orphans, children-invalids, children injured with wars, interethnic conflicts (a direction on treatment in various regions of Russia of sick children, and also work under applications and references of inhabitants of republic)

“Memorial” Human Rights Center

Protection of Ingushetia 386101 Ingushetia, Nazran, human rights; Mutaliev str., 46 providing legal Tel./fax: +7(8732) 22-23-49 assistance for the e-mail: regions, bordering with Sachman A. Akbulatov the territories, which became permanent source of migration

366314, Chechen Republic, Kurchalovskiy district, village Kurchalovskiy, Ahmad Kadyrov str., 48 Tel.: +7 (8715) 52-22-00 Ramzan S. Khasukhanov

“Vesta” Legal and social Ingushetia Tel.: +7 (8732) 22-76-38 assistance for Tel./ fax: +7 (8732) 22-82-62 forced migrants E-mail: Leila Dzeitova Russian children’s fund Ingushetia Regional Branch

Realization in Ingushetia 386102 Nazran, Nasyr Russia Kortskaya str., 29-б Conventions of the Tel.: +7 (8732) 22-24-62 United Nations on Email:, the rights of the child, rendering Fatima M. Tankieva assistance to children-orphans, 27


children-invalids, children injured with wars, interethnic conflicts (a direction on treatment in various regions of Russia of sick children, and also work under applications and references of inhabitants of republic)

All-Russian Social Protection of North Ossetia- North Ossetia-Alania Republic, Organization of human rights Alania Beslan, Kominterna str., 100 victimes of Republic Tel.: +7 (906) 494-97-98, terrorist attack +7 (867 37) 3-26-63 “Golos Beslana” E-mail:, Emma L. Tagaeva-Betrozova Association of North Ossetia- Russia, North victims of terrorist Alania Ossetia-Alania, Beslan, attack “Materi Republic Oktyabr’skaya str., 32. Beslana” Tel./fax: +7 (86737) 3-44-12 E-mail: Susanna Dudieva XIII. REGIONAL PROFILES 1. North Caucasus The North Caucasus is one of the RF regions situated on the south of Eastern European Plane from Black Sea on the west to the Caspian Sea on the East and includes the north slope of Caucasian range. As part of the Russian Federation, the Northern Caucasus region is included in the North Caucasian and Southern Federal Districts and consists of Krasnodar Krai, Stavropol Krai and seven republics: Chechnya, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Adygea, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachaevo-Cherkessia, and North Ossetia-Alania. It is a region very rich in natural resources. It is also in a unique geopolitical situation as a border land between Christian and Islamic civilizations, where more than forty nationalities live. The North Caucasus is very important economical region for Russia, and is a zone of competition of many powers, which want to consolidate their positions in Kaspian and Black Sea areas. There are some positive tendencies in region: • Understanding of necessity to elaborate strategy of solving local problems • Quantity of interethnic conflicts diminished • A stabilization of social and economic conditions Transportation System Air flights Moscow-Makhachkala (Vnukovo airport). Air ticket costs RUB 7,110/ USD 229; Moscow28

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Groznyi (Vnukovo airport). Air ticket costs RUB 7,210/ USD 233; Moscow-Nazran (Vnukovo airport) – Air ticket costs RUB 7,210/ USD 233. Travel time – 2.5 hours. Railway Transportation From Moscow trains go to Makhachkala, Nazran and Grozny from the Kazanskiy railway station. Trains to Makhachkala go on odd days, a ticket costs RUB 4,600/ USD 90 (travel time - 39 hours); a train ticket to Grozny costs RUB 4,250/ USD 137 (travel time – 42.5 hours); a ticket to Nazran (even days) costs RUB 4,250/ USD 137 (travel time - 39 hours). Bus Transportation Bus transportations are carried out by both state and private companies; however trips made by state buses, unlike private, are rare. The prices for tickets for private and state buses do not differ very much (a ticket for bus “Krasnodar-Makhachkala” costs RUB 200500/ USD 6.5-16). From Krasnodar, Stavropol and Rostov-on-Don buses go to many towns and settlements of the North Caucasus. 2. Dagestan Population Dagestan has the third largest population of the Russian Federation republics. It has a population of 2.8 million (1.3 % of Russia’s population), 58 % is rural population. Population grows very high. The density of population is 54.4 persons per 1 sq. km. There are 60 nationalities including 30 aboriginal nationalities speaking different languages. The majority of population lives near the mountain range and on the plain. The capital is Makhachkala. Socio-political situation Socio-political situation in Dagestan Republic has its specific character. As opposed to almost monoethnic Chechnya and Ingushetia the population of Dagestan consists of many ethnic groups. This fact determines multiplicity of operating forces in Republic, supposes accommodation of their interests if case of conflicts that keeps under establishing strong authoritarian power in the Republic. However this “accommodation of interests” usually follows the illegal way and develops into a battle of clans. Political murders regularly happen in the Republic. Living standards are nearly the lowest in the Russian Federation, and the range of corruption is unprecedented even for North Caucasus region. Economy Natural resources – oil, gas, peat, coal, metals, etc. Agriculture is one of the main economic activities in Dagestan (28.5% of the gross domestic product). About 1/3 of economically active population works in this sector. There are about 36 thousand farms and 900 agricultural enterprises. The private sector dominates (67% of total production). Employment 70% of economically active population is employed. The size of population increases much faster than the growth of jobs, so the labor market situation is tense. The index of unemployment is 8%, out of this 18% are pensioners. Education There are 1663 day-time educational institutions with 403,288 students. There are 6 institutions of higher education and 33 branches (104,895 students), 35 institutions of secondary education (24,533 students), 14 boarding schools, 4 children’s homes, 23 vocational schools and 4 pedagogical colleges, 1 agricultural college. 29

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Healthcare In Dagestan there are 36 central regional hospitals (3,979 beds), 3 interregional hospitals (215 beds), 102 district hospitals (1,979 beds), 4 village hospitals (180 beds), 5 central regional policlinics, 175 policlinics, 1076 feldsher’s and obstetrical stations. Specialized medical care is provided in 10 municipal and 48 republican medical institutes. There are 5 sanatoria, 2 child care centers, 3 hemotransfusion stations, 7 independent and 50 (parts of other medical institutions) emergency stations. Within the framework of national project health protection system was consolidated. In 2007-2008 884 units of laboratory equipment was set up including 87 radiological apparatus, 204 sets of laboratory equipment, 102 ultrasonographs, 214 units of endoscopic equipment, 236 ECG monitoring apparatus, 41 units of ultrasound equipment for the sum 405.5 million rubles (USD 13 million). 172 ambulance cars were supplied to the Republic (RUB 102 million/ USD 3.2 million). Ministry of Labour and Social Development of Dagestan Republic 117, Abubakarova str., Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia Tel.: +7 (8722) 64-27-37; fax: 64-24-71 Ministry of Education of Dagestan Republic 32, Markova str., Makhachkala, 367025, Dagestan, Russia Tel.: +7 (8722) 67-18-36 Ministry of Health Protection of Dagestan Republic 10, Abubakarova str., 367005, Makhachkala, Dagestan, Russia Tel.: +7 (8722) 67-81-98; fax: 67-90-70 Internet resources: Official website of Government of Dagestan Republic: 3. Ingushetia Ingushetia is the youngest Republic of RF, it was created on 4 June 1992. It is situated on the north slopes of Big Caucasian range foothills and borders Kabardino-Balkaria, North Ossetia, Chechnya and Georgia. The capital is Magas (the former capital is Nazran). Population The population is 516,590 people (2010); urban population – 41.5%, rural – 58.5%. Representatives of 71 nationalities live in the Republic: Ingush – 83%, Chechen – 11.2%, Russians – 4%, others –1.8 %. The density of population is 143.5 people per 1 sq. km. Demographic situation: high birthrate, low mortality and relatively high life duration; the average age of the population is 28.7. Economy There are 50 big and medium agricultures enterprises. Ingushetia is a mainly agricultural republic, situated in 3 climatic zones: the steppes in the north, forest-steppe in the south and highlands that permit the growing of various crops (wheat, buckwheat, sunflowers, sugar beet, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, and grapes. Cattle breeding is also a traditional sphere of local economy. The latter is the leading sector of local economy (sheep, goats). Horticulture is being actively developed (there are 230 hectares of fruit trees). Employment The population growth is the result not only of population increase, but also because of 30

COUNTRY FACT SHEET migration (refugees from Chechnya and North Ossetia). According to the Federal Migration Service, there are 165 thousand forced migrants on the territory of Ingushetia. For small Ingushetia such migration load is too hard in spite of federal support. The questions of migrants’ employment are being solved very slowly because of under financing from the Federal center. Manpower resources: 208000 people. 118800 people – economically active population. Education 1/3 of population of the Republic are children. 60000 study at 106 schools. 8 new schools were built lately, 4 of them – in villages. Higher education: Ingush State University (7 departments: History, Philology, Economy, Mechanics, Physics and Mathematics, Medicine, Chemistry and Biology, 32 professorships). This is the youngest university in the Russian Federation, it was opened in 1994. The number of students is more than 5000. Regional fund of support of business and development of a competition of Republic Ingushetia 64, Mutalieva str., Nazran, Ingushetia, Russia Tel.: +7 (8732) 2-11-26 Ministry of General and Professional Education 69, Pervomaiskaya str., pos. Gagarina, stanitsa Ordzhonikidzevskaya, Ingushetia, 366700,Russia Tel.: +7 (87144) 2-27-36 Ministry of Health Protection and Protection of Ingushetia 11, Mutalieva str., Nazran, Ingushetia, Russia 366720 Tel.: + 7 (8732) 2-59-96 Internet resources Official website of Government of Ingushetia Republic: 4. Chechnya This republic is situated in the central part of the northern slope of Caucasus range and in the Chechen plain and Tersk-Kumsk lowland. It borders Stavropol territory, Ingushetia, North Ossetia, Dagestan, Georgia (in the south). The capital is Grozny. Population Population: 1,267,740 people (2010). Urban population: 37.5%, rural – 63.5%. Urban population of Chechen cities (2009): Grozny – 231,215 people; Gudermes – 42,605 people; Argun – 41,767 people; Shali – 45,161 people; Urus-Martan – 50,628 people. At the moment there are 74 religious organizations representing three confessions: 72 – Islam, 1 – Orthodoxy, 1 Evangelical Christians. There are more than 200 unregistered groups of different confessions (Muslim and Orthodox). Socio-political situation From the beginning of military operation of federal powers the armed conflict began in Chechnya. When Ahmad Kadyrov became the president (since March 2, 2007 the president of Chechen Republic is his son, Ramzan Kadyrov) the situation began to change. His 31

COUNTRY FACT SHEET activities created the basis of stability. After the parliament election of November 27, 2004 the situation began to stabilize. New labor places were created, new construction activities began and continue at the moment. Today the situation in the Republic is under the authorities’ control. The armed conflict continues but it does not dominate as it did before. In the Republic two federal programs are implemented: “South of Russia” and “Reconstruction of the Social Sphere and Economy of the Chechen Republic” aimed at the reconstruction of infrastructure, and creation of jobs and revival of agricultural production. Indemnifications payments for destroyed homes are being made and schools are being reconstructed. Restoration of towns and villages in the Chechen Republic (including the mountain area) is going forward rapidly. In 2008 several social facilities (schools, hospitals, sports halls) as well as dwelling houses were restored in Vedenskiy district. The similar reconstruction was planned in Nozhay-Yurtovskiy district in 2009. Gas pipelines have been laid in many villages, even in regions where there was no gas before the war. Construction is financed from the federal budget, from off-budget sources and through loans. Unfortunately construction of the institutional order is from the very beginning accompanied in the Republic by a high level official corruption and arbitrariness. The high level official corruption and arbitrariness is found out in sphere of construction and social payments. Economy The main industries are oil and gas extraction, petro-chemical industry, agriculture, mechanical engineering, light and forest industry. Education The policy of the President of the Republic is aimed at priority of education. Now it is the main goal not only for the Ministry of Education but for Heads of cities and villages administrations. According to the information of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Chechen Republic in 2007-2008 within the frame of Federal target program RUB 1 billion 540 million (USD 50 million) was spent on reconstruction of educational institutions: 3 universities, 2 colleges, 4 vocational schools, 25 schools. In 2007 schools received 169 units of skill acquisition equipment and equipped studies, 65 school buses for village schools. 102 schools received RUB 1 million (USD 32,258) each for development of innovation programs. 329 schools gained Internet access. Healthcare Within the frame of a high priority national project “Health Protection”, construction works have been started at Chechen medical institutions. 27 policlinics and hospitals have been provided with water supply. Construction works are carried out at municipal clinical hospitals No. 1, 3 and 5, a child care center, children’s clinical hospital No. 2, children’s polyclinics No. 1 and 5, adult polyclinics No. 1, 3, 4, and 5, maternity clinic No. 2 in Grozny. Regional hospitals received new diagnostic equipment, ambulance cars. There were organized trainings for medical specialists. Ministry of Education and Science of Chechen Republic 5A, Prospekt Pobedy, Grozny, Chechnya, 364051, Russia Tel.: +7-928-744-65-29, +7-928-744-33-75; Ministry of Labour and Social Development of Chechen Republic 15, Delovaya str., Grozny, 364020 Tel.: +7 (8712) 22-22-99 32

COUNTRY FACT SHEET Committee for Small Business and Entrepreneurship 10, Rozy Luxemburg str., Grozny, Russia Tel.: +7 (8712)-22-26-51 State Committee of Employment of Population of Chechen Republic 114, Avtomatchikov, Grozny, Russia Tel.: +7 (8712) 22-31-33 Ministry of Health Protection of Chechen Republic Tel.: +7 (8712)-22-20-51 Internet resources: Official website of Government of Chechen Republic: Informational agency “Grozny-inform” Chechnya – human news from Chechnya “Yuznyi Federalnyi” Chechnya Today Chechen State Television and Radio Company “Grozny” XII. USEFUL LINKS Russia Russian Government Migration and Law IRRICO CIA The World Factbook IOM Moscow US Department of State The President of Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministry of Internal Affairs Embassy of the Russian Federation in Estonia Federal Migration Board




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