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When Information Saves Lives

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

ABOUT INTERNEWS

INTERNEWS IS AN INTERNATIONAL NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATION whose mission is to empower local media worldwide to give people the news and information they need, the ability to connect, and the means to make their voices heard. Internews provides communities the resources to produce local news and information with integrity and independence. With global expertise and reach, we train both media professionals and citizen journalists, introduce innovative media solutions, increase coverage of vital issues and help establish policies needed for open access to information. Formed in 1982, Internews is a 501(c)(3) organization headquartered in California. ,QWHUQHZVKDVZRUNHGLQPRUHWKDQFRXQWULHVDQGFXUUHQWO\KDVRIÂżFHVLQ$IULFD$VLD (XURSHWKH0LGGOH(DVWDQG1RUWK$PHULFD Internews Europe, Internews’ sister organization, was created in Paris in 1995 to help developing countries establish and strengthen independent media organizations in order to support freedom of expression and freedom of access to information. Both Internews and Internews Europe share an objective to save lives and reduce suffering of disaster-affected communities. Working in partnership with local media DQGDLGSURYLGHUV,QWHUQHZVDQG,QWHUQHZV(XURSHDLPWRIXOÂżOOSHRSOHÂśVULJKWWRDFFHVV information, ask questions, and participate in their own recovery.

INTERNEWS

INTERNEWS EUROPE

CONTACT

Administrative Headquarters PO Box 4448 Arcata, CA 95518 USA +1 707 826 2030

Administrative Headquarters 72, rue Jeanne d’Arc 75013 Paris - France +33 1 5336 0606

Deborah Ensor VP Africa, Health and Humanitarian Media densor@internews.org +1 202 834 9664

Washington, DC Office 1640 Rhode Island Ave. NW Suite 700 Washington, DC 20036 USA + 1 202 833 5740

London Office 32 - 36 Loman Street Southwark, SE1 OEH , London -UK +44 207 922 7970

www.internews.org info@internews.org www.facebook.com/internews Twitter: @internews

www.internews.eu info@internews.eu www.facebook.com/ internewseurope Twitter: @internewseurope

Jacobo Quintanilla Director, Humanitarian Information Projects jquintanilla@internews.org +44 7791 55 37 44 Twitter: @jqg

REPORT WRITTEN BY: JACOBO QUINTANILLA AND LIZZIE GOODFRIEND | COPY EDITOR: DAVID WILSON PROJECT MANAGER: LIZZIE GOODFRIEND | ALL PICTURES BY: INTERNEWS (EXCEPT SRI LANKA: BY AMANTHA PERERA) DESIGN AND LAYOUT: LUIS VILCHES (VROS - HTTP://ELEUVE.CARBONMADE.COM/) Š INTERNEWS 2012


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

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CONTENTS 4

When Information Saves Lives

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2011: PUSHING THE HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION AGENDA FORWARD

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INTERNEWS’ HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION WORK IN 2011

10 COUNTRY PROJECTS LEVERAGING THE POWER OF LOCAL MEDIA TO IMPROVE LIVES 12 HAITI GIVING A VOICE TO COMMUNITIES AFFECTED BY EARTHQUAKE, CHOLERA, AND HURRICANES 16 PAKISTAN HELPING FLOOD-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES TO ACCESS INFORMATION 19 SOUTH SUDAN PROVIDING ESSENTIAL INFORMATION TO COMMUNITIES AFFECTED BY INSECURITY 24 CHAD LOCAL RADIO STATIONS FILL CRITICAL GAP IN ASSISTANCE EFFORTS 27 CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC PUTTING LOCAL MEDIA AT THE CORE OF INNOVATION

30 INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS HELPING HUMANITARIANS MAKE BETTER INFORMED DECISIONS 32 DADAAB, KENYA OPENING NEW CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION IN A REFUGEE CAMP CONTEXT 36 LIBYA MAPPING A NEW MEDIA LANDSCAPE 39 LIBERIA/COTE D’IVOIRE ADVOCATING FOR TWOWAY COMMUNICATION WITH IVORIAN REFUGEES

50 THE CDAC NETWORK COMMUNICATING WITH DISASTER-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES 52 INFOASAID IMPROVING HOW AID AGENCIES COMMUNICATE WITH DISASTER-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES 54 ASSESSING LOCAL INFORMATION ECOLOGIES UNDERSTANDING THE NEEDS OF AFFECTED COMMUNITIES TO DELIVER BETTER AID 56 LEVERAGING CRISIS MAPPING PUTTING COMMUNITY VOICES AND LOCAL MEDIA ON A MAP

58 OUR CAPACITY TO RESPOND: RELIABLE, PREDICTABLE, AND SUSTAINABLE 59 HAVING THE RIGHT PEOPLE THE HUMANITARIAN MEDIA ROSTER 60 INVESTING IN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: EMERGENCY STANDBY EQUIPMENT 61 TRAINING LOCAL MEDIA PROFESSIONALS: HUMANITARIAN REPORTING MODULE 62 KNOWING HOW TO DO IT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES 63 BUILDING ASSESSMENT TEMPLATES AND METHODOLOGIES

64 CHALLENGES: PROMPTING INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND LEVERAGING RESOURCES TO MAKE IT HAPPEN 66 CHALLENGES WITHIN THE HUMANITARIAN SPACE 69 CHALLENGES WITHIN INTERNEWS

42 TUNISIA/LIBYA PROVIDING STRANDED MIGRANTS WITH ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

70 ACRONYMS

45 SRI LANKA ASSESSING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF FLOOD-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES

71 ANNEX 1 Landmark publications and events in the evolution of the humanitarian communications sector

48 INSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION WITHIN THE HUMANITARIAN SPACE: THE BEAUTY OF PARTNERSHIPS 49 INTERNEWS’ CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND LEARNING HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES

73 ANNEX 2 Publications and presentations by Internews 75 ANNEX 3 Publications produced by infoasaid 76 ANNEX 4 Support from donors


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

LETTER FROM THE PRESIDENT OF INTERNEWS

When Information Saves Lives

W JEANNE BOURGAULT

MARK FROHARDT

E ARE THRILLED TO PRESENT OUR 2011 ANNUAL REPORT on Internews’ Humanitarian Information Projects. For the past 20 years, Internews has been at the forefront of engaging local media during times of crisis, from working with new television outlets during the collapse of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s, to conflict reporting programs during the Balkan wars in the mid 1990s, to launching a program to build a new media sector in Afghanistan in the early 2000s. The 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami represented RXU¿UVWVLJQL¿FDQWUDSLGUHVSRQVHWRDPDMRU natural disaster; since then, Internews has supported local media in saving lives in FRPPXQLWLHVVWUXFNE\HDUWKTXDNHVÀRRGV FRQÀLFWDQGIDPLQH $W,QWHUQHZVRXUSURJUDPVDUHEDVHG on the simple belief that access to quality, locally-produced and locally-relevant news and information improves lives and enriches communities. During a humanitarian crisis, local media can literally give people the information they need to survive. In the past few years this has dramatically played out, for example, in our SURJUDPVLQSRVWHDUWKTXDNH+DLWLÀRRGUDYDJHG 3DNLVWDQQHZO\ERUQ6RXWK6XGDQDQGFRQÀLFW DIIHFWHG&HQWUDO$IULFDQ5HSXEOLF Most recently our survey in the refugee camps in Dadaab, Kenya, showed that refugees consider access to information critically important to their daily decisions inside the camp, and that radio, even more than friends and family, and even more than mobile phones, is the most trusted source of information.

Through collaboration with humanitarian agencies, governments and donors in the midst of crisis recovery, we are heartened by a growing understanding of the critical importance of information in a disaster. Historically overlooked as secondary needs, the humanitarian sector is now seeing that timely, accurate and well-targeted information and two-way communication with those affected by crisis are critical to the delivery of medical services, shelter, and food aid. $VZHORRNEDFNRQWKH\HDURQHRIWKHPRVW exciting developments is how new digital tools and technologies are expanding and improving the ability of local media – both professional and citizen – to provide life-saving information and make their voices heard. Through the Internews Center for Innovation and Learning (www. internews.org/innovation), we are, for example, using smart phones to carry out rapid surveys and assessments and piloting projects such as versatile mesh networks for areas not served by traditional telecommunication or Internet services, with the aim to share and deploy these techniques to aid in crises.


This year, as you may read throughout this $QQXDO5HSRUW,QWHUQHZVÂśKXPDQLWDULDQZRUN has truly consolidated and gained momentum. We have continued delivering humanitarian information projects from Pakistan to Haiti and pushed, with others, the issue of communications with affected communities further into the humanitarian agenda. In 2011 Internews Europe has become an accredited European Community Humanitarian 2IÂżFH (&+2 SDUWQHUDVWHSSLQJVWRQHIRU the organization in Europe. This recognition further legitimizes the work our organizations do in emergencies and the importance of communicating with local communities crises. Despite progress made, however, there is still much to do. The many initiatives and policy work fostered throughout 2011 need to be sustained, enhanced and adequately supported by donors. Two-way communication with disaster-affected communities needs to become a standard component throughout the humanitarian system, and local media must be given the support and UHVSHFWWKH\QHHGWRIXOÂżOOWKHLUFUXFLDOIXQFWLRQLQ

the complex arena of humanitarian interventions. This work is so powerful and so important. What inspires us most when visiting our extraordinary partners involved with humanitarian information projects is that very often these journalists are not just covering affected populations - they are affected populations. Yet they keep working, they keep providing critical news and information, and they keep saving lives. We are excited to build on the advances we have seen in 2011 and to continue supporting local media and journalists in this mission around the world. Thank you for your interest in the role of information in times of need.

Jeanne Bourgault President Internews

Mark Frohardt Senior Humanitarian Advisor and Executive Director, Center for Innovation and Learning Internews


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

2011: PUSHING THE HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION AGENDA FORWARD

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HROUGH 2011, Internews’ humanitarian information projects have evolved significantly, fostered by a very active and productive year of work in response to local crises, a renewed interest among humanitarian actors in accountability to beneficiaries,1 and a growing recognition within the humanitarian field of the importance of communication with disaster-affected communities.

1 The UN Emergency Relief Coordinator, Ms. Valerie Amos, is reinvigorating the debate on making accountability toward beneficiaries more vital and operational within the UN system, including a fresh look at information flows in disasters through the recently launched Sub Group on Accountability to Affected Populations, chaired by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Food Program (WFP), and part of the Inter-Agency Standing committee (IASC) Task Team on the Cluster Approach.

,Q,QWHUQHZVFRQGXFWHGÂżYHLQIRUPDWLRQ and communication needs assessments in response to major humanitarian crises, and maintained strong, innovative humanitarian SURMHFWVLQÂżYHDGGLWLRQDOFRXQWULHVDFURVV three continents. Internews was active in WKH&RPPXQLFDWLQJZLWK'LVDVWHU$IIHFWHG &RPPXQLWLHV &'$& 1HWZRUNLQFOXGLQJVXSSRUW WR&'$&+DLWLDQGFRQWLQXHVWRLPSOHPHQWWKH infoasaid project, a collaboration with the BBC World Service Trust (BBWST), now renamed DV%%&0HGLD$FWLRQ7KLV\HDULQIRDVDLGKDV advocated for and developed new tools to enable humanitarian organizations to improve the way they communicate with disaster-affected populations. Internews has advocated for institutional change within the humanitarian sector through outreach and collaboration. This has included SUHVHQWLQJWKHÂżQGLQJVRIRXUZRUNDWKLJK level meetings with UN agencies, international organizations, universities, and donors in Washington D.C., New York, London, Geneva and Brussels; publishing op-eds and articles; and collaborating with other actors in the KXPDQLWDULDQVHFWRU$PLGWKLVDGYRFDF\ Internews has continued to focus our efforts


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

“By giving voice and visibility to all people – including and especially the poor, the marginalized and members of minorities – the media can help remedy the inequalities, the corruption, the ethnic tensions and the human rights abuses that form the root causes of so many conflicts.� KOFI ANNAN, FORMER SECRETARY-GENERAL, UNITED NATIONS

where they are most needed: working amid crises, building partnerships, supporting the development of useful and accurate news programming, and documenting and sharing best practices and lessons learned across the sector. This year Internews has also further developed a core capacity to respond to humanitarian crises by launching a roster of humanitarian communication and media professionals; procuring standby production and broadcast equipment ready for immediate deployment; revisiting a humanitarian reporting module IRUMRXUQDOLVWVDQGWUDLQHUVDQG¿QHWXQLQJWKH internal operating procedures and methodologies for assessments and deployments. This report is intended to capture many of Internews’ humanitarian activities over the past year and to highlight the growth in the sector, so that everyone involved in humanitarian aid can all continue to learn and improve. It is dedicated to all Internews staff and partners committed to make a difference in people’s lives through ensuring that we LPSURYHWKHIUHHÀRZRIQHZVLQIRUPDWLRQDQG communication.

PRESENT IN MAJOR CRISES SINCE THE TSUNAMI IN ACEH 2004 Following a multi-pronged approach to supporting local media in Aceh, Indonesia, following the 2004 tsunami, Internews has deployed media and communications specialists to major humanitarian crises around the world, including the Pakistan earthquake (2005), IDP/refugee crises in Darfur and Chad (since 2005), postelection violence in Kenya (2008), largescale displacement in South Sudan (since 2006), conflict in Sri Lanka (2007), war in Gaza (2009), ethnic violence in Kyrgyzstan (2010) and the earthquake in Haiti (2010). Amid these crises, Internews has worked to establish critical links between affected populations, local media outlets, and humanitarian service providers to ensure provision of and access to life-saving information and the effective set up of two-way communication.

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

LONDON

WASHINGTON D.C. NEW YORK

HAITI

INTERNEWS’ HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION WORK IN 2011 COUNTRY PROJECTS ASSESSMENTS POLICY & ADVOCACY WORK

LIBERIA


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

BRUSSELS

GENEVA

TUNISIA PAKISTAN LIBYA

CHAD CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC SOUTH SUDAN KENYA NAIROBI

SRI LANKA

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

COUNTRY PROJECTS LEVERAGING THE POWER OF LOCAL MEDIA TO IMPROVE LIVES

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VER THE COURSE OF 2011, Internews started up or continued running five humanitarian information projects led by local country programs across three continents.

These projects, designed and tailored according to the ever-changing needs of each context, represent the range of ways in which humanitarian communication interventions can make a difference. By addressing gaps in the local media landscape, responding to the specific communication needs of affected communities, and using trusted media channels and technology, Internews’ teams on the ground are at the forefront of developing best practices in humanitarian communication efforts.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

In Haiti for example, the 500th episode of the Internews-supported humanitarian radio program ENDK (Enfòmasyon Nou Dwe Konnen, or News You Can Use) was broadcast in December 2011. ENDK’s daily news and information are WKHÀDJVKLSFRPSRQHQWRI,QWHUQHZVœZRUNLQ Haiti, and the program was honored in June by the Haitian Government for its quality and its important role in informing communities across the country. The effectiveness of the program is made possible by a solid research component built into the project, which ensures the programming meets information needs in real time. In Pakistan, Internews teams continued WKHLUUHVSRQVHWRWKHÀDVKÀRRGVLQ partnership with local media, producing regular humanitarian radio shows for audiences in the ÀRRGDIIHFWHGDUHDV,QWHUQHZVœKXPDQLWDULDQ work includes mentoring and training for both radio and TV staff, the establishment of press clubs, partnerships with universities, distribution of wind-up radios and creation of listening groups. This year our teams deployed community OLDLVRQRI¿FHUVWKURXJKRXWWDUJHWDUHDVWRKHOS community representatives better interact with local media. In South Sudan, the newest country on earth, Internews has now launched and provides support for six FM community radio stations that broadcast in local languages. In a crucial year for this country, with a referendum for independence from the North and subsequent clashes in the border regions with Sudan, the community radio stations continue to be the most trusted and important sources of information in their communities, according to research published by the BBC World Service Trust in May.1 In May 1 Report Shows Internews Radio Stations in Southern Sudan most trusted by communities (May 31, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/ program-news/report-shows-internews-radio-stations-southern-sudanmost-trusted-communiti

and June 2011, with fresh clashes in the contested ERUGHUUHJLRQRI$E\HL,QWHUQHZVœFRPPXQLW\ radio station in Turalei rapidly became a lifeline IRUSHRSOHÀHHLQJYLROHQFHHYHQUHXQLWLQJ families. In eastern Chad, where refugees from both 'DUIXUDQG&HQWUDO$IULFDQ5HSXEOLFFRQWLQXHWR gather, Internews continued its support to three community radio stations on the border with Sudan. Through the Humanitarian Information Service (HIS), refugees from Darfur and host populations in eastern Chad have had daily access to local news and information produced by local journalists in local languages for their own communities. In 2011 Internews renewed its focus on developing business models and building sustainability for the radio stations since Internews’ presence in Chad, after 6 years, will end by mid-2012. Our work in Central African Republic, one of the poorest and least-developed countries in the world, has been able to leverage the possibilities of new technologies to create exciting new avenues for humanitarian communications. %HVLGHVVXSSRUWLQJWKHZRUNRIWKH$VVRFLDWLRQRI -RXUQDOLVWVIRU+XPDQ5LJKWVZKLFKRSHUDWHVWKH largest community radio network in the country, in 2011 Internews began to draw on mobile technology, crowdsourcing and crisis mapping to link community radios, local communities and humanitarian agencies to create a unique system to improve two-way communication between local populations and international organizations in a country plagued by power shortages, bad infrastructure and rebel groups activities.

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

COUNTRY PROJECTS

HAITI GIVING A VOICE TO COMMUNITIES AFFECTED BY EARTHQUAKE, CHOLERA, AND HURRICANES CONTEXT The 7.0 magnitude earthquake that struck Haiti on January 12, 2010 triggered the largest humanitarian response since the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. More than 200,000 people died as a result of the quake and more than 1.5 million were rendered homeless and forced to live in

internally displaced persons (IDP) camps or with friends, relatives, and neighbors. Unfortunately, the earthquake was not the only serious emergency to strike Haiti in 2010 and later in 2011. The annual cyclone season continued to wreak havoc and a cholera outbreak in October 2010 brought a deadly disease to a country with weak sanitation and health systems. Decades of poverty, violence, instability, dictatorship, poor governance, and environmental degradation have given Haiti the dubious distinction of being the poorest nation in the Northern Hemisphere.

THE BAHAMAS PORT AU PRINCE CUBA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC PUERTO RICO

JAMAICA

HAITI

COLOMBIA

VENEZUELA

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY PORT-AU-PRINCE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) FRENCH, HAITIAN CREOLE GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC

AREA 27, 740 KM2 POPULATION 10,085,214 (2010) GDP US$ 6.63 BILLION LITERACY RATES 48.70% (2006)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 158/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERS’ PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 56 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

RESPONSE In December 2011, Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Enfòmasyon Nou Dwe Konnen (ENDK, or News You Can Use) broadcast its 500th humanitarian radio program in Haiti. Honored by Haitiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ministry of Culture and Communication for the programâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;quality and its important role in informing communities across the country,â&#x20AC;? ENDK started broadcasting a daily news program produced by Haitian journalists with useful and actionable information on January 21, 2010. The radio program is aired for free on more than 35 local radio stations across Haiti. From the very beginning, one of the most popular segments in ENDK has been the Mailbox, a feedback mechanism using SMS to collect questions and raise voices from the audience. â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Mailbox is now the most popular item in our broadcasts. People everywhere, even Haitians living abroad, write to us on email or send us SMSs to ask questions about a whole range of WRSLFV´VDLG<YHQV5XPEROGFXUUHQWHGLWRURI ENDK.

ENDK, A LIFELINE â&#x20AC;&#x153;The creation of ENDK was vital to ensuring affected populations had access to timely and essential information to help them survive the aftermath of the earthquake. More recently, as priorities have shifted from emergency to reconstruction, ENDK has taken steps to keep up with listener needs, based on Internews research results, and begun to provide information more relevant to the recovery process.â&#x20AC;? INDEPENDENT EVALUATION FOR USAIDâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S OFFICE OF TRANSITION INITIATIVES (OTI) IN HAITI

The team has permanent support from an experienced trainer and mentor who helps ENDK reporters and trainees from Haitian media outlets develop on-the-job skills in journalism and humanitarian reporting.

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A reporter from ENDK interviews camp residents in Port-auPrince. Field work and community voices are at the core of Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; humanitarian work around the world. ECKERT/INTERNEWS


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Since the earthquake happened, we heard this show [ENDK] and we learned about the aid that is available for our communities. We are not used to these disasters, and through the program we found a lot of information regarding the behaviors we need to adopt to avoid the worst happening.â&#x20AC;? RICHEMONDE PIERRE, LĂ&#x2030;OGANE

DEVELOPING LOCAL RESEARCH CAPACITY In November 2011, infoasaid published Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak),1 an independent report capturing practical case studies and best practice in communications with affected communities during the 2010 Haiti response.2$FFRUGLQJWR WKHUHSRUWÂśVÂżQGLQJVÂł2QHRIWKHPRVWLPSRUWDQW success stories in Haiti was the production of consistent research into the communication environment, primarily by Internews [â&#x20AC;Ś] Their data, which was also made available V\VWHPDWLFDOO\WRKXPDQLWDULDQVIRUWKHÂżUVWWLPH WKURXJK&'$&+DLWLKHOSHGDJHQFLHVWRLPSURYH their programming and provided data that could be used by agency staff to sell communication projects to donors.â&#x20AC;? ENDK used this research capacity to shape its own editorial agenda and to address questions and issues raised by local populations.3 1 Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak), Imogen Wall and Yves GĂŠrald Cherie. infoasaid. November 2011. infoasaid.org/story/ann-kite-yo-pale-or-letthem-speak. 2 Internews and the BBC World Service Trust are partners in infoasaid, a DfID-funded consortium focusing on improving how aid agencies communicate with disaster-affected communities. 3 â&#x20AC;&#x153;It is worth noting that because the ENDK feedback system was not limited to the provision of international aid, and the system was â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;openâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (people could raise whatever issues they liked) it also provided a channel for questions on other forms of assistance. In particular, the system was instrumental in letting survivors know the importance of replacing personal documents, such as birth certificates, and how to register

Internews hired and trained a local team of researchers over the course of 2010, and in 2011 this team continued to develop experience in a wide range of quantitative and qualitative research methodologies, an expertise that is in high demand by other INGOs and the Government of Haiti. The research team is in the process of setting itself up as an independent RUJDQL]DWLRQZLWKVXSSRUWIURP86$,'27,WR be called Bureau de Recherches Ă&#x2030;conomiques et Sociales IntĂŠgrĂŠes %5(6, LQHDUO\4 In Haiti and elsewhere, achieving consistent humanitarian information across different outlets and agencies, and minimize duplication of efforts UHTXLUHVFRRUGLQDWLRQ$VLQGLFDWHGLQ Ann Kite Yo Pale: â&#x20AC;&#x153;The solution piloted in Haiti â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the coordination and cross-cluster service provided E\WKHGHSOR\PHQWDQGGHGLFDWHGVWDIÂżQJRI WKH&'$&+DLWLPHFKDQLVPÂąGHOLYHUHGIDU beyond original expectations [â&#x20AC;Ś] In particular, LQWHUYLHZHHVIHOWWKDW&'$&+DLWLDVDFURVV cluster service, had provided a useful and deaths. These were not captured as important through the usual needs assessments.â&#x20AC;? Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak), op. cit., p.20. 4 For examples of this type of work in Haiti, see Audience Research In A Time Of Cholera: Focus Group & Survey On Haitiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Frontline. Jennifer Mandel, Internews, January 12, 2011 (http://www.internews.org/ research-publications/audience-research-time-cholera-focus-groupsurvey-haiti-frontline) and For Haitians, Radio is Key Information Source on Cholera. Internews, June 9, 2011 (http://www.internews.org/ourstories/program-news/haitians-radio-key-information-source-cholera).


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

Additional resources: Ĺ&#x2014; Media, Information Systems and Communities: Lessons from Haiti, Anne Nelson and Ivan Sigal, with Dean Zambrano, Knight Foundation, Internews, and CDAC, January 2011. http://www.pbs.org/mediashift/Haiti%20 Report%20English%2001.10.11-4.pdf Ĺ&#x2014; Collected Reflections on the first anniversary of the Haiti earthquake, Thinking Development, January 2011. http://www.internews.org/sites/ default/files/resources/ThinkingDev_ Collection_201101_Jquintanilla.pdf Ĺ&#x2014; After Haiti, Information Coordination is Central to Future Humanitarian Response, Internews, January 12, 2011. http://www. internews.org/our-stories/program-news/ after-haiti-information-coordinationcentral-future-humanitarian-response

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Nobody would like to miss an edition of ENDK. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a very useful program and so we seek for it every day.â&#x20AC;? BERNARD, CHAMP DE MARS, PORT-AU-PRINCE

LPSRUWDQWVHUYLFH7KLVJDSZLOOQHHGWREH¿OOHG DW¿HOGOHYHOLQIXWXUHUHVSRQVHV´5 7KH812I¿FHIRUWKH&RRUGLQDWLRQRI +XPDQLWDULDQ$IIDLUV 2&+$ WDVNHG,QWHUQHZV ZLWKFRRUGLQDWLQJRQWKHJURXQGWKH¿UVWHYHU GHSOR\PHQWRIWKH&'$&1HWZRUNRSHUDWLRQDO until November 2011. 5 Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak), Imogen Wall and Yves GÊrald Chery. infoasaid. November 2011, p.6.

Ĺ&#x2014; For Haitians, Radio is Key Information Source on Cholera, Internews, June 9, 2011. http://www.internews.org/ourstories/program-news/haitians-radio-keyinformation-source-cholera Ĺ&#x2014; Videos: Watch videos about Internews humanitarian media response to the earthquake in Haiti at: http://www. youtube.com/playlist?list=PL186C9CBA282 F29C9&feature=plcp Ĺ&#x2014; Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Haiti page (with articles about Internews humanitarian media effort in Haiti after the earthquake) http://www. internews.org/where-we-work/latinamerica-caribbean/haiti

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; began working in Haiti in 2007 on a three-year project that built the technical and journalism skills of 40 community radio stations across the country; these formed a network called RAMAK (Rasanbleman Medya pou Aksyon Kominotè). Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work in Haiti in 2011 was funded by the USAID Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI), UNOCHA, the John S. and James L. Knight Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Arca Foundation, the Silicon Valley Community Foundation, the Centre de Crise of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the European Commission. Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; research work in Haiti was funded by OTI, the MacArthur Foundation, UNOCHA, International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES), and the European Union (EU).

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

COUNTRY PROJECTS

PAKISTAN HELPING FLOOD-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES TO ACCESS INFORMATION

CONTEXT Throughout 2011 the northern provinces of GilgitBaltistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) in Pakistan continued to recover from devastating Ã&#x20AC;DVKÃ&#x20AC;RRGVWKDWKLWWKHUHJLRQLQ$WWKH same time, ongoing monsoon rains and repeated Ã&#x20AC;RRGLQJNHSWFRPPXQLWLHVIURPWKHLUKRPHVDQG

TAJIKSTAN CHINA

AFGHANISTAN

ISLAMABAD KASHMIR

PAKISTAN KARACHI INDIA

caused additional damage, particularly in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab. 7KHVHSURYLQFHVKDG¿UVWEHHQKDUGKLWLQ DVÃ&#x20AC;RRGZDWHUVIURP-XO\PRQVRRQV PDGHWKHLUZD\WKURXJKWKH,QGXV5LYHUV\VWHP washing away entire villages and causing a level of destruction unprecedented in Pakistan. Nearly 20 million people were affected across the country; millions lost their homes and hundreds of thousands were stranded, waiting in treetops and hilltops to be rescued. Internally displaced, thousands were forced to live in makeshift camps ZKHUHYHUWKH\FRXOG¿QGGU\ODQG,QPRVWDUHDV the water subsided after a number of weeks and SHRSOHUHWXUQHGWR¿QGWKHLUKRPHVDQGIDUPODQG damaged, destroyed, or completely gone. In Sindh, thousands of people are still living in makeshift settlements today.

CAPITAL ISLAMABAD LARGEST CITY KARACHI OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) URDU, ENGLISH OTHER LANGUAGES BALOCHI, PASHTO, PUNJABI, SARAIKI, SINDHI

GOVERNMENT FEDERAL PARLIAMENTARY REPUBLIC AREA 796,095 KM2 POPULATION 175,790,659 (2011) LITERACY RATE 53.7 % (2008)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 145/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 151 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

At left: A listening group activity in Layyah, Punjab. Above: Local reporter with mentor in Thatta. INTERNEWS

Besides recurring natural disasters, ongoing military offensives since 2009 against Taliban militants to maintain control over the restless WULEDODQGIURQWLHUUHJLRQVDORQJWKH$IJKDQ border have also posed a daunting challenge to the country. RESPONSE Pakistan represents Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; single largest humanitarian operation around the world. 7KURXJKWKHÂżUVWWHQPRQWKVRIXQWLO October, Internews broadcast the Humanitarian Information Project (HIP) across Sindh and Punjab provinces on stations of the Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC). The HIP, initially started in 2009, focused in 2011 on producing and airing daily half-hour programs IRUĂ&#x20AC;RRGDIIHFWHGFRPPXQLWLHVLQSDUWQHUVKLS ZLWKWKH&HQWUHIRU5HVHDUFKDQG6HFXULW\6WXGLHV &566 1 an independent think-tank based in Islamabad. The radio programs, broadcast in local languages, were produced by local reporters in the affected regions. The HIP reporting team, trained in covering humanitarian issues, has been permanently UHSRUWLQJIURPWKHÂżHOG7KH\ZRUNYHU\FORVHO\ with the humanitarian community to ensure that 1

Centre for Research and Security Studies (CRSS - www. crss.pk)

life-saving information about aid and assistance is strategically disseminated, as well as to raise awareness and provide a platform for listeners to raise questions and concerns. Until March 2011, the HIP also broadcast humanitarian information with an emphasis on health-related issues, in partnership with humanitarian agencies and two private radio QHWZRUNV5DGLR+LJKZD\LQ6LQGKDQG5DGLR $ZD]LQ3XQMDE0HDQZKLOHWKH+,3FRQWLQXHG producing Sabaoon, a daily radio magazine program broadcast for people affected by the military operations in Swat and the Federally $GPLQLVWHUHG7ULEDO$UHDV )$7$ 7KHSURJUDP DOVRSURGXFHGLQSDUWQHUVKLSZLWK&566EHJDQLQ 2009 and is broadcast on PBC in KPK. In addition to the production of humanitarian information programming, Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; humanitarian work in Pakistan has included mentoring and training for both radio and TV staff, with an emphasis on humanitarian reporting and programming. Between 2009 and 2011, Internews also distributed 21,500 wind-up radios in KPK, Sindh, and Punjab through local organizations; many to listening group and focus group participants. In 2011 Internews Europe received an 18-month grant from the European Commission to undertake a media development project for civil society across Pakistan that directly builds and

17


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

“The experience [of collaborating with Internews] was most positive because the program was not only reporting on humanitarian issues but also linking resources with the issues. Reporters were proactive, included views from all sides and helped clear confusion.” UNDP OFFICIAL IN SINDH

leverages on the pre-existing work, knowledge, and connections of Internews’ presence in the country. Besides complementary trainings with media outlets in various Pakistani districts, FRPPXQLW\OLDLVRQRI¿FHUVKDYHEHHQGHSOR\HG throughout project target areas to provide communication trainings to help community representatives to better interact with local media. Internews started working in Pakistan in 2003, a time of transformative changes in Pakistani media policies that allowed for private ownership of radio and television. Internews responded to these changes with programs that helped to build an open, diverse, and socially responsible broadcast media sector. Its humanitarian media programs began in 2005 in KPK to respond to the October 2005

Additional resources: Humanitarian Reporting Handbook for Journalists in Pakistan Internews has published Pakistan’s first resource for humanitarian reporting: ŗ Humanitarian Reporting in Pakistan: Journalist’s Handbook ŗ Humanitarian Reporting in Pakistan: Journalist’s Handbook (Urdu) ŗ Humanitarian Reporting in Pakistan: Journalist’s Handbook (Sindhi)

earthquake in northern Pakistan and have evolved to meet the humanitarian needs of both FRQÀLFWDQGÀRRGDIIHFWHGSRSXODWLRQVDFURVVWKH country.

Internews’ work in Pakistan in 2011 was funded by USAID Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA), OCHA’s Emergency Rapid Response Fund (ERRF), and the European Commission (EC) Instrument for Stability (IfS). More information on Internews’ work in Pakistan can be found at: http://www. internews.org/where-we-work/asia/pakistan

Reporting for Broadcast ŗ Reporting for Broadcast: Radio Journalism Guide Information Needs Survey ŗ Providing Humanitarian Information to Flood-Affected People in Pakistan (Baseline Study, Sindh and Punjab, November to December 2010). A “Brief Analysis and Interpretation of the Survey Findings” CDAC Pakistan and infoasaid. All these resources, and others, can be found at: www.hip.org.pk/resources


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

19

COUNTRY PROJECTS

SOUTH SUDAN PROVIDING ESSENTIAL INFORMATION TO COMMUNITIES AFFECTED BY INSECURITY CONTEXT 2011 welcomed the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s newest nation, South Sudan, into the international community. The establishment of South Sudan was the climax of a process made possible by the 2005 &RPSUHKHQVLYH3HDFH$JUHHPHQW &3$ ZKLFK ended Sudanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decades-long northâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;south civil ZDU$IULFD¶VORQJHVWUXQQLQJFLYLOFRQÃ&#x20AC;LFWLQ

SUDAN KAUDA KURMUK TURALEI CHAD

MALUALKON

NASIR

LEER ETHIOPIA CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

SOUTH SUDAN

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

JUBA

UGANDA KENYA

RWANDA BURUNDI

which more than 2 million people were killed in UDLGV¿JKWLQJRUE\KXQJHUDQGGLVHDVH'XULQJ WKHFRQÃ&#x20AC;LFWDQHVWLPDWHG6RXWKHUQ 6XGDQHVHÃ&#x20AC;HGWRQHLJKERULQJFRXQWULHVDQGD further 4 million people were displaced within Sudan. South Sudan has some of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s worst human development indicators. Most Southern Sudanese lack access to health care, education, clean water, and sanitation. Chronic insecurity and inter-ethnic tensions and clashes related to cattle raiding have contributed to uncertainty DERXWWKHQDVFHQWVWDWH¶VIXWXUH$WWKHVDPHWLPH acute shortfalls in access to news and information have left a majority of people across this largely rural territory in a profound media vacuum. Information access is a critical issue in a INTERNEWS RADIO STATIONS AND COVERAGE

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY JUBA OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) ENGLISH, ARABIC OTHER LANGUAGES DINKA, NUER, BARI, ZANDE, SHILLUK

GOVERNMENT REPUBLIC AREA 644,329 KM2 POPULATION 9,321,443 (2011) LITERACY RATES NOT AVAILABLE

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) NOT AVAILABLE REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) NOT AVAILABLE


20

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

Children in Malualkon, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, stand in front of the sign at the local airstrip for the Internews radio station. INTERNEWS

country with very poor infrastructure and a number of holes in its media and information landscape. The birth and consolidation of the new country has been accompanied by a very complex set of issues, including how to divide oil and QDWXUDOUHVRXUFHUHYHQXHV$WWHPSWVWRUHVROYH WKHVHLVVXHVKDYHVRPHWLPHVOHGWRQHZFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFW violence, and displacement in border areas, FUHDWLQJQHZĂ&#x20AC;RZVRI,'3VDQGUHIXJHHVVRPH crossing the border into Ethiopia. For the new democracy to be consolidated, South Sudan needs informed citizens making informed decisions to save their lives, reduce suffering, and participate in the formation of their own country. RESPONSE Internews started operating in Sudan in 2006, PRQWKVDIWHUWKHVLJQLQJRIWKH&3$7KURXJKWKH 5DGLRIRU3HDFH'HPRFUDF\DQG'HYHORSPHQW

project (2006â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2008) and the Localizing Institutional Capacity in Sudan (LINCS) project (2008â&#x20AC;&#x201C;2011), Internews built six FM community radio stations throughout South Sudan and the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s â&#x20AC;&#x153;transitional areas,â&#x20AC;? all broadcasting in local languages. Internews currently supports 29 UHSRUWHUVUDGLRSURGXFHUVLQ/HHU 8QLW\6WDWH  Malualkon (Northern Bahr el Ghazal), Turalei (Warrap, which broadcasts into the disputed UHJLRQRI$E\HL 1DVLU 8SSHU1LOH6WDWH DQG Kauda (South Kordofan), as well as staff at a central editing and newsgathering desk in Juba, the capital of South Sudan. The Internews-supported station in Kurmuk, Blue Nile State, was closed in September 2011 GXHWRKHDY\ÂżJKWLQJDQGDHULDOERPEDUGPHQW LQWKHUHJLRQ$WWKHWLPHRIZULWLQJ,QWHUQHZV LVH[SORULQJZLWK81+&5ZD\VWRFRQWLQXHWR provide access to information to the populations WKDWĂ&#x20AC;HGDFURVVWKHERUGHUWR(WKLRSLD


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

Throughout 2011, Internews has increased the reach and sustainability of its network through a new project, currently funded through 2013. REFERENDUM FOR SECESSION In January 2011, before the referendum for secession from the north, Internews and 5DGLR0LUD\D1 a southern Sudan radio station supported by the United Nations Mission in Sudan (UNMIS) and Swiss NGO Fondation Hirondelle, took the initiative to set up a stronger LQIRUPDWLRQĂ&#x20AC;RZVWUXFWXUHWRLQFUHDVHWKH stationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s humanitarian messaging and reports to help affected populations in the event of a new emergency. In support of this initiative, two humanitarian media specialists from Internews 1 Radio Miraya (www.radiomiraya.org)

ZRUNHGZLWK5DGLR0LUD\DLQWKHSURGXFWLRQRI emergency messaging and humanitarian news and information ahead of, during, and after the week-long voting period that determined the political future of the country.2 On the ground in Juba, Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; +XPDQLWDULDQ0HGLD/LDLVRQ2IÂżFHUDQG Emergency Broadcast Producer helped to VWUHQJWKHQ5DGLR0LUD\DÂśVFDSDELOLWLHVWRUHVSRQG effectively to a potential humanitarian crisis in Southern Sudan. The two Internews staff liaised with the humanitarian community and put together a library of emergency messages UHDG\IRUEURDGFDVWRQ5DGLR0LUD\DDQGRWKHU

A local journalist from one of Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; projects covers the Independence Day celebrations in Juba, South Sudan. INTERNEWS

2 Broadcast media in Southern Sudan gear up to provide lifesaving information (January 07, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/ program-news/broadcast-media-southern-sudan-gear-providelifesaving-information

â&#x20AC;&#x153;If Mayardit [FM] isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t working for one minute or one hour, it is a loss for us. Radio is like a hospital â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it cannot be shut off.â&#x20AC;? FOCUS GROUP PARTICIPANT, TURALEI, JUNE 2011

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

A local journalist records community members singing traditional songs for Nhomalaau FM in Malualkon. INTERNEWS

local radio networks. These messages included life-saving information on water, sanitation, and the prevention of diseases such as yellow fever, malaria, and measles. The Internews staff also worked with reporters on the production of humanitarian news and features. Currently the Internews central desk in Juba produces short messages and interviews on a variety of topics related to health and disease prevention in cooperation with relevant health authorities in South Sudan. CLASHES IN ABYEI Importantly in 2011, several Internewssupported radio stations had broadcast reach into GLVSXWHGDUHDVZKHUHFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWKDVEHHQUHSRUWHG LQFOXGLQJWKHERUGHUUHJLRQRI$E\HLDQGWKH two transitional areas of Kauda, in the Nuba Mountains of Southern Kordofan, and Kurmuk in Blue Nile State (both of which are outside South Sudanâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s borders). Overall, the network had an estimated audience reach of 1.5 million listeners. In May and June 2011, with fresh clashes in

WKHFRQWHVWHGERUGHUUHJLRQRI$E\HL,QWHUQHZVÂś community radio station in neighboring Turalei, in Warrap State, rapidly became a lifeline for SHRSOHĂ&#x20AC;HHLQJYLROHQFHLQIRUPLQJWKHPRQ WKHVLWXDWLRQLQ$E\HLDQGDYDLODEOHVXSSRUW LQWKHDUHDVWKH\Ă&#x20AC;HGWRDQGVXFFHVVIXOO\ VXSSRUWLQJFKLOGUHXQLÂżFDWLRQ3 The Internews station in Turalei, Mayardit FM, swiftly started producing news stories relevant to IDPs, as well as broadcasting humanitarian public service DQQRXQFHPHQWV 36$V SUHYLRXVO\SURGXFHGE\ ,QWHUQHZVDQG5DGLR0LUD\DLQ-DQXDU\ The radio station in Kurmuk (Blue Nile State) had a broadcast footprint that reached into Ethiopia, where more than 20,000 Sudanese KDGVWDUWHGWRĂ&#x20AC;HHDIWHUQHZYLROHQFHHUXSWHG in September. However, the station was forced to stop broadcasting as a direct result of aerial bombings and violence. Internews has been

3 Mayardit FM in Southern Sudan Responds to Humanitarian Crisis (June 03, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/program-news/mayarditfm-southern-sudan-responds-humanitarian-crisis


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

FRQQHFWLQJZLWK81+&5DQGRWKHUUHOLHI DJHQFLHVLQ$GGLV$EDEDWRWU\WRHVWDEOLVKQHZ communication strategies for reaching refugee SRSXODWLRQVZKRKDYHĂ&#x20AC;HGLQWR(WKLRSLD INTERNEWSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; RADIOS, THE MOST TRUSTED SOURCES OF INFORMATION 5HVHDUFKSXEOLVKHGE\WKH%%&:RUOG6HUYLFH Trust in May 2011 showed that Internews radio stations are the most trusted and important sources of information in their communities.4 7KHVHÂżQGLQJVZHUHVXSSRUWHGE\WZRDGGLWLRQDO research projects, one an evaluation of one of the radio stations and the second a broader project that assessed impact across the whole Internews radio network.5 4 Report Shows Internews Radio Stations in Southern Sudan most trusted by communities (May 31, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/ program-news/report-shows-internews-radio-stations-southern-sudanmost-trusted-communiti 5 Communication in crisis - Assessing the impact of Mayardit FM following the May 2011 Abyei emergency (July 2011) http://www.internews.org/ sites/default/files/resources/Sudan_MayarditFM_Assessment2011-07. pdf and Research Shows Importance of Community Radio in South Sudan (August 05, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/program-news/ research-shows-importance-community-radio-south-sudan

Since 2006, Internews-supported radio stations have been broadcasting to local communities in local languages for an average of HLJKWKRXUVDGD\DWOHDVWÂżYHGD\VDZHHN

Thousands turn out for the grand opening of Naath FM, the community radio station in Leer, Unity State. INTERNEWS

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work in South Sudan in 2011 was funded by USAID. The emergency preparedness response in Southern Sudan in January was also partly funded by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Shelley & Donald Rubin Foundation. Find out more about Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; South Sudan program at: http://www.internews. org/where-we-work/sub-saharan-africa/ republic-south-sudan

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

COUNTRY PROJECTS

CHAD LOCAL RADIO STATIONS FILL CRITICAL GAP IN ASSISTANCE EFFORTS CONTEXT Chad has become a temporary home to nearly a TXDUWHURIDPLOOLRQUHIXJHHVIURPWKHFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWLQ Darfur, in Sudan, and tens of thousands more UHIXJHHVIURP&HQWUDO$IULFDQ5HSXEOLF &$5  Within the country, more than 200,000 Chadians have also been internally displaced. The presence of an ever-growing refugee

LIBYA EGYPT

IRIBA NIGER

FARCHANA

INTERNEWS RADIO STATIONS AND COVERAGE

GOZ BEIDA ABĂ&#x2030;CHĂ&#x2030; Nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;DJAMENA

NIGERIA

CHAD

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

population in eastern Chad places considerable strains on the scarce and fragile resources in WKDWUHJLRQ$VORQJDVWKH'DUIXUFULVLVSHUVLVWV refugees and IDPs will need accurate and timely information on camp services, health, security, and a multitude of other issues that affect their day-to-day lives. 5HIXJHH,'3DQGKRVWSRSXODWLRQVLQHDVWHUQ Chad continue to need information relating to humanitarian activities and the general situation in a context of competition for resources and continuing insecurity. High levels of illiteracy, especially amongst women, and the absence of any other trusted media in the region give Internews radio stations a unique role in disseminating reliable, independent information, as well as providing a platform for dialogue and peaceful interactivity between communities. INTERNEWS REPEATER AND COVERAGE

SUDAN CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY Nâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;DJAMENA OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) FRENCH, ARABIC OTHER LANGUAGES SARA, OTHER TRIBAL LANGUAGES

GOVERNMENT REPUBLIC AREA 1,284,200 KM2 POPULATION 11,274,106 (2009) LITERACY RATES 31.80% (2007)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 183/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 112 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

RESPONSE In Eastern Chad, Internews has been involved LQEXLOGLQJDQGUXQQLQJWKUHHKXPDQLWDULDQ community radio stations in Iriba, Goz Beida, DQG$EpFKpVLQFH$FFRUGLQJWR81+&5 SRSXODWLRQÂżJXUHVDQGDQDWLRQDOFHQVXV the combined broadcasts of these three stations can reach more than 150,000 refugees and more than one million Chadian host community members and IDPs. Through Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Humanitarian Information Service (HIS), refugees from Darfur in eastern Chad have had unprecedented access to information affecting their security, protection and livelihood. Programming on the stations has been designed to support the overall humanitarian relief effort. Unlike the international broadcasters that blanket the shortwave, Internews HIS provides local and locally-produced news and information and VSHFLDOW\SURJUDPVWKDWDUHVSHFLÂżFDOO\GHVLJQHG to address the needs of the refugees, IDPs and very often the local populations. Local journalists produce radio programs in local languages relevant to the areas where they are most spoken and understood. In the refugee

camps local correspondents from the camps collaborate with stories, news and information. Information broadcast through HIS informs, protects, empowers, and changes behavior in these groups. Programming continues to cover topics such as protection, security, legal rights, health, environment, education and gender-based violence (GBV). 7KH+,6KDGD+XPDQLWDULDQ/LDLVRQ2IÂżFHU +/2 RQLWVVWDIIWRUHDFKRXWWR81+&5RWKHU UN agencies, international organizations and NGOs about how to use media and the different types of programming available to best transmit their messages. Our journalists continue to bring direct reactions from aid recipients back to the relief organizations, allowing for improved UHVSRQVHDQGLQIRUPDWLRQĂ&#x20AC;RZVE\WKHVH organizations. For the past six years, the HIS has: Â&#x2021; Provided target audiences with relevant and regular humanitarian information through broadcasts from Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; radio stations; Â&#x2021; Increased participation of target communities in radio activities and programming;

25

A local journalist trained by Internews reads the news in Abeche, Eastern Chad. INTERNEWS


26

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

‡ Continued to build the capacity of local radio staff in radio production and in technical and administrative skills; and ‡ Maintained a high quality and quantity of humanitarian content on HIS so that UHIXJHHDQG,'3EHQH¿FLDULHVDUHPRUH knowledgeable about the services available to them, and the humanitarian community is more aware of how to access radio broadcasts. During 2011, these programs have continued to grow and evolve by becoming ever more interactive with the community and responsive WROLVWHQHUV,QWHUQHZVKDVDOVRWDNHQVLJQL¿FDQW strides towards sustainability and capacity building by providing more opportunities for national staff to take leading roles in the stations, as its own presence in Chad will end by mid-2012.

Internews’ humanitarian work in Chad has been supported by the US State Department’s Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM) and Bureau of Democracy Rights and Labor (DRL), UNHCR, and the UK Department for International Development (DFID). To learn more about Internews’ project on the border of Chad, visit: http://www. internews.org/where-we-work/sub-saharanafrica/chad Correspondents training in the field in Iriba, eastern Chad. INTERNEWS

“If there is a radio everything will be easy, if there is no radio that means there is no life. Everyone enjoys listening to the radio. We hope that radio will be in every house and every family in order to listen to what’s new around the world.” ADAM ABAKAR, CORRESPONDENT IN GOZ AMER REFUGEE CAMP


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

27

COUNTRY PROJECTS

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC PUTTING LOCAL MEDIA AT THE CORE OF INNOVATION CONTEXT Since its independence from France in 1960, &HQWUDO$IULFDQ5HSXEOLF &$5 KDVEHHQSODJXHG by crises associated with poor governance. It is one of the poorest and least-developed countries in the world, ranking 179 out of 187 on the 2011 UN Human Development Index. This already impoverished country has been

CHAD SUDAN

KHDYLO\GHVWDELOL]HGE\IDOORXWIURPFRQÃ&#x20AC;LFWVLQ neighboring states: Sudan to the northeast, Chad in the northwest, and a southern border with the 'HPRFUDWLF5HSXEOLFRI&RQJR '5&  Years of political unrest have plagued the country with illegal weapons and armed groups, particularly active in the north. This unrest has GLVSODFHGWHQVRIWKRXVDQGVRI&HQWUDO$IULFDQV many of them have crossed the border into Chad. $FFRUGLQJWR81+&5DVRI$XJXVWWKHUH were 176,196 internally displaced persons (IDPs) DQGUHIXJHHVLQ&$51 Despite relative progress made towards 1 Central African Republic Fact Sheet, August 2011. UNHCR (http://hdptcar. net/blog/2011/09/12/unhcr-fact-sheet-august-2011)

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC CAMEROON

SOUTH SUDAN

BANGUI

CONGO

DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY BANGUI OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) FRENCH OTHER LANGUAGES SANGHO, OTHER TRIBAL LANGUAGES

GOVERNMENT REPUBLIC AREA 622,984 KM2 POPULATION 4,511,488 (2009) LITERACY RATES 48.6% (2000)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 179/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 69 / 178


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are very happy and enthusiastic about this initiative [Internews-supported community radio network]. In the past, sometimes information about needs of the population arrived after days and even weeks at OCHA.â&#x20AC;? LAURA FULTANG, SPOKESPERSON FOR THE UNITED NATIONS OFFICE FOR THE COORDINATION OF HUMANITARIAN AFFAIRS (UNOCHA)

disarming two of the main rebel groups in 2008, another threat appeared in the form of the Lordâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 5HVLVWDQFH$UP\ /5$ UHEHOVIURPQHLJKERULQJ Uganda, whose insurgency and violence has VSUHDGWRWKHUHJLRQLQFOXGLQJ&$5 &$5SUHVHQWVWKHKXPDQLWDULDQFRPPXQLW\ with a range of complex and protracted emergencies, where access to and sharing of information with affected communities is essential but currently largely under resourced. RESPONSE 7RRYHUFRPHWKHGLIÂżFXOWLHVRIFRPPXQLFDWLRQ caused by power outages, lack of Internet access, bad roads, and rebel occupation in several areas, LQWKHÂżUVWTXDUWHURI,QWHUQHZVFUHDWHGD unique network connecting all 15 community UDGLRVWDWLRQVLQ&$52 The network is run by the $VVRFLDWLRQRI-RXUQDOLVWVIRU+XPDQ5LJKWVD local organization that was founded in December 2010 at one of the training sessions organized by Internews. It connects the stations with one other and enables humanitarian agencies to quickly exchange information with communities throughout the country. %\SURYLGLQJLQIRUPDWLRQIURP812&+$ and other aid organizations, the networked radio 2 Radio Stations across Central African Republic Connected by Mobile Network (March 15, 2011) http://www.internews.org/our-stories/ program-news/radio-stations-across-central-african-republicconnected-mobile-network

stations serve as a humanitarian information system for the local population. The network of community radio stations is managed through a coordination center that was initially supported by Internews and developed in collaboration ZLWKWKH$VVRFLDWLRQRI-RXUQDOLVWVIRU+XPDQ 5LJKWV7KHQHWZRUNRSHUDWHVERWKZLWKPRELOH phones and with an Internet connection, using modems to exchange information directly from radio station to radio station or between the radio stations and the coordination center. The network has established an important DQGLQĂ&#x20AC;XHQWLDOSRVLWLRQLQWKHKXPDQLWDULDQ FRPPXQLW\LQ&$57KDQNVWRWKHGDLO\EXOOHWLQV humanitarian agencies are able to intervene more quickly in response to demands from the local SRSXODWLRQ)RUH[DPSOH5DGLR=HUHGDLQ2ER one of the partners in the far east of the country, reported in early 2011 on the disappearance of a number of refugees in a Congolese refugee camp near the border. The bulletin alarmed 81+&5WKH&RQJROHVHJRYHUQPHQWDQGWKH &HQWUDO$IULFDQJRYHUQPHQWDQGD81+&5IDFW ÂżQGLQJPLVVLRQZDVVHQWRXW6RPHGD\VODWHUWKH UHIXJHHVZHUHGLVFRYHUHGLQVLGH&RQJR,Q$SULO Internews transferred the network of community UDGLRVWRWKHPDQDJHPHQWRIWKH$VVRFLDWLRQRI -RXUQDOLVWVIRU+XPDQ5LJKWV ,Q6HSWHPEHU,QWHUQHZVLQ&$5ZDV WKHÂżUVWUHFLSLHQWRIWKH8QLWHG6WDWHV,QVWLWXWH of Peace (USIP) â&#x20AC;&#x153;Communication for Peace


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

Buildingâ&#x20AC;? priority grant program, which supports innovative practice and research designed to increase understanding of how communication Ă&#x20AC;RZVDQGWHFKQRORJ\FDQEHVWEHOHYHUDJHGWR improve the practice of peace-building. Internews is also the lead for the learning group for the ÂżUVWURXQGRIJUDQWUHFLSLHQWV7KHSURMHFW Âł0RELOH5DGLR&RQQHFWLQJ/RFDO0HGLD +XPDQLWDULDQ$FWRUVDQG&RPPXQLWLHVWKURXJK Innovative Communication Flowsâ&#x20AC;?, will work ZLWK)URQWOLQH606DQG812&+$WRFRQQHFWDQG research the relationship between humanitarian agencies and local media. In November 2011, Internews Europe was awarded a new grant for additional programming LQ&$5WKURXJKWKH+XPDQLWDULDQ,QQRYDWLRQ Fund (HIF).3$OVRZRUNLQJZLWK)URQWOLQH606 DQG812&+$DQGDOVRSDUWQHULQJZLWK Ushahidi, the new funding will allow Internews to create an innovative system that will foster a bounded network of trusted local media RUJDQL]DWLRQVWRJDWKHUÂżUVWKDQGLQIRUPDWLRQ from affected populations in real time using new technologies, particularly crowdsourcing and SMS, to create a two-way communication Ă&#x20AC;RZZLWKKXPDQLWDULDQVWRLPSURYHHPHUJHQF\ response, community participation, and community resilience.

3 The project is called â&#x20AC;&#x153;Integrating Local Media and ICTs into Humanitarian Response in CARâ&#x20AC;?. For more information: www.humanitarianinnovation. org/projects/large-grants/internews.

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work in CAR in 2011 was funded by the United States Institute of Peace (USIP) and the U.S. State Departmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL) through a sub-grant from Mercy Corps. Starting in 2010, in advance of a national election, Internews began working in CAR to improve the quality of media, especially local radio stations, to report more effectively on human rights and governance issues in partnership with Mercy Corps. Training was provided to the staff of 11 community radio stations and CARâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s national radio station, as well as to communications students from the National University of Bangui in a sixmonth training program. Find out more about the Internews CAR program at: http://www.internews.org/ where-we-work/sub-saharan-africa/centralafrican-republic

29

The radio network reaches to Obo, in the remote, north eastern part of Central African Republic, bordering with South Sudan and DRC. INTERNEWS


30

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS HELPING HUMANITARIANS MAKE BETTER INFORMED DECISIONS

U

NDERSTANDING THE INFORMATION ECOLOGY in any country is vital to Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work. In the aftermath of a disaster, knowing how the information ecosystem has changed can make aid delivery much more effective. If international actors understand how information flows and how it is accessed, shared and consumed, they can provide better service, engaging with affected populations through the most appropriate channels and platforms. During the past 12 months, Internews has deployed assessment teams in five humanitarian crises to understand the humanitarian information needs of affected communities, the local media landscape and the overall information ecosystem in those humanitarian settings, providing recommendations for action through reports and advocacy locally and internationally.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Timely, relevant, reliable information that is independent and verifiable is central to saving lives and strengthening recovery. The power of information is lost, however, unless it is turned into action. This requires effective management, analysis and communication.â&#x20AC;? GLOBAL SYMPOSIUM +5, INFORMATION FOR HUMANITARIAN ACTION, FINAL STATEMENT, OCTOBER 2007

In 2011, Internews teams conducted the following assessments, in descending chronological order: Â&#x2021; The sprawling Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya, where an assessment team conducted a comprehensive humanitarian communications and information needs DVVHVVPHQWXVLQJPRELOHSKRQHV $XJXVW  Â&#x2021; Libya, where the role of information, communication, and local media on the stabilization and transition of the country was explored in depth (May-June); and Â&#x2021; Eastern Liberia, where refugees had crossed WKHERUGHUIURP&{WHGÂś,YRLUHĂ&#x20AC;HHLQJPDMRU SROLWLFDOFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWDIWHUFRQWHVWHGHOHFWLRQV $SULO  Â&#x2021; A refugee camp on the Tunisia/Libya border, where migrant workers were VWUDQGHGDIWHUĂ&#x20AC;HHLQJFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFW )HEUXDU\  Â&#x2021; Eastern Sri LankaDIWHUWKHĂ&#x20AC;RRGV -DQXDU\ 

These assessments were undertaken with the recognition that humanitarian work and the delivery of aid are best done when the vital role of communications is understood from the outset. Internews chose to focus on particular contexts where there was potential for building or improving communications networks to assist affected people. It worked with local partner organizations and humanitarian agencies to highlight what could be achieved and to demonstrate the importance, added value and impact of this type of work. Four of the assessments were released as public reports, which are available for download at the links given in the following pages.

31


32

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

DADAAB, KENYA OPENING NEW CHANNELS OF COMMUNICATION IN A REFUGEE CAMP CONTEXT

CONTEXT ,Q$XJXVWPRUHWKDQPLOOLRQSHRSOHKDG EHHQKLWE\DVHYHUHGURXJKWLQWKH+RUQRI$IULFD with parts of southern Somalia affected by the worst famine in the area for 20 years, according to the UN. 7KHHDVWHUQ+RUQRI$IULFDKDGH[SHULHQFHG

ETHIOPIA

SOUTH SUDAN

UGANDA DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

KENYA

WZRFRQVHFXWLYHVHDVRQVRIVLJQLÂżFDQWO\ below average rainfall, resulting in failed crop SURGXFWLRQVLJQLÂżFDQWOLYHVWRFNPRUWDOLW\DQG UHFRUGIRRGSULFHV:LWKQRHQGWRWKHFRQĂ&#x20AC;LFW in Somalia in sight, a persisting drought, food shortages and soaring food prices, thousands ZHUHIRUFHGWRĂ&#x20AC;HHWRWKHQHLJKERULQJFRXQWULHVRI Kenya and Ethiopia to access assistance. Dadaab, in eastern Kenya, â&#x20AC;&#x153;the largest refugee camp in the worldâ&#x20AC;? formed by three main camps, was established 20 years ago to house up to 90,000 people escaping violence and civil war LQ6RPDOLD$VRI'HFHPEHUWKHFDPSVDUH home to more than 444,000 people, 152,000 of them having arrived this year only, according to

SOMALIA

DADAAB NAIROBI

RWANDA BURUNDI

TANZANIA

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY NAIROBI OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) ENGLISH, KISWAHILI

GOVERNMENT REPUBLIC, PRESIDENTIAL SYSTEM AREA 581,787 KM2 POPULATION 37,953,838 (2008) LITERACY RATES 73.60% (2000)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 143/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 70 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

WKH815HIXJHH$JHQF\ 81+&5 1 ,Q$XJXVWDQ,QWHUQHZVOHGDVVHVVPHQW team conducted an extensive survey among refugees in all three of the main Dadaab refugee camps aimed at understanding the information needs of refugees in Dadaab and exploring ways WRLPSURYHWKHĂ&#x20AC;RZRIFRPPXQLFDWLRQEHWZHHQ refugees, aid agencies, and host communities. The survey targeted both new arrivals and long-term residents and interviewed a number of humanitarian workers. The assessment team trained a group of local volunteers on using smartphones with data collection software designed to conduct over 640 interviews. This assessment, Dadaab, Kenya: Humanitarian Communications and Information 1HHGV$VVHVVPHQW$PRQJ5HIXJHHVLQWKH Camps, was led by Internews and conducted LQSDUWQHUVKLSZLWK5DGLR(UJR,QWHUQDWLRQDO Media Support (IMS), and Star FM of Kenya, with VXSSRUWIURPWKH1RUZHJLDQ5HIXJHH&RXQFLO 15&  FINDINGS The assessment concluded that serious communication gaps between the humanitarian sector and refugees in the Dadaab refugee camps

1 UNHCR Information Sharing Portal - Refugees in the Horn of Africa: Somali Displacement Crisis http://data.unhcr.org/horn-of-africa/country. php?id=110

were increasing refugee suffering and putting lives at risk. The survey showed that many refugees did not have the information they need to access basic aid: more than 70% of newly-arrived refugees said they lack information on how to register for aid and similar numbers said they need information on how to locate missing family members. Equally important, almost three-quarters of new arrivals surveyed, and around a third of long-term residents, said they have never been able to voice their concerns or ask questions to aid providers or the government. 5DGLRLVE\IDUWKHPRVWSRSXODUVRXUFHRI JHQHUDOLQIRUPDWLRQ\HWWKHUHZDVQRVSHFLÂżF regular broadcast for or about Dadaab. +XPDQLWDULDQZRUNHUVJRYHUQPHQWRIÂżFLDOVDQG the Kenyan army and police rank the lowest as sources of information for refugees. $VPDOOQXPEHURIKXPDQLWDULDQRUJDQL]DWLRQV are carrying out positive communications initiatives, but there is an important need for resources, personnel, and coordination mechanisms to effectively and systematically communicate with refugee communities and counter information and feedback gaps to the scale needed. Communications efforts face VLJQLÂżFDQWREVWDFOHVWKHPRVWVHULRXVRIZKLFKLV the lack of local media platforms, including local radio, newspapers, and ICTs that refugee and host communities can access.

33

Temporary homes were pouring into overflow areas of the refugee camps in Dadaab, Kenya throughout 2011. MERIDITH KOHUT / INTERNEWS


34

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

Kowsar Mohamed Warsame uses a smart phone to survey Hawa Musa Farah, 47, from Mogadishu, Somalia at her home in Dagahaley refugee camp in Dadaab, Kenya in August 2011. MERIDITH KOHUT / INTERNEWS

81+&5DQGRWKHUVDUHVXSSRUWLQJ6WDU)0D Somali-language Kenyan radio network (and one of the assessment participants), to establish a local radio station, although no concrete timeline was agreed at the time of the assessment. RECOMMENDATIONS/IMPACTS The assessment concluded that there are clear opportunities to make a major impact on humanitarian communications in Dadaab, as well as the skills and awareness on the ground to do it. The assessment provoked a great deal of interest and discussions around the issues raised and prompted immediate action. Internews Director of Humanitarian Information Projects, Jacobo 4XLQWDQLOODZDVLQYLWHGWREULHIWKH,$6&:HHNO\ Meetings in Geneva (September) and New York 2FWREHU RQWKHÂżQGLQJVLQWKHUHSRUWDQGZULWH DQRSHGIRUWKH2&+$ZHEVLWH2 2 The Broader View: Why communicating with disaster-struck communities matters (December 5, 2011) www.unocha.org/top-stories/ all-stories/broader-view-why-communicating-disaster-struckcommunities-matters

,WLVLPSRUWDQWWRQRWHWKDW81+&5KDVDOUHDG\ set up an Information Dissemination Group to VSHFLÂżFDOO\ORRNLQWRWKHFRPPXQLFDWLRQVQHHGV of local communities â&#x20AC;&#x153;in the light of the current HPHUJHQF\DQGLGHQWLÂżHGJDSVE\,QWHUQHZVÂś assessment.â&#x20AC;? The challenge now is to carry this momentum forward. 7KHUHSRUWPDGHDQXPEHURIVSHFLÂżF recommendations: Â&#x2021; +XPDQLWDULDQFRPPXQLFDWLRQVZRUNVKRSV sessions should be delivered collaboratively by key organizations involved in this area; Â&#x2021; $KXPDQLWDULDQFRPPXQLFDWLRQVOLDLVRQ RIÂżFHUVKRXOGEHHVWDEOLVKHGLQ'DGDDE Â&#x2021; Training should be designed and delivered for emerging journalists in the refugee communities, and also to the communication staff of humanitarian organizations; Â&#x2021; $ORFDOL]HG0 (WHDPVKRXOGEHFUHDWHGDQG incubated; Â&#x2021; $&RPPXQLFDWLRQV5HVRXUFH+XEDQG0HGLD Training Centre should be established;


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

SURVEY RESULTS FROM ONE QUESTION ON THE DADAAB ASSESSMENT

ARE YOU ABLE TO RAISE CONCERNS ABOUT YOUR NEEDS? NEW ARRIVALS:

LONG TERM RESIDENTS:

(+2+7A !+#+$%A 18%

2%

7%

73%

34%

41%

10%

15%

' Yes, frequently

' Yes, frequently

' Yes, but only sometimes

' Yes, but only sometimes

' Very rarely

' Very rarely

' I have not been able to communicate with aid/gov

' I have not been able to communicate with aid/gov

Â&#x2021; This work should be documented and evaluated and shared with agenciesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; head RIÂżFHVLQ1DLURELKHDGTXDUWHUVDQGWKH &'$&1HWZRUN The assessment represented Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Phase I deployment in Dadaab; Phase II (training of newly recruited local reporters and production of a two-month humanitarian radio program from and for Dadaab with Star FM) was scheduled to begin in October 2011, but was put on hold due to a deteriorating security situation. Security and other delays have also hampered the construction RIDFRPPXQLW\UDGLRVWDWLRQWKDW81+&5 committed to build as per a Memorandum of 8QGHUVWDQGLQJ 0R8 VLJQHGEHWZHHQ81+&5 and Star FM in 2010. In October, in light of the Internews assessment and liaison work on the ground, 81+&5WDVNHG,20ZLWKWKHFRQVWUXFWLRQRI the radio station that Internews has designed in consultation with Star FM. Security allowing, the station is now scheduled for completion in

mid 2012. Support to production, technical, administrative and business skills is part of the 3KDVH,,,,QWHUQHZVHQYLVDJHG$SURSRVDOIRUD 1-year program to support Star FM to run this community radio station was submitted to a major donor in November.

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; assessment in Dadaab was funded by The John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and The Shelley and Donald Rubin Foundation. IMS also contributed financially and with staff to the assessment. The effort would not have been possible without the generous logistical support and human resources on the ground provided by NRC. For more information, and to access audiovisual stories and download the report, see: http://www.internews.org/ where-we-work/sub-saharan-africa/kenya

35


36

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

LIBYA MAPPING A NEW MEDIA LANDSCAPE

CONTEXT The Libya uprising began in earnest in February, 2011, when protestors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; following on the heels of similar efforts in Tunisia and Egypt â&#x20AC;&#x201C; started demanding the resignation of long-time ruler, &RORQHO0XDPPDU*DGGD¿ Government crackdowns quickly followed

TRIPOLI TUNISIA

ALGERIA

MISRATA

LIBYA

NIGER CHAD

BENGHAZI

and the resistance movement soon became militarized around the eastern town of Benghazi ZLWKVLJQL¿FDQWVXSSRUWIURPWKHLQWHUQDWLRQDO FRPPXQLW\$GYDQFHVE\*DGGD¿IRUFHVWRUHJDLQ control of territory from the rebels were only KDOWHGE\1RUWK$WODQWLF7UHDW\2UJDQL]DWLRQ 1$72 DLUVWULNHVDXWKRUL]HGE\WKH8QLWHG 1DWLRQV5HVROXWLRQRQ0DUFK ,Q2FWREHU&RORQHO*DGGD¿ZDVFDSWXUHG and killed, marking the end of his 42-year reign and the beginning of a political transition in /LE\D&RORQHO*DGGD¿LQSRZHUVLQFHDPLOLWDU\ coup in 1969, governed by imposing his own systems and instituting an authoritarian cult of personality. This included a very tight control of the media landscape, as ideology and propaganda

EGYPT CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY TRIPOLI OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) ARABIC OTHER LANGUAGES ITALIAN, ENGLISH

GOVERNMENT TRANSITIONAL COUNCIL AREA 17,59,754 KM2 POPULATION 6,597,960 (2011) LITERACY RAT ES 88.40% (2008)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 64/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 160 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

ZHUHFHQWUDOWRWKH*DGGDÂżUHJLPHÂśVPHWKRGV Though initially looking into the potential humanitarian information needs caused by FRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWLQ/LE\DWKHDVVHVVPHQWFRQGXFWHGLQ May-June turned into a mission looking into the role of information, communication, and local media in the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s transition and stabilization. ,QWHUQHZVSDUWLFLSDWHGLQWKHÂżUVW81OHG inter-agency needs assessment mission to 0LVUDWDRUJDQL]HGE\,207KLVPDUNHGWKHÂżUVW time ever that a media development organization had taken part in a mission of this kind, VSHFLÂżFDOO\WRORRNLQWRWKHLQIRUPDWLRQQHHGVRI affected communities and the current status of local media. FINDINGS The assessment examined the proliferation of media outlets in rebel-controlled areas of Libya. The ability to talk openly, publish, and broadcast without fear represented a monumental shift in Libyan politics and society. However, media initiatives were building on a thin base, with

years of repression having given little chance for media skills, systems, or debates to develop. Most SDUWLFLSDQWVDUHQHZWRWKHÂżHOGDQGKDYHQRW had the chance to build journalistic, editorial, or technical production skills, or to debate roles and ethics. These skills were being learned on the job in an uncertain and high-pressure environment. The uprising created an unprecedented space for free media, but the assessment found that engagement was needed for the development of DULJKWVEDVHGIUDPHZRUNWRVXSSRUWLW$IUHH rights-based media that is able to make positive contributions to the transition needs an increase in skills, appropriate clear institutional and regulatory frameworks, and a public debate about what free media should look like. Such a debate is essential for future development and, the higher the quality of the debate, the better Libyaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s media will become â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with crucial implications for the countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political, social, and economic development.

37

A group of friends since high school launched Shabab Libya FM 101.1 in Benghazi on April 27. â&#x20AC;&#x153;We are all still learning, we are all on trial,â&#x20AC;? said founder Yazid Ettaib. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Most of us are engineers, or accountants, and we have no idea about media.â&#x20AC;? In the picture, the team records a short news announcement. BENEDICT MORAN/ INTERNEWS


38

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Libya has many challenges in its future; with the right support, new media outlets will be able to make the strongest contribution possible to the transitionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s political stability, its democracy, and its social cohesion. But preparation for these challenges needs to begin now.â&#x20AC;? INTERNEWSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; LIBYA ASSESSMENT

IMPACTS The assessment provided a detailed assessment of the media environment in rebel-controlled areas RI/LE\D SULRUWRWKHIDOORI*DGGDÂżLQ2FWREHU 20), including analysis of local radio, TV, print, and online media outlets. It generated a substantial quantity of supporting material, including videos and print articles, which helped gain widespread press coverage in media development and humanitarian publications. In November, Internews took part in of DWKLUWHHQPHPEHU$UDEDQG,QWHUQDWLRQDO delegation of media support organizations that conducted a week-long visit to Libya to assess the PHGLDVLWXDWLRQSRVW*DGGDÂżVKRZVROLGDULW\ ZLWKLQGHSHQGHQW/LE\DQMRXUQDOLVWVDQGĂ&#x20AC;HGJOLQJ IUHHPHGLDFRQGXFWZRUNVKRSVDQGÂżQGZD\V to support independent media in the wake of revolution.1 In 2012, Internews will launch an initial four-month media response project in Libya IXQGHGE\86$,'DLPHGDWLPSURYLQJWKHOHYHO of professional journalism, aiding information Ă&#x20AC;RZVDQGDWKHOSLQJSURPRWHPHGLDDVDIRUXP for discussion about the future of Libya. This UHVSRQVHSURMHFWLVDGLUHFWUHVXOWRIWKHÂżQGLQJVRI Internews humanitarian media assessment. 1 Media support delegation goes to Libya (November 01, 2011) http://www. internews.org/our-stories/press/media-support-delegation-goes-libya

Reporter at Shabab Libya FM, in Benghazi. BENEDICT MORAN/INTERNEWS

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; assessment in Libya was supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Shelley and Donald Rubin Foundation. For more information, and to access audiovisual stories and download the report, see: http://www.internews.org/ where-we-work/middle-east-north-africa/ libya


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

39

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

LIBERIA/COTE Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;IVOIRE ADVOCATING FOR TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION WITH IVORIAN REFUGEES CONTEXT Côte dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivoire was plunged into turmoil following the refusal of former President Laurent Gbagbo to concede defeat after losing the second round RIHOHFWLRQVWRIRUPHU3ULPH0LQLVWHU$ODVVDQH Ouattara on November 28, 2010. The presidential election was meant to advance the peace process in Côte dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivoire, which had been split by civil

MAURITANIA SENEGAL MALI GUINEABISSAU

BURKINA FASO GUINEA MONROVIA SIERRA LEONE

TOGO

NIMBA COUNTY GHANA

LIBERIA

war since 2002 into a Government-controlled south and an opposition-held north. Instead, WKHHOHFWLRQVLQLWLDOO\UHQHZHGLQWHUQDOFRQÃ&#x20AC;LFW bringing with them regional humanitarian UDPL¿FDWLRQV %HJLQQLQJLQ1RYHPEHUFLYLOFRQÃ&#x20AC;LFWKDG displaced an estimated 800,000 people in Côte G¶,YRLUHZLWKPRUHWKDQRWKHUVÃ&#x20AC;HHLQJ to neighboring countries, the vast majority to Liberia, where refugees started arriving in the eastern counties of Nimba, Grand Gedeh, and Maryland. $Q,QWHUQHZVWHDPFRQGXFWHGD GD\DVVHVVPHQWLQ1LPEDFRXQW\LQ$SULO 2011, mapping the local media and the telecommunications landscape in the country, assessing the information needs of refugee communities, and connecting with the

COTE Dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;IVOIRE

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY MONROVIA OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) ENGLISH OTHER LANGUAGES LIBERIAN ENGLISH, OTHER TRIBAL LANGUAGES

GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC AREA 111,371 KM2 POPULATION 3,786,764 (2011) LITERACY RATES 55.50% (2007)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 182/187 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 84 / 178


40

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

Fredrick Wonlea fiddles with the battery pack and antenna on his radio so that Ivorian refugees staying in his home in north central Liberia can try to tune into a community radio station for a few snippets of news from the Cote dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivoire conflict. BONNIE ALLEN/ INTERNEWS

humanitarian community and local government RIÂżFLDOVWRPDSH[LVWLQJLQLWLDWLYHVWRUHDFKWKRVH populations. 7KHWHDPZRUNHGWRLGHQWLI\JDSVDQGÂżQG potential ways to enhance community outreach, working in partnership with local media and through various communications channels, such as SMS messages. FINDINGS 7KH,QWHUQHZVDVVHVVPHQWLGHQWLÂżHGLPSRUWDQW information and communications gaps for Ivorian refugees, with communication resources being YDVWO\XQGHUXWLOL]HG6SHFLÂżFDOO\LWIRXQGWKDW WKHUHZDVDODFNRIWZRZD\LQIRUPDWLRQĂ&#x20AC;RZ between humanitarian actors and local hosts and refugees that would enable their participation in relief efforts. Most refugees, especially women,

had little news about the situation in CĂ´te dâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Ivoire. $FFHVVWRWUXVWHGVRXUFHVZDVDSUREOHPDQG rumors spread quickly. The best sources for information were found to be radio and mobile phones, but both were in short supply and reception in certain areas was poor. Very few refugees had access to mobile phones, and access to radios was over-estimated. Local media were under-utilized and their potential to support the humanitarian response remained largely untapped. Internews found that a lack of communication between humanitarian actors and private sector telecommunications companies was also preventing agencies from understanding and identifying existing telecommunication tools that could solve many of their operational challenges, including lack of phone coverage in some areas.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

41

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Ivorians who have fled into Liberia for their safety have little idea what is happening back at home, causing anxiety and fear as they have very limited access to news or information from their home country.â&#x20AC;? INTERNEWSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; LIBERIA ASSESSMENT

RECOMMENDATIONS/IMPACT: The assessment concluded that proactive and sustained communication strategies needed be put in place to provide relevant, actionable, timely, and accurate information that could tackle potential rumors, help manage community expectations, and increase the sense of self-agency among refugees. Humanitarian organizations needed to systematically adopt strategies that would support comprehensive two-way communications, including assessment of the information needs of refugees and host communities; assessment of the local information ecosystem to understand KRZLQIRUPDWLRQĂ&#x20AC;RZHGDQGDQDO\VLVRIUHIXJHHVÂś ability to access various forms of message delivery, including their levels of trust in different mediums. 6SHFLÂżFDOO\LWUHFRPPHQGHGWKDWZLQGXSUDGLR sets and mobile phones be distributed to refugee DQGKRVWFRPPXQLWLHV$GGLWLRQDOO\PHJDSKRQHV and bicycles were needed to help deliver humanitarian information, as well as listening VWDWLRQVSRVWVRUORXGVSHDNHUV\VWHPVLQUHIXJHH camps, transit centers, and food distribution points. There was also a need for coordinated efforts to engage with local media and telecommunication providers on the production and dissemination of targeted information to refugee and host communities about their status, the services available, and how to access them.

$JHQFLHVDOVRQHHGHGWRSXWLQSODFH systematic feedback mechanisms, including complaint systems, to enable communitiesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; active participation in the relief and development process. $OVRUHTXLUHGZHUHDGHTXDWHUHVRXUFHVÂżQDQFLDO and human, to roll out these strategies, including follow-up, monitoring, and evaluation of the impact of humanitarian communication efforts. The assessment included a detailed analysis of local radio stations in the area and their potential reach. Internews also brokered the ÂżUVWPHHWLQJZLWKWKH81DQGRQHRIWKHPDLQ telecommunication companies in Liberia to discuss the possibility of using mobile phones to communicate with Ivorian refugees in the east of the country.

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; assessment in Liberia was supported by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and the Shelley and Donald Rubin Foundation. For more information, and to access audiovisual stories and download the report, see: http:// www.internews.org/where-we-work/subsaharan-africa/cote-divoire


42

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

TUNISIA/LIBYA PROVIDING STRANDED MIGRANTS WITH ESSENTIAL INFORMATION

CONTEXT :KHQIRUHLJQZRUNHUVVWDUWHGÃ&#x20AC;HHLQJ¿JKWLQJ in Libya in early 2011, Egyptian and Tunisian nationals were quickly accepted back to their countries of origin. However, tens of thousands of others, mostly from Bangladesh but also Malians, Somalis, Nigerians, Sudanese, Ghanaians, and

TUNIS

ITALY

GREECE

others, became stranded at Choucha Camp, just seven kilometers away from Libyaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s border inside Tunisia. $QHVWLPDWHGUHIXJHHVFURVVHG the border; close to 96,000 were helped to depart, mostly to their countries of origin, by the International Organization for Migration ,20 81+&5ORFDODXWKRULWLHVDQGRWKHU humanitarian actors. Others, however, including Somalis and Eritreans, faced a long and XQFHUWDLQZDLW$WOHDVWRWKHU81DJHQFLHV and international NGOs were present at Choucha Camp.

TUNISIA CHOUCHA CAMP

ALGERIA

LIBYA

NIGER CHAD

EGYPT

CAPITAL TUNIS OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) ARABIC OTHER LANGUAGES FRENCH GOVERNMENT PRESIDENTIAL REPUBLIC, TRANSITIONAL

AREA 163,610 KM2 POPULATION 10,629,186 (2011) LITERACY RATES 77.60% (2008) UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX (2011) 94/187

REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 164 / 178


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

In February 2011, Internews mapped the local media landscape and assessed the information needs of the refugee population in order to determine the best ways for the humanitarian FRPPXQLW\WRUHDFKWKHP:RUNLQJZLWK81+&5 DQG,20,QWHUQHZVFRQYHQHGWKHÂżUVW&DPS Communication meeting and helped organize an implementable plan for an information system, ZLWK81+&5,20&DULWDVDQG,VODPLF5HOLHIDV lead actors. FINDINGS The mapping exercise found that refugees were mostly living in an information void, with no direct information mechanism delivering relevant news. Even those who owned radios could not access information because of poor coverage and language barriers. Cellphones offered a possible point of information intervention, as many refugees had mobile phones and were able to secure Tunisian SIM cards and credit. $ORFDOFRRSHUDWLYHKDGVHWXSDVWDJHDSXEOLF

address system, and a movie screen to provide evening entertainment. Two â&#x20AC;&#x153;information tentsâ&#x20AC;? were also established, where residents could get news throughout the day. Communication was hindered, however, by the number of languages VSRNHQE\WKHGLIIHUHQWQDWLRQDOLWLHV$WWLPHV refugees from Bangladesh comprised up to 80 percent of the population, but only a handful of humanitarian agencies had basic Bangla or Hindi skills. The overwhelming question that refugees wanted answered was, â&#x20AC;&#x153;When am I going home?â&#x20AC;? Internews did a rapid assessment of local media in the border area and their interest in supporting a humanitarian information service for stranded communities. Two national radio networks broadcast locally and covered the refugee situation in Tunisia, but had no physical reporting presence at the camp. Internews also mapped all the media outlets in Tunisia and shared that information with the Libya Crisis

43

Refugees gather every day in hopes of hearing about their departure status. JESSE HARDMAN/ INTERNEWS


44

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

Map,1VHWXSE\2&+$DQGWKH&ULVLV0DSSHUV Standby Task Force, of which Internews is a partner. RECOMMENDATIONS/IMPACT Internews found that a coordinated, basic information strategy at the camp level could play an important role in improving management and morale. Four basic recommendations provided by the Internews assessment were agreed upon IRULPPHGLDWHLPSOHPHQWDWLRQ81+&5VWDII collected basic information from agencies and made brief announcements in all relevant languages, every morning and evening, via the public address system. IOM gave new arrivals a â&#x20AC;&#x153;welcomeâ&#x20AC;? card, in their most communicable language, giving them basic details about their situation. Caritas staffed the two central

1 Libya Crisis Map (http://libyacrisismap.net/)

LQIRUPDWLRQWHQWVZKLOH,VODPLF5HOLHI:RUOGZLGH set up a billboard where agencies could post important information. In addition, with technical support provided by ,QWHUQHZV2&+$LQFOXGHGIRUWKHÂżUVWWLPHHYHU DEHQHÂżFLDU\FRPPXQLFDWLRQVFRPSRQHQWLQLWV ,QWHU$JHQF\1HHGV$VVHVVPHQW

Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; assessment in Tunisia was funded by the John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. For more information, and to access audiovisual stories and download the report, see: http://www.internews.org/ research-publications/humanitarianinformation-assessment-choucha-camptunisialibya-border

Thousands of tents house groups of mostly men who fled the fighting in Libya. JESSE HARDMAN/ INTERNEWS


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

45

INFORMATION NEEDS ASSESSMENTS

SRI LANKA ASSESSING THE INFORMATION NEEDS OF FLOOD-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES CONTEXT Continuous rains which began on December 26, 2010 in north-east Sri Lanka caused displacement GXHWRVHYHUHÃ&#x20AC;RRGVDQGODQGURFNDQGPXGVOLGHV mainly in the eastern and central parts of the LVODQG$FFRUGLQJWRWKH'LVDVWHU0DQDJHPHQW Centre (DMC), as of January 14, more than

INDIA

1,055,000 persons were affected, with 27 deaths and 12 missing persons. The UN reported more than 350,000 people in 11 districts of the country were displaced across hundreds of temporary relocation centers, with more than 12,100 houses destroyed or severely damaged, according to the ,)5& 6LJQL¿FDQWKXPDQLWDULDQFKDOOHQJHVUHPDLQHG for those returning, particularly in food insecurity, water quality, housing damages, crop loss and resumption of livelihoods.2$FFRUGLQJWR WKH81Ã&#x20AC;RRGZDWHUVGDPDJHGPRUHWKDQ acres of agricultural lands.3 By mid-February, fair weather prevailing 2 Sri Lanka - Monsoon Flood Update - Situation Report 07 (18 January 2011) (http://reliefweb.int/node/381218) 3 Press Release: UN continues to support flood stricken people (Colombo, 14 January 2011)

COLOMBO

SRI LANKA

CAPITAL & LARGEST CITY COLOMBO OFFICIAL LANGUAGE(S) SINHALA OTHER LANGUAGES TAMIL, ENGLISH

GOVERNMENT REPUBLIC, A MEMBER OF THE BRITISH COMMONWEALTH AREA 64,454 KM2 POPULATION 21,324,791 (2009) LITERACY RATES 91.5% (2007)

UNDP HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX 97 / 185 REPORTERS WITHOUT BORDERSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; PRESS FREEDOM INDEX (2010) 158 / 178


46

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

Men use a rope to cross a washed out section of a bridge in the Pinnamankada area, Polonnaruwa District AMANTHA PERERA

across the island ensured the return of 99 percent of displaced persons.4 With rains abating once March began, agencies wrapped up humanitarian relief and focused on early recovery assistance.5 The assessment mission to Sri Lanka in January 2011 was organized rapidly to determine what course of action Internews Europe could WDNHLQUHVSRQVHWRĂ&#x20AC;RRGLQJFDXVHGE\H[WUHPH monsoon rains. The mission had two objectives: Â&#x2021; 7RDVVHVVWKHLPSDFWRIWKHĂ&#x20AC;RRGVDQG determine if there was an information vacuum that could be aided by a humanitarian information project. Â&#x2021; To assess and advise on the future course of a local media facility, and determine if there 4 Sri Lanka - Monsoon Flood Update - Situation Report 15 (25 February 2011) (http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/9C1A04ECD 6AC111FC1257842004B8615-Full_Report.pdf) 5 Sri Lanka - Monsoon Flood Update - Situation Report 16 (22 Marzo 2011) (http://reliefweb.int/node/393050)

was a need for Internews to re-establish a presence in Sri Lanka. FINDINGS During the assessment period, the emergency SKDVHRIWKHĂ&#x20AC;RRGZDVRYHUDQGPRVWSHRSOH who had been staying at welfare centers had returned to their homes or moved in with IULHQGVDQGIDPLO\3HRSOHDIIHFWHGE\WKHĂ&#x20AC;RRGV used radio as their main source of information, listening to both commercial and state stations. They also received information from state television and from SMS news services. Local and international NGOs and agencies welcomed the idea of increasing humanitarian information for the affected communities, but many did not XQGHUVWDQGKRZDWZRZD\Ă&#x20AC;RZRILQIRUPDWLRQ could help optimize interventions and improve coordination. Social media (i.e. twitter, blogs) were being used by some journalists and humanitarian


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

DJHQFLHVDQGWKHUHZHUHVLJQLÂżFDQWRSSRUWXQLWLHV to promote the use of online and mobile strategies, especially for coordination and data gathering, and to enable journalists to distribute stories FRYHULQJFRQWURYHUVLDOLVVXHV$QXPEHURIJURXSV and organizations were providing capacity building and support for media personnel, but little effort was being made to coordinate or collaborate their efforts. The government remained antagonistic towards international staff and organizations based in Sri Lanka. RECOMMENDATIONS Internews concluded that it could support the implementation of a short-term humanitarian information project focusing on the early recovery SKDVHIRUFRPPXQLWLHVDIIHFWHGE\WKHĂ&#x20AC;RRGV Internews had an opportunity to use a preexisting media house it had launched in the east in 2010 as a base from which to deploy humanitarian information activities, or alternatively needed to

identify an organization to partner with or take it over. The assessment concluded that there was scope for Internews to share its expertise in areas such as crisis mapping and SMS strategies with government agencies and NGOs, either by reestablishing a presence in Sri Lanka or through a partner organization. However, due to the lack of donor funding available, no deployment could be completed.

Internews Europe conducted the assessment in Sri Lanka.

47

An old woman carries a young child as she wades through flood water in the Verugal area in Trincomalee District. AMANTHA PERERA


48

2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

INSTITUTIONAL EVOLUTION WITHIN THE HUMANITARIAN SPACE: THE BEAUTY OF PARTNERSHIPS

C

OLLABORATION BETWEEN relief agencies and media partners is critical to the success of any humanitarian response. As recognition of the importance of communication with disaster-affected communities has grown, Internews has been moving into new and important partnerships with humanitarian organizations focused on improving global practice in this vital area of humanitarian relief. In addition, Internews has been working to build links and knowledge with other institutions in order to prompt wider sectoral change within the humanitarian community, particularly in engaging more closely with local populations through the key channel of local media. Over the past 12 months, Internews has engaged in a number of collaborative initiatives in its efforts to spread this message. Many of these are detailed below, and all of them have contributed to Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; own thinking and practice in important ways.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

49

PARTNERSHIPS

INTERNEWSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; CENTER FOR INNOVATION AND LEARNING HARNESSING THE POTENTIAL OF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES AND INNOVATIVE APPROACHES

T

HE PAST FIVE YEARS have seen more changes in the global media and journalism environment than ever before in Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; nearly 30 years of existence. The dramatic evolution in how people access, produce, consume, and share information has challenged the fundamentals of how to create quality local news and information. It has also changed the way that communities affected by humanitarian crisis can raise their voices and get in touch with relief organizations, government, and media, and the ways in which they communicate amongst themselves. From the rapid development of the mobile phone as a primary source of information to the decline of traditional media in many places around the world, new information dynamics require exploration, collaboration, and experimentation, and Internews has a role at the forefront of this process. In a humanitarian context, new technologies can enable participatory communication models, real-time data collection and analysis, and visual representation of key humanitarian information. In 2011, the Internews Center for Innovation and Learning1 was launched to harness the potential of digital technologies and innovative approaches to better meet the information needs of communities around the world. The Center, based in Washington, D.C. and operating globally, serves as a hub to inform and engage others in WKHÂżHOGVRIPHGLDLQIRUPDWLRQWHFKQRORJ\DQG development.

The Center has deployed a team of regional new media and innovation advisors to explore digital tools and potential partnerships with local institutions. The advisors work with project teams WKURXJKRXW$VLD(DVWHUQ(XURSHVXE6DKDUDQ $IULFDDQGWKH0LGGOH(DVWRQH[SHULPHQWDWLRQ adaptation, and customization of tools and technologies. $PRQJZRUNVXSSRUWHGE\WKH&HQWHUWKH $IULFD5HJLRQDO,QQRYDWLRQ$GYLVRUOHGWKH initiative to conduct interviews for an information needs assessment in the Dadaab refugee camps in Kenya, using smartphones with data collection software designed by Episurveyor2LQ$XJXVW In 2011, Internews also partnered with Open Data Kit (ODK),3 a free and open-source set of tools which help organizations use mobile phones and cloud servers to collect and deliver data, in an effort to streamline the use of such tools in humanitarian and other situations.

1 Internews Centre for Innovation and Learning (www.internews.org/ innovation)

2 Episurveyor (www.episurveyor.org) 3 Open Data Kit (ODK - http://opendatakit.org/)


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

PARTNERSHIPS

THE CDAC NETWORK COMMUNICATING WITH DISASTER-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES

I

NTERNEWS IS ONE of the founding members of the Communicating with Disaster-Affected Communities (CDAC) Network, a groundbreaking cross-sector collaboration between aid agencies, UN organizations, the Red Cross Movement, and media development organizations that recognizes information and two-way communication as key humanitarian deliverables. 7KH&'$&1HWZRUNZDVIRUPHGLQLQ response to the policy paper Left in the Dark,1 which showed that frequently people affected by disasters are left out of the information and communication loop, with an emphasis instead on reporting stories from disaster zones back to donor countries. ,QWKH&'$&1HWZRUNDOVRUDQDQ DFWLYHGHSOR\PHQWLQ+DLWL&'$&+DLWLWKDW has provided valuable learning as a basis for PXFKRILWVDGYRFDF\ZRUN&'$&+DLWLEHFDPH operational in January 2010 and ended activities at the end of November 2011.2 7KH&'$&1HWZRUNDOVRFRQYHQHV meetings to share learning and good practice in communicating with disaster-affected populations. It seeks to bring together diverse yet compatible actors â&#x20AC;&#x201C; including humanitarian actors, IT organizations, media development agencies, and quality and accountability initiatives â&#x20AC;&#x201C; to increase mutual understanding and foster greater collaboration between them to 1 See Annex 1: Landmark publications and events in the evolution of the humanitarian communications sector 2 CDAC Haiti (www.cdac-haiti.org/en/content/what-cdac)

EULQJDERXWPRUHHIIHFWLYHÂżHOGSUDFWLFH 'XULQJWKH&'$&1HWZRUNKDVEHHQ partially funded by infoasaid,3 which supported a capacity-strengthening program for the 1HWZRUN,QWKH&'$&1HWZRUNFRQGXFWHG a strategic review and development process that will determine its priorities and activities over WKHQH[WÂżYH\HDUV7KLVUHYLHZZLOODOVRFODULI\ the governance, management, and membership VWUXFWXUHRIWKH1HWZRUN7KH&'$&1HWZRUN will be launching a website in 2012 (www. cdacnetwork.org). 7KH&'$&1HWZRUNLVFXUUHQWO\VXSSRUWLQJ WKH6XE*URXSRQ$FFRXQWDELOLW\WR$IIHFWHG 3RSXODWLRQV SDUWRIWKH,QWHU$JHQF\6WDQGLQJ &RPPLWWHH ,$6& 7DVN7HDPRQWKH81&OXVWHU $SSURDFK LQWKHGHYHORSPHQWRIDQRSHUDWLRQDO accountability framework that recognizes communication as aid as integral to accountability work. &XUUHQWPHPEHUVRIWKH&'$&1HWZRUN 6WHHULQJ&RPPLWWHHDUHWKH$FWLYH/HDUQLQJ 3 Infoasaid (http://infoasaid.org) is a DfID funded project of Internews and the BBC World Service Trust , now BBC Media Action, that focuses on improving how aid agencies communicate with disaster-affected communities. Read more under the infoasaid section, below.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

â&#x20AC;&#x153;Internews enabled CDAC Haiti not only as its host agency â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a task it performed very supportively â&#x20AC;&#x201C; but as an active member of the CDAC Haiti group. Internews ensured that part of CDAC Haiti maintained a solid footing in the media sector. Moreover, its audience research and analysis added significant value to the CDAC Haiti network, particularly since very few humanitarian organizations possessed this kind of capacity. At headquarters, Internews had a clear perspective of the practicalities of running CDAC Haiti since key staff had worked in Haiti for periods of time. Meanwhile the firm support and dedication of the Internews team in Port-au-Prince was critical to the success of CDAC Haiti.â&#x20AC;? INDEPENDENT EVALUATION BY CHANNEL RESEARCH OF THE ROLE PLAYED BY INTERNEWS AS HOST AGENCY FOR CDAC HAITI

1HWZRUNRQ$FFRXQWDELOLW\DQG3HUIRUPDQFH LQ+XPDQLWDULDQ$FWLRQ $/1$3 WKH%%& :RUOG6HUYLFH7UXVWQRZ%%&0HGLD$FWLRQ WKH%ULWLVKDQG,ULVK5HG&URVV+XPDQLWDULDQ $FFRXQWDELOLW\3DUWQHUVKLS +$3 ,QWHUQDWLRQDO International Media Support (IMS); the infoasaid project; Internews; Merlin; the United Nations 3RSXODWLRQ)XQG 81)3$ WKH2IÂżFHIRUWKH &RRUGLQDWLRQRI+XPDQLWDULDQ$IIDLUV 2&+$  Plan UK; Save the Children UK; and the Thomson 5HXWHUV)RXQGDWLRQ

GXULQJWKHUHVSRQVHVLQ+DLWL&'$&+DLWL â&#x20AC;&#x153;delivered far beyond original expectations.â&#x20AC;? $UHFHQWUHYLHZRI&'$&+DLWLFDUULHGRXW by &KDQQHO5HVHDUFh,4 seeks to understand the initiativeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s different phases, documenting successes and highlighting what worked and what GLGQRWDQGZK\$OWKRXJKWKHVLWXDWLRQLQ+DLWL ZDVXQLTXHWKHUHYLHZDOVRLGHQWLÂżHVOHVVRQVIRU other emergency contexts. This review will be available in early 2012.

CDAC HAITI

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The humanitarian communityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s capacity to communicate with affected communities has been recognized as stronger in Haiti than in any former emergency, and CDAC Haiti played an important role in enhancing this capacity.â&#x20AC;?

Two days after the January 12, 2010 earthquake LQ+DLWLWKH812IÂżFHIRUWKH&RRUGLQDWLRQRI +XPDQLWDULDQ$IIDLUV 2&+$ WDVNHG,QWHUQHZVÂą on the basis of its extensive in-country operation and in-country capacity â&#x20AC;&#x201C; with coordinating on WKHJURXQGWKHÂżUVWHYHUGHSOR\PHQWRIWKH&'$& Network. ,QLWLDOO\FRQFHLYHGDVDVKRUWWHUPSLORW&'$& Haiti (www.cdac-haiti.org) eventually came to operate as a communications sub-group within the UN cluster system. It brought together humanitarian and media development organizations, experts in radio, mass media, SMS, web-based, and non-mass media communications, alongside local media and representatives of the Government of Haiti in a collective effort to improve two-way communication between aid providers and the affected Haitian population. &'$&+DLWLFHDVHGRSHUDWLRQVRQ1RYHPEHU $FFRUGLQJWR Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak), an independent report published by infoasaid in November 2011, that captured practical case studies and best practice in communications with affected communities

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, CDAC HAITI EXTERNAL EVALUATION

&'$&+DLWLZDVIXQGHGODUJHO\WKURXJKWKH (PHUJHQF\5HOLHIDQG5HVSRQVH)XQG (55)  with some additional short-term funding from WKHJOREDO&'$&1HWZRUNDQGWKH:RUOG+HDOWK Organization (WHO). Internews, as depositary RIWKH&'$&JUDQWIURP2&+$DQG:+2 ZDVUHVSRQVLEOHIRUVWDIÂżQJWKH6HFUHWDULDW (including the secondment of an Internews VHQLRUVWDIIPHPEHUWRÂżOOWKHÂżUVWIXOOWLPH &'$&&RRUGLQDWRUSRVLWLRQ SURYLGLQJORJLVWLFV ÂżQDQFLDOPDQDJHPHQWRIWKHJUDQWDQGRYHUDOO RYHUVLJKWDQGVXSSRUWWRWKH&'$&1HWZRUNLQ Haiti.

4 Channel Research (www.channelresearch.com)

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

PARTNERSHIPS

INFOASAID IMPROVING HOW AID AGENCIES COMMUNICATE WITH DISASTER-AFFECTED COMMUNITIES

I

NFOASAID IS A CONSORTIUM of Internews Europe and the BBC World Service Trust , now BBC Media Action, funded by DFID that focuses on improving how aid agencies communicate with disaster-affected communities. The focus is on providing humanitarian information, with an emphasis on the need to deliver information as aid itself through the most appropriate channels. Infoasaid1 works to build the capacity and preparedness of humanitarian aid agencies to respond to the information and communication needs of affected populations. The project is partnering with a small number of selected humanitarian organizations (including $FWLRQ$LG0HUOLQ6DYHWKH&KLOGUHQDQG World Vision) in mounting rapid responses to emergencies to enable communication between agencies and affected communities. In addition, infoasaid is partnering with WKH,QWHUQDWLRQDO)HGHUDWLRQRIWKH5HG&URVV ,)5& RQDVWXG\GHVLJQHGWRVXSSRUWWKHODWWHUœV institutionalization of two-way communications ZLWKGLVDVWHUDIIHFWHGSRSXODWLRQV RU³EHQH¿FLDU\ FRPPXQLFDWLRQV´LQ,)5&WHUPLQRORJ\ 7KH VWXG\ZLOODGGUHVVWKHZD\VWKDW,)5&FDQ consolidate and build on work in this sector and the resources and investment it needs to do this. The project, which is based in London, began in mid-2010 and is staffed by a dedicated team with experience in international organizations, media, and research institutions. Internews and

1 http://infoasaid.org/

the BBC World Service Trust provide technical advice to infoasaid and are jointly responsible for the strategic direction of the project. In order to support the capacity of humanitarian organizations to communicate with affected populations, infoasaid is producing a series of tools: Â&#x2021; Media and telecommunications landscape guides for 22 developing countries prone to humanitarian emergencies:2 These guides provide a comprehensive overview of the media and telecommunications landscapes in the 22 developing countries most vulnerable to humanitarian crises, with detailed information on all available channels of communication, including radio, TV, internet, mobile telephony, and more traditional channels. They also provide information on telecommunications and media penetration rates and dark areas, as well as contact directories of media outlets. This information 2 Media and telecommunication landscape guides (http://infoasaid.org/ media-and-telecoms-landscape-guides-0)


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

The following country guides had been undertaken by the end of 2011:

To be commissioned in 2012:

ŗ Afghanistan

ŗ Guinea

ŗ Philippines

ŗ DRC

ŗ Bangladesh

ŗ Kenya

ŗ Somalia

ŗ Haiti

ŗ Chad

ŗ Mozambique

ŗ South Sudan

ŗ Indonesia

ŗ Colombia

ŗ Nepal

ŗ Sudan

ŗ Côte d’Ivoire

ŗ Niger

ŗ Yemen

ŗ Ethiopia

ŗ Pakistan

ŗ Zimbabwe

ŗ +1 country in reserve for a rapid-onset emergency

These country guides have already been used in a number of ways, including in collaborations through Internews with other actors working in the humanitarian space (see project details of the Assessment Capacities Project (ACAPS) and MapAction below).

can be used by humanitarian responders to help in the production and dissemination of radio shows, TV programs, SMS messages, poster campaigns, or public service announcements to communicate with local communities in a timely, accurate, and welltargeted manner. ‡ A library of generic messages (to be launched in early 2012): During an emergency, there are certain key life-saving and awareness messages that need to be conveyed to affected populations. These are often very similar from crisis to crisis, though they always require tailoring to the local context. Infoasaid has worked to develop a library of generic, multi-sectoral messages for crisisaffected populations in partnership with the UN Cluster system to ensure coordination and technical agreement. This library will enable humanitarian actors, for example, to rapidly broadcast important public service announcements immediately following the onset of a crisis. The messages include alerts, advice on risk mitigation, self-care, and prompts IRUDYDLODEOHVHUYLFHV$8VHU¶V*XLGH explaining how to use the library and how to contextualize each message will accompany this tool. ‡ An e-learning package for field staff (to be launched in early 2012): Infoasaid is producing a two-hour e-learning course to provide humanitarian workers with the basic understanding and skills needed to communicate with affected populations.

The main learning objectives of this tool are: ‡ Why communication with crisis-affected communities matters; ‡ Knowing your community and how to communicate with it; ‡ Formulating, testing, and disseminating key messages and adapting key messages for different channels and target audiences; ‡ Facilitating dialogue and feedback through multi-platform approaches. ‡ A facilitator’s training manual: Based on the experience of the infoasaid team in conducting a number of in-house trainings DQG¿HOGGHSOR\PHQWVZLWKVHOHFWHG humanitarian organizations in South Sudan, Kenya, and Somaliland, to help them improve how they communicate with disasteraffected communities, infoasaid is producing a Training of Trainers (ToT) Manual on communicating with affected populations. ‡ Research and publications (proof-ofconcept): The infoasaid project is committed to continuing to build the body of evidence around the issue of communications with affected populations demonstrating that communication is aid.3 In addition to producing these tools, the infoasaid project, through Internews, has been the basis of a number of important partnerships and collaborations with humanitarian actors, which are detailed below.

3 See Annex 3: Publications produced by infoasaid.

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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

PARTNERSHIPS

ASSESSING LOCAL INFORMATION ECOLOGIES UNDERSTANDING THE NEEDS OF AFFECTED COMMUNITIES TO DELIVER BETTER AID

I

N ITS CAPACITY AS A MEMBER of the infoasaid project, Internews spent much of 2011 working with the aid community to embed within the humanitarian response architecture a greater focus on understanding the information and media landscapes of countries affected by disaster from the outset of any humanitarian response, on the premise that this will improve the quality and effectiveness of aid. $OWKRXJKLWLVUHFRJQL]HGWKDW better data and information on the impact of disasters and the needs of affected communities are key elements in ensuring the best possible response, little systematic attention has been given to the information and communication needs of disasteraffected communities. Inter-agency QHHGVDVVHVVPHQWVKDYHQRWVSHFL¿FDOO\

looked into people’s communication needs, and this has resulted in major gaps in aid effectiveness and downward accountability. Humanitarian actors need to ensure that, from an operational and policy level, people in the midst of crisis have access to the information they need to make informed decisions and to take an active role in their own survival and recovery.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

IASC NEEDS ASSESSMENT TASK FORCE To address this gap, Internews, through the infoasaid project, has been working with the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Needs Assessment Task Force (IASC NATF)1 to ensure that assessment teams and humanitarian responders take into consideration the media and telecommunications landscape of the country they are working in and the information ecosystem pre-disaster when doing assessments, to positively affect programmatic decisions. As a result of this technical collaboration, four questions on information access have been incorporated into the MultiCluster Initial Rapid Assessment (MIRA), a revised assessment methodology framework to be used during the first 72 hours and first two weeks of a crisis.

ASSESSMENT CAPACITIES PROJECT (ACAPS) In November 2011, infoasaid and ACAPS2 began collaborating3 to ensure that Secondary Data Reviews (SDR) also contain a specific section on the media and telecommunications landscapes of the country in question. The collaboration began with the release of the SDR for Niger4 in early November. In December 2011, infoasaid provided summaries of the media and telecommunications landscapes for the Horn of Africa countries, Somalia, Kenya, and Ethiopia. The summaries are based on data collected for infoasaidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s production of media and telecommunication guides for the 22 countries most vulnerable to humanitarian crises. As one of its key services, ACAPS maintains an updated library of SDRs on countries vulnerable to disasters. SDRs provide first responders and humanitarians on the ground with clear, detailed, and up-to-date analysis of background information about the affected area, groups of interest, and risks and vulnerabilities, as well as sectoral information at the local level. SDRs for emergencies are based on review of secondary data, field studies ongoing during the emergency, contact with individuals working in the field, and lessons learned and experience gained from similar crises or disasters in the past.

1 www.humanitarianinfo.org/iasc/pageloader. aspx?page=content-subsidi-common-default&sb=75 2 ACAPS (www.acaps.org) 3 Collaboration between infoasaid and ACAPS (November 25, 2011) http://infoasaid.org/ story/collaboration-between-infoasaid-and-acaps

In July 2009, the IASC Working Group created the IASC Needs Assessment Task Force (NATF), with the objective to harmonize and promote cross-sector needs assessment initiatives for consistent, reliable and timely data on humanitarian needs in sudden-onset crises to strengthen informed decision making and improve humanitarian response.

4 Secondary Data Review on Niger (www.acaps.org/news/secondary-data-review-onniger)

ACAPS is an initiative of a consortium of three NGOs (Norwegian Refugee Council, HelpAge International, and Merlin) dedicated to improving the assessment of needs in complex emergencies, sudden-onset disasters, and protracted crises. ACAPS works with a number of humanitarian actors, including the IASC NATF.

55


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

PARTNERSHIPS

LEVERAGING CRISIS MAPPING PUTTING COMMUNITY VOICES AND LOCAL MEDIA ON A MAP

E

FFORTS TO HELP HUMANITARIAN responders do a better job at understanding the information and media landscapes of countries affected by disaster have immersed Internews in the emerging practice of crisis mapping. Internews is interested in how crisis mapping can be used in humanitarian interventions from two primary angles: 1) the potential for online mapping technologies to enable platforms for increased participation and two-way communication flows (i.e. through the use of crowdsourced information and response); and 2) the potential to use online maps to better represent critical information on the pre- and post-disaster media and telecommunications landscapes. It is in this latter area of potential that Internews, as a media development organization, pursued a number of new partnerships towards the end of 2011.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

MAPACTION

STANDBY TASK FORCE

Drawing on the infoasaid media and telecommunication guides, infoasaid, through Internews, began a collaboration with MapAction1 in November 2011 to map the infoasaid media and telecoms landscapes of 22 developing countries vulnerable to humanitarian crises with the aim of enhancing humanitarian response.

Internews and the Standby Task Force (SBTF)2 became partners in 2011 and have been working on a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) for the creation of media and telecommunications landscape maps in the wake of disasters, using volunteers from the SBTF. These maps will consider the post-disaster media and telecommunications environment with inputs from a trusted network of volunteers around the world in order to assess and map the media and telecommunications ecosystem that could be leveraged for humanitarian communications.

As part of this collaboration, MapAction is literally putting much of the available media landscape information onto maps to enhance humanitarian response. The maps, which will be accessible both on- and off-line, are produced by collating technical data from radio stations and feeding it into a mapping system developed by infoasaid. This innovative humanitarian tool, to be launched in early 2012, will display the geolocation of local media outlets and will provide available contact information for each. 1 MapAction (www.mapaction.org)

MapAction, which began in 2004 in response to the Indian Ocean tsunami, is today the only NGO with the capacity to deploy a fully trained and equipped humanitarian mapping and information management team anywhere in the world, often within a few hours of an alert. Consisting of a volunteer group of geographical information systems (GIS) professionals specially trained in disaster response, it delivers vital information in mapped form to humanitarian responders based on information gathered at the scene of a disaster.

Internews actively participated in the second and third annual International Conferences on Crisis Mapping, organized by the International Network of Crisis Mappers, in Boston in 2010 and Geneva in 2011.3 The Crisis Mappers network is described as the largest and most active international community of experts, practitioners, policymakers, technologists, researchers, journalists, scholars, hackers, and skilled volunteers engaged at the intersection between humanitarian crises, technology, and crisis mapping. 2 Standby Task Force (SBTF http://blog.standbytaskforce.com) 3 International Network of Crisis Mappers (http://crisismappers.net/)

The SBTB is a volunteer based network representing the first wave in online community emergency response teams. The concept for the Task Force was launched at the 2010 International Conference on Crisis Mapping (ICCM 2010) to streamline online volunteer support for crisis mapping following lessons learned in Haiti, Chile, and Pakistan and to provide a dedicated interface for the humanitarian community. The SBTF Membership currently comprises 700+ volunteers from 70+ countries around the world.

57


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

OUR CAPACITY TO RESPOND: RELIABLE, PREDICTABLE, AND SUSTAINABLE

A

S INTERNEWS SOLIDIFIES its partnerships and establishes its position within the humanitarian space, it has also been growing its own internal capacity to be able to act as a first responder in the event of a humanitarian crisis, so that it can deliver lifesaving humanitarian communications solutions in partnership with local media, relief organizations, and local governments. To effectively offer support to this critical area of humanitarian intervention, Internews spent 2011 bolstering its internal resources and capacities to be able to deploy quickly in the event of an emergency.


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OUR CAPACITY

HAVING THE RIGHT PEOPLE THE HUMANITARIAN MEDIA ROSTER

I

NTERNEWS AS AN INSTITUTION recognizes that having the right people in the right positions is the foundation of any successful operational response. To build its own network of humanitarian communications and media professionals, the organization has developed the Internews Humanitarian Media Roster. In the event of a humanitarian disaster, this roster allows Internews to quickly identify and deploy professionals within 24-48 hours who can help humanitarian responders understand the local information ecosystem and assess and address the information and communication needs of disaster-affected communities. Internews is always recruiting and accepts applications from motivated and experienced SURIHVVLRQDOVTXDOLÂżHGWRÂżOODQ\RIWKHHLJKWNH\ positions that it may deploy in the event of a full emergency response: Â&#x2021; Team Leader Â&#x2021; +XPDQLWDULDQ/LDLVRQ2IÂżFHU WKLVSRVLWLRQ FRXOGDOVRSRWHQWLDOO\ÂżOOUHTXLUHPHQWVIRU &'$&&RRUGLQDWRUSRVLWLRQV

Â&#x2021; Humanitarian Journalism Trainer

Â&#x2021; 5DGLR3URGXFHU7UDLQHU Â&#x2021; 5DGLR7HFKQLFLDQ Â&#x2021; 5HVHDUFK0RQLWRULQJDQG(YDOXDWLRQ 0 (  Director Â&#x2021; Emergency Multimedia Documentation 2IÂżFHU Â&#x2021; /RJLVWLFV2IÂżFHU Once applicants are screened, those candidates VHOHFWHGDUHSXWRQWRWKH5RVWHU7KLVZLOOKHOS the Internews be ready and prepared to assemble groundbreaking response teams that can deliver professional, timely, predictable, reliable, and well-targeted humanitarian communication solutions in the wake of humanitarian crises. For more information on the Internews +XPDQLWDULDQ0HGLD5RVWHUVHHhttp://www. internews.org/about-internews/work-us


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OUR CAPACITY

INVESTING IN DISASTER PREPAREDNESS: EMERGENCY STANDBY EQUIPMENT

T

O MAKE SURE that Internews has the right equipment on hand to rapidly deploy in the event of a crisis, at the end of 2011 the organization procured five different types of emergency standby kits, to be stored at its Washington D.C. headquarters, packed and ready for immediate deployment. Each kit contains the equipment necessary WRUHVSRQGWRIXOO\Ă&#x20AC;HGJHGKXPDQLWDULDQ communications operations and can be taken with Internews staff to different crisis contexts, depending on the particular needs of the response. Â&#x2021; Newsroom-in-a-box: This contains equipment and material to equip local journalists to report stories in the midst of a crisis, ranging from digital recorders, microphones, and headphones to smartphones and laptops with audio editing software. The Newsroom-in-a-box kit also includes a video camera and all the equipment necessary for video production DQGWUDLQLQJ$OOWKHHTXLSPHQWÂżWVLQWRD backpack. Â&#x2021; Production equipment: This kit contains all the material needed to produce radio and other audio products, in a studio and also outdoors. Â&#x2021; Broadcast equipment (i.e. radio-in-a-box): In the event that media outlets are destroyed or severely damaged and unable to broadcast,1

this kit contains the equipment necessary to set up a mobile broadcasting facility, including a transmitter and a mast. Â&#x2021; &RPPXQLFDWLRQHTXLSPHQWDQG2IÂżFH LQDER[7KHIRXUWKDQGÂżIWKNLWVFRQWDLQ ,QWHUQHZVFRPPXQLFDWLRQVDQGRIÂżFH materials, including smartphones, satellite SKRQHV%*$1SRUWDEOHVDWHOOLWHLQWHUQHW WHUPLQDOVWHQWVJHQHUDWRUVÂżUVWDLGNLWV and non-perishable food, to name just a few items. Wind-up radio handsets are also part of this kit for distribution to disaster-affected populations. In designing these kits, Internews worked ZLWK5DGLR$FWLYH2 a UK-based social enterprise that provides equipment, training, and technical solutions for community radio stations, recording VWXGLRVDQGUDGLRWUDLQLQJFHQWHUV5DGLR$FWLYH KHOSHGWRÂżQDOL]HWKHGHVLJQDQGHTXLSPHQWOLVW for the kits; to source and procure all the items; to package them in secure, customized cases; and to create inventory lists and user manuals for how to assemble and use the equipment once deployed.

1 For an example of this type of intervention, see the following video about Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; work in Aceh, Indonesia, after the 2004 tsunami: http://www. youtube.com/watch?v=gHZAtq1vipg

2 RadioActive (www.radioactive.org.uk)


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

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OUR CAPACITY

TRAINING LOCAL MEDIA PROFESSIONALS: HUMANITARIAN REPORTING MODULE

A

KEY ELEMENT of any Internews humanitarian response is training on humanitarian reporting for local media professionals, so that they are better equipped to understand the complexities of humanitarian responses and able to report useful and actionable information to affected communities. Such trainings are part of disaster risk reduction (DRR) efforts, as well as disaster response initiatives. To facilitate and streamline these trainings, Internews is working on a new edition of a +XPDQLWDULDQ5HSRUWLQJ0RGXOHZKLFK FRQVROLGDWHVXSGDWHVDQGUHÂżQHVPDQXDOVWKDW it has already created in Sri Lanka and Pakistan. $PRQJRWKHUWRSLFVWKHPDQXDOZLOOFRYHU Â&#x2021; Knowing your audience: disaster-affected communities; Â&#x2021; The role of media in humanitarian crises; Â&#x2021; %DVLFDQGKXPDQLWDULDQVSHFLÂżFMRXUQDOLVP skills; Â&#x2021; The humanitarian system; Â&#x2021; Using new and social media to contribute to humanitarian communications;

Â&#x2021; Security, safety, and mental health of journalists. 7KH+XPDQLWDULDQ5HSRUWLQJ0DQXDOZLOOEH launched in early 2012 and is intended to be of use to a wide range of actors, including trainers and reporters from developing countries and journalism schools around the world.


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

OUR CAPACITY

KNOWING HOW TO DO IT STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES

A

LL OF THESE IMPROVEMENTS to Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; core capacities have also necessitated a more institutionalized understanding about the way that Internews engages in humanitarian contexts.

To ensure reliable and predictable work in the humanitarian space Internews has been developing an internal set of Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) that capture Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; past experience in humanitarian communications and provide guidance for future interventions to ,QWHUQHZVVWDIIDQG5RVWHUPHPEHUV

Though the SOPs provide an important framework, it is important to remember that every emergency is different and that therefore these 623VDUHĂ&#x20AC;H[LEOHOLYLQJGRFXPHQWVWKDWDOORZIRU creativity and innovation in any context in which Internews may operate.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

63

OUR CAPACITY

ASSESSING THE COMMUNICATIONS ECOLOGY STANDARDIZING TEMPLATES AND METHODOLOGIES

P

ART OF INTERNEWSâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; SOPs, and another critical component of its engagement in humanitarian responses, is assessing the communications ecology post-disaster in a country stricken by crisis.

Knowing what information affected populations need, understanding the best way to reach them, and creating a two-way communications system are all vital components to any humanitarian response. Understanding the information needs of local communities enables humanitarian responders to deliver better aid. Similarly, understanding the extent of the damage to local media infrastructure enables Internews and other humanitarian responders to identify the range of available channels that can support rapid humanitarian communications interventions. Equally important, assessments on these issues enable Internews to know which local media need to re-launch operations, and the best way to support them. With all this information, Internews and other interested organizations can plan coordinated media assistance programs to

rebuild local media.1 Drawing on its experience with information needs assessments from Haiti and throughout 2011 in a range of contexts, Internews has developed questionnaire templates for both kinds of assessments. These templates are uploaded onto data collection software that enables assessors to quickly and securely collect data using mobile phones. The templates can be customized to meet the needs of different contexts, and will also be shared with the needs assessment community of more traditional humanitarian responders.2

1 As aforesaid, the infoasaid project is producing media and telecommunications guides pre-disaster. 2 See earlier section on Information Needs Assessments.


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

CHALLENGES: PROMPTING INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE AND LEVERAGING RESOURCES TO MAKE IT HAPPEN

E

FFECTIVE INFORMATION and communication exchanges with disaster-affected populations in crisis situations around the world are still among the least acknowledged, least funded, and most complex challenges both within organizations and in the broader humanitarian sector. The past decade has witnessed remarkable growth and sophistication in the area of humanitarian communications.1 At least for the past ten years, different publications and events have documented, highlighted, and contributed to the increasing body of evidence on the importance of communicating with affected communities and the need for this vital element to become a permanent, predictable, and reliable component of humanitarian responses.

1 For a list of publications, events, and other main landmarks on the issue of communications with affected communities, see Annex 1.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

65

â&#x20AC;&#x153;The people who are on the receiving end of our assistance are rarely if ever consulted on what they need, or are able to choose who helps them or how ... Whilst this has long been recognized as an issue, too little has been done about it.â&#x20AC;? UK DEPARTMENT FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (DFID) HUMANITARIAN EMERGENCY RESPONSE REVIEW (HERR), EXECUTIVE SUMMARY, MARCH 2011.

Humanitarian organizations have historically failed to realize that emergency responses are often undermined by a lack of information among affected people, in a way that severely affects aid effectiveness and accountability. $IIHFWHGSRSXODWLRQVQHHGWREHDEOHWRDFFHVV timely, accurate, and well-targeted life-saving information. They have the right to know what is happening, and what services are available for them; they have a right to ask questions and get answers, and therefore become active agents in their own relief and recovery. $VRIWRGD\GHVSLWHDIHZVLJQLÂżFDQW exceptions, all too often just a few individuals within organizations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; in many cases lacking VXIÂżFLHQWLQVWLWXWLRQDOVXSSRUWDGHTXDWH

resources, and at times technical knowledge â&#x20AC;&#x201C; are the only ones driving humanitarian communication efforts. Even when they deliver important results and make a positive impact, best practices and lessons learned are not normally institutionalized, and therefore hardly LQĂ&#x20AC;XHQFHRWKHUKXPDQLWDULDQVHWWLQJV Despite the growing interest from humanitarian organizations and the important progress made to date, the obstacles to mainstreaming humanitarian communication PRGHOVUHPDLQVLJQLÂżFDQW7KHVHREVWDFOHVH[LVW across the humanitarian architecture, as well as within Internews and other organizations committed to empowering local media to be key actors in humanitarian responses.


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

CHALLENGES

CHALLENGES WITHIN THE HUMANITARIAN SPACE

M

ANY OF THE CHALLENGES have to do with the way that the humanitarian system and donor priorities have historically been structured. To date, this has not sufficiently allowed or supported a profound and systematic investment in communications with affected populations, either within individual agencies or at the system level.

Within the humanitarian space, Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; experience from numerous assessments and operations amid crises, the most prominent challenges include the following: 1. LACK OF SPECIFIC RESOURCES: CONFLATION OF HUMANITARIAN COMMUNICATIONS AND PUBLIC INFORMATION ROLES Very often, organizations task the same individuals who liaise with international media, generally public information, media, RUFRPPXQLFDWLRQVRIÂżFHUVWRZRUNDOVRRQ humanitarian communications. These same staff, particularly in a rapid-onset emergency, are also responsible for other equally critical tasks such as acting as spokespersons, drafting press releases, or writing reports, meaning that communication with affected populations is often not prioritized. While the communication expertise required for these roles can translate into work with affected populations, fundamentally

humanitarian communications is a very different activity, with distinct goals, strategies, and requirements. 2. LACK OF UNDERSTANDING ABOUT THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN â&#x20AC;&#x153;MESSAGINGâ&#x20AC;? AND â&#x20AC;&#x153;TWO-WAY COMMUNICATIONâ&#x20AC;? Historically, while important and good work has been done on the delivery of messages to affected populations (messaging), establishing systematic ways of listening to survivors (twoway communication) has remained a particular challenge. This is a crucial point: two-way communication is essential to identifying what is working and what is not, thereby boosting aid effectiveness; it is crucial for accountability, allowing aid organizations to respond to questions and clarify processes; and it is crucial to VXSSRUWLQJDQGHQDEOLQJEHQHÂżFLDU\SDUWLFLSDWLRQ and empowerment to allow communities and individuals to begin to make decisions about their own lives.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

3. HUMANITARIAN STAFF REQUIRE GREATER ORIENTATION AND SKILLS IN COMMUNICATIONS PLATFORMS AND SOLUTIONS TO CREATE TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION This includes training on basic understanding and skills on how to communicate with affected populations, including delivering information, engaging in dialogue, and effectively channeling feedback from communities through multiSODWIRUPPXOWLFKDQQHODSSURDFKHVXVLQJ local media, non-mass media communication FKDQQHOV HJFRPPXQLW\YROXQWHHUV WUDGLWLRQDO indigenous channels (e.g. religious leaders), or mobile technology and social media â&#x20AC;&#x201C; whatever avenues may work. 4. SIGNIFICANT STAFF TURNOVER, SHORT-TERM APPROACH, AND LACK OF INSTITUTIONAL MEMORY While staff turnover is an endemic problem in the sector,1 particularly in rapid-onset emergencies, poor knowledge management systems lead directly to the loss of institutional memory. $VZHOODVPDNLQJQHZLQLWLDWLYHVGLIÂżFXOWWR develop systematically, short-term approaches also result in the loss of local, on-the-ground

1 â&#x20AC;&#x153;Especially among expatriate staff, turnover rates are very high. In one major INGO, for example, 50 percent of expatriate staff turn over each year. On the one hand, the prospect of short tenures can be a disincentive for investing in the development of staff. On the other hand, organizations recognize that better management and better systems for career development could help retain good staff for longer periods.â&#x20AC;? Developing Managers and Leaders: Experiences and Lessons from International NGOs, Sherine Jayawickrama, October 2011, p.2. Special report by the Harvard Humanitarian Initiative and the Hauser Center for Nonprofit Organizations (http://hausercenter.harvard.edu/579/ developing-managers-and-leaders-experiences-and-lessons-frominternational-ngos/)

knowledge and familiarity (e.g. establishing contacts and rapport with local players), skills developed through training programs, and overall awareness of entire activities. This tends to prompt stakeholders, particularly local ones, to feel that â&#x20AC;&#x153;the wheel is being reinvented every single day.â&#x20AC;? 5. HUMANITARIAN COMMUNICATIONS COORDINATION IS LACKING 5HFHQWUHSRUWVKDYHIRXQGÂł7KHFXUUHQW humanitarian architecture is not currently geared towards addressing the issue of communication with communities, or the concept of information as a form of humanitarian assistance in itself. No agency or cluster is tasked with leading on communication, and there is no recognition of communication as a cross-cutting issue.â&#x20AC;?2 7KH+DLWLUHVSRQVHVDZWKHÂżUVWHIIRUW to address communication with affected communities at the level of the humanitarian V\VWHPWKURXJK&'$&+DLWLZKLFKZRUNHGDVD cross-cluster support mechanism. Delivery of this VHUYLFHWKURXJKWKH&'$&1HWZRUNKRZHYHU UHTXLUHVIXQGLQJVWDIÂżQJDQGVXSSRUWVHUYLFHV If this is to happen, urgent policy changes are required to ensure that communications with affected communities are part of the standard humanitarian response. ,QWHUQHZVKRVWDJHQF\RI&'$&LQ+DLWLKDV been supporting an alternative model that has EHHQGRFXPHQWHGLQWKH&'$&+DLWL/HDUQLQJ 5HYLHZ VHHER[RQWKHQH[WSDJH 

2 Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak), p.43.

67


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2011 ANNUAL REPORT INTERNEWS HUMANITARIAN INFORMATION PROJECTS

COMMUNICATIONS AND CLUSTERS There are different ways to address communications with affected communities within the cluster architecture. A stand-alone cluster would be a possibility but it would risk isolating communications and could result in a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;siloâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; effect. A communications subcluster that would be similar to CDAC in Haiti could be established. Alternatively, a communications coordinating function could be integrated into each of the cluster leads by employing staff with the relevant backgrounds. The communication specialists from each cluster lead could collaborate in a cross-cluster working group to ensure cohesion and further coordination. This would allow for a clear mainstreaming of communications with affected communities. CDAC HAITI LEARNING REVIEW, DRAFT REPORT, CECILIA M. LJUNGMAN WITH JETHRO SEREME, CHANNEL RESEARCH, P.49.

6. NOT KNOWING WHERE YOU SET YOUR FOOT: FAILURE TO UNDERSTAND THE INFORMATION ECOSYSTEM $VDOUHDG\GLVFXVVHGEHWWHUGDWDDQG information on the impact of disasters and the needs of affected communities are key elements in ensuring the best possible response. Information needs and the changes prompted in WKHLQIRUPDWLRQHFRORJ\LQDSDUWLFXODUFRXQWU\ context need to be part of early humanitarian assessments, but these issues have not yet been systematically built into most existing initial postdisaster assessment protocols and practice. 7. FAILURE TO UTILIZE AND PARTNER WITH LOCAL MEDIA Very often local media are not perceived or approached as potential partners, even being considered as a â&#x20AC;&#x153;threat.â&#x20AC;? They tend to be vastly under-utilized, and their potential to support humanitarian communications is left largely untapped.

Internews always advocates for the key role that media, often radio in particular, can potentially play in emergency responses when time and resources are invested in fostering these types of partnerships. Local media need to be given the support and respect they need to become fundamental players in humanitarian response, reconstruction, and community development. 8. COMMUNICATIONS EFFORTS ARE NOT EFFECTIVELY MONITORED Despite some small-scale monitoring and feedback efforts, for example at local food distributions, most communications campaigns and systems may not be effectively monitored. This means that the impact and effectiveness RIVSHFLÂżFFRPPXQLFDWLRQVDFWLYLWLHVDQGWKH overall usefulness of the channels they use, are not tested; subsequently there are little to no evidence-based adjustments or improvements to existing practice. Very often monitoring of communications efforts is minimal or non-existent. This is a programmatic challenge â&#x20AC;&#x201C; it is impossible to adjust messages, communications outreach strategies, or feedback mechanisms without measures to assess what is working and what is not. Furthermore, lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of communication activities makes it even more complicated to prove the cost-effectiveness of these interventions and the value for money, and thus to justify leveraging VSHFLÂżFUHVRXUFHVIRUHPHUJHQF\UHVSRQVHZLWKLQ humanitarian agencies. Information needs assessments can provide baseline data that can assist in communications and feedback strategies and can justify (or not) investments in this non-traditional area of emergency intervention.


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

69

CHALLENGES

CHALLENGES WITHIN INTERNEWS

I

NTERNEWS IS WORKING TO HELP alleviate the aforesaid challenges, but the organization itself also faces important challenges of its own:

1. NAVIGATING THE HUMANITARIAN SPACE AS A MEDIA DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Is Internews a news agency? Do Internews staff report on the issues discussed in coordination PHHWLQJV"$UH\RXJRLQJWRSXEOLVKWKLVLQWKH international media? The answer to all of these questions is â&#x20AC;&#x153;no,â&#x20AC;? yet Internews staff are regularly posed with such queries in humanitarian operations. The humanitarian space is an arena long occupied and monopolized by much bigger, more â&#x20AC;&#x153;traditionalâ&#x20AC;? humanitarian actors that have had limited exposure to media development organizations in the same ground. Being a non-traditional humanitarian actor, but having a deep understanding and experience in humanitarian settings and the humanitarian architecture, Internews has invested time and resources in continuing to carve a space for communications with affected communities and strengthening the role of local media within the humanitarian system, making its case through its actions on the ground and its advocacy in the international arena. 2. LACK OF UNRESTRICTED FUNDING Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; biggest structural constraint to leveraging the innovation sparked by crisis is our project-funding model. Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; primary funders tend to support only discrete programs of activity, almost always within set geographic boundaries. This model allows the organization to be tremendously effective on a fairly broad scale. But this project funding model leaves relatively OLWWOHĂ&#x20AC;H[LELOLW\WRUHVSRQGWRQDWXUDOGLVDVWHUVRU

FRQĂ&#x20AC;LFWVRUWKHVWDIIDQGRUJDQL]DWLRQDOFDSDFLW\ to learn from, disseminate and scale up results following a crisis intervention. Despite the generous support of some foundations and individuals in the US,1 the lack of availability of such funding severely hampers Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; ability to react quickly in the wake of a humanitarian crisis. Internews is a projectfunded organization and, without unrestricted emergency funds that enable it to hit the ground within 24-48 hours of an emergency, its response WLPHLVVLJQLÂżFDQWO\LQFUHDVHG7KLVGHOD\FDQ mean a serious blow to the way that humanitarian communications work is embedded, or not, into a particular response from the outset. Indeed, it is Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; desire that the great gains made in 2011 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; the impact shown by its country operations and emergency assessments, the evolution of the institution within the humanitarian space, the partnerships and alliances forged, and the energy put into equipping itself with the right resources to be able to deploy â&#x20AC;&#x201C; may be supported in 2012. $GHTXDWHUHVRXUFHVZLOOVXSSRUW,QWHUQHZV to manage, maintain, and enhance its capacity to provide added value to humanitarian operations and contribute to saving lives and reducing suffering in partnership with local media, humanitarian organizations, and local governments around the world.

1 See list of Internewsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; donors in Annex 4: Support from Donors.


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ACRONYMS ACAPS

Assessment Capacities Project

IFES

International Foundation for Electoral Systems

ALNAP

Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action

IFRC

International Federation of the Red Cross

IfS

Instrument for Stability (of the EC)

BGAN

Broadband Global Area Network

IOM

International Organization for Migration

BBC WST

BBC World Service Trust

MIRA

CDAC

Communicating with Disaster-Affected Communities

Multi-Cluster Initial Rapid Assessment

MoU

Memorandum of Understanding

DFID

Department for International Development (UK)

NGO

Non-governmental organization

DRL

Bureau of Democracy Rights and Labor

NRC

Norwegian Refugee Council

OCHA

EC

European Commission

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

ECHO

European Community Humanitarian Office

OFDA

U.S. Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance

ERRF

Emergency Rapid Response Fund (OCHA)

OTI

Office of Transition Initiatives (USAID)

EU

European Union

PRM

FAO

UN Food and Agriculture Organization

State Departmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration

GIS

Geographical information system

SBTF

Standby Task Force

SDR

Secondary Data Review

GoH

Government of Haiti

UNFPA

IASC NATF

Inter-Agency Standing Committee Needs Assessment Task Force

United Nations Population Fund

UNHCR

Information and communications technology

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees

USAID

U.S. Agency for International Development

Internally displaced person

WFP

World Food Programme

ICT

IDP


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71

ANNEX 1 Landmark publications and events in the evolution of the humanitarian communications sector

2000 Working with the Media in Conflicts and other Emergencies. DFID policy paper produced by DFID’s Conflict and Humanitarian Affairs Department and Social Development Department. www.reliefweb.int/node/21762

2001 Lifeline Media: Reaching populations in crisis A guide to developing media projects in conflict situations. Loretta Hieber. www.reliefweb.int/rw/ lib.nsf/db900SID/LGEL5EBFQ3?OpenDocument

2003

2007

Use and Abuse of Media in Vulnerable Societies. Mark Frohardt, Internews. www. usip.org/publications/useand-abuse-media-vulnerablesocieties

Global Symposium in Geneva: A meeting of 300 humanitarian practitioners, which put the information gap on the agenda. http:// ict4peace.org/pubs/Symposium Final Statement.pdf

2005 IFRC World Disasters Report (Information in disasters): “People need information as much as water, food, medicine or shelter. Information can save lives, livelihoods and resources. Information bestows power.” www.reliefweb.int/ rw/lib.nsf/db900SID/SODA6GV3LT?OpenDocument The Right to Know. Imogen Wall. Report written for the Office of the Special Envoy to the Indian tsunami, focusing on Sri Lanka and Aceh post-tsunami. http:// www.wpro.who.int/NR/ rdonlyres/94653175-72B44E69-9075-D1921FF119FA/0/ the_right_to_know.pdf

2008 Left in the Dark: The unmet need for information in emergency response. Imogen Wall and Lisa Robinson. BBC World Service Trust (WST) policy briefing, released in October, which argued that affected populations have immediate information needs that were not being met. www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/ trust/news/2008/10/081022_ emergency_response_briefing. shtml


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ALNAP (the Active Learning Network for Accountability and Performance in Humanitarian Action) published a report of its 23rd Biennial Meeting in Madrid on the complex relationships between the media and humanitarian agencies, making five recommendations for a new agenda. www.alnap. org/pool/files/23_media.pdf

2009

2011

future-information-sharinghumanitarian-emergencies

Media, Information Systems and Communities: Lessons from Haiti. CDAC, Internews and the Knight Foundation, in January, analyzed the local media and information environment in the immediate aftermath of Haiti response. www.reliefweb.int/ node/380413

Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak) Best practice and lessons learned in communication in Haiti. Imogen Wall and Yves GĂŠrald-Chery, infoasaid, November 2011. Practical case studies and best practice in communications with affected communities during the 2010 responses. http://infoasaid.org/ story/ann-kite-yo-pale-or-letthem-speak

CDAC Network hired a full time Coordinator and undertook a strategic review.

The CDAC Network is born and infoasaid a joint project between Internews and the BBC WST launched.

A Sub Group on Accountability to Affected Populations was created, chaired by FAO and WFP, and forming part of the IASC Task Team on the Cluster Approach.

2010

Disaster Relief 2.0: The future of information sharing in humanitarian emergencies, by Harvard Humanitarian Initiative. Published in March by the UN Foundation & Vodafone Foundation Technology Partnership, www.unocha.org/top-stories/ all-stories/disaster-relief-20-

CDAC became operational in Haiti (supported by OCHA and led by Internews, www.cdachaiti.org) and in Pakistan (a short deployment supported by infoasaid).


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73

ANNEX 2 Publications, talks and presentations by Internews

In 2011, Jacobo Quintanilla, Director of Internews Humanitarian Information Projects, published articles and made a number of presentations on Internews’ work and the issue of communicating with disasteraffected communities. ŗ “When Communicating Matters: How Haiti Changes Disaster Response,” Huffington Post (January 12): www. huffingtonpost.com/ jacobo-quintanilla/ when-communicatingmatter_b_808298.html ŗ “When communication really matters: the experience of CDAC in Haiti,” published in: Humanitarian Practice Network (January 11): www.odihpn.org/report. asp?id=3166 ŗ “Collected Reflections: Thinking Development,” (January): www. thinkingdevelopment.org/ CollectedReflections.pdf

ŗ “Disaster Relief 2.0: Leveraging the power of new technologies, local media and local communities in humanitarian responses,” UN Dispatch (April 1): www.undispatch. com/disaster-relief-2-0leveraging-the-powerof-new-technologieslocal-media-andlocal-communities-inhumanitarian-responses ŗ “Cote d’Ivoire-Liberia: Fighting rumours with fact,” IRIN (May 13): www. irinnews.org/Report. aspx?ReportID=92711 ŗ “La información, tan necesaria como la ayuda en Costa de Marfil,” El Mundo (May 23) www.elmundo.es/ elmundo/2011/05/20/ solidaridad/1305887000. html ŗ “Aid Agencies Must Do More to Help Refugees Communicate Back Home,” The

Interdependent (June 12): www.theinterdependent. com/110612/aid-agenciesmust-do-more-to-helprefugees-communicateback-home ŗ “From The Front Lines: A Simple Poster Might Have Saved These Libyan Boys,” Mediaite (June 3): www.mediaite.com/ columnists/from-the-frontlines-a-simple-postermight-have-saved-theselibyan-boys/ ŗ “El reportero refugiado,” El Mundo (August 14): www.elmundo.es/ elmundo/2011/08/12/ solidaridad/1313143888. html ŗ “La falta de información impide recibir ayuda a los refugiados somalíes,” El Mundo (October 1): www.elmundo.es/ elmundo/2011/09/28/ solidaridad/1317211547. html


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ŗ “The Broader View: Why communicating with disaster-struck communities matters,” United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (December 5): http:// unocha.org/top-stories/ all-stories/broader-viewwhy-communicatingdisaster-struckcommunities-matters

TALKS AND PRESENTATIONS “Lessons from Haiti: Media, Information Systems and Communities” Date: February 23, 2011 Location: Columbia University, School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA), New York, USA. Description: Presentation about the role of media and technology in the Haiti earthquake and its implications for future crises responses. calendar.columbia.edu/sundial/ webapi/get.php?brand=sipa&id =47643&vt=detail&context=sta ndalone “University College of London Francophone Society Talk - Aid Work in Francophone Countries” Date: March 10, 2011 Location: University College of

London, London, UK. Description: Presentation about Internews’ work in the field of humanitarian assistance in Francophone countries such as Chad and Haïti. www.internews.eu/ events/internews-europehumanitarian-director-speakerfrench-society-ucl “IASC Weekly Meeting – Information needs of beneficiaries” Date: September 21, 2011 Location: Palais des Nations, Geneva, Switzerland. Description: Briefing to the IASC Weekly meeting on the findings of the joint humanitarian communication needs assessment conducted in Dadaab in August 2011. www.humanitarianinfo. org/iasc/pageloader. aspx?page=content-calendarcalendardetails&meetID=2015

“IASC Weekly Meeting– Information needs of beneficiaries” Date: October 14, 2011 Location: OCHA, New York, USA Description: Briefing to the IASC weekly meeting on the findings of the joint humanitarian communication needs assessment conducted in Dadaab in August 2011. “Communication as Aid: Lessons from Field Experience”1 Date: November 23, 2011 Location: CDAC Meeting, London, UK Description: Presentation with Cecilia Ljungman, Channel Researchand Anita Shah, Head of infoasaid. www.alnap.org/event/235.aspx

“Information is Aid – Failing Forward” Date: October 13, 2011 Location: FailFaire DC 2011, Washington D.C., USA Description: Presentation of findings and lessons of the joint humanitarian communication needs assessment conducted in Dadaab in August 2011.

1 To download the presentation about the importance of conducting information needs assessments, click here: https:// files.internews.eu/uploads/20111124_ jquintanilla@internews.org/INTERNEWS++Communication+is+AID+231111.pdf


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

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ANNEX 3 Publications produced by infoasaid

2010

2011

Providing Humanitarian Information to FloodAffected People in Pakistan. A snapshot, through more than 1,000 individual interviews, of the effectiveness of humanitarian information efforts in the provinces of Sindh and Punjab in Pakistan following the July 2010 floods. http://infoasaid.org/providinghumanitarian-informationpakistan

Ann Kite Yo Pale (Let Them Speak) Best practice and lessons learned in communication in Haiti. Imogen Wall and Yves GĂŠraldChery. November 2011. Practical case studies and best practice in communications with affected communities during the 2010 responses. http://infoasaid.org/story/annkite-yo-pale-or-let-them-speak Citizen initiatives in Haiti. Imogen Wall. In Forced Migration Review (FMR) 38: The technology issue. Refugee Studies Centre, Oxford Department of International Development, University of Oxford. www.fmreview.org/ technology.pdf Delivering communications in an emergency response: Observations from Haiti. Imogen Wall. In Humanitarian Exchange, No 52. Special Feature: Humanitarian Accountability. http://www. odihpn.org/humanitarianexchange-magazine/issue-52

2012 FORTHCOMING Communicating with Disaster-Affected Populations â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Moving from Policy to Practice. July 2012. Humanitarian Practice Network (HPN) Paper. In addition, Internews has developed, with infoasaid, media and telecoms landscape guides for the 22 developing countries most prone to humanitarian emergencies. infoasaid.org/media-andtelecoms-landscape-guides-0


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ANNEX 4 Support from donors

I

NTERNEWS’ HUMANITARIAN information projects have been made possible by the generous support of our donors. In 2011, Internews’ has benefited from grants for humanitarian information work from the following funders:

BILATERAL GOVERNMENTAL DONORS

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID): www.usaid.gov

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA): www.usaid. gov/our_work/ humanitarian_ assistance/ disaster_ assistance

U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) Office of Transition Initiatives (OTI): www.usaid. gov/our_work/ cross-cutting_ programs/ transition_ initiatives

UK Department for International Development (DFID): www.dfid.gov.uk

US State Department Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor (DRL): www.state. gov/g/drl

US State Department Bureau of Population, Refugees and Migration (PRM): www.state. gov/g/prm


WHEN INFORMATION SAVES LIVES: COMMUNICATION IS AID

MULTILATERAL DONORS

European Commission: www.ec.europa. eu/index_ en.htm

European Commission (EC) Instrument for Stability (IfS): www.ec.europa. eu/europeaid/ how/finance/ ifs_en.htm

United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR): www.unhcr.org

PRIVATE FOUNDATIONS, FUNDS, AND NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS

European Union (EU): www.europa.eu/ index_en.htm

UN AGENCIES

The Centre de Crise of the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs: www.diplomatie. gouv.fr

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United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs’ (OCHA’s) Emergency Rapid Response Fund (ERRF): www.unocha. org/whatwe-do/ humanitarianfinancing/ pooled-funds

John D. & Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation: www.macfound. org

John S. and James L. Knight Foundation: www.knight foundation.org

Shelley & Donald Rubin Foundation: www.sdrubin. org

The Arca Foundation: www. arcafoundation. org

The Silicon Valley Community Foundation: www. siliconvalleycf. org

United States Institute of Peace (USIP): www.usip.org

Humanitarian Innovation Fund (HIF): www. humanitarian innovation.org

International Foundation for Electoral Systems (IFES): www.ifes.org



2011 Internews Humanitarian Report