JUN 2022 - International Petfood magazine

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June 2022

Sustainability goes mainstream

A re-invention of capitalism in the matrix of our anthropocene diet - Swift guide to the diet & nutrition, hygiene and housing requirements of aviary birds - Vegan petfood production - NIR technologies in petfood production - Rendering:The unsung hero of sustainable petfood www.internationalpetfood.com www.perendale.com


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June 2022

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Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk International Petfood - Volume 5 ©Copyright 2022 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 2754-4680



6 Roger Gilbert Joseph P Kearns

8 Professor Simon Davies

FEATURES 12 Sustainability goes mainstream 18 Swift guide to the diet & nutrition, hygiene and housing requirements of aviary birds

22 Vegan petfood production 24 NIR technologies in petfood production 26 Rendering:The unsung hero of sustainable petfood

THE PUBLISHER Staying with the sustainability debate, an area that Time moves on so quickly - I mention this as this always attracts a lot of attention is packaging, so is my sixth editorial for International Petfood it is timely that Pierre Pienaar, President of the magazine since we increased the publication from World Packaging Organisation, features on our quarterly to monthly. This critical decision was interview pages this month. made in order to meet the needs of our readers in In addition to this issue’s range of high-quality the manufacturing sector. features, our events section also contains reports I would like to take this opportunity to say thank Roger Gilbert from Interzoo 2022 - a huge festival of all things you to all our editorial contributors, advertisers Publisher – International Petfood petfood held in Nuremberg, Germany last month, and friends. I would like to express special as well as a report from our editor Joe Kearns thanks to our regular columnists Joe Kearns and from his visit to Petfood Forum, held in Kansas City, USA. Professor Simon Davies whose experience, time and dedication We hope that you enjoy this edition and have had a similar has helped us to create a stronger start to 2022 than we could experience with our previous five editions - all of which are have dared hope for. available online and on our IPF App (for further details and how And it is thanks to this unique band of collaborators - who to access our App, please refer to the panel below). have all assisted our editorial team - that we have created this Thank you all again for your continued support - here's to wonderful industry publication. improving economic conditions in the second half of 2022 and Looking to the future, I hope to sustain this level of success; and beyond! reflect the quality of the content that appears in this edition of International Petfood magazine. For example, the key theme in this month's edition is sustainability. So, as well as an article describing the environmental credentials of rendering, written by Anna Wilkinson of the North American Renderers Association, our regular contributor James Cooper also returns to this topic with a typically detailed article, with his focus trained keenly on achieving sustainability in food production on this occasion.

Our last edition Did you miss our May 2022 edition? If so, don’t panic! You can still read all of the great quality content that we published last month on our App – which you can download from Apple Store, Google Play or online at: https://magstand.com/petfood – with the latter platform granting you the opportunity to see all of our back editions on your desktop computer. https://store.magstand.com/petfood What you ‘May’ have missed…

'Hydrolysed yeast’ - Lallemand Animal Nutrition

This article focuses on the characteristics and benefits of a new ingredient for petfood: a specifically designed functional hydrolysed yeast. Yeast and yeast derivative products are versatile and natural ingredients to keep in mind when formulating food for pets. They can be used for everything from a palatability enhancer to a source of nutrients and functional ingredients. To read more, go to: https://mymag.info/e/1462

Equine nutrition - A brief guide to the multi-faceted dietary needs of the horse

Maintaining good health in horses starts with nutrition: what we feed our horses will directly impact on their health. Horses are non-ruminant herbivores, much like camels or rabbits, which refers to their lack of a ruminant digestive system and single stomach, which is comparatively small for an animal of its size. In this article by International Petfood magazine’s Caitlin Gittins, our colleague seeks to help us to gain a better grasp of the horse’s anatomy by revealing important details about how they should be catered for nutritionally. To read more, go to: https://mymag.info/e/1463

The Interview - Leah Wilkinson, Vice President of Public Policy and Education at the American Feed Industry Association

Leah Wilkinson leads the legislative and regulatory team at the American Feed Industry Association, where she has worked for the past 12 years. In this capacity, she interacts with state, federal and international policymakers and regulators on issues of importance to the US feed and pet food industry. In our interview this month, we look at Ms Wilkinson’s career as well as sharing her insights on the current situation and the future of our industry To read more, go to: https://mymag.info/e/1465

We need to change the way we feed our pets - Martin Sieland, Terra Pura

With soaring prices, inflation, gas and energy deliveries at risk due to a war at the eastern border of Europe, together with the slow end of a three year long pandemic situation worldwide – all continuing to have an adverse effect on our lives, something has to give. In this article, Martin Sieland, Managing Director at Terra Pura discusses why we need to change the way we feed our pets, with a look at how insect producers are making petfood more sustainable. To read more, go to: https://mymag.info/e/1464

6 | June 2022 - International Petfood

THE EDITOR x 100 to get in a percent basis. Standard deviation Spring is here and along with the improving weather, measures how far the average value is from the mean while I was attending the Petfood Forum in Kansas while CV measures the ratio of the SD to the mean. City it was obvious that everyone else also is feeling These calculations give an indication that the smallest the need to get out and attend to business face to face. volume ingredient, normally the micro ingredients are My first impression on the attendance was the mixed well and will appear in each pellet. Interested in difficulty I had trying to find a place to park the car. testing mixer performance see an article on this topic by Once inside it was obvious this event was well attended, searching for “bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF3393. and the exhibitors were in force and ready to talk. Joseph P Kearns pdf”, a Kansas State University publication on a method We will be following up with information and Editor, International Petfood Magazine to test mixers. articles on some of the interesting information It should be noted most preconditioners on extruders have a CV gathered at the various booths in future additions, every possible in the 5% to 10% range but there are models which approach 3% to topic if interest was covered by companies addressing all aspects of 4%. These are great for adding final additions, normally liquids, and petfood production. This issue is centered on cage/aviary birds with regards pet birds. What achieve a great mix prior to the extruder barrel. should a pet bird be fed? It is generally accepted that these animals should have a diet that has a combination of high-quality feeds, natural Extruder operation is an art form foods such as fresh fruit, veggies, seeding grasses, native flowers and Process control is also a topic of interest, if you are going to the extent green foods which are appropriate and safe for that species. of having a great CV out of your mixer or conditioner it is expected you As a note the total bird feed industry for caged and outdoor birds might wish to have total control on the process. Historically you were is in the 5 to 6 billion dollar a year range. Basically, bird seed feeds lucky if you had a great extruder operator as it was an art form. are made up of seeds, nuts, fruits and vegetables where the individual Ok, being honest they had the intuition what to do but consistency ingredients are processed then combined in a mixer. Typical seeds between operators or shifts was lacking. Initial control was as simple used include sunflower, safflower, thistle, millet, peanuts, corn, milo, as it gets, an indicator on the hand control valve giving an indication flax, rapeseed and others. of how open or closed the valve might be. Next was the same operation but a digital indicator showing the flow rates numerically. After this the switch to modern day controls include Health problems centre on unbalanced diets computers was rapid with the key being a known delivery rate of the Extruded bird feeds are growing and as noted above, the basis of these dry feed mix as well as liquid additives with advanced flow meters. feeds is the same listed ingredients except there are ground and extruded Most systems are then controlled based on percentages of the into a small piece; much like is done for small diameter aquatic feeds. It dry flow rate. Everything is then easier to see and correct so that is noted health problems with caged birds centre on unbalanced diets. the production was more predicable over time. Industry standards The benefit of compounded or extruded diets is the fact that they changed and more verifications were needed. are complete in the nutritional values needed. The cooking process Advancements included monitoring the conditioning cylinder with opens the nutritional value when using high temperature short time the exit of this device and the extruder barrel being critical control extrusion resulting in minimal nutrient loss, while eliminating germs greatly reducing the risk of infection in the birds. It is seen that these points. Temperature was the main interest to verify kill step on salmonella and other bacteria. diets allow birds to eat less and have greatly reduced waste. Research is supporting these diets with specific feeds for selected bird species. The feed compositions are advancing based on life Down time is expensive stages, growing birds, adult birds and breeding birds for example. Advancements in technology allowed for moisture, density, product Production of bird feeds varies, with many small extruders are appearance and composition to be monitored and with feedback available for the small operation but the technology exists to make loops totally controlled at speeds man can’t compete with. small diameter pellets up towards 8 to 10 tons per hour or more as Controls are not limited to the extruder as dryer, coaters and mentioned much like aquatic feed production. basically any machine in the plant can be set up for advanced The one difference is the colours usually added to these style feeds for monitoring and control. The reasons for these advancements are effect and attraction for the birds. Larger piece feeds are made for the many and not totally on product verification. Down time is expensive bigger pet birds such as parrots and mynah birds. Forming extrusion is also when you consider the product you did not make in that time period. possible where the feed is not subjected to heat, but the process is used to Mis-manufactured feeds, fines, over dried or under dried product as well push the feed formulation through the die to make the desired shape. as over fortifying above the bag label is expensive when added up at the However, in most cased these feeds need to be elevated in moisture end of the year. Another managed area is the start-up and shut-down waste to allow the flow through these small holes. Therefore, drying or as the ingredients are the most expensive part of feed manufacturing. moisture reduction is needed but can be monitored to keep the heat Greatly reducing this by computer control or managing it to a down if desired with the correctly sized and designed dryer if you are minimal level is profitable. At a manageable level start up waste can concerned by heating the feed. be handled easily, if not then you need to move it around, dry it and regrind and add as rework. As mentioned in a separate article closer to the back of this The full nutritional value magazine, the Petfood Forum was full of exhibitors and all were An area of concern when making small diameter feeds is the centred on increasing the profitability of petfood producers. coefficient of variance (CV) in the feed mix. When making small I am positive we all are not doing this for fun. We operate based diameter feeds that are not consumed in large volumes do require on profits and we will strive to inform the latest and newest attention to detail, so the few pellets eaten have the full nutritional value. developments which allow for worthwhile topics to improve the A CV of five percent is considered a standard in the industry for producers bottom line. feed mixers. The definition of CV is the standard deviation/mean International Petfood - June 2022 | 7


Professor Simon Davies Nutrition Editor, International Petfood

The quest & scope for novel proteins I am often asked about exotic foods for our companion animals and so much publicity is now being directed towards a variety of ingredients unheard of in previous petfood formulations. There is of course much use of high-quality animal and plant derived ingredients forming the basis of the petfood brands. The rendering industry is a major source of category 3 proteins resulting from bovine, poultry processing and these processed animal by-products PAPs have their place in the system. Fishmeal is also a fish co-product from the fishery industry, salmon and trout can be found in higher end diets for cats. All these animal-based ingredients are invaluable proteins and sources of the 8-10 essential amino acids and also taurine which is so important in the biochemistry of vision in the feline. I am a firm advocate of using a variety of different ingredients as this would ensure securing a balance of nutrients and meeting with nutritional requirements. We can gain benefit in using complimentary proteins that are deficient in specific amino acids like methionine and lysine individually, but have excess of the other to cancel out these limiting levels. The combination of these proteins can allow greater inclusion in the diet of dogs and cats. I have had a long history of working with the rendering companies and recognise the stringent quality control steps from resourcing to manufacture. PAPs find their way into both wet and dry foods for both dogs and cats as well as the speciality ‘treats’ market. You will often see tuna and other fish and animal byproducts such as farmed rabbit in products like wet diets and moist food pouches. There have been some serious new technologies applied to process animal materials in the last decade with lower temperature drying conditions to conserve volatile nutrients and thermolabile vitamins. This has led to higher digestibility of proteins and preservation of flavours and improved palatability for the fussy pet. Turning towards novel and more exotic ingredients we see very popular scientific research into the use of insect meal in diets for many animals. In our last issue we explored this topic in more detail but petfood companies are beginning to use insect derived protein in niche formulations without adverse reactions to the animal. These appear to be healthy and sustainable alternatives to the regular use of soybean, pulses, grains, fish meals and animal by-products.

Insect meal can be obtained from a diverse variety of insects such as the more available Black Soldier Fly (BSF) larvae and even crickets and beetle larvae. These are produced in modern and very hygienic facilities where bioconversion of organic plant waste occurs under a strictly controlled environment. Insect protein can be quite variable in composition but has all the essential amino acids and rich in overall protein content between 40-60 percent dry matter within the ground dried meal. The amino acid pattern is close to that of fish and poultry meals but there is some significant variation. For example, housefly pupae have a very high amino acid index BV (biological value) and a digestibility just below that of poultry meal while yellow mealworms do not score quite as well for their amino acids but have high digestibility, above even that of poultry meal. Overall fat content and fatty acid composition is good in terms of energy contribution but not necessarily to meet essential fatty acid levels as we discussed in a previous editorial for cats and dogs. The oil is low in Omega-3 fatty acids and higher in the Omega-6 series and monounsaturated and saturated fats. We see fatty acids such as myristic and lauric acid that may play a role in animal nutrition. There may be scope to extract the fat from insect meals and develop a protein concentrate much higher in protein content at up to 80 percent. Insect meal contains the structural polymer chitin found in the exoskeleton and is a carbohydrate that may only be partially digested in the large intestine. It has been suggested that since chitin has very similar properties to other non-starch polysaccharides such as mannan oligosaccharides that have proven prebiotic effects in monogastric animals, chitin may work in a similar manner via fermentation producing metabolites for bacteria. Such functionality can have beneficial effects on gut morphology, integrity and health leading to improved immunity and positive changes in the important intestinal microbiome. Insects therefore may offer benefit in many more ways than simply being a good source of nutrients in petfood diets. Obviously much more evidence-based research is needed for validation. There is no doubting that we will see many more examples of exotic ingredients within recipes for cat and dog diets with exciting possibilities for more advanced formulations offering new potential to realise optimal nutrition and health.

8 | June 2022 - International Petfood


Petfood brands working together to sustainably source fish


etfood brands are working to increase fish sustainably sourced as use in ingredients, as Mars Pet Nutrition Europe recently announced that 100 percent of fish used in its petfood products are sustainably sourced, according to its sustainable fish sourcing guidelines. A large number of Mars’ brands use fish as part of their ingredients in Europe, including Sheba, Whiskas, Pedigree and Dreamies. Fish suppliers used by Mars Petcare are expected to follow its Supplier Code of Conduct, which outlines social, environmental and ethical expectations of its suppliers alongside globally aligned standards and international law. Fish that is accepted by the company must be certified or endorsed by credible third parties. It also aims to source from fisheries that are maintaining the diversity of the ecosystem. “Mars Pet Nutrition uses fish in its portfolio of petfood products as it enables pets to enjoy nutritionally balanced, healthy, and high-quality petfood,” explains Deri Watkins, Regional President at Mars Pet Nutrition Europe. “While our business accounts for a small share of the global seafood market, we continue to play our part in supporting a healthy future for ocean ecosystems and the seafood sector helping all to grow and thrive in a responsible way.” Helen Warren-Piper, Chief Growth Officer at Mars Pet Nutrition Europe said that pet owners could feel more “confident” about the choices they make regarding feeding their pets. “In our dedication to protect our oceans and the future of fish, our SHEBA brand at the same time works to deliver the world’s largest coral reef restoration program and plans to restore coral reefs,” she says. A great testament to what can be achieved “Reaching our 100 percent sustainably sourced fish target in Europe is a great testament to what can be achieved in close collaboration with our suppliers,

through years of rigorous work and a bold commitment to drive sustainability at scale,” comments Mert Kacmaz, Commercial Vice President at Mars Pet Nutrition Europe. “We work with our suppliers to ensure we source high quality raw materials, in a way that complies with our Supplier Code of Conduct and aligns with our sustainability expectations.” With the support of World Wildlife Fund (WWF) which Mars Petcare has been partnered with since 2010, its fish sustainable sourcing programme ensures that it doesn’t source any endangered fish species, which are drawn from the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. It continues to work with certifying organisations and industry experts globally to continue to review and adapt its approach to more sustainable fish sourcing. Their programme works towards four strategies to achieve more sustainable sourcing which include reducing pressure on fish ecosystems, seeking to source more sustainable fish, restoring critical habitats and advancing respect for people in the seafood industry. This is best summarised by Mars’ chosen wording: reduce, reward, restore and respect. Echoing Mars’ sentiments is IQI Petfood, which in a press release dated June 7, 2022 says that they were working with both the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) and the Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) to ensure that their fish-based ingredients are sustainable. Currently, three ingredients that IQI uses are ASCcertified: freshwater, trout, salmon and shrimp. ASC standards take into account the environmental and social impact of farming, as farms are required to show their efforts towards minimising their impact on the environment. The company went on to mention that they had successfully passed the ASC audit, which focuses on supply chain assurance which establishes whether suppliers being used have been certified.

International Petfood - June 2022 | 9


Company’s in-home feeding trials evidence its petfood nutritional claims


onceived with the purpose of providing substantial evidence that the petfood they produce provides ‘nutritional adequacy and overall health’ in dogs, petfood producer The Honest Kitchen has just completed its in-home, Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) Feeding Trials. Feeding trials were conducted by a third-party veterinarian group and tested the company’s Whole Grain Dehydrated, Grain Free Dehydrated and Grain Free Whole Food Clusters food for dogs. They spanned over a period of six months and included eight healthy dogs in each trial, amounting to 24 in total. Whilst acknowledging that meeting

the guidelines required for an AAFCO feeding trial is important, The Honest Kitchen took it a step further by ‘exceeding’ the requirements. Using a side-by-side comparison with the requirements of a standard AAFCO trial, the company demonstrated that they had not only met the requirements of the trial being a six-month period, but they had 86 markers compared with the typical four blood parameters; and took stool quality samples on top of weekly body weights. Results reflected that the petfood given to dogs resulted in a healthy pet. Dogs had normal healthy blood work, ideal stool quality scores, and maintained ideal body and muscle condition scores, on top of

PetDine’s petfood facility achieves SQF certification


he expansion of PetDine’s Harvard facility was announced in October of last year, to better meet the demands of the growing pet products industry. It was designed to increase hourly production output by 30 percent with a focus on sustainability as it is powered by solar energy. Now, PetDine’s recently expanded petfood manufacturing facility has received an Excellent Safe Quality Food (SQF) certification, scoring 97 out of 100. The facility, measuring 210,000 square feet, reflects the company’s commitment to producing the safest and highest quality of petfood, supplements and treats to customers. Earning a SQF certification has now become the benchmark for food processors, retailers and food service providers globally. PetDine’s Harvard facility has been SQF-certified since 2019. Plant Manager Victor Martinez Rodriguez and his team’s participation in the rigorous SQF certification process included registering the company with the SQF practitioner, choosing a level of certification and passing an audit performed by a licensed SQF certification body. The SQF Edition nine audit process identified and mitigated potential risks and hazards that can come from petfood and treat manufacturing and was led by PetDine’s Quality Assurance Manager and SQF Practitioner Carlie Gabrys alongside Jennifer Zazula, PetDine’s Food Safety Coordinator. “We stress safety and quality so our clients have one less thing to worry about and can focus on bringing industry-leading products to pet owners worldwide,” explains Preston Munsch, PetDine CEO. “The SQF certification process opens PetDine’s doors to thirdparty inspection and critique. Earning such a high rating is proof of our team’s dedication to producing the highest quality pet products on behalf of our clients.” According to Jorge Martinez Carrillo President of ADM Pet Solutions, the certification is held in “such esteem.” “Earning an Excellent rating is no small feat, and we are proud of the PetDine team for obtaining this important designation toward becoming a world-class facility,” he concludes.

other factors. Additionally, the echocardiograms which were conducted on dogs feed Grain Free recipes – and isn’t a requirement of an AAFCO trial – showed there was no significant difference in the dogs’ cardiac measurements. Notably, the AAFCO doesn’t approve pet foods, and the trials conducted by The Honest Kitchen are substantiated to provide complete and balanced nutrition as according to procedures for feeding trials outlined by AAFCO. All of the company’s dog and cat food recipes are formulated to meet nutritional requirements established by the AAFCO, including those not tested in the trials. The company has credited themselves as being responsible for the idea of ‘human-grade’ petfood, incorporating higher quality ingredients and better safety standards.

biomega nears completion of new biorefinery


company that specialises in high-quality ingredients for the animal and human health and nutrition markets biorefinery is nearing completion. The facility, which is based in Hirstshals in Denmark, follows on from a successful upgrade of their flagship site, based near Bergen, in Norway. biomega’s biorefinery in Norway produces hydrolysed salmon proteins, salmon meal and salmon oil for use in these markets. By transferring salmon offcuts into food and feed products via the biorefining process, the company is working towards a circular economy, as well as collaborating with local suppliers of fresh salmon long-term. As production equipment is being delivered and assembled at the site, biomega are also working towards establishing a power supply, being on track to complete the facility in time. As Denmark transitions towards becoming a 100 percent self-sufficient nation with regards to gas supply, 30 percent of gas used in the region comes from biogas. To be ‘in line with this objective,’ the company explained in press release, gas installed on site at Hirtshals is sourced from a Danish distribution network. It added that they will be collaborating with Greenport North, energy supplier, for the production and use of green energy. The new facility will extend biomega’s capacity by a minimum of 20,000 tonnes of raw materials, to support growth in human and petfood applications. As it is located near stock supply, it provides an important gateway for salmon into Europe. Expanding its current production capacity supports long-term plans to grow the new salmon peptide range for human health and nutrition, as well as the Salmigo range designed for premium petfood. The Salmigo product range contains about 90 percent proteins (peptides and free amino acids), and provides a digestible, sustainable and nutritional source of protein.

10 | June 2022 - International Petfood


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Sustainability goes mainstream A re-invention of capitalism in the matrix of our anthropocene diet


James Cooper, International Petfood magazine regular correspondent, once again provides an insightful and hard-hitting review of the state of our global food production chain. By examining a range of issues including consumer motivation and climate change, Mr Cooper challenges the commonly held assumptions regarding the relationship between food and sustainability and what this means to businesses producing food products for consumers and their pets. After all, history has shown that hard questions lead to positive and progressive responses from feed milling industry leaders

ou can tell a movement has entered the mainstream when it’s lampooned in comic strips. There’s a new character in Viz called ‘Foodie Bollox’ (can I say that here?) which I find hilarious and poignant in equal measure. In the comic, a hipster crossexamines Mr Whippy’s ice cream van about the sustainable and ethical credentials of his fayre, then after much deliberation and questioning our protagonist leaves an impatient angry queue with two black eyes and a soft scoop in a 99-cone with a flake. Before the first bite, a seagull swoops in to steal the lot. One of my pet hates is virtue-signaling in the ‘conscientious’ consumer; food-fashionistas desperate to differentiate in a sea of cheap and mass-produced goods, with a performative need to feel superior about their consumption. But maybe I’m just cynical and perhaps consumers really do think differently about their consumption habits today - after all, we’ll have to live with the consequences tomorrow.

And the body of evidence is growing.

Greenland’s icesheet has now passed the point of no return; visions of dying coral reefs, littered seas and emaciated polar bears are stark indicators that earth systems are struggling. Tired of government rhetoric about change, an entire generation has mobilised, galvanised even, not to only reduce our environmental impact, but to actually

reverse climate change with all its devastating effects. Sustainability is no longer just what we watch on TV, it’s every single thing we do. Living sustainably on the planet means more than just cutting down on fossil fuels and creating no-fishing zones, it may also mean changing agricultural practices and dietary habits learned over decades. Diets have a huge impact on climate change and providing a growing global population with healthy diets from sustainable food systems is an immediate challenge. But while food systems have the potential to nurture human health and restore our environment, right now they are threatening both. Much of the world’s population is inadequately nourished and many environmental systems and processes are pushed beyond safe boundaries by food production. Worse still, according to Stockholm University, although global food production of calories has kept pace with population growth, more than 820 million people have insufficient food and many more consume low-quality diets. These cause micronutrient deficiencies and contribute to a substantial rise in diet-related obesity and diet-related, noncommunicable diseases, including coronary heart disease, stroke and diabetes.

Transforming the food system

Campaigners say a global transformation of the food system is urgently needed

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For decades, modern agriculture has relied on a model of pure financial capitalism; a linear system of farming a handful of crops, resulting in soil depletion and release of carbon into the atmosphere. By any measure of sustainability, it’s not fit for purpose.

The statistics speak for themselves.

Half the world’s GDP is dependent on nature, yet nature cannot sustain us any longer. A football field per second is cut out of the rainforest to make way for poor quality farmland. There are an estimated 60 harvests left using existing methods if we continue depleting the soil the way we have: deep tilling lifeless earth in the hope of bringing something fertile to the surface, then sowing vast monocultures, before adding a cocktail of fertiliser straight from the factory. There are green shoots of hope, however. While the pandemic has demonstrated in an obvious way that our existence on the planet is fragile and that food systems are vulnerable, equally apparent has been our ability to adapt rapidly to changing circumstances. The UK learned how to bake bread and grow vegetables. Quite apart from souring fuel costs, my local mixed-arable farmer also experienced a four-fold increase in the cost of bagged NPK fertiliser in the last six months, so he’s bought less, and his muck heap has become equivalently more valuable. “We won’t deep plough now, just tickle the surface,” he explains. “We top-dress with muck and let the worms do the work, I’ve been out at night and there’s millions of them,” he exclaims with pride. And in this tiny example, soil biodiversity is being restored, almost inadvertently. Consumer choice - unreliable in reversing climate change In the developed world, we have the luxury of incredible food choice. We are empowered: climate change we believe can, perhaps, be halted or even reversed by changing our behaviour, in the choices we make every day. As I wander the supermarket aisles in my small provincial town I’m struck by the utter abundance of choice. Some products are clearly not good for me or the planet - the white chocolate egg my 10-year-old son is coveting, with its 30 seconds worth of plastic toy contents, an obvious offender – but other options are far from clear. Some products flaunt their sustainable credentials with pride, but while there’s a feel-good aspect to our food purchases; organic, local, eco-packaging, etc, it’s also easy to feel overwhelmed by the plethora and seemingly endless supply of fine foods from across the world: Peas from Peru, cherries from Chile, prawns from Vietnam and sausage from Spain. Each has a potential environmental legacy - cost or credit. But is this diverse Anthropocene diet part of the solution, or part of the problem? How regenerative were the agricultural practices; was wildlife displaced or threatened; are the workers nurtured or exploited? Picking fruit and vegetables is back breaking work and then there’s the shipping to consider, never mind the resulting ocean of plastic. So, would shunning the Anthropocene first world food system, with all its flaws, even begin to address the fundamental problems? How can I possibly know which food items perform best for society, or the environment and which has the lowest carbon footprint? Do you really know what your pork sausages ate? Is the local option always better for me and the planet? Locally grown tomatoes may feel like a good choice, for example, but that doesn’t necessarily make them sustainable. Grown out of season, under lights in heated greenhouses, with chemical fertilizer straight from a factory, earns them few

environmental credentials. Better perhaps, to import a glut of produce from a country where it tastes and grows better, where heat and light is free, labour willing and able. Even if consumers can be relied upon to make responsible choices, is it fair or reasonable to expect even the savviest consumer to take a moral inventory of every choice, let alone a time-starved single parent simply trying to feed and nourish their child on low wages. When sustainability messages are emulsified with branding, marketing aims and profit margin - even when people try to make good choices and are well meaning - it doesn’t necessarily translate into sustainable outcomes. Supply chains can be long and convoluted, resources used in food production to hard to quantify. And with agriculture one of the single biggest emitters of CO2 and human exploitation, it’s a gauntlet which surely can’t simply be left for the consumer to pick up in their daily choices. No, that responsibility must surely lie higher up the food chain.

Industry can do better

It’s generally accepted by anyone with an appetite for the truth that the meat industry is one of the worst climate offenders with

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the biggest potential for gains. Food production contributes over a third of global greenhouse gas emissions (according to New Scientist around 37 percent of GHG) and within that figure animal-based foods produce roughly twice the emissions of plant-based ones. Animals eat a lot of crops. The greater proportion of world grain production goes towards animal feed (45 percent). But it’s also true that the feed industry is inherently circular as it uses a large proportion of byproducts from primary industries - the FAO has reported that 86 percent of feed materials used in livestock production are non-human edible. And while vegetarianism and veganism are on the rise, a recent UK YouGov poll suggests that meat still plays a huge role in British life. A good proportion of the public are embracing flexitarian diets in ever-increasing numbers but, we can also say with absolute certainty, worldwide aquaculture and meat production is only likely to rise. Developing countries still have a voracious appetite for meat, especially chicken and pork where there’s still not enough to go around. So whichever way you view it, animal feed is a crucial target for transformation. Agriculture has a vast untapped potential to reduce its environmental impact, but where’s the incentive, when the market for most commodities is structured around competition on price? According to the old capitalist model, the animal feed industry simply looks for a target nutritional profile and amino acids but, beyond due diligence in ensuring responsible sourcing, it hasn’t really cared about fostering circular economies, enhancement of biodiversity, soil regeneration, or where in the world its constituent ingredients come from. If Brazilian rainforest soy is cheaper than Spanish waste-stream mealworms, then soy it is. Historically, little account has been taken for a reliance on fossil-based fertilizer or controversial pesticides, or how successfully carbon is sequestered. But, certainly in Europe and the UK, that’s rapidly evolving into a fully accountable model. Can agriculture really become truly regenerative, an insetter rather than just an offsetter?

Walking the talk

Can industry really ‘walk the talk’? Many believe it can. Socially conscious consumers, misguided or otherwise, have already shown they’re inclined to vote with their wallets, encouraging businesses to reappraise their products and purpose, including their role as employers of diverse, engaged workforces – across all sectors companies with good sustainability credentials are also rapidly becoming a magnet for the best talent - and the global pandemic has also created significant additional momentum for grass roots change across industry. So as global risks continue to build, business leaders are rallying behind bold and urgent transformation agendas and recommendations developed by organisations such as the Task Force on Climate-related Financial Disclosures (TCFD) and the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) where the complex sustainability issue is reduced into core challenges: the climate emergency, nature loss and mounting inequality. The looming environmental catastrophe represents a huge opportunity to innovate, and leaders of industry are now thinking through radical transformation. It may be that we are already starting to see evidence of real change. Anyone looking at the current sustainability space will notice that a lot of attention is focused on what has become known as ‘system transformation.’ This is rooted in the idea that the capitalist system we’ve been working with for decades is not just defunct, obsolete but worse

- fatal. Financial metrics alone are clearly not going to get us to net-zero, but perhaps more than anything, leaders of industry are beginning to view climate as a significant financial risk, affecting shareholder confidence, market value and crucially, access to cash.

A new metrics of capitalism

Governments’ ambitious, top-down commitments to limit carbon emissions are increasingly backed by new regulations and new taxes. More—much more—can be expected, says PWC, one of the big four international accounting firms. Societal pressure has eclipsed that from governments and the third sector. According to a recent PWC press release, there’s a mixture of anxiety and enthusiasm in today’s boardrooms about environmental, social and governance (ESG) issues. The underlying forces at work are well known. Investors, lenders and rating agencies expect ‘greater visibility of an ever-broader range of nonfinancial metrics to better understand diverse social and environmental risks.’ Industry leaders have had to grasp the nettle and are now taking the lead. Companies will be increasingly held to account for their sustainability credentials, the natural and social capital elements and the impact their business has on nature and society.

14 | June 2022 - International Petfood

activity that are essential to society, including food.

Companies need to get on board fast or sink.

“The change in the way we talk and think about the capitalist system is happening faster than I imagined possible,” says Peter Bakker. The automotive sector is a prime example: We all know that the internal combustion engines are obsolete - Audi has undertaken to be all-electric by 2026, Volvo by 2030. It’s a massive shift. Encouragingly this isn’t a doom and gloom story, says Bakker in a recent interview with Buhler’s CTO, Ian Roberts, but instead one of huge business opportunity. Sustainability is no longer about philanthropy or tree-hugging, ‘although we’ll need that passion too,’ he maintains, but about how we incorporate it into our core economic thinking, he adds.

Motivating the feed industry

Those that fail to embrace these new metrics will find it increasingly hard to gain access to capital and shareholder confidence. Organisations should seriously be asking themselves - what ESG metrics have we established?

The stick & the carrot

“Capitalism is not simply about financial capital anymore, that’s not a sustainable trajectory,” says Peter Bakker, President and CEO of the WBCSD and a globally renowned leader and influencer for sustainability. “We need to rethink capitalism. To move beyond business-as-usual into the accelerated transformations necessary, business leaders must adopt three mindset shifts: reinventing capitalism that rewards true value creation; focusing on building long-term resilience and taking a regenerative approach beyond doing no harm.” WBSCD is a CEO-led organisation of over 200 leading companies pressing a slick agenda - brazenly entitled, ‘Vision 2050: Time to Transform.’ It maps how systems transform and lays out a new framework to guide business action in the decade ahead. At the heart of this framework are nine transformation pathways – actionable routes for companies to take – covering the key areas of business

Senior leaders have a critical role to play in driving this new agenda for transformation. In the food and feed industry, for the moment, ESG is still very market driven. However, the tide is turning. Just published (5th February 2022) is the European Commission’s proposal for a Directive on Sustainable Corporate Governance - a legislative framework on environmental and human rights due diligence for companies bringing into sharp focus long-term sustainable value creation rather than short-term benefits. “The traditional approach is that pressure comes from the downstream part of the value chain to take care of certain matters related to environmental and social sustainability, often triggered by public concerns. “At EU level the change in mentality at policy maker level is clear however,” explains Asbjørn Børsting, President of The European Feed Manufacturers’ Federation (FEFAC). Businesses in the sector need to consider their ESG’s. “We can increasingly expect minimum performance levels related to environmental and social sustainability to be built into legislation, for example, and due diligence requirements included in laws related to ‘sustainable corporate governance,” he adds. It will, he insists, undoubtedly foster a level playing field and the need for representative associations to provide the tools and guidelines for feed companies to satisfy the requirements. The EU track on sustainable finance (EU Taxonomy) rolled out further this year will also lay down so-called ‘do no significant harm’ clauses for livestock production in order to be eligible for sustainable finance. “A topic like deforestation-free soy sourcing has been part of the commercial domain all these years, but the legislators clearly want to set a legal bar that stops the possibility for ‘deforestationrelated soy’ to enter the market at all.” FEFAC and its members initiated a constructive approach to the interpretation of ‘sustainable feed production’ with the publication of the FEFAC Feed Sustainability Charter 2030, released in September 2020 - with an annual progress report. The Feed Sustainability Charter includes five ambitions where animal feed manufacturing can contribute to more sustainable livestock and aquaculture production. All combined, these ambitions provide a platform for FEFAC member associations and individual feed companies to “set aspiration levels and proactively set the agenda on what matters in sustainable feed production,” he explains, “Although admittedly this is difficult to define, and trade-offs always exist,” he concedes.

Purpose above profit

For European feed producers it means looking at everything we


do and asking the question: How can we do better? “The feed industry’s been working proactively on many elements of the challenges and opportunities associated with sustainability for a number of years”, says Nick Major, who leads on sustainability at ForFarmers, a Dutch PLC producing around 10 million tonnes of animal feed annually for markets in The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Poland and the UK. Also a board member of FEFAC and AIC (Agricultural Industries Confederation), the UK’s agri-supply body, he’s clear about the big sustainability challenges and initiatives in the sector: “The FEFAC Feed Sustainability Charter contains quantifiable feed sector actions at EU and national level, featuring animal nutrition solutions that can help increase the sustainability of livestock farming operations. “They are aimed to provide measurable answers to growing market expectations, as well as to increased societal demands at EU and global level.” Annual Feed Sustainability Charter Progress Reports are also to be published to stakeholders, based on ‘robust sector sustainability indicators,’ to measure how FEFAC members are implementing impactful, specific feed supply chain actions. But can companies really place purpose above profit? “It can’t be either purpose or profit, they are both part of the value companies deliver to their stakeholders,” Major explains. “A good example is the large number of initiatives to improve efficiency in manufacturing and logistics - these reduce emissions and costs - the same is true when we are advising customers how to improve their efficiency - this always strikes me as a win:win discussion. In some cases you can improve animal welfare, reduce emissions and increase profitability at the same time.” This is implicit in ForFarmers own sustainability approach: ‘Going Circular’, which focusses on three themes – feed resources; feed production and feed solutions. But the whole ESG topic is still very much in the competitive domain and in this new age enlightenment, sustainability is a risk if not acted upon - so what risks is the feed industry sitting on? Carbon is the big one says Major. “It is important to note Asbjorn Borsting that when you calculate the carbon footprint of one tonne of compound feed delivered to a farm, a very high proportion - it can be over 90 percent - of the impact comes from the feed materials we source.” (Scope 3 emissions - the result of activities from assets not owned or controlled by the reporting organisation, but that which indirectly impacts in its value chain.) “So, there is a real focus on the upstream supply Nick Major chain.

“This also applies to issues such as deforestation, human rights and biodiversity. I’d anticipate increasing interest in the Social and Governance elements of ESG.”

Along the road

Certainly, the feed industry is already a long way down the road in establishing its own common standards. There are now harmonised methodologies, definitions and datasets so that both B2B and B2C customers and consumers have confidence in the information they are provided on ESG issues. For example, the industry has established the Global Feed Institute (GLFI), an initiative started by the European, American and international Feed Federations, which Major chairs, whose mission it is to publish a reference database of emissions for the most commonly used feed materials. The not-for-profit GFLI, set to become the global reference used by everyone in the feed and food supply chain as well as policymakers, is also freely available in various formats for anyone to download.

Feed production - inherently circular

The feed industry is also inherently circular - it uses a large proportion of by-products from primary industries, but innovation remains crucial to increasing circularity. There are exciting carbon capture technologies that may produce feed materials as a by-product; natural nutrition supplements and compounds, such as tannins and seaweed may well provide the means to reduce methane produced by ruminants and there are pilot schemes running which remove ammonia from livestock buildings. Single-cell proteins and insect meals have a real chance of replacing soy when they are available at scale, while plant breeding is making sub-tropical soy crops viable at higher latitudes, with potential to reduce shipping and deforestation and where there is also increased demand because soy crops require less fertilizer than maize. The organic market, which has grown by 5.2 percent this year is further acknowledgement that regenerative soil practices are increasingly seen as essential, rather than just nice to have. “Innovation has always paved the way in an industry charged with the responsibility to feed an increasing population. “The feed industry has been proactive in contributing to solving the big challenges. All but the ideologically opposed would agree that the livestock industry is part of the solution to climate change. “All the routes to net-zero that I’ve seen include the role of carbon sequestration and much of that involves land that is farmed, often permanent grassland,” says Major. But vitally, the motivation seems to have finally arrived for clear-headed systemic change in the feed industry. It certainly seems, at last, that societal need and business opportunity are coming together to transform the way companies craft their strategy, drive performance, to report ESG metrics to financial stakeholders, with a new agenda for the betterment of our fragile planet. There’s a lot riding on the ability of the feed industry to respond to the challenges posed by global warming and a need to operate sustainably, with no room for complacency, but there are genuine reasons to be optimistic about milling in our post-pandemic world. While consumers may not always be best informed to choose the most sustainable products, they certainly know when to push industry to change. The overhaul has begun and one our industry will benefit from in many ways. What’s more, new sustainability metrics may just be the best thing that’s happened to our diets in a generation - just don’t expect food to get any cheaper.

16 | June 2022 - International Petfood

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Feed the birds Swift guide to the diet & nutrition, hygiene and housing requirements of aviary birds

by Caitlin Gittins, International Petfood magazine


lthough less popular than their dog and cat counterparts, pet bird ownership proves just as complex when it comes to ensuring the bird’s needs are properly met. Much like dog breeds, each bird has varying needs with regards to attention, space and preferred environment; so before even beginning the process of owning a bird, owners should ensure they are able to meet all of its requirements! They should also choose their species carefully; recent research has suggested that some bird species are better suited to confinement than others. When it comes to managing the welfare of pet birds, welfare practices can be broken down into four categories: diet and nutrition, hygiene, housing and enrichment and social behaviours. Failure to properly meet any of these will often result in illness. It’s possible that even with the best practices in place, a bird can fall ill, so knowing how to respond accordingly is crucial.

Diet & nutrition

Birds need the following necessary nutrients in their diet:

protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water. Misconceptions associating parrots as seed eaters have led to instances where they have been fed a solely seed-based diet. Importantly, this fails to meet their nutritional requirements and can led to issues such as obesity, nutrient deficiency and high levels of fat and cholesterol. Instead, seeds should be kept to a minimum and a pelleted or extruded diet is much more preferable. This needs to be included along with a variety of fresh fruits and vegetables. Recommended vegetables include carrots, kale, yellow squash and collard greens, while suggested fruits include apples, papaya, bananas and grapes. In cases where a bird is fed a seed-based diet, they should also be fed daily a supplement of vitamins, minerals and amino acids to make up for the nutrients the seeds fail to supply. Birds can tend towards being wary of foods that aren’t familiar to them – expecting them to eat food they don’t recognise isn’t a reasonable expectation. Establishing a good feeding routine early is important and requires patience. Feeding a bird at the same time every day is recommended. When beginning a diet change, implement this also. Don’t starve a bird into a new diet – they won’t react positively to this. Be prepared to waste food, avoid feeding the bird familiar food

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By breaking down pet bird welfare into four basic categories within this guide, we hope to illustrate that caring for a bird is a responsibility and being well-informed is important, but it doesn’t need to be daunting either. Owners should always remember to continue to devote individual time with their pet bird – forming a social bond goes a long way!

while the diet change is taking place, and utilise a bird that eats the desired diet as a role model.


As captive birds are kept in an environment vastly different to that of wild birds, their claws and beaks require more maintenance. Wild birds’ claws and beaks will naturally wear down from interaction with rough surfaces, such as tree branches. To simulate this, keeping natural wooden perches in the home will benefit the bird greatly, as chewing and rubbing on the perch will cause dead layers of their beak to shed, as well as wear down their claws. In addition, using tools such as an emery board, nail clippers or a cautery instrument will help to keep the claws short by trimming them. In larger birds, use a Dremel tool. If there’s a chance you don’t feel confident trimming the bird’s claws or beaks, don’t test this out – take the bird to an experienced aviary vet who will be happy to assist you. In cases of bleeding – where you may have trimmed too close to the nail bed – consult a vet also. The exotic birds which we have come to adopt as our pets – such

as various species of parrots and finches – originate from tropical climates which experience daily rainfall. Wild birds shower during rainstorms, in order to keep their feathers healthy. Consequently, pet birds need to be allowed to bathe every so often. Either use a small container filled with water or make use of a sprayer.


Birds are most commonly kept in cages, which need to be cleaned out thoroughly. Clean the cage out at least once a month and change cage-bottom coverings daily! The cage needs to take into account the size requirements of the bird being housed in it. It needs to be large enough to provide the bird with space for movement, as too-small cages can cause stress.

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The chosen cage should be at least twice the bird’s wingspan and the bars shouldn’t be far enough apart that the bird can poke its head through. Having a variety of perches in the cages creates stimulation and movement for the bird as they can hop from one perch to the other. The perches must also take into consideration size requirements as they need to have the correct diameter for the bird’s claws and vary to exercise its foot muscles. Also consider the location of the cage – will it be kept in a quiet living room? Or near to a busy main road? Dependent on the species, some birds will prefer the seclusion, and others will prefer the hustle and bustle. Be mindful of any potential hazards close to the cage and keep the bird to its cage when you’re not there to supervise, to avoid outcomes where the bird injures itself or causes damage. Make sure also to cover a bird’s cage needs to be covered to simulate the natural cycle of day and night and ensure the bird will get enough sleep. Lack of sleep can weaken a bird’s immune system and cause it to be prone to certain illnesses.

Enrichment and ‘normal’ behaviours

Beyond providing what could be seen as the ‘basics’ – giving the bird access to a clean environment and taking the time to provide it with clean food and water – toys are imperative in providing the bird with stimulation and preventing boredom. Ways of spotting when a bird is in need of stimulation requires knowing what constitutes as normal and abnormal behaviours in birds. Chosen toys need to take into consideration the size of the birds as some are more suitable than others. Smaller birds will benefit from playing with tennis balls, wood blocks and natural fibre ropes that the bird can climb and hang from. Larger birds will require toys that can’t be shredded or can be shredded safely. Avoid breakable plastic toys, toxic plants and toys that contain lead. Time should be spent each day interacting with a bird and giving it individual attention. Birds will often enjoy the company of the same species – although owners should always check if their bird is compatible when incorporating a bird of a different species into a household. Be aware that several bird species are inherently communicative animals and will engage in what’s known as ‘social noise,’ such as screaming. This typically happens in large social groups of birds but can happen between a pet bird and bird owner and constitutes as normal behaviour for some species. This time provides a great opportunity to engage and bond with a pet bird,

as it will want to maintain typical social communication. Many species are inherently communicative animals and will engage in what’s known as ‘social noise’, such as screaming. This will typically happen in large social groups, but with a bird owner as well. This time provides a great opportunity to engage and bond with the bird, as it will want to maintain typical social communication. This is one example of what can be considered a ‘normal’ behaviour, as opposed to abnormal. Generally speaking, repetitive behaviours such as pacing, head bobbing, rocking, swinging or spinning call for veterinary attention, as this may be caused by boredom or lack of stimulation. Birds with underlying psychological problems may pull at their own feathers or another bird’s, in which case consulting a vet is the right course of action too.


Even if its owner has provided the best possible environment for the bird, there’s still the possibility that it’ll fall ill. Knowing how to look for signs of illness and treat them is an important part of owning birds, as birds are prone to disguising their illness. This forms part of a natural instinct that prevents them from appearing weak or vulnerable to predators, so remaining vigilant and observant towards any signs of illness is especially important. Do not employ a ‘wait and see’ approach – act as quickly as possible when you spot something that might appear suspect. One tip is to note down any changes in routine or habits as a potential sign of illness, and to seek veterinary assistance. Some signs include eye discharge, eye swelling, weight loss and others, but can vary widely depending on the affliction. Owners should take note of the bird’s droppings also – changes in the colour, consistency and number may all reflect illness. Healthy birds will be able to leave droppings all over the bottom of the cage as they move from place to place, whereas sick birds will leave droppings in one pile, suggesting they aren’t moving around. Caring for a sick bird requires encouraging it to eat and keeping it warm. Utilising an electric heater, heated room or heat lamp near the cage are all good sources of warmth. However, avoid overheating – heat-stressed birds pant, depress their feathers and appear agitated. It’s best to employ a preventative approach, as illness is frequently a culmination of malnutrition or stress; so keeping the bird happy and wellnourished will be an important step in avoiding illness!

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PETFOOD PRODUCTION Key considerations for petfood producers wishing to reap the rewards of the latest emerging petfood trend


by Andrew Wilkinson, International Petfood magazine

action would be to first establish what the word vegan entails. s more pet owners continue to According to the Vegan Society, “Veganism is a philosophy and show more concern for global issues such as health, sustainability way of living which seeks to exclude—as far as is possible and practicable—all forms of exploitation of, and cruelty to, animals and animal welfare, a growing for food, clothing or any other purpose; and by extension, number of people are turning to promotes the development and use of animal-free alternatives for vegetarianism or veganism. the benefit of animals, humans and the environment. In dietary Whilst the moral reasons terms it denotes the practice of dispensing with all products behind these dietary changes are understandable, there also seems to derived wholly or partly from animals.” But how does this philosophy translate to pet diets? Well be a trend of pet owners wanting to transform their carnivorous although dogs do prefer meat, feeding one vegan or vegetarian cats and dogs into plant eaters too. A recent global survey showed that of 3673 cat and dog owners, diet is possible with the right supplements. This is because in general, dogs are omnivorous. They can eat meat, fish, and a staggering 35 percent expressed interest in turning their meatpoultry, but also can derive nutrients from a wide variety of eating pets into vegans, but the fact remains that dogs and cats sources, including vegetables, grains, fruits, and legumes. are not just little humans and owners must also be aware of the When it comes to the question of risks involved before thinking whether cats can be sustained on a about feeding their pet a vegetarian vegan diet, the short answer is no, or vegan diet. cats can’t be vegetarian or vegan. Similarly, petfood manufacturers Products that display the Vegan trademark According to an article published cannot just take the rabbit out must demonstrate that: online by IAMS, “Personal of a recipe and label it vegan. In The manufacture and/or development of the feelings and moral values aside, it order to achieve this standard, product, and its ingredients, must not involve or have is important to note that the cat is those involved in production must involved, the use of any animal product, by-product, an obligate carnivore; they need to jump through a series of vigorous or derivative. eat a meat-based diet.” but understandable hoops before The development and/or production of GMOs must This is because taurine, an amino they can ‘badge’ their output not have involved animal genes or animal-derived acid exclusively found in animalaccordingly. substances. Products put forward for trademark based proteins, is an essential registration that contain or may contain any GMOs nutrient for cats and deficiency must be labelled as such. Definition of veganism can lead to blindness and/or heart Any dishes that are to be labelled vegan must be In order to arrive at our chosen failure. The cat’s body is unable to prepared separately from non-vegan dishes. destination, vegan petfood make sufficient quantities of it so production, a sensible course of 22 | June 2022 - International Petfood


requires a meat based diet to provide it. Whilst synthetic taurine supplements are available, these can vary in bioavailability. Arachidonic acid (an essential fatty acid) is another example of a nutrient required by cats which is only available from animal sources, plus cats also need to sustain good levels of vitamin B12 found naturally in meat. But there are some experts who believe cats can be put on a vegan diet. In an article written for Green for Life, Andrew Knight, a professor of Animal Welfare and Ethics at the University of Winchester in the UK says that “cats, dogs, and indeed all species, have requirements for specific dietary nutrients, not ingredients.” “There is no scientific reason why a diet comprised only of plant, mineral, and synthetically-based ingredients cannot be formulated to meet all of the palatability, nutritional, and bioavailability needs of the species for which they are intended.”

Vegan petfood production

When it comes to vegan food choices, consumers are looking for products that do not contain animal products or ingredients. Perhaps the most widely recognised and accepted certification in this regard is the Vegan Trademark. Introduced by the Vegan Society in 1990, the mark is designed to help people identify products that are free from animal ingredients, with its certification stamp featuring on more than 53,000 products worldwide. According to an article published online by ROCOL, when it comes to preparation and processing, manufacturers already engaged in the production of vegan and free-from foods, or in managing allergens on site, will know that establishing robust manufacturing processes is key. However, best practice should extend beyond manufacturing and into maintenance practices. This includes areas such as establishing approved and trusted supplier lists to ensure traceability throughout the supply chain, and setting up Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) in line with Total Preventative Maintenance (TPM) or similar quality-led approaches. Ingredient segregation and storage is incredibly important, and well thought out production schedules are instrumental in minimising cross contact and contamination. Where dedicated facilities are not available, production scheduling should consider the ingredients in all foods manufactured on lines involved in vegan food production. One solution to this issue is the scheduling of vegan products first, whilst ensuring that the line is cleaned between foods with vegan and non-vegan profiles.

Maintenance & training

The products you select for cleaning and maintaining the equipment used to manufacture vegan products also have an important part to play. Most manufacturers are aware of the safety and traceability benefits of using food-grade lubricants and cleaners and look for the relevant NSF registration on the products they select. Training is often overlooked, but knowledge can be the difference between using a vegan certified product on your machinery over a standard lubricant. It’s important that everyone in your team can look beyond ‘food grade’ as a catch-all for food factory maintenance products. One such example of a vegan range of petfood which adheres to all of these considerations is the offering from Bright Planet – a company that is looking to change the world for the better with a

petfood range made only from sustainable all-natural ingredients.

On the market now

Born out of a desire to create a brighter, better planet for everyone, Bright Planet Pet is the first company to launch plantbased dog treats that actually taste and smell like real meat. Katherine and Dave Ellison founded the company on the principle that dogs, and their people, deserve a sustainable dog treat that is delicious while being 100% plant-based and vegan. All treats are made from sustainable all-natural ingredients, create up to 90% less carbon emissions, use up to 68% less water than comparable meat-based treats, and help pet parents reduce their dog’s carbon pawprint. Currently, Bright Planet has three products - Better Burg’r, Better Brat, and Better BBQ Chick’n - providing a variety of meatless options. All products are made with chickpea flour, brown rice, dehydrated sweet potato, and dried brewer’s yeast; they are free-from corn, soy, wheat, and peas. Better Burg’r is a 100% plant-based dog treat that tastes just like a meaty hamburger. Made from wholesome, all-natural ingredients; free from corn, soy, wheat, and peas; and of course, 100% plant-based, the company believes that this burger treat will satisfy dogs of all shapes and sizes! Bright Planet treats create up to 90% less carbon emissions and use up to 68% less water than comparable meat-based treats. The treat is a circular burger shape and has a one inch diameter, and is approximately 0.25 inch thick and only 10 calories per treat. Other available treats include Better Brat that tastes just like a juicy brat right off the grill, and Better BBQ Chick’n that’s just like a slow-smoked chicken drummy with BBQ sauce. For every purchase, Bright Planet donates to the Eden Reforestation Project to plant one tree. In a recent taste test, 72% of dogs chose Bright Planet treats over a real meat treat. And that’s because the treats really do mimic the smell and taste of their meat counterparts. A recent winner of Purina’s Pet Care Innovation Prize, Bright Planet Pet products are available for purchase online at BrightPlanetPet.com.

International Petfood - June 2022 | 23


NIR technologies in petfood production


C SpectraStar™ XT Series NIR Analyzer

Measuring the moisture, fat & protein levels of incoming ingredients

by Casey Thomson, Senior Application Engineer, KPM Analytics, USA

ith an output that includes a wide range of pet food types – dry kibbles, wet food, fresh varieties, treats made of bone and meat, as well as others – petfood production facilities are often managing many different recipes and products per feed mill, with some producing over 150 distinct products. In addition to the number of varieties, more natural ingredients are being sought, as well as alternative and sustainable ingredients, such as vegetables like pumpkin or even insect protein. Incoming ingredients, extrusion and processing, and final product inspection are key points along the petfood production line where accurate and timely analytical data can help control the process, ensure quality, reduce waste, and improve yield.

Incoming ingredients

Petfood producers are facing supply chain disruptions and rising costs, which may result in working with new suppliers or ingredients from different regions. The new variety of incoming ingredients can have significant variations in nutritional quality from batch to batch. Measuring the moisture, fat, and protein levels of incoming ingredients gives food producers a good indication about the quality right from the start. When raw materials come in from a supplier, natural and other variations in the product can result in protein levels ranging from as much as 33 to 45 percent. As a result, petfood producers often require certain protein levels from suppliers or blend a number of batches to reach their targeted protein. Measuring protein and other parameters is necessary to make sure your supplier is meeting your expectations or that your blends are meeting specifications, especially since protein content is a common payment criterion. Fortunately, obtaining data on protein and other quality parameters is quick and easy with near-infrared (NIR) technology. Laboratory or at-line instruments, such as the Unity SpectraStar™ XT Series

from KPM Analytics, offer accurate and reliablemeasurements of moisture, protein, and fat in less than a minute. Accurate and timely compositional analysis provide the inputs required to consistently formulate various recipes in the most cost-effective manner.

At-line quality analysis for process control

After analysing ingredients, petfood operators also have to monitor and control the mixing stage, measure moisture levels in extruders and dryers, and optimise sprays to ensure corrective action can be taken quickly if problems arise. Once a manufacturer has developed their process, it may operate consistently for a period of time, but machinery and processes are not perfect and can change in performance. Batches can drift outside targeted specification ranges and it’s important to monitor quality along the production line and react quickly to make adjustments if needed. Routine at-line analysis with frequent sampling provides real-time data production managers need for responsive process control. NIR (Near infra-red) instruments are always calibrated for their application, and most calibrations are developed from thousands of samples across many years and geographies to deliver accurate and reliable results. Entire calibration libraries exist today spanning hundreds of different product types, including petfood. Users can also create custom NIR calibrations for their instruments to measure specific quality properties of unique product formulations. Once a user has their calibration in place, the same NIR instrument that is used to measure incoming ingredients for moisture, protein, fat, and other parameters, can also be used next to the production line to monitor quality before packaging. Operators can simply measure grab samples from the production line with the NIR instrument, and in less than a minute, they can quickly take corrective action if problems arise. This prevents wasted product and re-work costs. NIR instruments can also be used at other stages in the process, such as for accurately measuring moisture at the drying stage, and providing data to optimise processes, like fat spraying on pellets. Ingredient sprays are costly for petfood operations, and many companies have tightened their tolerance levels of certain

24 | June 2022 - International Petfood


parameters to save costs and keep quality at a high level. Therefore, NIR instruments can become essential quality control instruments to monitor moisture levels, or determine whether a sprayer is applying product correctly, helping ensure quality at every step of the way.

Table 1: The typical savings for a small– medium sized pet producing 200,000 pounds of pet food per day. Daily Production

200,000 lbs.

Annual production (lbs.)


(Additional yield by running 1% closer to moisture target) Additional product @$/lb.

Rapid analytical results

There are many areas in a petfood mill where rapid analytical results can lead to increased efficiency and large cost savings, and perhaps the easiest to quantify is the moisture levels in the finished product. Typical moisture calibrations have an error of less than 0.5%. These highly accurate results combined with increased testing and immediate results from NIR analysis often times allows operators to run 1% closer to the labeled moisture levels, increasing yield and reducing raw feed costs. The example in Table 1 demonstrates the typical savings for a small– medium sized pet producing 200,000 pounds of petfood per day. At $0.30 per pound (0.45 kg), producing feed 1% closer to the moisture target results in $150,000 of additional revenue, paying for a typical NIR in less than six month and thereafter, increasing running profit levels. If more constituents are controlled, the payback time is even shorter. Beyond compositional analysis of petfood products, technologies also exist to help petfood companies develop stronger standards for the visual appearance of their petfoods and treats. For instance, the TheiaVu™ compact vision inspection system from KPM Analytics, is a benchtop analysis instrument that utilises high-resolution cameras and advanced analysis

Additional revenue



500,000 lbs x



Daily Production

200,000 lbs.

Annual production (lbs.)


(Additional yield by running 1% closer to moisture target) Additional product @$/lb. Additional revenue



500,000 lbs x



software to benchmark products for consistent size, shape, color, texture, and other visual characteristics that appeal to pet owners. Vision inspection technologies are especially useful for ensuring new product formulations (grain-free varieties, for instance) will maintain a final product appearance consistent with brand standards. Not all kinds of laboratory instruments can provide such a quick return on investment the way NIR and vision inspection technologies can. These tools, which require little training or experience to operate, immediately help quality assurance and R&D personnel make data-driven decisions that can mediate costs, improve product consistency, and give your brand a competitive edge.

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Proven Performance




The unsung hero of sustainable petfood

by Anna D Wilkinson, Director of Communications, North American Renderers Association, USA f you walk up to a stranger on the street and ask a random person what rendering is, you’ll probably get one of a few responses – ‘architectural or artistic rendering’ or ‘digital graphics rendering’, and for those wanting to get fancy, they might say it means to represent something in an artistic work (as in; ‘The sketch was rendered in charcoal’). But the responses you’ll barely ever get are ‘A highly sustainable and climate smart practice utilised in agriculture industry,’ and ‘The original recycling’– yet both of these descriptions are 100 percent correct. in fact, those last two are also the most sustainable, I might add. The exception being if you’re rendering your sculpture out of recyclable material, in which case kudos; but unless you’re using billions of pounds of otherwise wasted material for that (rather large) sculpture, let’s talk about agricultural rendering – or as I like to call it: the unsung hero of sustainability.

What is rendering?

For clarity, agricultural rendering will be referred to as ‘rendering’ throughout this article. In short: rendering is recycling. Roughly 50 percent of an animal is considered inedible by North Americans. This leaves a lot of leftover material (i.e., ‘the meat we don’t eat’) that would end up as food waste were it not for rendering. Rendering reclaims this otherwise wasted material (like protein, bone, fat etc.), as well as used cooking oil (UCO) from restaurants, and safely and hygienically processes it into rendered material for use in new products – so nothing is wasted. This rendering process transforms and upcycles what would have been food waste into safe, clean, and valuable ingredients for countless new goods – saving landfill space, and recycling 99 percent of this unwanted material. These rendered ingredients are then used in the sustainable production of new goods like safe and nutritious petfood and animal feed, household and industrial products, biofuels, renewable diesel, and many more common items that we use or come into contact with every day. Rendered fat alone is used to safely produce a multitude of common items including candles, detergents, fabric softener, deodorant, shaving cream, perfume, crayons, paint, lubricant, plastics, waterproofing materials, cement, ceramics, chalk, matches, antifreeze, insulation, linoleum, textiles, soap, rubber items like tires, and even fireworks. Rendering also helps customers and consumers feel confident they’re making a sustainable choice when they purchase items made with this upcycled rendered material. Additionally,

by rendering these otherwise wasted parts of an animal, we demonstrate respect and resourcefulness for the livestock that were raised with care by farmers, and respect for the animal itself. This is achieved by ensuring everything is used for a purpose – so no part of that animal goes to waste. This is of great ethical importance to me personally, and many others who choose to eat meat.

A brief history

The word render comes from the French verb rendre, meaning ‘to give back.’ This is an apt definition. ‘Rendering is Recycling’ isn’t just a catchy phrase - countless new goods are produced by using upcycled rendered material - so rendering really is (in the literal definition of the term) recycling. Another motto commonly used in our industry is that renderers are ‘The Original Recyclers,’ and this is not hyperbole - rendering has existed for centuries and is one of the oldest ‘recycling’ practices. At its start, rendering was used primarily for soap and candle making, mostly done in a kettle over an open fire. Further developments to the process in the 19th century enabled family-owned renderers and packers to produce both edible and inedible products. Though the rendering industry continued on steadily (and quietly) for years to come, one example of the power of rendering’s sustainability can be seen during times of war. An example of this is the American Fat salvage. During World War II, American housewives were urged to save and turn in their used cooking grease so it could be utilised by US Armed Services to produce explosives for the war effort. During that time, they saved and turned in nearly 700 million pounds of fat. In 1947 alone, household recovery exceeded 114 million pounds – that’s almost 10 million pounds a month.

Why it is so sustainable

According to data published in 2020, more than 62 billion pounds of raw materials are produced in the US and Canada annually. Rendering that material produces approximately 31.4 billion pounds of rendered products each year and keeps it out of landfills. As many know, landfill space is precious, so rendering this material instead of throwing it away extends the lifespan of the space we do have. In fact, were it not for rendering, and that material was instead treated as waste – all available landfill space would be full in approximately four years. In addition to the reduction of food waste and saved landfill

26 | June 2022 - International Petfood



space, renderers actually feed and grow the next generation of The three pillars food by ‘recycling’ that unwanted meat and using the rendered Although environmental sustainability is likely our most material for animal feed and fertiliser. This act of recycling is, in prevalent depiction of the term, there are three pillars that, when its truest form, quite literally perpetuating the agricultural ‘circle combined, support sustainability as a whole. These three pillars of life.’ are: environmental, economic, and social and are best visualised Rendering also helps to minimise and offset the environmental as just that – pillars. All three equally important, all three pillars impacts of animal agriculture – shrinking our food production also bear enough weight to uphold the true and complete concept footprint. Rendering reduces greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sustainability as a whole. by 72% and fossil fuel use by 80% (when compared to petroleum Although rendering’s environmental sustainability benefits are diesel) and avoids at least 90% of the potential GHG emissions widespread (that is the focus of this article after all), the economic compared with industrial composting. In other words, rendering is and social benefits of rendering are truly behemoth and deserve the GHG reduction equivalent of removing 18.5 million cars off recognition for their critical role of helping to support rendering’s the road each year. overall sustainability. Another little-known fact about rendering is it recovers Rendering is a financially sound and community-focused and returns valuable water that would otherwise be wasted industry, and employee retention rates remain high as renderers or contaminated. Billions of gallons of water are reclaimed offer career stability and a commitment to community support. As during the rendering process, which is then released back into the environment, returned as clean water to local rivers and streams; and that water meets or exceeds federal, state, and local safety standards when it is returned. Renderers helps improve existing water quality too, without their pickup of UCO and cooking grease from restaurants, that material might end up down the Roughly 50% of each meat Reduced food waste drain. Rendering it instead animal wasted saves municipal sewer and wastewater systems from becoming clogged. All U.S. landfills full in 62 billion pounds of food This helps prevent fouled roughly 4 years waste diverted from landfills and contaminated water quality and saves millions Wasted water: not cleaned of dollars in damage 3.7 billion gallons of clean or returned to waterways & needing repairs from water reclaimed and returned contaminated water: if animal broken sewer lines and to rivers and streams leftovers sent to landfill sewage back up. So, rendering reduces food waste, saves landfill Fewer greenhouse gas Lost environmental benefits space, reduces GHG, emissions (5 times more GHGs for animal agriculture (less reclaims and returns sequestered than produced) GHG reduction) clean water, sustainably and nutritiously feeds Lower carbon emissions from Increased carbon emissions our pets, and countless biodiesel and renewable from less environmentally recycled products diesel (80% less than friendly fuels (including biodiesel) petroleum diesel) are made possible by rendering. That’s an DID YOU KNOW THAT RENDERING... impressive sustainability • Is a financially stable and sustainable industry with a $10 billion annual economic contribution. CV, and certainly • Helps contribute to food security through the production of livestock feed and fertilizer. new information to • Supports thousands of full time jobs with benefits, many in rural America. many, but the term









sustainability doesn’t just mean environmentally sustainable.

NORTH AMERICAN RENDERERS ASSOCIATION 500 Montgomery St, Suite 310, Alexandria, VA 22314 • (703) 683-0155 • www.nara.org

International Petfood - June 2022 | 27




mentioned above, the very act of rendering what would have been food waste and converting it into new products helps customers to be more sustainable, while also providing thousands of full-time, stable jobs that support families and local communities from coast to coast, in America and Canada, many in rural areas; and due to the raw and perishable nature of the material being rendered – these are local jobs that will stay local. Renderers also contribute greatly to their neighborhoods and wider communities, from supporting the local little league and fire department, to large-scale community outreach events to help feed and support those in need. Renderers are deeply rooted in social sustainability and community support. And though many rendering plants are family owned and operated (and have been for generations), larger rendering companies remain dedicated to and passionate about providing community care and outreach. Plant owners also invest considerably in improvements and enhancements to sustainability efforts, ensuring their facilities remain as climate smart and environmentally responsible as possible. And of course, with an annual contribution of $10 billion (as of 2020), the economic sustainability and financially solidity of the rendering industry directly supports the stability of careers, and ability to contribute so greatly to their communities. The important balance and equality of the three pillars is that they all work together, building off each other.

education, we can finally help to sing rendering’s praises for all it’s important sustainability. benefits. In an effort to increase this awareness and educate the public, NARA recently rebranded to highlight rendering’s sustainability benefits – from our mission statement to our tagline (‘Reclaiming Resources, Sustainably’). We launched a rendering podcast (aptly titled ‘The Invisible Industry’) and produced new educational infographics – the kind you could hand to that stranger on the street and help them easily understand why rendering is vital to sustainability. NARA’s redesigned website is also consumer friendly, with resources that can be easily shared. Sustainability, like rendering, is not one dimensional or singular; it is multi-faceted and layered. Educating more people to understand why rendering is so critical to the reduced food waste and sustainability discussion is a valuable tool to gain support for overall sustainability goals.

The importance of education

Although education on rendering’s sustainability benefits has increased in recent years, there is a reason that all the possible answers from my earlier query covered every definition of rendering except agricultural – and that is due in part to the limited amount of rendering education that’s historically been available. In a time when all three pillars of sustainability are increasingly more important to consumers and the public at large, the rendering industry is expanding their communication about just how important rendering is to the sustainability and reduced food waste conversation. Through 28 | June 2022 - International Petfood


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How to gain a food production qualification from the comfort of your own home or office

ith life suddenly becoming much more expensive, the ongoing war at the eastern border of Europe, as well as the effects of three years of pandemic restrictions– we could all do with a bit more certainty (and money), coming into our lives. As world markets continue to tighten, so too does the competition for jobs in the animal feed production industry, making this the best time to sure up your CV by adding a globally recognised industry specific qualification. April 2022 saw the long-awaited return of both the Online Aquafeed Production School course for its Spring 2022 edition, with a new, improved and updated series of online broadcasts. Developed and presented in partnership by Progressus Agrischools and Perendale Publishers Limited, the fast-becoming famous series is tailored with the aim of helping attendees to build an understanding of the design, development, and operation of a feed production plant. This goal is achieved through twelve two hour long weekly sessions featuring industry experts who share their extensive knowledge relating to feed ingredients, the equipment used, as well as providing a general nutritional review. This is then followed by a dedicated question and answer session, allowing participants to interact live with the program facilitators. These carefully selected experienced industry operators, who possess centuries of combined front-line service between them, includes Joe Kearns, who alone has spent decades in senior roles at Wenger Manufacturing.

Wisdom & reliability

The Spring 2022 edition of Online Aquafeed Production School sees Mr Kearns take over the role of lead presenter, a role that he will no doubt deliver with the same level of professionalism, wisdom and reliability that has seen him earn a solid reputation throughout his career. The Online Aquafeed Production School enables its participants to understand the many possibilities and developments that relate to what can be produced, as well as examining how all aspects of the process interact in order to achieve and maintain a successful standard of aquafeed production.

In essence, there are four areas of importance for aquafeed production; ingredients, equipment used, how it is operated, and the desired final product specifications. All aspects interact as each affects the other as the nutritionist makes the formula, sales or the customers define the desired end product while the production needs to perform efficiently. Communication between these areas and the interactions between them will vastly increase the chances of producing positive results, including excellent aquafeed produced with acceptable margins.

Sessions 1 & 2 recap

The first edition of this long-awaited new series seeks to provide attendees with an ‘Overview of the Aquafeed Process’. Introduced by the able presenting duo of Messieurs Christodoulou and Gilbert, this was split into four main parts. The first of these segments sees Mian Ruiz Texas A&M University broach the subject of the ‘Different Types of Aquafeeds. Mr Riaz’s teaching is then followed by the first of Joe Kearns’ contributions titled, ‘Typical Equipment used in Aquafeed Production and Raw material Requirements and Effects’. Mr Kearns then returns to host a new section ‘Useful Troubleshooting Tips’, which this week focuses on raw materials – including aspects such as starch content, changeover time in storage and the ‘after ripening factor’. The fourth and final segment of this sessions sees all but Mr Riaz return to tackle the weekly live Q&A session, with all of the questions asked by the audience answered in full – with Mr Kearns even answering some shortly after they had been answered. Delivered under the title of ‘Starting the Process: Ingredient Receiving, Bulk Storage’ the first address of the second session sees Mr Kearns tackle the subject of ‘Nutrition, Formula, Considerations for Aquafeed Production and Ingredient Receiving’. The lists of It’s not too late to enrol related subjects covered includes Although this season has already started, all ingredient sources & specifications, sessions are available on demand for two weeks starch in formulation and the following the final broadcast – with this option differences between coated feeds. included for all attendees at no extra cost. The second section of the second The Aquafeed Production School is running every session sees Giuseppe R Bigliani, Tuesday, from April 19 to July 12, 2pm Bangkok time President of Feed Technology and 9am CET. For those based in the US and Latin Solutions, Engormix provide a America, sessions begin on April 21 and conclude on ‘Detailed Review of Ingredient July 15, 9am Chicago time. The course certification is very beneficial for the Handling – Part 1’. With nearly workplace, as it both signals an attendee’s interest in four decades of experience in the the industry and demonstrates an acquisition of the design, installation, operation and knowledge that they’ve gained whilst attending the administration of projects related program. with the Agri-business, focusing on To enrol on the Aquafeed Production School course, feed and food processing plants, Mr be sure to visit https://aqfeed.info/e/1393 for more Bigliani provides a very comprehensive information. overview of this subject. 30 | June 2022 - International Petfood


Petfood production troubleshooting Part 6:


Cook in the Extruder Barrel - part 2

s discussed last month, the extruder barrel has a number of functions, but the main goal is to finalise the cook, yield the desired shape with the density target. At this point it should be noted the preconditioning can yield up to about 40 to 45 percent total cooked starch depending on the design. Thus, the extruder barrel needs to finish the job which would be to take the cook into the low 90 percent cook range typically or to the desired cook level. What is this ‘cook’? It is the level of starch gelatinisation and

Previously on Troubleshooting... 1. Density

An examination of product density and its relationship with moisture levels, heating, cooling feeder screw rate and automation.

2. Non-uniform and rough appearance

A guide to understanding the science involved in improving the art of making products of all the same size.

3. Extrusion dies

Die designs vary and are usually specific for the equipment manufacturer. This article takes a look at aspects of the process including high, medium and low shear as well the adjustments required when producing feed for small mammals.

4. Dryers

The dryer is without a doubt one of the machines in the system which greatly impacts the bottom line. How? Water is the reason, as products are sold with a max water percentage on the labels, so it is the lowest cost ingredient and one that should be watched closely.

5. The Extruder Barrel

Extruder barrels used in petfood production are either single screw or twin screw in design. Forming extruders are used for some select products – thus this part of the discussion centres on single and twin designs.

how is it tested? There are a number of methods. Checking for birefringence, the maltase cross on stained raw starch cells. There are other ways but the one which matches most closely to what happens in the animal’s gut is the modified glucoamylase method of determining the degree of gelatinisation of extruded products. This procedure quantitatively determines the degree of gelatinised starch in cereal based foodstuffs. It is based on a 70-minute hydrolysis of a carbohydrate rich substrate to glucose following the principle that gelatinised starch is easily digested by glucoamylase to form glucose. Total starch is also determined by a similar procedure, with the exception that intact or raw starch in the sample is gelatinised prior to enzymatic digestion, with the calculations from these two results giving the percent of cook. How to modify the cook in an extruder barrel to end up with the desired cook level? Over time this was an art as there were no defined testing methods. It was basically placing some kibbles off the extruder in water, if it swells two times its size then good chance it is cooked well. Another method was to take a kibble in your finger-tips and stretch it, of it is rather elastic then good chance it is cooked well. Times have changed and testing has resulted in defining a select formulation with a set of running conditions and determining the cook. If acceptable then these running conditions which include the extruder set up will yield a cooked product as desired. Periodic confirmation is usual and done with lab testing. With today’s computer controls and the ability to see details such as preconditioner discharge temperatures, extruder barrel exit temperatures, pressures, feed densities, moistures and Specific Mechanical Energy inputs and many other factors do give a confidence that a set of running conditions are producing the correct feed. Most extruders have control flow arrangements at the end of the extruder barrel. These devices can change the open area of the initial discharge at the end of the extruder barrel allowing for added retention, increase pressure and heat development right before the extruder die. This allows for adjustments to density and in many cases the final cook level imparted into a product. These devices greatly assist in being able to make many different products and not have to disassemble the extruder barrel and make screw configuration changes in order to have the correct cooking profile. Granted some extremes such as high meat and or fat injection might require a configuration change but depending on how the barrel is set up originally, it can yield a wide range of cooking characteristics.

International Petfood - June 2022 | 31

We can help you improve your feed pellet durability testing...

Holmen NHP100 Portable, manual pellet tester.

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PRODUCTION Innovations this month May 2022 This month’s Production Showcase section features equipment and ingredients that will help in the production of petfood, taking you right from the recipe book, right up until until your product is ready to leave your factory door. If you would like your product or service to appear on this page in a future edition of International Petfood magazine, then please contact us at editorial@perendale.co.uk

Scansteel foodtech’s CombiGrind400 The CombiGrind 400 provides the customer with first-class grinding results, designed to grind incoming raw material as coarsely or as finely as required. High performance grinding is achieved through a wide capacity range, which is achieved through a low-tolerance design with smoothly shaped worms, hand-forged and welded. It is able to process fresh soft meats and fats, as well as tempered or hard frozen blocks. Additionally, these can be processed together or separately without changing any mechanical components, thanks to the design of hopper and transfer area between the worms. The machinery comes equipped with the scanControl system, which continuously monitors the frequency convertors on the pregrinding worm and the grinding worm. Its main advantages are an excellent meat fat particle definition, fine and coarse grinding of both fresh meat and frozen meat blocks and grinding motors for frozen blocks ranging from 45-90 kW motors. https://scansteelfoodtech.com/grinders/double-worm/cg-400/

Holmen NHP300 Inline, process based system. N HOLM


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32 | June 2022 - International Petfood

FOCUS Key Technology’s VERYX® Digital Sorters Key Technology’s Veryx digital sorters are designed for petfood products, for finding and removing any foreign material and any products with defects. This is to improve product quality, eliminate the chance of cross-contamination and minimise manual labour. The machinery can be configured to sort a wide range of petfoods include kibble, chews and treats which have been dried, dehydrated and freeze-dried. Installing it upstream near raw receiving, it inspects ingredients such as frozen proteins and other ingredients for wet petfoods. Each Veryx machine is tailored with cameras, laser scanners, lighting, ejection system, product handling and software, in order to meet each customer’s requirements. Sophisticated cameras and laser scanners offer the operator twice the resolution of previous sensor technology, whilst its main advantages are the elimination of the need for manual inspection. This in turn decreases labour costs and ensures more consistent foreign material whilst maximising yields. https://www.key.net/en/products/veryx-2-0-digital-sorting-platform/

KEK sifters from Kemutec Centrifugal or rotary sifters are used to sift and screen high volumes of material at high speeds with high efficiency. Kemutec’s KEK centrifugal sifters provide the ideal sifting and screening solution for dry powder and other bulk solids. Designed to allow for tool-free maintenance, the sifter comes with a ‘Cantilever’ feature which allows for optimised uptime and output. Additionally, KEK sifters are easy to operate, which simplifies the sifting and screening process for the operator. To sift a variety of materials and provide a variety of solutions, KEK sifter screens vary in size, with its hard wearing mesh screen made with high performance in mind. The main advantages of the machinery are hygienic and efficient processing, quick and easy cleaning, simple screen replacing, and the ability to easily inspect material through a machine panel. https://www.kemutec.com/product/centrifugal-sifter/#.Yqm_ DJDML2I

Twin-screw extruders by Andritz Feed & Biofuel Andritz twin-screw extruders are the ideal solution for the extrusion of petfood with high inclusion rates of meat slurries and fresh meat as they are perfectly suited to processing viscous, oily, sticky, or very wet products. They also ensure full starch utilisation, allowing for higher flexibility in the formulation and enabling a higher feed conversion ratio. Additionally, customers producing a variety of recipes or who have variations in raw materials will also benefit from twin-screw technology. The equipment includes the feeding, kneading/mixing, and cooking zones utilized by single-screw extruders and can be equipped with the Andritz FlexTex Solution to control density and expansion of the final product. The twin-screw extruders are available in two versions. The ExTS-616, operating in a volume range of 6-10 tonnes per hour (tph), and the ExTS-718, producing between 10-18 tph – each reflecting the very best innovations in extrusion technology. https://www.andritz.com/feed-and-biofuel-en/industries/pet-food

SEE YOUR PRODUCTS IN THIS MAGAZINE If you produce a product that you think we should feature in International Petfood magazine, please get in touch To be considered for inclusion in the magazine please; Email: editorial@perendale.co.uk Include 75 words about the product along with a high resolution image and a web link to more information about the product in your email

SuperCRss from JBT Corporation Recently launched by JBT Corporation, the SuperCRss is a state-ofthe-art saturated steam and sterilisation technology, combined with robust and labour saving automation options. SuperCRss is able to process steel and aluminium cans of all shapes and sizes, ranging from large foodservice products to retail size containers. These products can include beans, tuna, petfood and any other products that go through a static thermal process. The technology includes JBT’s processing management system LOG-TEC which provides manufacturers with the ability to process during all phases, including venting, ramping, cooking and cooling. By controlling these processes, it ensures uniformity of product quality as well as providing customers with food safety, traceability, automation and repeatability. Customers are also given the option of the Basket Tracking System (BTS) which allows data of any produced batch or retort load to be tracked, analysed and audited. https://blog.jbtc.com/2022/06/02/jbt-introduces-cutting-edgesupercrss-retort-system/

International Petfood - June 2022 | 33

Petfood Forum An amazing array of booths covering a wide range of topics

Kansas City

by Joe Kearns, Petfood Editor, International Petfood, USA


his was Petfood Forum’s 30 Year Anniversary event, and it was well attended by both exhibitors and visitors. It was great to see old friends as well as meet new contacts. The event was complete with presentations on industry topics including ingredient and nutrition, marketing and consumer influence, processing technology and safety in petfoods. Taking place in Kansas City from May 2-4, 2022, the exhibition hall was full of visitors with an amazing array of booths covering a wide range of topics. Starting with ingredients and nutrition, a number of booths were involved marketing individual specialty ingredients with some twists. There was so many that I can’t mention them all but a few that stood out as interesting are listed below. Amongst them there were countless ingredient possibilities from sweet potatoes, squash and all the fruits and vegetables for pets, fibres, malts and molasses, specialty fats and oils, fermented proteins, standard dried fruits and vegetables, omega 3 ingredient possibilities and many more.

Ingredients with complete traceability

Anchor Ingredients from North Dakota markets grain and pulses grown with a network of farmers with complete traceability. www.anchoringredients.com. How about some yucca products to reduce odor in pet waste? Baja Agro International can be reached at www.yuca.com.mx. There were a full range of ingredients meeting many demands seen in petfoods; standard, healthy, sustainable, organic and GMO-Free possibilities. Palatants, enzyme, pre and probiotics, micro-nutrients, yeast as well as seafood products and special proteins were also well represented. One that stood out as new for me was the freezedried ingredients and equipment to produce the same. There were numerous possibilities and ingredients to be mixed in kibbles, sold as treats in pouches and mixtures of products or sold as a complete petfood. Looking into this a bit more it was found that this trend started just a few years ago.

34 | June 2022 - International Petfood


It was reported that in 2018 freeze dried products accounted for about 1.5 percent share of total petfoods sold in the USA and it is growing. Some topics covered in the presentation rooms included marketing and consumer influences. How about insect meal, will the pet owners accept? Seems that soy products or ingredients are making a comeback in petfoods. Advanced ingredient processing yields new novel possibilities. Have you ever seen a meat like product made from grains and legumes? Gluten, soy, meats and other ingredients can be combined to yield interesting petfood possibilities that look like meats.

Industry Events 2022


17-21 Pet Fair Asia 2022 Shanghai, China www.petfairasia.com

New technical advancements

It is always interesting to see the new technical advancements with regards to equipment used in petfood production. Buhler, American Extrusion, Ever Extruder, Wenger, Extru-Tech and Clextral represented the extrusion equipment manufacturers. All have some interesting developments and the discussions we shared illustrate that the technology on kibble manufacturing is advancing and addressing issues required by the industry. Walking around the exhibition hall a number of booths were interesting to see. Robotic Packaging and case packing, pneumatic conveying systems, complete plant cleaning possibilities, test strips to see if you are cleaning the plant well. In discussions with Foss Analytics, it was noted they have a new mycotoxin test. Baked and moulded pet treat production equipment, meat processing gear for making pet treats or preparing for injection into extruders were present. Pest control in plants as well as overall construction companies for new or add on plant additions. Viscous ingredient pumps, smart magnets and external coating equipment caught my attention. In summary, it was a very worthwhile visit to Petfood Forum to see all the technology moving forward. We will work towards including information on all aspects of the technology of petfood production with the contacts made in future additions.


October 26-28 Pet Fair South East Asia 2022 Bangkok, Thailand www.petfair-sea.com


November 17-20 China International Pet Show (CIPS) 2022 Guangzhou, China http://en.cipscom.com/CIPS.htm

International Petfood - June 2022 | 35

Interzoo 2022 Rediscovering the true value of meeting and connecting in-person by Caitlin Gittins, International Petfood magazine

Following on from a four-year absence, Interzoo, one of the leading exhibitions for the pet industry, ran from May 24 – 27, 2022 in its usual meeting spot in Nuremberg, Germany. The exhibition attracted a total of 28,000 visitors from 129 countries, with a total of 1329 exhibitors from 59 countries. The event organiser WZF reported that out of these exhibitors, Germany accounted for the largest number of exhibiting companies, with 276, followed closely by Italy with 120. Other countries included the UK, at 101, the US at 73, and the Netherlands at 72. The pandemic is attributed to the increased number of petowning households and with it, the increased spend in the pet market. Wanting pets in their best health, owners spend more on premium food, snacks, enclosures and premium pet food. This was reflected in the companies exhibiting at Interzoo as they represented all facets of the pet industry, from petfood to toys and accessories. As a sign that the pet industry is ever-growing and changing, a growing number of insect-based petfood companies were seen exhibiting, with Protix among them, indicative of the efforts being made towards supporting sustainability and reducing environmental impact of the pet industry.

Technology & digitalisation

Interzoo held the first of their Fresh Ideas Contest, which provided industry newcomers with the opportunity to present their business idea as a ‘pitch’ to an audience and jury. Talking points of note included sustainability – which, in a study conducted by WZF, was reported by almost 90 percent of 200 respondents to be important to the industry in the coming years – technology and digitalisation and an increased focus on pet health. On the last day of the exhibition, a panel of experts picked out the best innovative ideas onstage as part of the Fresh Ideas Contest. Prombyx, a German company that is currently using by-products of silk production as an alternative protein source, won first place, followed by the Sustainable People for their biodegradable dog waste bags and Protenga for their sustainably produced insect protein. The prizes on offer were (in order of first to last place): a 12sqm stand at the next exhibition in 2024, an Interzoo marketing package for 2024, and a space at the 2024 product showcase. 36 | June 2022 - International Petfood

Improving sustainability

In addition to their Fresh Ideas Contest, the exhibition also saw a number of interesting talks being held, ranging from a session on sustainability which investigated just how sustainable the pet industry is and what can be done to improve it, an update on domestic and foreign pet markets featuring Western Europe, Scandinavia and Brazil, as well as a talk on ‘petfluencers,’ which explored the possibility of utilising them as brand ambassadors as a means of better promoting a business. “We were very happy and grateful that we were able to offer the international pet industry an extraordinarily successful platform with Interzoo despite the difficult framework conditions,” remarks Gordon Bonnet, Managing Director of WZF and the German Pet Trade & Industry Association ZZF as honourary sponsor. “As has been confirmed in numerous conversations, the personal meeting is simply irreplaceable. Many exhibitors praised the high quality of the trade visit and they go home with full contact lists to translate their connections made here into future business.”

An event not to be missed

International Petfood magazine were in attendance and certainly felt the value of meeting and connecting, as we learned more about the people driving innovation within the pet industry, all of which reflected a real passion towards caring for our pets. We had a number of great meetings, including one with Prombyx, who were able to tell us in more detail all about the circular economy they are supporting, by utilising the by-products of the silkworm industry for petfood. Interzoo will next take place in Nuremberg on May 7-10, 2024 and is sure to be an event not to be missed. We look forward to seeing you there!

International Petfood - June 2022 | 37







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International Petfood - June 2022 | 39

the interview

Pierre Pienaar, President – World Packaging Organisation Having studied pharmacy, Pierre Pienaar’s interest in packaging started in 1984 when soon after joining a large pharmaceutical company, he became concerned about a number of packaging-related issues in the pharmaceutical world. Mr Pienaar is a packaging engineer in his own global packaging consulting business, PackTech Solutions Pty Ltd and has extensive experience in the pharmaceutical and food and beverage packaging industries with over 35 years of experience in the field of packaging science and engineering as well as its related subject matter. He is the current National Education Director, Past National President of the AIP and past Vice President of the World Packaging Organisation (WPO), responsible for global packaging education. He has lectured in the technology and science of packaging at various universities and institutions around the world for the past thirty years and he is regularly called to be an expert witness in court cases, due to his extensive experience in packaging science, packaging engineering and the technology thereof. In addition to a Master of Science Degree (Packaging Engineering/ Technology) from Brunel University, UK, he also has a Master of Manufacturing and Production Degree from University of Hertfordshire, UK. A registered Certified Packaging Professional in over 60 countries, Mr Pienaar also holds a double professorship in Packaging Engineering and is the current President of the World Packaging Organisation (WPO).

Going forward, which aspects of packaging would you like to see addressed and why? Sustainability is a big buzz word currently, but I would prefer to define this in a packaging context.

We need to educate more people around the world about the relevance of packaging. In particular about doing the right thing with the packaging once we have removed its contents. In many countries there is a mindset or even a culture that exists about packaging when it comes to recycling. It is always difficult to change a culture or a mindset.

Environmentally there is a need to reduce the amount of non-biodegradable plastics. What is the industry doing to minimise plastics entering the environment?

We need more countries getting involved in reducing the amount of non-biodegradable plastics. Currently it is in the ‘too hard basket’ for many developing countries. In addition, it will initially cost revenue plus for many of these developing countries they by their own admission tell me that they have more important issues, for example, feeding their people is higher on their agenda than packaging issues.

So, I believe we need to commence by educating the little ones, the Grade 1,2 and 3’s. This is an impressionable age that can be changed in bringing them to understand what to do with packaging and how best to ensure that all is recycled and not simply left in the streets, the waterways, the beaches and thus destroying our landscape.

There are also developed countries making the same mistakes, and for them it is a question of simply stop postponing the inevitable and make the change. They all are fully aware that it is the right thing to do but in many cases are waiting for legislation to enforce the change.

As we educate the younger generation, they will influence their parents and grandparents to do the right thing with packaging. Over the ensuing years we develop a new culture across the world. I have personally seen this work as I have been doing this in my home country for the past 16 years and have seen the change.

Where do you think the packaging industry will be in 2050?

This I believe is true sustainability in packaging and it works. It will take time, but we need to commence somewhere, and the sooner the better as there is no plan B to an alternative planet earth.

The rate at which we are currently using up our world’s natural resources is requiring almost two planet Earths. If we do not make any of the sustainable changes that we are suggesting across the world plus do not recycle all packaging materials, then along this current trajectory we will require almost three planet Earths by 2050.

Over packaging often receives negative publicity yet given needs to protect foods from contamination or deterioration during transportation and delivery. What are some of the things the industry is doing to address issues of over-packaging while keeping foods safe? This is something that we specifically teach in our training courses across the globe. Often it is a lack of technology understanding of packaging. We have numerous cases where material has been ‘beefed’ up to enhance barrier, or to increase protection of the contents, where it has been completely superfluous. In almost all the cases that I have been involved in these past 35 years in the industry, once an explanation is given and a better alternative solution is offered the client understands and accepts. We have too many non-qualified people making key decisions when they simply do not have the science and technology knowledge to make an informed decision to increase protection.

There is no doubt in my mind that the ‘wheels of change’ are starting to turn, more so in some countries that others. However, generally we are all aware that the future is bleak if we do not change, practically all governments around the world are aware of this.

However, if those which environmentalists are suggesting we do, are implemented across the globe with immediate effect, we can be back on track and living within our means on planet earth, with a balanced net effect on our natural resources. Change will happen, the question is more a matter of how soon all will realise that the decisions that we make now will affect the generations of 2050 and beyond. These affects will be real for all to experience within the next 10 years, but currently it is all talk and not seen to be ‘real’ enough for the general population to realise the ramifications and the future outcomes of not actioning sooner. The point is that all of us have to play our part and not leave it to the superpowers of the world, or the advanced economies, or only some countries.

The solution which we address globally is toe train more people in packaging about material science, packaging engineering and packaging technology. 40 | June 2022 - International Petfood

International Petfood - June 2022 | 41

THE INDUSTRY FACES American Pet Products Association appoints new CEO The American Pet Products Association (APPA) has named its new CEO as Peter Scott, who will be entering the role as of August 15, 2022. Mr Scott comes with more than 20 years of experience, having served as CEO of the American Academy of Optometry since 2019. Prior to that position, he spent more than six years as CEO of the North American Veterinary Community (NAVC). Throughout his career Scott has earned numerous awards which include the PRSA Silver Anvil and Radiance Awards, multiple Forbes Best of Web and Webby Awards, and the Technology and Learning Magazine’s Award of Excellence. More recently, he was recognised as Orlando Business Journal’s CEOs of the Year last year. “APPA is extremely pleased to welcome Peter, a seasoned association executive, to the team,” says Chuck Latham, chairman of the APPA board.

Biomega appoints new factory manager Bioscience company biomega announces the appointment of Chris Fredrik Simmenes as its new factory manager. Mr Simmenes will be overseeing the company’s flagship biorefinery in Skaganeset, Norway. He joins biomega after working at Mesterbakeren, a leading Norwegian bakery chain, for more than a decade. As a shift manager, he quickly progressed to an expedition leader in 2015 and became responsible for over 60 employees at the company. “It’s with great pleasure that we welcome Chris to our team. His wealth of experience in dealing with regulatory requirements from Mesterbakeren will swiftly become an asset to us,” says Stig Petersen, CEO at biomega. “With a background in teaching and experience in logistics management, Chris is a superb mentor and is already becoming a vital part of our team here in Norway.” “I am truly grateful and humble to be welcomed by such a highly competent team at biomega,” comments Mr Simmenes. “I look forward to taking our operations to the next level.”

Worldwise names senior pet industry executive Worldwise, Inc announce that Jeff Sutherland has joined the Company as its Chief Operating Officer, effective immediately. A proven operator with over 30 years of diverse pet industry experience, Mr Sutherland will work closely with the Company’s CEO Kevin Fick, its management team. Mr Sutherland joins Worldwise from Redbarn Products, a family-owned manufacturer of premium pet food, treats, and chews, where he served as President since August 2017. During his time at Redbarn, Mr Sutherland oversaw company-wide operations and helped grow the business significantly in less than five years. Prior to Redbarn, Mr Sutherland held numerous senior roles in operations, marketing, and sales with Animal Supply Company, a leading distributor of wholesale pet products, and Central Garden & Pet. Mr Sutherland, who attended Northern Arizona University, resides in Southern California with his wife, children, and three dogs.

IQI Petfood appoints new CFO/COO IQI Trusted Petfood Ingredients announces the appointment of Lennard Smit as their new CFO/COO. He will be responsible for IQI’s finance & control, IT, operations and HR. Mr Smit brings with him 20 years of experience of working in the human food sector, having worked at various supply chain and finance positions at Leerdammer, Kerry Bio-Science and Westland Cheese. For the past 10 years, Lennard was CFO for Westland Cheese and is now taking a step towards a more international working environment. “A very warm welcome to Lennard who joins us in a time of strong growth,” comments Mark Oostendorp, CEO of IQI Petfood. “I look forward to teaming up with Lennard for accelerating our growth. His strong experience in both finance and supply chain management are very valuable in these times of sourcing and supply chain challenges.” Commenting on his appointment, Mr Smit adds, “I’m excited to start working at IQI and I look forward to a new challenge in the exciting world of petfood that is totally new to me.”

42 | June 2022 - International Petfood


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