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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

AQUA NOR 2019 - Blockchain technology - Fluidised bed mixing

International Aquafeed - Volume 22 - Issue 09 - September 2019

- Improving feed digestibility of low fishmeal diets - Breakthrough in sustainable shrimp aquaculture - The highs and lows of RAS - Muketsu netting

See our archive and language editions on your mobile!

- EXPERT TOPIC: Greater amberjack Proud supporter of Aquaculture without Frontiers UK CIO

September 2019

www.aquafeed.co.uk


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WELCOME

I recently attended Aqua Nor 2019 and for once I found that the reality far exceeded the hype I had heard about the show. You can read a brief teaser later in this issue, and in subsequent magazines we will be reporting in greater detail about what we saw and who we spoke to.

the smallest booths contained a wealth of exciting and innovative products, as this show burgeoned with technological advancements in all facets of the aquaculture industry. As this event was held in Norway, naturally salmon production was very much in the fore, with most major manufacturers of cage systems exhibiting. Many advanced But I must state this up front: Aqua open sea systems were also in attendance, Nor 2019 was by far the biggest and showing where the future of offshore best trade show/conference/exhibition I aquaculture may be heading. have ever attended. First off, it was held And of course, there were also many in Trondheim, Norway and I found that Vaughn Entwistle Managing Editor, International Aquafeed manufacturers of RAS technology, who Norway is a beautiful country filled with seem to be running a close second to kind and beautiful people. traditional aquaculture companies. Other Trondheim itself is a gem of a city, exhibitors in attendance dealt with a variety of specialities rating clean and safe, with gorgeous architecture: a model of what a from removing sludge, to monetising sludge by turning it into modern city should be. And when I complimented the locals on high grade fertiliser. their lovely city, most urged me to see the rest of the country, Fish health was also well represented, with companies specialising especially Bergen, Oslo and Tromsø. As a consequence, I am in vaccines, vaccination equipment, and genetic screening. Sea now planning to take a holiday with my wife in this wonderful Lice solutions were also much in evidence, with camera systems country. for imaging and counting sea lice and even the innovative Stingray As you will read in the show preamble, Aqua Nor 2019 was a system that zaps sea lice from salmon using laser beams. record breaker, both in the number of exhibitors (over 700!) and Aqua Nor 2019 ran from 20-23rd of August, and was busy the number of visitors, which set new records for each day. Fears of a crush were soon dispelled, as the expansive new venue easily every day. The level of international participation was impressive and Aqua Nor is likely to remain the world’s number one accommodated everyone, although I did have sore feet at the end aquaculture shows for the foreseeable future. I, for one, cannot of every day from tramping miles through the various halls. wait to see what this world-class exhibition will produce for its But what a lot to take in! Many show booths were huge next show in 2021! and included secondary levels for entertainment. But even

ISSUE HIGHLIGHTS FEED: The potential value of blockchain technology in the seafood supply chain - page 22

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY RAS: The highs and lows of RAS - page 34

SPECIES

Aquaculture round-up

SHRIMP: Breakthrough in sustainable shrimp aquaculture - page 30

EXPERT TOPIC: Greater amberjack - page 40

www.aquafeed.co.uk


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY Whilst our Managing Editor, Vaughn Entwistle, was busy last month attending AquaNor and discovering the latest innovations and updates in regards to fish farming technology in the scenic city of Trondheim, myself and our Content Editor Daniel Jackson had a look at some more local examples of fish farming technology in the form of a visit to Bibury Trout Farm in Cirencester, UK.

The hatcheries are maintained at a stable 10°C to ensure ample results, before eggs are sold off to outside markets or kept as fry and fingerlings. International Aquafeed were also lucky enough to get a peek at their laboratories, with various machines for restocking, egg counting and neutering. Rebecca Sherratt It is clear that Bibury emphasise both Features Editor, International Aquafeed efficiency and proficiency with their technology, as many processes are able to be carried out within mere minutes with minimal waiting or restocking times. This clearly assists Founded in 1902, Bibury Trout Farm boasts being one of the oldest working trout farms yet remaining in the UK, and it clearly the farm in providing such an ample quality of eggs per year for harvest. continues to flourish and evolve 117 years on. Amidst the scenic Witnessing first-hand the technology that helps keep our views in the beautiful Cotswolds, we got an exclusive sneak peek industry thriving really provides you with a newfound respect at Bibury Trout Farms’ hatcheries and various systems that help for how much work is required to farm fish in a sustainable and their farm continue to be the success it is. environmentally friendly manner. To see all of this on quite a In one year, the farm produces 1.4 million trout eggs. relatively small scale must also be quite different to large scale Springwater that is naturally sourced is gravity-fed down to the operations we read and write about so often in International farm for use in their recirculation systems to help feed their 40+ Aquafeed! ponds, as well as their 170,000+ fish within their hatcheries.

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NUTRITION & HEALTH I am writing this column having been in Malta for a week in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea.

We all had much to gain from our visit to Malta with the many varieties of fish as well as rabbit on the menu making for a gastronomic treat. My activities relating to consultancy A number of years ago, I travelled to is growing and this complements Malta and visited the university where and enhances my academic standing I had a number of academic links and in fish nutrition. I actually write this colleagues in the emerging fish farming column in an aircraft heading for Ho industry centred on the National Professor Simon Davies Chi Minh City in Vietnam and will Aquaculture Centre. This was located Nutrition Editor, International Aquafeed be speaking with many stakeholders in an old fort previously been used by from the aquafeed sector such as the Royal Airforce when Britain had a technologists working on feed formulations, milling and strong military presence. Since then, aquaculture has grown importantly the feed management of shrimp, pangasias and somewhat in Malta with several fish farms with sea bass and tilapia bream being significant as well as now Blue fin tuna reared in There are, of course, major challenges associated with large pens. our quest for sustainable feed ingredients and to allow us I was a guest of a close friend Shane Hunter who was to optimise and extend our use of marine ingredients that once my undergraduate student in the 1990’s having contribute so much to the nutrition and performance of our studied Fisheries Science at Plymouth. Yes, we did a very commercial diets for fish and shrimp. comprehensive fisheries science and aquaculture degree We must also find alternatives to plant ingredients from programme in those distant days and it was a pleasure to lead more reliable sources and hopefully not impinging on our such enthusiastic young students. precious tropical rainforests such as the very topical Amazon. Shane now heads Aquabiotech and is now a most impressive Stewardship of such resources is paramount o our industry company and attracting many investors globally. It specialises if we wish to secure the confidence of our retailers and in contract research and development trials engaging with consumers. We are the summation of quality and dependency the commercial feed companies and those involved in the of so many disciples in the aquaculture feed sector. development of novel therapeutic agents and vaccines for The collection of disciplines ranging from the knowledge of disease prevention. fundamental nutrition, feed technology, health and disease, The specialised aspects of small-scale facilities for university immunology as well as the expanding complex engineering and company research is also catered and a growing area associated with aquaculture all serve to provide solutions to for RAS technologies. Malta is uniquely placed and with attaining good growth and feed conversions FCR’s as well very good air and sea links. I was indeed most impressed by as promoting the robust fish concept with minimal use of the excellent staffing at Aquabiotech and its commitment antibiotics, drugs and chemicals by using natural bioactive to quality, innovation and enterprise with very high ethical additives and feed supplement. standards and services to Malta that has gained recognition We endeavour to cover a spectrum of interests in our by the Maltese government and globally. I will certainly be magazine and many of our reports and articles as well as news making further visits for sure and collaborating with this truly items reflect those aims. exceptional company. In this issue we have our specialist fish topics and regular I was accompanied by another former student of mine, Dr items, please enjoy as autumn approaches here in the Alex Wan of the National University of Ireland in Galway Northern Hemisphere. from the Marine Institute and his colleague Dr Majbritt I will report next with news from Vietnam! Also prepare for a Bolton-Warberg, I now work very closely with Alex and his busy schedule of conferences and meetings all over the world. group as they invest and become acclaimed in their field. We The rest of 2019 is still full of activities and so please check celebrate acquisition of an EU ₏2M grant from Enterprise your calendars and schedules. Ireland for work on fish protein hydrosates on salmon health.

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY


Perendale Publishers Ltd 7 St George’s Terrace St James’ Square, Cheltenham, Glos, GL50 3PT, United Kingdom Tel: +44 1242 267700 Publisher Roger Gilbert rogerg@perendale.co.uk Managing Editor Vaughn Entwistle vaughne@perendale.co.uk

September 2019 Volume 22 Issue 09

IN THIS ISSUE

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

International Editors Dr Kangsen Mai (Chinese edition) mai@perendale.com Prof Antonio Garza (Spanish edition) antoniog@perendale.com Erik Hempel (Norwegian edition) erikh@perendale.co.uk Editorial Advisory Panel • Prof Dr Abdel-Fattah M. El-Sayed • Prof António Gouveia • Prof Charles Bai • Dr Daniel Merrifield • Dr Dominique Bureau • Dr Elizabeth Sweetman • Dr Kim Jauncey • Dr Eric De Muylder • Dr Pedro Encarnação • Dr Mohammad R Hasan Editorial team Prof Simon Davies sjdaquafeed@gmail.com Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas@perendale.co.uk Daniel Jackson danielj@perendale.co.uk International Marketing Team Darren Parris darrenp@perendale.co.uk William Dowds williamd@perendale.co.uk Latin America Marketing Team Iván Marquetti Tel: +54 2352 427376 ivanm@perendale.com Oceania Marketing Team Peter Parker peterp@perendale.co.uk

REGULAR ITEMS

Egyptian Marketing Team Mohamed Baromh Tel: +20 100 358 3839 mohamedb@perendale.com Nigeria Marketing Team Nathan Nwosu Tel: +234 8132 478092 nathann@perendale.com Design Manager James Taylor jamest@perendale.co.uk

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38 Technology showcase 48 Industry Events 62 The Market Place 64 The Aquafeed Interview 66

Production Manager Martyna Nobis martynan@perendale.co.uk Circulation & Events Manager Tuti Tan tutit@perendale.co.uk Development Manager Antoine Tanguy antoinet@perendale.co.uk Communication Manager Pablo Porcel pablop@perendale.com ©Copyright 2019 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www.perendale.com ISSN 1464-0058

Industry News

Industry Faces

COLUMNS 8

Dr Neil Auchterlonie


40 Expert Topic - Greater amberjack Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new/emerging candidate fish species for expansion of the European aquaculture industry (DIVERSIFY). DIVERSIFY have kindly teamed up with International Aquafeed magazine to provide us with the results of the research carried out on the six species of the project.

FEATURES 22 The potential value of blockchain technology in the seafood supply chain 27 Enhancing feed palatability and iAnimal feed producer ups uniformity, cuts cycle times with fluidised bed mixing 28 Improving feed digestibility of low fishmeal diets 30 Breakthrough in sustainable shrimp aquaculture

FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY 34 The highs and lows of RAS

THE BIG PICTURE Salmon farmer’s UK £5.7m investment to protect seals paying off See more on page 18

44 Muketsu netting


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French retailer launches salmon fed with Veramaris’ natural marine algal oil

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Dr Neil Auchterlonie Zinc and omega-3 fatty acids

esearchers from Nofima, the Norwegian research organisation, reported last month that the barrier tissue of salmon is affected by zinc and omega-3 levels in feed, in a recent piece of scientific work that was funded by the Norwegian Seafood Research Fund (FHF). Why is this important? Well, the integrity of salmon skin, intestine and gill tissues is vital for the health of the fish. These barriers are recognised as important first lines of defence against pathogens, as well as being important in helping the organism handle physical stressors such as fluctuations in temperature, salinity, or water quality in general. The article that has been presented on the Nofima website points out the importance of these compounds nutritionally, and particularly in relation to the changes we are seeing in feed formulations such as new feeds specifically for recirculation systems, as well as the obvious dominance of plant-based raw materials in modern feed formulations. The research set out to investigate whether changes in feed composition would affect the health and robustness of farmed salmon, and the scientists looked specifically at the interaction of zinc and marine source omega-3 fatty acids in feed, for parr to post-smolt in recirculation systems. It seems to be a part of an ongoing programme of work that has looked at the general robustness of fish in the aquaculture environment, which is highly applied and very relevant work. The results are described in the context of the health and welfare of the fish, and those are obvious impacts related to the ability of the salmon to cope with a pathogen challenge, whether it is ISA virus or sea lice. This science is important in the context of declining marine ingredient inclusions in aquafeeds. Fishmeal and fish oil are excellent sources of many micronutrients, and among the many different compounds present that contribute to fish (and consumer) health are zinc and the long chain fatty acids, EPA and DHA. When the rise of the alternatives is being promoted by journalists it incorrectly presents the perspective of these materials as being replacements for fishmeal and fish oil. I understand how important it is to the producers of these materials to capture the attention of the media and potential investors, but that is a misrepresentation. It is incorrect. There are no true “replacements” for fishmeal and fish oil. What we have with the rise of the alternative ingredients is production of materials that may be used to supplement the available fishmeal and fish oil, but that in itself is exceedingly important as it continues to support the continual growth and development of the aquafeed and aquaculture industries worldwide. It also frees up the supplies of fishmeal and fish oil to be used at points in production where the greatest benefits may be achieved. That strategic use of marine ingredients in aquafeed was first identified by Dr Jonathan Shepherd of IFFO more than ten years ago, and Jonathan had the foresight at the time to describe the situation as it is currently playing out.

Dr Neil Auchterlonie is the Technical Director at IFFO. He has managed aquaculture and fisheries science programmes in both public and private sectors. Academically he holds a BSc in Marine and Freshwater Biology from Stirling University, a MSc in Applied Fish Biology from the University of Plymouth, and a PhD in Aquaculture (halibut physiology) from Stirling University. 8 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed

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he French supermarket chain Supermarché Match, headquartered in La Madeleine, has introduced fresh salmon sustainably fed with natural marine algal oil from Veramaris as one high-quality source of both omega-3 fatty acids EPA & DHA in all of its stores in France. Supermarché Match sources the salmon from Norwegian salmon farmer Lingalaks, headquartered in Norheimsund, Hardanger. Beginning in October 2018, Lingalaks has been feeding a sustainable salmon diet developed and manufactured by feed producer Skretting which includes omega-3 EPA & DHA algal oil from Veramaris as an alternative to fish oil from wild-caught fish. “At Supermarché Match, we are committed to ensuring that everyone has access to fresh and healthy food. The salmon we are now able to offer to our customers is rich in omega-3 EPA & DHA from natural marine algae. This is our contribution to conserving marine resources”, says Nicolas Baroux, Head of Procurement at Supermarché Match. Feeding salmon with natural marine algal oil resonates strongly with increasing consumer demands for nutritious and yet sustainably farmed seafood. In France, 93 percent of salmon consumers say that omega-3 content is somewhat, very and extremely important when purchasing salmon. As a result, omega-3 content is among the top five reasons for consuming salmon. “Omega-3’s are among the most important nutrients that people need for a healthy life. Omega-3 EPA & DHA are at the very core of the salmon brand-promise, making salmon a food choice consumers can count on when it comes to health benefits. The Veramaris oil is the only commercial source of omega-3 fatty acids from algae that is rich in both EPA & DHA. Producing natural marine algal oil through large-scale fermentation, Veramaris enables the aquaculture industry to become less dependent upon finite marine resources and continue to grow within planetary boundaries.


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Saudi Arabia takes a step towards a future in sustainable proteins

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nibio and its local partner Edhafat have, on August 1st, signed an MOU with SAGIA beginning the preparations for the establishment of a protein production plant in Saudi Arabia. Under the Saudi Arabian 2030 Vision, the plan is to transform the economy using local investment power to create a more diverse and sustainable future, while also using the strategic position of the kingdom to build a role as an integral driver of international trade bringing Africa, Asia and Europe together. In a region that may be affected by changing weather and without much fertile agricultural land, as well as limited water resources, bringing in technology to address future food security challenges is key. By using local resources such as natural gas, cheap electricity and chemicals, proteins can be produced without adding stress to the agricultural system or fish stock. The Unibio technology allows the decoupling of protein production from farming and fishing and this, coupled

with Saudi Arabia’s ambition to increase aqua culture and milk production, makes the location and the Unibio technology a very good match. Ture Vahan Munksgaard, the Head of Trade from the Royal Danish Embassy in Riyadh participated in the ceremony. Mr Munksgaard said, “Many Danish companies are very innovative and are always questioning the ordinary. This leads to new and different ways of solving problems. “Unibio is exactly that; A Danish company that develops proteins from a different source. It is great to see that through a collaboration between the private and government sector, there will be new jobs created, and the project will help to achieve some of the targets of Vision 2030.” The Uniproteinâ produced will be used as protein ingredient for the local production of animal and fish feed but will initially also be for exports. Unibio is a leading Danish industrial biotech company with core competences within microbial fermentation

technologies. In collaboration with the Technical University of Denmark Unibio has developed an innovative technology – the vertical U-Loop® fermentation technology – allowing the introduction of new sustainable protein production methods. Unibio’s unique fermentation technology is based on converting natural gas (methane) into a highly concentrated protein product, Uniprotein®, by microbial fermentation. The novel protein source Uniprotein® disrupts the traditional feed value chain and mitigates the traditional challenges by decoupling protein production from the fluctuating agricultural sector and stressed fishing industries. Crop land can thus be used to produce food for humans instead of feed for animals.

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Solid half-year results from BioMar Group

have been well received and we feel that we are regaining our good foothold in the market. The new management team has brought very strong technical profiles to the forefront of our business, enabling next generation of product innovation together with the customers and a reinforced closeness to the market. I am confident, that we will continue to see improved results within a very short timeline”, continues Carlos Diaz. During the last half year BioMar has continued the development of the business, acquiring full ownership of a joint-venture factory in Chile opening for new possibilities in terms of agility and increased volumes. At the same time significant capacity has been added in Ecuador supporting the positive development of the shrimp business. “We are confident that we are on the right track. Based on the positive development, we increase our guidance of full-year 2019 revenue from DKK 10.3 billion to about DKK 10.8 billion and EBITDA from previous DKK 820-890 million to DKK 870-930”, concludes Carlos Diaz.

towards being a significant driver of welfare in the farms as well as a part of the value proposition towards the end-consumers. Many of our customers are determined to ensure, that we together deliver healthy and sustainable seafood. The agenda of food is changing and our opportunities for taking responsibility expands along with rapid development within the endconsumer segments”, explains Carlos Diaz, CEO of BioMar Group. During the last half year, the business unit in Norway has implemented a new operating model and a new setup towards the customers, enabling higher efficiency and facilitating agile collaboration. At the same time new products have been brought to market, creating new opportunities for combining high- performing feed solutions with advanced functional feed. However, the lower sales volumes during 2018 still impact the overall results of the group: “We experience, that our initiatives

he half-year report for BioMar Group has recently been released by the parent company Schouw & Co. The report underlines the long-term solid performance of the company by increased volumes and revenue compared to 2018. The positive development leads BioMar to increase the guidance for the full year in terms of revenue and EBITDA. BioMar Group continues to deliver solid financial results. The sales volume increased four percent compared to same period last year, driven by strong performance in the salmon markets in UK and Chile as well as within the business units producing feed for other species across the world. Innovative product offerings and close cooperation with the customers designing advanced feed solutions targeted the consumer market has been some of the factors driving the results: “Feed is moving away from being a commodity product

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UK fish food company launches into global aquaculture industry

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orld Feeds Ltd are pleased to announce the launch of Vita Aqua Feeds (VAF), a new range of unique feed products targeted at one of salmon farming’s biggest issues – the control of sea lice. VAF is a pioneering solution that is poised to revolutionise how cleaner fish are fed and managed in global aquaculture. Designed specifically for lumpfish and wrasse, their elongated feed blocks are produced using bespoke machinery, designed in-house. They employ a coldextrusion process, producing soft and malleable blocks that are highly digestible and attractive to the cleaner fish. Crucially, as the blocks maintain integrity in water for up to 24 hours, they encourage and facilitate natural grazing behaviour, allowing the larger fish to satiate before the smaller fish take their turn. This subsequently leads to reduced aggression during feeding. VAF blocks are complete diets and require no refrigeration or mixing and have a two-year shelf life, massively reducing storage costs and preparation time. 

Following extensive trials in Loch Duart, Scotland and GIFAS, Norway, studies have demonstrated the high effectiveness and benefits of these feed blocks when compared to other commercially available feeds. It was found that fish fed with VAF blocks maintained stable and controlled growth rates, negating the symptoms of artificially-high growth rates. Improved efficacy is also achieved by huge reductions in cataract development. At the end of the trial period, there was a 77 percent reduction in cataract prevalence in lumpfish when compared with those fed with a pelleted diet. Studies also recorded improvements to general health and welfare, indicative of the selection of high quality, sustainably sourced ingredients contained within World Feeds Ltd’s feeds. To complement their pioneering feed blocks, World Feeds Ltd have developed unique feeding stations designed for practicality and to maximise efficiency. The VAF Manual Line Deployment (MLD) system can be easily loaded direct from the pack in situ at the pen. 12|September2019-InternationalAquafeed

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Skretting Sustainability Report highlights wins and challenges in 2018

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strong focus on the development and implementation of novel raw materials for commercial use in nutritional solutions, together with progress towards well-defined sustainability ambitions and aspirations that are aligned with a long-term strategy and the United Nations’ Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are some of the highlights presented in Skretting’s Sustainability Report 2018. As a result of a clear vision initiated decades ago, Skretting has kept innovating to provide sustainable solutions that allow a concrete contribution to the aquaculture industry’s license to grow. Hence, the edie Award received by Skretting for MicroBalance FLX in the category of Sustainability Product Innovation of the Year in 2018 is a recognition of the development of a nutritional solution that together with a unique combination of products, services and digital tools is helping farmers boost productivity, support animal health and minimise negative environmental impacts in an ethical and sustainable way. The report also emphasises the increasing focus of the company to develop novel raw materials together with different stakeholders in the value chain, from raw material suppliers to customers and retailers, to a stage where they can be implemented in commercial feed, a milestone that allowed Skretting to be the leading supplier to provide solutions with both algal oil and insect meals. “Everybody everywhere must be able to eat, and our

responsibility is to make sure that we provide the most sustainable solutions – in both an environmental and economic sense – for an industry that plays a significant role in providing safe, healthy and delicious protein to the world’s growing population. Sustainability is at the core of our business and it is a key component to fulfil our mission of ‘Feeding the Future’,” says Therese Log Bergjord, Skretting CEO. Another important element in this year’s report refers to the ongoing developments related to the participation in Fishery Improvement Projects, as well as community projects in Africa and Asia that are aimed at contributing to economic growth through partnership with local communities. “We focus our efforts to build food security in societies that have a need for high quality protein, and where fish production is largely consumed within the country. We’re proud of the way we are leveraging our competence to stimulate the growth of the local industries in the different regions in which we operate,” comments Trygve Berg Lea, Skretting Sustainability Manager. This year’s report also shines a spotlight on some of the dilemmas faced by Skretting and the aquaculture industry in general. “We believe it is in the interests of the entire value chain to be transparent. We do not claim to be perfect, however we are committed to facing the challenges and working with partners to ensure that we only get better,” adds Mr Berg Lea.

14 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


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New report analyses the market for insect-based feed report titled “Edible Insects for Animal Feed: Global Market Analysis 2013-2017” estimates that the edible insects for animal feed market reached US $267.9 million by the end of 2018 in terms of value and will reach US $2385.6 million by the end of 2029. To fulfil increasing food demand globally, meat production has increased. It is necessary to provide quality feed to animals to improve their meat quality. The feed industry has introduced edible insects for animal feed because insects contain high amounts of protein which is

essential for the growth of livestock. Investments in the edible insects for animal feed market are increasing. In 2018, companies producing edible insects for animal feed received large investments, for example, UK-based AgriProtein, Dutch Protix, and the French company InnovaFeed and Ynsect, which produce mealworm in France. Consumers Insects are a healthy and nutritious alternative to staple foods such as chicken, beef, fish, and pork. However, consumers are reluctant to accept insects as direct food due to

their taste and appearance. Consumption of insects as food depends on the culture and religion in that particular region. Mostly in western regions consumption of insects as food is not acceptable yet. Edible insects for animal feed is in high demand in these regions. The effect on environment due to insects is less as compared to livestock. Unlike soy and fish meal production, insect rearing is not a land-based activity and it does not require land clearing to expand production. This has led to an increase in demand for edible insects for animal feed.

Cargill and White Dog Labs set to deliver a sustainable feed alternative

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argill is expanding its offerings of sustainable alternatives to fishmeal in aqua feed thanks to a new agreement with White Dog Labs. The deal secures access to ProTyton™, White Dog Labs’ single-cell protein produced by fermentation with corn feedstock a sustainable alternative to harvesting fishmeal which, like fishmeal, is high in protein and amino acids. ProTyton™ will be ready to ship from White Dog Labs’ demo facility in Sutherland, NE in 2020. “This agreement underlines our commitment to sustainable aquaculture and discovering new and strategic ingredients that will help feed the world in a safe and responsible way,” said Adriano Marcon, president of Cargill’s Aqua Nutrition Business. Cargill plans to begin offering ProTyton™ in salmon feed, with the possibility of expanding to shrimp and other species as White Dog Labs’ production volume increases. In trials, salmon fed a diet containing ProTyton™ achieved a growth performance comparable to salmon on a conventional diet. International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 15


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Alltech commits to UN Sustainable Development Goals lltech has taken a significant step toward its sustainability goals and its vision for a Planet of Plenty™. Dr Mark Lyons, President and CEO of Alltech, signed a letter to the secretary-general of the United Nations committing Alltech to the UN Global Compact focused on positive advancements in human rights, labour, the environment and anti-corruption. In addition, Alltech has committed to nine of the United Nations’ 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In 2015, all United Nations member states adopted the SDGs, which are an urgent call to action by all countries. Each SDG has specific, actionable targets that contribute to the overall goal. The UN Global Compact, the world’s largest corporate sustainability initiative, allows the UN to work with companies to help move the SDGs forward. Companies that join the Global Compact are asked to select the targets they feel are most closely aligned with their core business and are therefore actionable by the company. “We believe that by adopting new technologies, improving business practices and embracing innovation, the agri-food sector can support a Planet of Plenty™,” said Dr Lyons, who was joined by Mrs Deirdre Lyons, co-founder of Alltech, and colleagues at the company’s global headquarters. “Today, we join the growing number

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of organisations around the world united by a passionate commitment to building a more sustainable future.” Alltech feed technologies support producers in reducing antibiotic use as antimicrobial resistance becomes a growing concern. The Lyons Family Life Foundation, established by the family of Alltech’s founder, Dr Pearse Lyons, aims to support patient care and medication safety. Fish oil and fish meal are often key components for animal diets. This contributes to overfishing of our oceans, and producers are always striving to identify sustainable solutions. Turning toward alternative feeds such as algae or insects has proved helpful, but there is still much that can be done to improve aquaculture’s methods of food production. Alltech can contribute to these efforts in several ways, including through the Alltech Coppens Aqua Centre in the Netherlands. Alltech’s commitment was accepted into the UN Global Compact, and the company officially joined a network of over 9,500 companies and 3,000 non-business participants committed to building a sustainable future. Along with the UN Sustainable Development Goals, Alltech also committed to the Science Based Targets initiative. These targets are designed to help companies reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and share their progress through transparent documentation and reporting.

International aquaculture demonstration centre in Turkey he Trabzon Aquaculture Central Research Institute (SUMAE) has become the aquaculture demonstration centre of United Nations Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) Mediterranean General Fisheries. With the support of FAO GFCM, a closed circuit aquaculture system (ADC-RAS) with the latest technology has been established within the Fisheries Central Research

Institute. Within this system, the breeding of various fish species, especially black sea trout, will be carried out. Established by the FAO-GFCM, these new modern closed-loop aquaculture systems (ADC-RAS) are now serving Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia. Throughout the course, theoretical presentations and practical applications on trout farming in closed

circuit systems were realised. Thanks to the event, Turkey’s knowledge and experience in aquaculture was shared with neighbouring countries of the Black Sea. In addition, a series of studies have been carried out on the production of Kalkan fry at this centre and trainings on topics such as fish disease will be organised in the coming period for experts from Arab countries and experts from the Black Sea coastal countries.

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Pescanova’s Guatemala shrimp ops reopen after gangs forced closure ova Guatemala, a shrimp producer in Champerico, Retalhuleu, an important port town in the southwestern part of the country, reopened August 19th after threats of extortion by criminal gangs there shut it down for a week. A spokeswoman for Grupo Nueva Pescanova, which owns the Guatemalan shrimp farmer, confirmed to Undercurrent News that operations there have resumed. “The plant is operating normally today,” she confirmed. Representatives from the Guatemalan Association of Exporters (Agexport) said the company had approached it for support and that this level of gang activity is a relatively rare event. “The company is getting full support from Agexport to coordinate meetings with the relevant government authorities at the highest levels,” a group spokesman said. “Several meetings have taken place and the authorities are fully aware and committed to helping solve this unfortunate issue urgently for the good of the people of the company and the region” Nova Guatemala, which exports to Asia, Europe and North America, has

been in operation for more than 20 years and is credited for generating development that has brought as many as 1,300 jobs to the community. As Undercurrent reported earlier, Guatemala remains a modest player in the global shrimp market and was expected to produce some 20,000 to 25,000 metric tonnes in 2018. But many of the country’s farmers hope to intensify their farms similar to the way several Asian countries have done and turn the country into a larger force in the sector.

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Salmon farmer’s UK £5.7m investment to protect seals paying off

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cottish Sea Farms has reported a significant reduction in ‘last resort’ seal shootings as its investment in rigid new pen netting systems surpasses £5.7m. In the first six months of the current reporting period (February 2019 – January 2020), the salmon grower saw two seal deaths across its 43-strong estate of marine farms; a reduction of five compared with the same period last year, six compared with 2017 and seven compared with 2016. Scottish Sea Farms’ Managing Director Jim Gallagher said, “We won’t be happy until we achieve zero seal deaths, however our multi-million pound investment to roll out protective Seal Pro netting across as many of our farms as possible, as quickly as possible, is another example of our commitment to farm as responsibly and as sustainably as we can. “Not only do the tougher, more rigid nets help to deter seals, but by protecting our salmon from the stress of predation and the subsequent health challenges that can cause they also contribute to fish welfare.” With the optimum time to install the new netting systems being ahead of each new crop, Scottish Sea Farms has now equipped over half of its marine farms with Seal Pro

nets at a cost of £4.2m, with a further £1.5m worth of nets set to be deployed between September and October 2019, bringing the total investment to date to £5.7m – with more to follow. Included in the latest roll-out will be next generation Seal Pro Excel netting which has been engineered to be the strongest, most unyielding version yet offering even greater protection. Scottish Sea Farms’ Head of Fish Health Dr Ralph Bickerdike commented, “Seals naturally feed on a variety of wild fish and other marine life and are thought to consume up to 7kg a day, depending on species. In the hunt for food, seals are occasionally relocating from farms that have Seal Pro nets to nearby farms that have previously had no significant seal challenge, hence our drive to protect all farms. We’ve also seen seals climb up and into pens. Both types of event happened earlier this year, accounting for the two shootings which were carried out under licence.” Not to be deterred from the goal of zero seal deaths, farm teams are now lacing top nets together in a new way to help prevent the most persistent of seals from getting into pens. The salmon grower has also recently begun trialling an all-new deterrent in the form of an ‘electric fish’, pioneered by Dundee-based innovators Ace Aquatec. Shortlisted in the Animal Welfare category of the 2019 Aquaculture Awards, the device swims around the base of the net and emits a light-touch electrical current when bitten down on by predators, dissuading them from persisting any further.

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Aquaculture leaders pledge to confront sea lice threat

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he Scottish salmon industry expressed a clear commitment to increase investment in tackling sea lice during 2019, according to a poll conducted by SAIC, the Scottish Aquaculture Innovation Centre. At a collaborative workshop attended by nearly 50 industry peers, delegates were asked about their investment intentions for the next 12 months for dealing with sea lice – one of the industry’s most enduring challenges. All of the respondents envisaged investment being equal to or greater than in 2018, with 45 percent stating greater levels of investment in 2019. These figures represented a range of organisations from across industry, academia, and the public sector. The survey also showed acknowledgement across the board that more could be done to tackle sea lice. Nearly two-thirds (63%) of respondents agreed that the aquaculture community could do

more to improve sea lice management. Robin Shields, Senior Aquaculture Innovation Manager at SAIC, said, “It’s encouraging to see the aquaculture community not only recognising the perennial challenge of sea lice but showing a commitment to investing in new ways of addressing the issue. “Collaboration between industry and academia will be crucial to successfully dealing with sea lice through novel approaches and technologies. We’re keen to engage with the widest range of expertise possible to discuss issues and ideas for what can be done. Last year, Mowi and Scottish Sea Farms announced a breakthrough in the rearing of cleaner fish – seen by many as a key stage in the process of finding a sustainable solution to dealing with sea lice.

Robin Shields added, “While we’ve seen successes in the field over the last few years which have led to a reduction in sea lice numbers, there’s always room for improvement. Given the value of salmon to Scotland’s economy, it’s incumbent upon all of us to work together and look for solutions.”

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lternative protein producer Calysta has announced a $30 million investment from BP Ventures to support a worldwide rollout of Calysta’s FeedKind protein, which can help improve global food security, one of the greatest challenges facing the world today. The investment will help Calysta expand production of its sustainable single-cell protein, which is produced through a proprietary, commerciallyvalidated gas fermentation process using naturally occurring, non-GM microbes with the unique ability to use methane as their energy source. Through extensive customer trials around the world, FeedKind protein has been demonstrated to be an effective, safe and nutritious feed ingredient. “Welcoming BP as a partner is a tremendous step forward for FeedKind protein and the best indicator yet that Calysta’s solution to food insecurity in a resource-constrained world can and will achieve global scale,” said Alan Shaw, Calysta President and CEO. “The problems facing our food production supply chains have never been more clear, with increasing evidence that land and water scarcity are key challenges to meeting future demand for protein. FeedKind makes more from less, producing feed for livestock, fish and pets while making smarter use of our resources. “We look forward to working closely with BP as we prepare to deliver this product to the world. Calysta will benefit from BP’s operational excellence and focus on safety when deploying multiple production plants.” FeedKind is already being produced from the company’s Market Introduction Facility (MIF) in Teesside, England to support market development activities with leading animal nutrition companies around the world.

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Calysta announces US $30 million global food security investment

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

aquafeed.co.uk


Blockchain technology The potential value of blockchain technology in the seafood supply chain Bryan Horsu, Master of Science Student at the University of Applied Sciences, The Netherlands, https://www.rotterdamuas.com/ Wesley Malcorps, PhD Student at the Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling, UK, https://www.stir.ac.uk/about/faculties/naturalsciences/aquaculture/ Paul van der Heijden, Founder at MatureDevelopment BV, The Netherlands https://maturedevelopment.com

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growing population with an increasing appetite for highly nutritious seafood resulted in an increase in global fish consumption from approximately 10kg in 1961 until 20kg in 2013. Capture fisheries and aquaculture are important contributors to fulfill the growing global demand for seafood

(FAO, 2018). However, both industries are made up of complex global supply chains and are subjected to social and environmental challenges. Increasing consumer awareness, environmental concerns and food safety requires increasing traceability and transparency along these supply chains (Fox et al., 2018; Lidskog et al., 2015; Black et al., 2016; Pramod et al., 2014). This article explores briefly how distributed ledger technology, such as blockchain, could contribute to overcome these challenges and support the sustainable production of seafood. Firstly, the potential of blockchain technology in the supply chain is explored. This is followed up by a brief explanation of the potential of this technology in the aquaculture sector, with a focus on the aquafeed industry and sustainability. Thirdly, it will zoom in on the capture fishery industry through a conducted survey at a company in the Netherlands.

The potential of blockchain technology in the supply chain

A large proportion of stakeholders along the supply chain are currently using paper or computer systems that barely interact with each other, which results in a lack of traceability and transparency (Appelhanz et al., 2016). Distributed ledger technology, such as blockchain - a decentralised, distributed, immutable, digital database system, that stores numerous transactions shared between parties - could increase traceability and transparency (Westerkamp et al., 2019; Consensys, 2019). The transactions taking place in the ledger are subjected to verification by a consensus and agreement among the parties. The moment the information linked to the completed transaction is put into the system, it can never be rebutted or altered, as each transaction entered into the system holds a specific verifiable record (Crosby et al., 2016). This technology combined with e.g. sensors, tags, QR codes and big data could have the potential to increase traceability and transparency of the sourcing of food and feed ingredients. It could provide insight in social and environmental parameters like place of origin, transportation conditions (e.g. time, temperature and humidity), certifications and companies involved along the supply chain. This technology has wider applications and has the potential to improve efficiency of business transactions, compliance processes and it could develop inclusive business models. It can also fasten administrative processes, logistics and facilitate the exchange of value without having to rely on a thirdparty institution, e.g. investments funds (Westerkamp et al., 2019; Consensys, 2019; Medium, 2019; Bitcoinist, 2018; Holotiuk, 2017). Additionally, traceability and transparency are crucial in order to guarantee food safety and prevent fraud, while it could also improve efficiency of the food production system by highlighting food waste hotspots and adding value to by-products and

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BALANCE IS EVERYTHING!

waste streams (Medium, 2019; Fox et al., 2018). This shows potential, as side streams represents approximately up to one third of the global food system (Godfray et al., 2010). However, traceability of processed goods is currently challenging and requires documentation of the transformation in the production process (Westerkamp et al., 2019). Furthermore, regulations (European Parliament, 2002), standards (ISO 9001:2015) and increasing consumer awareness towards sustainability issues are challenging demands for traditional supply chain management systems (Westerkamp et al., 2019; Dabbene et al., 2014). This could accelerate the adoption of blockchain technology.

Aquaculture, aquafeed and sustainability

Capture fisheries have been close to their production limits and, as a result, the aquaculture industry is growing faster than any other food-producing sector (FAO, 2018). Large amounts of aquafeed are required in order to sustain this growth rate. The dependency on both the marine as well as the terrestrial system for its feed ingredients exposes aquafeed production to a range of challenges, as ingredients are sourced from a variety of stakeholders and locations across complex global supply chains (Troell et al, 2014). Most life cycle assessments (LCAs) suggest that aquafeed accounts for most of the environmental impact of fed aquaculture production (Little et al., 2018). However, this impact is variable depending on the type and source of the feed ingredients. Therefore, increased traceability and transparency along the supply chain could provide more accurate insight in the social and environmental performance and could highlight sustainability issues (Westerkamp et al., 2019). This information is crucial in order to support the sustainable growth of the aquaculture industry and to provide healthy and nutritious food that benefits the environment and communities along and beyond the supply chain.

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Capture fisheries and traceability

Global capture fisheries are crucial in order to fulfill the global demand for seafood (FAO, 2018). It has a wide range of sustainability challenges, but is significantly affected by illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fisheries. Some IUU estimates are between 13 and 31 percent higher than reported catches (over 50% in some regions), depending on the country and region (Agnew et al., 2009). This is a

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Bryan Horsu

Wesley Malcorps

violation of fishing policies and regulations domestically and internationally and has socio-economic and environmental implications. The value of illegal catch ranges from $10 billion to $23.5 billion per year globally (Agnew et al., 2009), while it is estimated that the United States alone unintentional imported $1.3 - $2.1 billion in 2011 (Pramod et al., 2014). There is obviously a need to increase traceability and transparency in order to distinct honest companies from “cowboys� and to support the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of the United Nations (UN) - (e.g. Goal 9: Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure; Goal 12: Responsible Consumption and Production; Goal 14: Life Below Water). Blockchain technology show potential to contribute to these goals, but is relatively new and in its early adoption phase with many technological and socio-economic challenges (Ge et al., 2017). However, there are already numerous reports documenting deployed pilots in a variety of industries, such as agriculture, capture fisheries and aquaculture (Consensys, 2019; Fishcoin, 2019; Ge et al., 2017). This includes a blockchain research and pilot carried out by Provenance and WWF, which argues it can stop IUU fisheries in the tuna industry (Visser & Hanich, 2017). However, the drivers and barriers of the implementation of a blockchain based track and trace system in the capture fishery industry in the Netherlands are relatively unknown. Therefore, several interviews with an important stakeholder were conducted by asking questions about their perceptions and thoughts on blockchain implementation.

Drivers and barriers

The key drivers and barriers are highlighted through a recent survey at a fishing company in the Netherlands, by exploring the principles of blockchain technology and the benefits and obstacles of moving forward with the implementation. Our research findings indicate various drivers to explore and implement blockchain technology, including the (1) increasing complexity in global supply chains from point of origin to destination, (2) growth in seafood consumption and (3) (changing) attitudes towards seafood and sustainability issues. Additionally, (4) rise in digitisation and the wish to stay in the forefront of technology and innovation to further optimise their processes. Our research findings also indicate various barriers that this sector must consider, including (1) lack of knowledge around blockchain technology opportunities, (2) lack of sufficient pilot testing in the industry, (3) the assurance of data protection

Paul van der Heijden

and security due to threats of data leaks and cyber hacking. Additionally, (4) uncertainties regarding strategies to diminish the reliance on certain intermediaries across the global supply chain in order to increase process optimization, which could have an impact in the long term. More specifically, blockchain technology leans heavily towards transparency and efficiency, meaning services offered by third parties, such as the international courier delivery companies dealing with customs paperwork might become redundant. The lack of quantitative assessment on the impact on logistics, the infrastructure, as well as cost implications are major uncertainties. This also includes the lack of information on the perceptions and thoughts stemming from different levels of intermediaries in the capture fishery industry, such as the port, international courier delivery services and external auditors.

Conclusion and future expectations

The literature research and the survey concludes that blockchain technology shows potential for the seafood industry to increase the transparency and traceability of the supply chain. However, it must be noted that this technology is relatively new and has many technological and socio-economic challenges to overcome in order to realize its full potential. On a governance and industry level, stakeholders are connected on a distributed ledger, which will increase the traceability and transparency of the industry. Products can be easily tracked and traced, and activities are carried out by form of consensus. As seafood being a nutritious and valuable source of food, the actions taken to stimulate sustainability through regulation, such as quotas and certificates, can be built on blockchain technology for greater accuracy and reliability. On a company level, companies in the capture fishery industry could optimize their efficiency and minimize cost by digitising their documentation process with parties directly involved in their core business activities. Additionally, blockchain technology could potentially support circular economy principles and inclusive business models and increase the value of by-products by improved transparency and traceability. On a consumer level, consumers who seek more sustainable seafood products would have access to a wide range of relevant information (e.g. location of catch, sustainability indicators, companies involved and transportation conditions). This provides the consumer with a powerful tool to make a well-informed choice and select companies that embrace sustainability. Such a strategy would contribute to the SDGs of the United Nations.

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FLUIDISED BED MIXING

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Animal feed producer ups uniformity, cuts cycle times with fluidised bed mixing by Steve Knauth, Marketing Manager, Munson Machinery Co Inc, Canada

ountry Junction Feeds has produced animal feed products in Alberta, Canada for over 100 years. Today, it offers a full line of organic wet and dry feeds for cattle, hogs, poultry, horses, bison, elk, goats and sheep. To improve batch consistency and prevent damage when adding liquids to fragile ingredients, the company installed a fluidised-bed type mixer on its “wet feed” production line. Dry feed in raw or pelletised form is typically pre-blended in a 2000kg capacity mixer. The wet blending process adds oils and/or molasses to rolled oats, barley, pellets and “bull ration” calf feed for nutrition and palatability as well as dust control. To blend dry ingredients with liquid additions in batches of up to 300kg, the company installed a Munson model MF-18-SS fluidised bed mixer. “Fluidised bed mixing brought more batch-to-batch consistency

than the previous auger mixer,” explains Mark Shantz, Country Junction’s Maintenance Manager, adding that it imparts less shear than the auger mixer, reducing product degradation, particularly with fragile materials.

How liquid additions are mixed with dry blends

To initiate a mixing cycle, an operator enters a pre-programmed recipe at a plant workstation. Individual ingredients, stored in outdoor granaries, are transported by chain drag conveyors to the aforementioned dry mixer for pre-blending. Blended batches discharged into bins are then conveyed by either of two drag chain conveyors to the fluidised bed mixer. Load cells supporting the mixer transmit weight gain information to a PLC, which stops the conveyor once the preset batch weight has been gained, with +/- 1kg accuracy. Once mixing begins, a fluid volume of oil or molasses equivalent to 3-to-10 percent of the dry premix weight is automatically metered from a 20kg capacity vessel and gravity discharged into the top centre intake of the fluidised bed mixer.

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Fluidised mixing zone improves dispersion

The machine’s fluidising effect is achieved by twin paddle agitators rotating at 36rpm within twin “U” shaped troughs at the bottom of the mixing vessel. The counter-rotating agitators cause material from the troughs to become airborne along the centreline of the vessel where it intersperses rapidly with liquids sprayed into the “fluidised zone.” Mixing cycle times range from 10 seconds-to-two minutes, depending on recipe. Full-length drop-bottom gates open to discharge blended batches into a hopper, which feeds a filling line for 20kg plastic fibre bags. Immediately after the bottom gates close, dry premix

is loaded into the mixer, a pump refills the overhead liquid hopper, and a new cycle begins. Shantz says, “We lift the lid and wash out the inside with water. The interior is smooth and free of obstructions that trap material, which eliminates the need to manually scrape away residue. It’s easier to clean than the auger, and not as time consuming,” he says. Country Junction Feeds is a division of Wetaskiwin Co-op, a cooperative whose local operations in the area include a home centre, agro centre, food store, bulk fuel and equipment sales, and related services. Country Junction’s feed is sold in Canada, but Shantz says the company is looking at international sales. www.munsonmachinery.com

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Improving feed digestibility of low fishmeal diets

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he continually increasing demand for fish farming is driving a shortage in fishmeal supply to the aquaculture industry. As a consequence, fishmeal prices are rapidly increasing and challenging the aquafeed industry to seek economically viable and environmentally sustainable alternatives to fishmeal and fish oil. This quest for alternative ingredients, particularly protein sources, is of utmost importance, especially for supporting the shrimp aquaculture industry. Shrimp is already a heavily traded commodity and its production through intensive aquaculture is expected to continue to notably expand in the coming years.

Pitfalls of plant-based ingredients on feed digestibility

Plant-based ingredients are good candidates to partially replace fishmeal in aquafeeds because they are largely available, fairly economical, and provide a good and reliable source of protein. However, the inclusion of crop-based feedstuffs in shrimp feed is followed by numerous challenges such as reduced feed acceptability and digestibility. Vegetable protein sources, like soy, sunflower, rapeseed, among others, show high content in fibres and include anti-nutritional factors (ANFs). ANFs are biological compounds that reduce nutrient utilisation and feed intake, and comprise molecules including proteinase inhibitors, saponins, and antivitamins alkaloids. These compounds can be deleterious for shrimp growth as they inactivate digestive enzymes and decrease feed digestibility (Bora, 2014). Indeed, both high fibre content and ANFs negatively affect feed intake, FCR and, ultimately decrease shrimp growth performance.

A highly digestible feed additive to supplement low fishmeal diets

In order to address the limitations of replacing fishmeal with plant-based ingredients in shrimp feeds, Phileo Lesaffre developed the feed additive Prosaf® – a premium yeast fraction obtained from the primary culture of a proprietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker’s yeast strain. The feed additive Prosaf is produced using a standardised process: after fermentation, yeasts are autolysed through thermal treatment, which is followed by a centrifugation step that separates the cell extract from the cell wall. The latter is discarded, and the inner cell wall fraction is isolated to be subsequently used as a premium and high-quality soluble product. Prosaf feed additive has a high protein content (63%), most of which is comprised of free amino acids and small sized

Figure 1: Amino acid profile expressed in relative proportion compared to fishmeal and soybean meal amino acid composition (Source: Phileo Lesaffre internal data and INRA AFZ tables Soybean meal 44)

Figure 2: Apparent digestibility coefficient of protein, energy, lipid and essential amino acids of four different feeds with a 20 percent inclusion level of Prosaf®, fishmeal, soybean meal, or rapeseed meal (fishmeal LT70, Norvik 70, Sopropêche,l, France; Dehulled solvent extracted soybean meal, Cargill, Spain; Defatted rapeseed meal, Premix, Portugal). Digestibility was measured in whiteleg shrimp (14g average body weight) using yttrium oxide as an inert marker

and highly bioavailable peptides that are easily and rapidly absorbed by shrimp after ingestion. Indeed, 95 percent of this product is composed of molecules smaller than 3.6 kDalton, and 45 percent are even smaller than 1.9 kDalton, as shown by liquid chromatography analysis (HPLC). Prosaf® is also rich in nucleotides (7.7%) derived from yeast cell content, and rich in lysine, threonine, and other essential amino acids that are limited in plant-based feeds (See Figure 1). In order to assure the bioassimilation of nutrients, the digestibility of Prosaf® and essential amino acids was assessed through a digestibility trial conducted by Sparos Lda, Portugal. The in vivo digestibility experiments were performed using

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Protein Energy Lipid Arginine Histdine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Threonine Valine Methionine Cysteine Phenylalanine Tyrosine

Prosaf® 88.9 83.2 90.3

Fishmeal LT70 87.1 86.9 88.2

Soybean meal 84.4 80.8 77.7

Rapeseed meal 53.5 57.5 72.1

96.4 97.4 98.5 96.8 96 96.5 98.2 86.9 89.7 98.5 95.7

97.9 96.3 97.7 98.1 97.4 97.5 97.5 96.1 96.3 97.9 95.1

94.8 94.7 94.6 94.5 93.4 91.6 95.9 69.5 97.4 96.7 94.5

83.3 85.9 93.7 94.8 84 82 85.2 62.3 87.8 87.4 82.8

yttrium oxide as an inner marker, feeding shrimp a reference diet including one of the following test ingredients at 20 percent inclusion level: Prosaf®, fishmeal, soybean meal, or rapeseed meal. Results showed that Prosaf® is a highly digestible product, with the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein, energy, and lipid, showing similar values to those recorded for the fishmeal-based diet, and significantly higher than those of rapeseed meal (See Figure 2). The high digestibility of essential amino acids present in Prosaf® was also assessed during the same in vivo digestibility trial (See Figure 2). Results show that the digestibility of essential amino acids in Prosaf® often exceeds 95 percent and is similar to results recorded for the fishmeal-based diet, with the exception of Methionine and Cysteine, which are two sulfur-containing amino acids often limited in plant-based diets. As observed for nutrients and energy, the ADC of all essential amino acids apart from Cysteine was significantly higher in the Prosaf®-based diet than in the rapeseed meal-based diet.

Protein digestibility of low fishmeal diets improves with Prosaf®

An additional in vivo study was performed at Prince of Songkla University, Thailand, to evaluate the impact the supplementation of a low fishmeal diet (5%) with increasing amounts of Prosaf® feed additive on total diet digestibility. Whereas dietary protein digestibility notably dropped with the reduction of fishmeal level from 15-to-five percent, results significantly improved with the inclusion of this selected yeast extract in a dose-sensitive manner (See Figure 3). A supplementation with Prosaf® at 0.5 percent inclusion level in a low fishmeal diet already increased protein digestibility up to the levels observed for the high fishmeal control treatment. Nevertheless, increased supplementation levels of 1.5 percent and 2.5 percent resulted in even higher protein digestibility than that observed for the control treatment.

Approaching more digestible low fishmeal formulas

The results recorded in the two scientific trials previously reported support the use of Prosaf feed additive as a sustainable and nature-based solution to increase the digestibility of nutrients and energy of low fishmeal diets used in shrimp aquaculture. This is associated with its premium formula that comprises small-sized and highly digestible molecules. The ability of Prosaf® to help balance low fishmeal diets by improving digestibility of the feed and boosting shrimp performance will help the aquaculture industry address the challenges associated with reduced fishmeal levels in aquafeeds. https://phileo-lesaffre.com

PRECISION TO THE CORE

No build-up

Fluid-zone

2100 dm3 = 100%

Due to the unique “Tulip body” the Wynveen Vacuum Coater is very hygienic, no residue build-up to the sides walls will occur. The double shaft principle ensures an ideal fluid zone for optimum addition of liquids to the main product.

www.wynveen.com International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 29


Aquaculture round-up

Breakthrough in sustainable shrimp aquaculture

A

by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

quaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing industries, due to an increasing need for protein to feed a growing population, and because of the need to find food sources that are secure, sustainable and traceable. However, disease remains a persistent problem throughout the aquaculture industry. As in farm environments ranging from poultry houses to salmon farms, the high density and close proximity of fish, shrimp, and other species raised in land-based ponds, raceways, and RAS, causes stress and facilitates the transmission of disease and parasites. Antibiotics and chemical agents have been the traditional response to disease outbreaks, but thanks to their overuse through the decades these treatments are becoming less effective, and in many cases their

use may be limited or proscribed by regulatory agencies. While attending American Aquaculture 2019 in New Orleans, Louisiana, the editorial staff of International Aquafeed magazine met with representatives of STK Aqua. The company develops and commercialises solutions that help to increase survival rates, grow healthier animals, and enable safer, healthier and more abundant production from vaccination, transportation and stress reduction to stave off the onslaught of parasites and bacterial diseases.

EshedÂŽ- A non-polluting, sustainable solution

Eshed is a botanical-based solution for the treatment and prevention of bacterial disease in shrimp. It is highly flexible and can be used in all aquaculture environments including land-based ponds and raceway systems. Moreover, because it does not employ poisonous chemical solutions, it does not pollute the aquaculture environment, or surrounding fragile ecosystems.

30 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


Aquaculture round-up

How Eshed works

When bacteria invade a shrimp’s body, the attacking bacteria protect themselves with a Biofilm in order to multiply and exchange genetic information. The shrimp’s immune system is unable to protect itself due to the nature of the microbe’s growth within the organism – the invading microbes create a “bio-shield” that protects it from the shrimp’s immune system. Similarly, antibacterial treatments cannot efficiently penetrate the “bio-shield.” Using Eshed helps prevent the “Bio-shield” creation, leaving the microbes exposed to the shrimp’s immune system and antibacterial products such as organic acids. And because Eshed is based on innovative formulations of natural organic compounds extracted from plants, it leaves no harmful residues in the produce destined for human consumption and causes no water pollution that damages the environment and poses health risks to humans. It has been shown that hatcheries using Eshed on a regular basis during all stages, have increased their yield up to 20-30 percent with much healthier and bigger animals. By using Eshed, the hatcheries save time and money, shortening the growth cycle, and reducing the use of antibiotics. https://stk-ag.com

Timorex EC® Action 1. Bacteria invade the shrimp

2. Bacteria protect themselves with a Biofilm in order to multiply and exchange genetic information

3. Disease: Bacteria multiply rapidly, forming new colonies in the shrimp.

4. Antibacterial treatments cannot penetrate efficiently

5.Eshed® prevents the formation of the biofilm. This allows bacterial treatment to easily penetrate the bacterial colony and destroy it.

Notes: - Harmful bacteria - Antibactrial treament - Protective biofilm - Protective biofilm after Eshed effect

International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 31


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

Tech update Westair’s Multiway Three-Way Valve

Based on innovative, patented technology, Westair’s Multiway® three-way valve makes it possible to route pellets through the network to deliver feed in precise quantities as required, based around the concept of realtime feeding. The valve is compact and easy to change if any problems occur. The Multiway® valve consists of fully stainless steel, delivers optimal hygiene quality and boasts very low head loss. The device also doesn’t damage pellets during transfer. www.westair.fr

International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 33


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

The highs and lows of RAS

by Daniel Jackson, Content Editor, International Aquafeed

“The earliest scientific

research on RAS was conducted

in Japan in the 1950’s”

Aquaculture is a rapidly growing industry; it will soon overtake wild fisheries as our dominant source of seafood. One of its main advantages is that it is more sustainable and environmentally friendly than traditional fish farming, which has high feed re-quirements, water use, and makes a significant impact on the local environment by re-leasing effluents. This is a problem that could be solved by the use of intensive recircu-lating aquaculture systems. Traditional saltwater aquaculture setups, in which fish are kept in tightly packed offshore pens, produce huge amounts of pollution. It is estimated to be equivalent to the raw sewage produced by a town of several thousand people, and it all flows directly into the ocean. In a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) waste products are either used for other purposes (as a fertiliser for plant life, for example) or processed so that it can be recirculated. This saves money, resources and is better for the natural environment. In a standard setup water would first be filtered to remove any solid material, then passed through a biofilter to convert ammonia (which is excreted by fish) into nitrate. After leaving the vessel holding fish the water is first treated for solids before entering a bio-filter to convert ammonia, before degassing and oxygenation, often followed by heat-ing/cooling and sterilisation. Each of these processes can be completed by using a variety of different methods and equipment, but regardless all must take place to ensure a healthy environment that maximises fish growth and health.

History

The earliest scientific research on RAS was conducted in Japan in the 1950’s. These early trials focused on biofilter design for carp production and were driven by the need to use limited water resources more productively. At the same time European and American scientists attempted to adapt technology first developed for sewage treatment. Despite a strong belief by pioneers in the commercial viability of their work, most studies focused on science and the viability of the model in terms of chemistry. Furthermore,

34 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

most of early trials were conducted in laboratories at very small scales. As a result of these early mismanaged trials, many companies sold systems that were bound to fail resulting in skepticism amongst investors and delays in further technical im-provement. Some simple but costly early problems were relatively easy to redress whilst others have proved more difficult.

Efficiency

An RAS can retain (via treatment and recycling) between 90 and 99 percent of water in the system, passing it through various treatment components such as solids filters, biofil-ters and disinfection units. Up to 10 percent of the system volume can be discharged on a daily basis at commercial RAS facilities, but the vast majority of water remains within the system and does not impact the surrounding environment.

Viability

There are, however, commercial challenges facing the uptake of recirculating aquaculture systems on an industrial scale. High initial investment and operational costs make pro-duction highly sensitive to market prices and input costs (especially for feed and ener-gy). As table-fish tend to have lower unit value compared to products like sturgeon caviar, their profitable production requires much higher operational carrying capacities. Despite ongoing technological improvement, at these production levels challenges linked to in-efficiencies and illness caused by metabolic wastes remain key design challenges. Con-sequently table-fish

production in RAS still represents a high-risk investment. An economic feasibility study carried out in 2010 demonstrates that RAS ventures can make modest positive returns. It was found that a 2,500 tonnes-per-annum farm would re-quire an initial capital investment of US $22.6 million and that an annual operating cost of $7.2 million could generate a net profit of just $381,467, or 3.4 percent. The study also showed that a similar capacity cage operation would require an initial capital investment of only $5 million and would generate an annual net profit of $2.6 million (for an expected rate of return of 40.3%). Despite considerable technical improvement, economic sustainability has remained elusive and is the greatest challenge for long-term adoption of RAS for table fish grow-out. An objective historical assessment clearly indicates that although the basic technology has now existed for over 60 years, its application for commercial production continues to exhibit a ‘stop and start’ trajectory, with many ventures collapsing after only a few years of operation. Factors contributing to a lack of profitability include vastly overestimated sales prices or growth rates, at other times system design is fundamentally in error resulting in carry-ing capacities that are much lower than originally projected. Unforeseen shifts in criti-cal energy and feed input costs have also contributed to failure. There is a bright future for the industry if these problems can be overcome - seafood consumption is increasing globally, as is environmental awareness, meaning RAS has the potential to kill two birds with one stone.

Compressors

made for aquaculture

www.kaeser.com/aquaculture 35 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

MUKETSU NETTING Fibras Industriales S.A., commercially known as FISA has taken another leap in its international growth by introducing its Twisted Knotless “Muketsu” Netting to the Japanese market during the International Technology Expo held in Tokyo between the 21st and 23rd of August 2019. Twisted Knotless “Muketsu” netting is made of nylon, polyester or polyethylene and its distinctive quality is that each strand runs through the other thus creating a unique product that has greater resistance, despite having no knots which leads to lighter weight, allowing for better flow of oxygen in the cages and most importantly, reducing friction

with the water and other equipment during handling of cages or on fishing vessels. The Japanese fishing net market is currently dominated by two main players of “Muketsu” Netting that is manufactured by a limited number of companies worldwide. Over the past 36 months FISA increased its production capacity for this product by over 20 percent thus leading to some excess capacity and the need to search for new markets such as Japan and Asia in general. Japan being a major consumer of “Muketsu” Netting, FISA decided it is time to introduce its top quality netting that is manufactured with Japanese machinery and Japanese raw material to the birth place of the product.

"Muketsu netting is made of nylon, polyester or polyethylene and its distinctive quality is that each strand runs through the other thus creating a unique product that hasmany benefits"

36 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


TECHNOLOGY SH Top aquaculture technology September 2019 This September we take another look at the latest technological solutions that will save you time and money in your everyday operations at your fish farm. The International Aquafeed team have discovered a variety of intriguing tech ranging from filtration systems, monitoring software and the latest in pumping systems.

AquaCare fish farming pumps Aquacare designs and supplies reliable energy-efficient site and purpose specific pumping systems that are ideal for aquaculture. One preferred combination that Aquacare supplies is the Carry Stainless Steel Axial-Flow Submersible Pump combined with Yaskawa Variable Frequency Drives (VFD). This system is very durable, efficient and made from only the highest-grade materials. www.aquacare.com

BAADER 101 automated Swim-In System The unique Baader SI, automated harvest system takes advantage of the fish’s natural behaviour where they swim into the stun/bleed machines, with the absolute minimum of stress. Achievable throughputs ranging from about 50-60 fish/min with 1-2 operators with a standard 4 channel Swim-In-System and about 75-90 fish/min with 2-3 operators with a standard 6 channel Swim-InSystem. With only a small increase in personnel higher capacities can be achieved with Multiple Systems / Custom-solutions. This welfare-friendly solution is a key process in the provision of optimum fish quality and next stage fish processing. The device is primarily aimed at use with atlantic salmon, rainbow trout – both fresh and seawater and arctic char but can be revised for other specific species upon request. www.baader.com

Integrated Bag and Cartridge Filtration System Bag filters and cartridge filters are widely used particle filters in a range of aquatic systems. These heavy-duty models provide accurate fine or coarse particle filtering and are easily maintained. Bag filters available with 1, 5, 25, 50- or 100-micron bags. Standard cartridge elements have 10- or 16-micron porosity. Canister media filters can also be supplied with specialty media such as activated carbon or zeolite. Filters can be skid-mounted with appropriate pump, UV and other equipment for a complete turnkey INTEGRATED™ filtration system. Multiple bag and/or cartridge filters can be installed in parallel for higher capacity or in series for stepped particle size removal. Additional equipment such as pumps, UV sterilisers, centralised electrical panels, instrumentation, monitoring and controls can be incorporated into the design to suit the needs of the project. www.integrated-aqua.com

Do you have a product that you would like to see in our pages? Send products for consideration to rebeccas@perendale.co.uk 38 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


HOWCASE EA-1000B Electrosedation System The EA-1000B allows large numbers of fish to be quickly and inexpensively anesthetized without the use of chemicals. This technology allows the immediate release of sedated fish with no mandated withdrawal period. The EA-1000B Electrosedation System offers the operator the chance to select just the right settings to achieve the desired outcome in a safe, humane, and noninjurious way. Fish are rendered unconscious almost immediately as the specially modified electric current passes through the water in a custom-designed tank. The depth of sedation can be light (lasting less than a minute) or deep (several minutes) depending on the processing time desired by the operator. It is also possible to quickly and humanely euthanise fish once settings appropriate for local water conditions have been determined. www.smith-root.com

Organised by

Seafood Security and SAFEty:

An Aquacult ure Pe rspe ct ive 4th Annual Aquaculture Conference & Exhibition

2-4 October 2019

Topics of Discussion

Food Security - Sustainable Aquaculture Production Sustainability - Across the Aqua Supply Chain Innovation in Value Chains for Seafood and Nutrition Security Supported by

Xylem OSCAR Process Performance Optimiser The Sanitaire OSCAR process performance optimiser is a customisable, integrated biological process control software and hardware system that’s used with Xylem’s treatment equipment to help a plant meet their desired performance and operating budget. The OSCAR system is the operator’s helper, providing efficient operation by dynamically adapting to changing conditions to optimise contaminant removal for guaranteed effluent quality The Sanitaire OSCAR system comes standard with a control panel including PLC and HMI, aeration controller, and service. Additional customisable hardware and software components and services are available. www.xylem.com

Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems Sweetwater The Pentair Aquatic Eco-Systems Sweetwater® motor-mounted, oilless vane compressors are compact, easy-to-service and excellent for moderate pressure, continuous-duty applications. They more than double the air output of reciprocating compressors and have better longevity. Thermal overload protection, air filter, inlet check valve and a 8-inch power cord are included on single-phase units. Ten-psi models work to a water depth of 18 feet and 15-psi models work to 27 feet, depending on tubing diameter and distance. The only wearing parts are carbon vanes, which can be replaced in about 15 minutes using common tools. In continuous operation, vanes last 9–18 months, depending on pressure. www.pentairaes.com

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SUBMIT YOUR ABSTRACT www.AlgaEurope.org InternationalAquafeed-September2019|39


EXPERT TOPIC

GREATER AMBERJACK Figure 1: The greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili)

EXPERT TOPIC

Greater amberjack

Exploring the biological and socioeconomic potential of new-emerging candidate fish species for the expansion of the European aquaculture industry – the DIVERSIFY project (EU FP7-GA603121)

by Constantinos C Mylonas (Project Coordinator). Nikos Papandroulakis (Greater amberjack species leader and Grow out work-package leader), Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Aldo Corriero (Reproduction & Genetics work-package leader), University of Bari, Italy, Daniel Montero (Nutrition and Fish Health work-package leader). Carmen Maria Hernández-Cruz (Larval husbandry work-package leader), Fundación Canaria Parque Científico Tecnológico, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain, Marija Banovic (Socioeconomics Task leader), University of Aarhus, Denmark. Gemma Tacken (Socioeconomics work-package leader), Wageningen University and Research, The Netherlands. Rocio Robles (Dissemination leader), CTAQUA, Spain (present affiliation Testing Blue S.L., Spain)

A

nother one of the species included in the EU-funded DIVERSIFY project (see April, May and June issues of International Aquafeed), which ran between 2013 and 2018 was the greater amberjack (See Figure 1). This is a valuable commercial species, but with a limited total worldwide catch of only 3,287 tonnes in 2009 (FAO, 2018). The greater amberjack flesh is much appreciated by consumers, especially for sushi and sashimi, and its market quotations are high, being around EUR €816 per kg in Europe and reaching $20–30 per kg in Japan. In the late 1980s, a greater amberjack farming activity was initiated in the Mediterranean basin, based on the capture and grow-out of juveniles from the wild (Lovatelli and Holthus, 2008; Ottolenghi et al., 2004). The rapid growth rate and worldwide market demand make the greater amberjack a very promising aquaculture species. Proper commercial aquaculture production, however, had not developed prior to the DIVERSIFY project. This was mainly due to its inconsistent and unpredictable reproduction in captivity, which prevented the development of hatchery production of juveniles. Here we present a summary of the results obtained in DIVERSIFY, which enabled the commercial production of greater amberjack in the Mediterranean and East Atlantic regions.

Reproduction

In order to facilitate the broodstock management of greater amberjack in aquaculture, important life history traits of wild fish were first determined. Fish were shown to be 35-40 cm in length (fork length, FL) and 1 kg in weight (body weight, BW) at age one; 60-70 cm FL and 3-5 kg BW at age two; 80-90 cm FL and 7-10 kg BW at age three. Male greater amberjack are reproductively active at the age of three years and females reach the first sexual maturity at three-to-four years of age. The spawning season of the wild greater amberjack population from the western Mediterranean is extended from late May to early July. When greater amberjack reared in sea cages in the Mediterranean (See Figure 2) were handled as other captive species, they exhibited poor gonadal development, low pituitary gonadotropin gene expression, low gonadotropin and sex steroid plasma concentrations, atresia of vitellogenic follicles, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis of male germ cell (Pousis et al., 2018; Zupa et al., 2017a; Zupa et al., 2017b). As a consequence of the spermatogenesis impairment, greater amberjack confined in captivity showed low sperm quality, in terms of sperm density, motility and velocity, as well as ATP content and membrane integrity (Zupa et al., 2017a). The observed reproductive impairments are likely related to the handling stress, the lack of optimal conditions required for reproductive maturation and/or to nutritional unbalances caused by the lack of specific broodstock diet for the species. In fact, gonads of captive-reared greater amberjack had different lipid and fatty acid contents compared to wild individuals. An overall improvement of rearing technology, particularly as it relates 40 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


EXPERT TOPIC to husbandry operations (e.g. fish handling and transferring) together with a better formulation of dietary ingredients (Sarih et al., 2019) is suggested to overcome the observed dysfunctions and improve greater amberjack reproductive performance. Greater amberjack reared in sea cages in the Mediterranean without any handling during the reproductive period, were treated successfully with the reproductive hormone gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) implants and injections (Mylonas et al., 2018) (See Figure 3). Treatments with GnRHa implants were more effective than injections in promoting the proper endocrine pathways leading to multiple cycles of oocyte maturation, ovulation and spawning and allowed producing more eggs with good fertilisation, embryo survival, hatching and larval survival. Greater amberjack caught from the wild in the eastern Atlantic (southwestern coast of Gran Canaria, Spain) and reared for two years in indoor tanks under appropriate environmental and nutritional conditions (Sarih et al., 2019), were able to undergo normal gametogenesis, and spawned spontaneously large quantities of high-quality eggs (Sarih et al., 2018). In the same stock, hatchery-produced F1 greater amberjack (15-30 kg body weight) reared in outdoor tanks in Tenerife (Spain) underwent normal gametogenesis and were induced successfully to undergo maturation, ovulation and spawning through the administration of GnRHa implants (Jerez et al., 2018). The repeated administration of GnRHa implants resulted in multiple spawns of high-quality fertilised and viable eggs for an extended period lasting from May to September. Consistent egg production is now available for this species and has enabled the further development of larval rearing methods within the project. Therefore, thanks to the experimental work carried out within DIVERSIFY, a set of tools to reproduce greater amberjack reared under different conditions in the Mediterranean Sea and in the eastern Atlantic is now available, and this represents a fundamental step towards the large-scale aquaculture production of this species.

Nutrition

To improve larval enrichment products for greater amberjack (See Figure 4), the optimum levels and ratios of essential fatty acids and combined PUFA and carotenoids in greater amberjack enrichment products were determined (Roo et al., 2019). The highest growth was obtained when larvae (17-35 days after hatching, dah) were fed Artemia containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in a range of 5-8 percent of Total Fatty Acids (TFA), with a maximum around 7 percent (1.5 g 100 g-1 DHA DM). The essential FA (EFA) requirements of the larvae are similar during the rotifer and Artemia feeding periods, as reported for larvae of other marine fish species. Requirements of amberjack larvae for DHA (1.5 g.100 g-1 DHA DM) were higher than those found in other marine fish species and similar to those for other fast-growing species. Increases in DHA levels tend to improve larval resistance to handling. Even the highest DHA levels in the enrichment emulsion (70% DHA of TFA) resulted in reduced incorporation of DHA into Artemia lipids (11% DHA of TFA). Despite that eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5n-3) levels in Artemia increased from 0.87 to 6.81 percent of TFA, EPA levels in greater amberjack larvae were only increased up to 5.2 percent of TFA, suggesting a saturation process that could be associated with the fulfillment of the EPA requirements. On the contrary, DHA levels in greater amberjack larvae showed a linear increase. Dietary DHA was linearly related to skull anomalies with dietary DHA levels over 2g per 100 g-1 inducing a higher incidence of skeletal malformations, particularly those

GREATER AMBERJACK

Figure 2: Wild-caught greater amberjack breeders maintained in sea cages for the study of reproductive function (Argosaronikos Fishfarms A.E., Salamina Island, Greece)

Figure 3: A greater amberjack breeder induced to spawn during the reproductive season, using GnRHa implants (Argosaronikos Fishfarms A.E., Salamina Island, Greece)

related with skull development. It is well known that raising the ratio of Phospholipids (PL) to Total Lipids (TL) in larval feeds may enhance growth. Rotifers enriched with marine lecithin (E1) displayed a fast incorporation of polar lipids particularly rich in DHA. Although the role of carotenoids in the embryonic development is not very well established, there is evidence that the presence of carotenoids mitigates deleterious oxidative damage to the developing embryo. Larvae fed diets with astaxanthin below 5.3 ppm were found to have marginal growth, whereas those fed levels above 5.3 ppm had a better performance and significantly higher lipid levels. Rotifers enriched with polar rich emulsion containing a marine natural lecithin LC60 combined with 10 ppm of Naturose (Cyanotech) also resulted in a significant advantage in larval growth, survival and welfare compared to rotifers enriched with other emulsions. Thus, DIVERSIFY established the following recommendations for enrichment products for greater amberjack larvae culture: DHA in enrichment products for Artemia 10-17 percent TFA, EPA 14-20 percent TFA, and DHA/EPA ratio 1-5. For rotifers (Brachionus sp.), DHA in enrichment products 14 percent TFA, EPA six percent TFA, and DHA/EPA ratio 2.3. Carotenoids levels in enrichment products must be around 10 ppm. In broodstock diets, the requirements of essential fatty acids were determined to obtain improved spawning quality (Sarih et al., 2019). Broodstock fed a diet containing 1.57 percent EPA+DHA showed high fertilisation and egg viability, higher number of eggs per spawn and kg of female, with the highest percent of fertilisation, egg viability, hatching rate and larval survival. Egg fatty acid composition was shown to be influenced by broodstock diets. A diet containing 14-15 percent EPA+DHA of

International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 41


EXPERT TOPIC

GREATER AMBERJACK

Figure 4: Greater amberjack larvae reared under the Mesocosm rearing conditions (HCMR, Crete, Greece).

Figure 5: Broodstock nutrition facilities at the Fundación Canaria Parque Científico Tecnológico, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

total fatty acids (corresponding to 2.5-3% in a dry diet) resulted in the best spawning performance in greater amberjack broodstock. Increasing dietary EPA+DHA contents did not improve spawning performance. Histidine contents in broodstock diets ranging between 1 and 1.5 percent and inclusion of taurine were shown to increase the reproductive performance of greater amberjack.

Larval husbandry

The objectives of DIVERSIFY for larval husbandry were to (a) study the effects of different feeding strategies on larval performance in intensive systems, and (b) develop feeding protocols and rearing methodologies in semi-intensive systems for the industrial production of the species. The results indicated that larval rearing in large tanks and low initial stocking of eggs-larvae improved the growth performance and survival of greater amberjack. Egg stocking densities >25 eggs l-1 affected negatively the results. For the different environmental parameters, the ranges considered as optimum can be summarised as follows: The recommended photo phase is 24L:00D from 1 to 20 dah and 18L:06D between 21 and 30 dah, with light

intensities of 800, 1200, 1000 and 500 lux at 3, 6, 12, and 20 dah, respectively. A renewal of filtered seawater (5 μm) at an increasing rate ranging from 15-40 percent day-1 at 1 dah, 30-40 percent at 10 dah, 100-120 percent at 20 dah, and 200-240 percent at 30 dah ensures a good quality of the rearing environment. Dissolved oxygen ranged between 4.9 and 8.2 mg l-1, but must be preferably > 6.0 mg l-1, salinity between 35 and 40 psu, pH between 7.8 and 8.5, and temperature between 23.5 and 25.0ºC. Furthermore, the feeding protocols used have to be coordinated with the rearing conditions and the larval development. The larva has to be able to see, ingest and digest the food, and therefore needs the coordinated development of vision and digestive system. In general, the addition of live microalgae at 150-300 x 103 cell ml-1 from 1 dah, enriched rotifers two or more times a day, from 3 to 25 dah, at densities between 3 and 10 rot ml-1, Artemia nauplii at 12 dah and enriched 1-day-old Artemia EG at 14-18 dah, followed by commercial weaning diets (200-800 μm) from 18 dah can be a good sequence. Moreover, the live feed enrichment emulsions supplemented with

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42 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


EXPERT TOPIC

Figure 6: Greater amberjack juveniles ready to be transferred to sea cages (HCMR, Crete, Greece)

Figure 7: Greater amberjack juveniles reared in sea cages (Fundación Canaria Parque Científico Tecnológico, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain)

PL, carotenoids, arachidonic acid (ARA; 20:4n-6) and immune modulators such as Echium oil and black cumin oil improved the larval rearing of greater amberjack, so enriching that results in these characteristics would give better results. During larval rearing, and especially following 20 dah, high size variability occurred in all rearing systems tested to date. This high variability has been managed until now with early sorting of the reared groups to appropriate size classes. Applying standard methods and equipment available in all hatcheries, the sorting procedure resulted in significantly higher survival compared to unsorted groups (See Figure 6).

Grow out husbandry

GREATER AMBERJACK

For the grow-out tasks of greater amberjack, development of methodologies emphasised cage technology (See Figure 7). The feeding pattern of different age classes has been studied, while trials to define optimal stocking densities were implemented. Furthermore, there were trials aiming to study temperature effects on growth performance of greater amberjack. Cage rearing is important for the commercial production of greater amberjack but

appears to be challenging. Several trials have been performed at an industrial scale and during all trials fish accepted commercial feed of appropriate composition, i.e. high protein (of fish origin) without problem. There was also no problem during the standard husbandry practices of net cleaning/changing and although the stocking density was not high, a value of ~ 5 kg m-3 is considered acceptable for a pelagic fish. Regarding the growth performance, during the first four months the growth was high (5 g d-1) while it decreased by 50 percent later on. Significant variations in growth were observed among individuals resulting in size variability of almost 100 percent, a problem that requires further investigation. Environmental temperature was shown to affect significantly the performance of greater amberjack. Juveniles of 5 g held at 26ºC showed significantly higher body weight compared to fish held at 22ºC or 17ºC (Fernández-Montero et al., 2017). Morphological analysis showed that the increase of temperature led to an elongated fish body, especially of the head. For individuals of 350 g body weight, fish held at 21ºC showed

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2019-06, Adv. Aqua feed Mill _fish-shrimp_IAF_IndoLivestock_190x132International .indd 1 Aquafeed - September 2019 | 43

27-6-2019 9:29:26


EXPERT TOPIC

GREATER AMBERJACK

significantly higher growth compared to fish held at 26ºC, while fish held at 16ºC showed the lowest final body weight. The survival was higher at 16ºC, but there was no significant difference in the FCR for the whole experimental period of three months. Nutrient digestibility coefficients were high, indicating the good quality of the diets. Although temperature is one of many parameters affecting gut transit time, it did not affect energy fat, protein and dry matter digestibility in greater amberjack. Finally, fish of 500 g showed no significant differences for the temperature studied (20ºC and 23ºC) on feed intake and growth.

Figure 8: A) Neobenedenia girellae adults attached to the head of greater amberjack. B) Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) picture of Neobenedenia girellae. HAP: Haptor; PB: Parasite body; EP: Epidermis

Fish health

Fish health is a key aspect to be optimised in cultured fish. Neobenedenia girellae is a monogenean parasite of the skin and causes the main health problem for Atlantic populations of greater amberjack in aquaculture (See Figure 8). This monogenean has been described in relation with water temperature increases in sea cages around the Canary Islands, Spain. New insights about the relation of this parasite with its host shows the mechanical damage that the fixation causes, resulting in thickening of the epidermis, vacuolisation of epidermal cells, disruption of cellular layers, recruitment of goblet cells, and mononuclear cell lymphocytic type mobilisation to the adhesion regions. Because of this, secondary infections appear and could result in 100 percent mortality. New prevention strategies have been developed, such as the inclusion in the diet of mannan oligosaccharides (MOS and cMOS), which enhanced mucus production and increased the immune response, reducing the parasite load and growth (Fernández-Montero et al., 2019). A functional diet has been formulated to increase resistance of greater amberjack to the monogenean parasite Neobenedenia girellae and could be applicable for other monogenean parasites as well. This diet was based on a high protein inclusion (required for fast growing species) and the utilization of the mentioned additives with immunostimulant properties. This important milestone will provide a tool to reduce the incidence of this parasite in sea cages, reducing mortality of greater amberjack juveniles in farms. Zeuxapa seriolae is another monogenean parasite of greater amberjack, considered the main health problem for greater amberjack culture in the Mediterranean region. This parasite gets attached to the gills (See Figure 9), being hematophagous, producing important gill anaemia and inefficient oxygen exchange. Due to its rapid lifecycle and its increase with water temperature, it could cause the demise of the whole production. Treatments with hydrogen peroxide at 75 ppm during 30 min have been reported to be efficient for killing the adults, always combined with repeated treatments after 15 and 30 days, and net changes to avoid reinfection from the released eggs. Other parasites have also been described, such as the blood fluke Paradeontacylix sp., which is a blood parasite that has been observed in cultured greater amberjack in the Mediterranean. The proliferation inside the host circulatory system could produce obstruction of blood flow, resulting in ischemia and necrosis, and gill destruction when the eggs hatch. Penella sp.is one of the largest copepod parasites of fish, typically from swordfish (Xiphias gladius) and marine mammals. This parasite gets imbedded inside the skin of greater amberjack, nevertheless, it is not considered a problem for greater amberjack culture. A Health Manual for greater amberjack describing different pathologies has been produced (https://www.diversifyfish.eu/ amberjack-workshop.html) and is freely available in the project’s

Figure 9: Adult parasite Zeuxapa seriolae at maturity. The haptor (attaching device) with the clams and numerous eggs in the body cavity are visible. B. The life cycle of the parasite is direct. Parasites on the gills release large number of eggs which are entangled in a string. The eggs may stay in the gills but most commonly are attached on the cage nets. Oncomicacidia hatch from the eggs and within 24 hours they re-infect the host

website, and can be used immediately by the industry in order to improve their stock management.

Socioeconomics research

Market research in DIVERSIFY has identified two crosscultural consumer segments of “involved traditional”, “involved innovators” across the top fish markets in Europe (i.e. France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK) comprising of consumers that could be more interested in adopting new DIVERSIFY fish species and greater amberjack in particular (Reinders et al., 2016). The market segmentation has further shown that the future aquaculture production lays in the hand of the consumers who are more dependent on and involved in ethical and sustainability issues. The market segmentation further allowed opportunity to cocreate new product concepts from DIVERSIFY fish species at the cross-border European level. The co-creation was undertaken with consumers from the same selected market segments mentioned above (Banović et al., 2016). The co-created product ideas were screened out and developed into product concepts and prototypes. From the selected concepts a few showed promising future if developed with greater amberjack. One (i.e. fresh fish steak) was selected for the greater amberjack product prototype involving lower levels of processing (See Figure 10). The physical prototype was selected based on the market potential, the consumer value perceptions, physicochemical characteristics of raw material, the technical properties of the products and the process, and the availability of similar products in the market. The undertaken research showed that product from greater amberjack was in all cases and across all investigated

44 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


EXPERT TOPIC

Figure 10: Greater amberjack fillets used for the development and evaluation of new products and the effect of labelling information in the DIVERSIFY research

GREATER AMBERJACK

countries the best-perceived and preferred product over all the other products developed from meagre, pikeperch, and grey mullet, always providing alignment with consumer expectations and consumption experience. Furthermore, it has been found that the products with a lower degree of processing and those characterised by the distinctive fish sensory properties, as the product from greater amberjack, were those products that had higher consumer acceptance. Products with higher degree of processing were more accepted by the consumers who do not like fish because of its taste, odor, as well as the presence of bones. This shows that the presence of different processed product alternatives could be a good solution to be able to cover more consumer segments. The developed product concept from greater amberjack was further tested for optimal labelling attribute combination on packaging and price range. The experiments were undertaken in the same selected countries and with the same product from greater amberjack developed into the previously tested prototype. Based on this study it was concluded that country of origin and price are the attributes that drive the product acceptance, followed by quality certification (i.e. Aquaculture Stewardship Council ASC label), while nutrition and health claims had a varying effect dependent on the country. The use of ASC label as the marketing signal to consumers that the product is coming from a controlled, certified and responsible aquaculture actually increases the likelihood of consumers adopting this product. On the other hand, the use of nutrition and health claims actually assist European consumers to make more informed choices aligned with their preferences and stimulate health-related behaviour. However, nutrition and health claims are needed to be customised based on the target country.

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GREATER AMBERJACK

Figure 11: Two-year old greater amberjack produced entirely under aquaculture conditions, being packed for the market (Argosaronikos Fishfarms A.E., Salamina, Greece)

This research has also pointed to different segments of people how are nutrition conscious, ethnocentric, price conscious and eco-conscious, further suggesting possible targeted marketing campaigns that could be designed and used to further facilitate adoption of new fish species and greater amberjack in particular. Willingness to pay has also been estimated for the product from greater amberjack across investigated countries showing how the product should be priced. The results from the virtual online market test also showed good acceptance of greater amberjack and its product in the same markets. This is related to two findings. First, the percentage of first-time buyers of greater amberjack product was above 10 percent. Even if one assumes that not every one of these first-time buyers might like the flavor of the new fish, it does inform that the new product has the serious potential on the market. Second, even those consumers that had not selected products from greater amberjack in the online market test, after receiving additional information decided to switch, with this number being above 11 percent. Finally, when the numbers of people that directly or indirectly purchased greater amberjack have been aggregated, a total acceptance rate of 1/4 was estimated with slight variations depending on the country (i.e. southern versus northern countries). Based on the results obtained in DIVERSIFY, greater amberjack shows very promising market prospects, given its superior sensory characteristics, good consumer acceptance, and price margins. Nevertheless, its introduction would have a larger impact if done country by country instead of general pan-European level. The developing outlooks per country vary, as in some countries early adopters easily try new fish species, while in other countries consumers’ need extra marketing efforts. In all investigated countries, introduction of the new products with a reference to already familiar products advances consumer acceptance. Thus, the production of products from greater amberjack at an

industrial scale is a feasible task (See Figure 11) if raw materials of good quality are used, as sensory properties are decisive factor for consumers, especially in new fish species. Additionally, good production practices should be applied with proper traceability, as this further influence overall product acceptability. The above factors are necessary and adequate conditions for achieving high quality and economically satisfactory products. A technical “Production Manual” for greater amberjack, has been also produced by the project and is freely available in the project’s website (https://www.diversifyfish.eu/amberjack-workshop.html), and can be used by the industry to begin investigating the potential of greater amberjack as an alternative marine species for European warm-water aquaculture. This 5-year-long project (2013-2018) has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration (KBBE-2013-07 single stage, GA 603121, DIVERSIFY). The consortium includes 38 partners from 12 European countries –including 9 SMEs, 2 Large Enterprises, 5 professional associations and 1 Consumer NGO- and is coordinated by the Hellenic Center for Marine Research, Greece. Further information may be obtained from the project site at “www.diversifyfish.eu”.

References

Banović, M., Krystallis, A., Guerrero, L., Reinders, M.J., 2016. Consumers as co-creators of new product ideas: An application of projective and creative research techniques. Food Research International 87, 211-223. FAO, 2018. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2018 Meeting the sustainable development goals. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 210 pp. Fernández-Montero, A., Caballero, M.J., Torrecillas, S., Tuset, V.M., Lombarte, A., Ginés, R.R., Izquierdo, M., Robaina, L.,

46 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


EXPERT TOPIC Montero, D., 2017. Effect of temperature on growth performance of greater amberjack SERIOLA DUMERILI Risso 1810) Juveniles. Aquaculture Research 49, 908-918. Fernández-Montero, Á., Torrecillas, S., Izquierdo, M., Caballero, M.J., Milne, D.J., Secombes, C.J., Sweetman, J., Da Silva, P., Acosta, F., Montero, D., 2019. Increased parasite resistance of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili Risso 1810) juveniles fed a cMOS supplemented diet is associated with upregulation of a discrete set of immune genes in mucosal tissues. Fish & Shellfish Immunology 86, 35-45. Jerez, S., Fakriadis, I., Papadaki, M., Martín, M., Cejas, J., Mylonas, C.C., 2018. Spawning induction of first-generation (F1) greater amberjack Seriola dumerili in the Canary Islands, Spain using GnRHa delivery systems. Fishes 3, 1-22. Lovatelli, A., Holthus, P.F., 2008. Capture-based aquaculture; Global overview. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 298 pp. Mylonas, C.C., Fakriadis, I., Papandroulakis, N., M., P., Sigelaki, I., 2018. Broodstock management and spawning induction of greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili reared in sea cages in Greece, 11th International Symposium on Reproductive Physiology of Fish, Manaus, Brazil. Ottolenghi, F., Silvestri, C., Giordano, P., Lovatelli, A., New, M.B., 2004. Capture-based Aquaculture. The fattening of eels, groupers, tunas and yellowtails. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, 308 pp. Pousis, C., Mylonas, C.C., De Virgilio, C., Gadaleta, G., Santamaria, N., Passantino, L., Zupa, R., Papadaki, M., Fakriadis, I., Ferreri, R., Corriero, A., 2018. The observed oogenesis impairment in greater amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810) reared in captivity is not related to an insufficient

GREATER AMBERJACK

liver transcription or oocyte uptake of vitellogenin. Aquaculture Research 49, 243-252. Reinders, M.J., Banović, M., Guerrero, L., Krystallis, A., 2016. Consumer perceptions of farmed fish: A cross-national segmentation in five European countries. British Food Journal 118, 2581-2597. Roo, J., Hernández-Cruz, C.M., Mesa-Rodriguez, A., FernándezPalacios, H., Izquierdo, M.S., 2019. Effect of increasing n-3 HUFA content in enriched Artemia on growth, survival and skeleton anomalies occurrence of greater amberjack Seriola dumerili larvae. Aquaculture 500, 651-659. Sarih, S., Djellata, A., La Barbera, A., Fernández-Palacios Vallejo, H., Roo, J., Izquierdo, M., Fernández-Palacios, H., 2018. High-quality spontaneous spawning in greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso 1810) and its comparison with GnRHa implants or injections. Aquaculture Research 49, 3442-3450. Sarih, S., Djellata, A., Roo, J., Hernández-Cruz, C.M., Fontanillas, R., Rosenlund, G., Izquierdo, M., Fernández-Palacios, H., 2019. Effects of increased protein, histidine and taurine dietary levels on egg quality of greater amberjack (Seriola dumerili, Risso, 1810). Aquaculture 499, 72-79. Zupa, P., Fauvel, C., Mylonas, C.C., Pousis, C., Santamaría, C.A., Papadaki, M., Fakriadis, I., V., C., 2017a. Rearing in captivity affects spermatogenesis and sperm quality in greater amberjack, Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810). Journal of Animal Science 95, 4085-4100. Zupa, R., Rodríguez, C., Mylonas, C.C., Rosenfeld, H., Fakriadis, I., Papadaki, M., Pérez, J.A., Pousis, C., Basilone, G., Corriero, A., 2017b. Comparative study of reproductive development in wild and captive-reared greater amberjack Seriola dumerili (Risso, 1810). PLoS ONE 12, e0169645.

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September

2019

4-5 Algae Tech Conference 2019 Madrid, Spain https://algaetech-conference.com

October

7-10 Aquaculture Europe 2019 Berlin, Germany www.aquaeas.eu

10-11 ☑ Aquaculture Innovation Europe 2019 London, UK https://aquaculture-innovation.com Showcasing the most exciting innovations across nutrition, health and digital innovation, the Aquaculture Innovation Summit is a major part of the Animal Health Innovation series, which focuses on showcasing and supporting innovation and sustainability initiatives in three key areas of aquaculture: nutrition, health and digital. Now in its third year, its objective is to bring to light cutting-edge modern technologies and solutions that are helping to shape one of the most important industries for the future of global protein. Topics to be discussed include digital trends, tech and productivity, health and nutrition trends, oral vaccines, medicated feed additives and fish microbiome. 10-13 SPACE 2019 Rennes, France http://uk.space.fr

18-19 Aquaculture NZ Conference 2019 Blenhiem, New Zealand www.aquaculture.org.nz/conference

18-20 ILDEX Indonesia 2019 Jakarta, Indonesia www.ildex-indonesia.com

19-21 VIV Qingdao 2019 Qingdao, China www.viv.net 25-26 Seagriculture 2019 Ostend, Belgium https://seagriculture.eu

☑ 2019

Aquaculture Europe 2019 in Berlin could be one of our biggest and most varied! The European Aquaculture Society Aquaculture Europe 2019 will be held in the Estrel Hotel and Conference Centre, Berlin from October 7-11th. The event organisers have reported a very strong interest in this event, with more than 880 abstracts received for presentation. A very varied programme is being finalised, with 55 sessions over the three conference days. 150 booths have been sold for our trade show and eight special sessions link business and science. The opening plenary sessions of AE2019 will include a view on “The Environment and Fish Health” – by Professor Charles R Tyler of the University of Exeter, UK. Fish are excellent barometers of aquatic ecosystem health and declines in both their diversity and abundance globally is a major cause for concern, not least because of their fundamental roles in ecosystem function and as a source for food. This talk will be free ranging with the purpose of provoking thought into might better translate knowledge on fish physiology for optimising aquaculture practice. The AE2019 Special Sessions are targeted towards aquaculture producers and suppliers. They include sessions on marine litter, parasite management, nutrition and breeding innovations, shrimp production and aquaculture in Central and Eastern Europe. They also include the EU EATIP Day, whose programme is being finalised at this moment. Programmes of all of the special sessions will be posted online and also look out on the EAS site to download our EAS Meetings App for Apple and Android that will accompany you before and during your time in Berlin. One of these special sessions is entitled “Women in Aquaculture.” Organised by EAS and The Fish Site (on the back of its very successful series of the same name), this panel session will look at ways to ensure greater gender diversity at all levels of the aquaculture sector? More specifically, the panel will offer first hand insights into how women can overcome perceived gender-related obstacles and build thriving careers right across the aquaculture sector. The AE2019 trade show currently has 148 booths sold to 130 companies from 23 countries. Exhibitors include the main companies operating in Germany, as well as speciality companies proposing products and services for the sector. It also includes some ‘new entrants’ to aquaculture. Registration for AE2019 is open through the links of the EAS web site www.aquaeas.eu. 17-20 NAMA Annual Meeting 2019 Colorado Springs, Colorado, USA www.namamillers.org

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November 6-8 AFIA Equipment Manufacturers Conf Florida, USA www.afia.org 20-22 ☑ Latin American & Caribbean Aquaculture San Jose, Costa Rica www.marevent.com 20-22 Sustainable Ocean Summit Paris, France https://sustainableoceansummit.org

2019

December 3-5 Algae Europe 2019 Paris, France https://algaeurope.org

2020

2020

21-24 ☑ Aqua Expo 2019 Guayaquil, Ecuador http://aquaexpoguayaquil.cna-ecuador.com 26-28 TIFSS Taiwan www.taiwanfishery.com

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Innovation at the heart of VICTAM and GRAPAS International 2019 This was the early verdict of visitors, conference delegates and exhibitors alike. The exhibition and series of accompanying conferences were successfully held at the KoelnMesse in Cologne, Germany from June 12 – 14th. The visitors were pleased at the number of exhibitors and the wide range of products on display. Especially the newly launched products and the large number of machinery at the different stands were very impressive. There were 248 exhibitors and co-exhibitors from 31 countries present. Likewise, the exhibitors were very

satisfied with the visitors. Exhibitors were able to have serious discussions and negotiations with their clients and potential clients that they had met at the show. The exhibitors also commented on the very high quality of the visitors and the wide range of countries from which they came. 84.3 percent of the visitors were final decision makers in the purchasing process. In all there were, over three days, almost 5000 visits from 85 countries, the highest number of countries so far. Although the majority of the visitors were from Europe, a growing percentage of the visitors are from other parts of the world, for example eight percent from Asia, seven percent from the Middle East and Africa, five percent from Latin America and five percent from the rest of the world. The conference delegates also confirmed

the quality of the papers presented at the numerous conferences. The conferences had extensive programmes, which were well received. The newly introduced International Feed Technology Conference (IFTC), a cooperation between the University of Wageningen and the Victam Foundation, was a great success! The conference was fully booked and the 120 delegates from 18 countries listened to presentations of (among others) Professor Jürgen Zentek from the University of Berlin, Dr Menno Thomas from Zetadec and Dr Reza Abdollahi, Massey University. The next event organised by the Victam Corporation is VICTAM & GRAPAS Asia held together with VIV Health & Nutrition. The event will be held from March 24 – 26, 2020 at the BITEC in Bangkok, Thailand.


Industry Events

Aquafeed Extrusion Technology, South America This short course is presented by FiE in conjunction with FoodStream and the Faculty of Natural Resources, Catholic University of Temuco, Chile. FoodStream is an Australian company which, working with Gordon Young of FiE and extrusion specialist Dennis Forte, has been presenting extrusion training in countries including Australia, Thailand, and New Zealand for 20 years. This course has been presented annually in Norway since 2015, with excellent feedback from participants. The course will be presented in English, with simultaneous translation into Spanish. This three-day course covers the principles of extrusion, the design of extrusion processes for aquatic feeds, as well as how the formulation interacts with the extrusion process. Principles learned will be demonstrated using the extruder in at the Fish Nutrition and Physiology Laboratory (Unidad de Nutrición y Fisiología de Peces). The program provides a good background in general extrusion technology but is specifically directed at aquafeed extrusion. The course is relevant to both single and twin-screw extrusion technology. The course will cover topics from the basics of extruders and their configuration, through

what is happening chemically and physically inside the extruder barrel, to an understanding of extruder dies and extruder instability. Topics covered include principles of extruder configurations (single and twin screw), role of rheology in extrusion, die types and effects, die design, extrusion chemistry, product density control and much more. Examples in product formulation and the design of extrusion processes will be included to demonstrate application of the theory. Principles learned will be applied during the practical demonstration on Day 2. Important aspects of peripheral systems (eg raw materials pre-processing, preconditioning) are also covered. This program is relevant to technical staff interested in the formulation of extruded aquafeeds and the use of extrusion technology for aquafeed production. The program takes participants from the basics of what extrusion is and what it can do, through to a detailed understanding of the design of formulations and processes, and the operation and troubleshooting of extrusion systems. The course will be presented in English, with simultaneous translation into Spanish. Registrations close October 23rd, 2019.

Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2019 Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2019 is the International conference-expo organised by The World Aquaculture Society and hosted by Tamil Nadu Dr J Jayalalithaa Fisheries University. APA19 dealt with all the aspects of aquaculture and imparted skill based professional education in different branches of Fisheries Sciences. Over 67 countries from all over the world were represented in APA’19 and 3507 people have participated. The event has organised 74 Sessions including 12 industrial sessions of international companies. Sessions and workshops at Asian-Pacific Aquaculture 2019 covered all aspects of aquaculture in India as well as Southeast Asia. The majority of the abstracts covered the areas of Nutrition and health which was held on all three days. The exhibition featured international and Indian companies and showcased the latest products, services, instruments and equipment for aquaculture management and all aquaculture related information to encourage sustainable aquaculture practices within the industry.

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AQUA NOR 2019 by Vaughn Entwistle, Managing Editor, International Aquafeed

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9

Industry Events

A

qua Nor, held every alternate year in Trondheim, Norway, has been an important international meeting place for the aquaculture industry since 1979. Already recognised as the world’s largest aquaculture technology exhibition, on this its 40th anniversary the 2019 exhibition broke all records. Thanks to the efforts of Project Manager Kari Steinsbø and General Manager Kristian Digre, Aqua Nor 2019 ran for four amazing days from 20-23rd of August at the fairgrounds in Trondheim and was visited by over 28,000 people. This year also saw a huge increase in international visitors who travelled from 74 countries to attend the event. Aqua Nor Project Manager, Kari Steinsbø, commented, “All of

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Industry Events

this fits well with our goal of being an international showcase for fish farming technology and the industry’s most important meeting place.� Following an extensive construction period, the event venue Trondheim Spektrum was expanded and now boasts many brand-new facilities. The development was completed shortly before Aqua Nor, which is the first major event to be held there. But even these larger facilities were filled to near capacity by nearly 700 exhibitors, while each day saw new records set by attending visitors.

A success in more than just numbers

While quantity is important, the quality of the event is even more critical and once again Aqua Nor 2019 set new standards for this metric. The opening ceremony was graced by the presence of his Royal Highness Crown Prince Haakon who officially opened the event. This was the sixth time the Crown Prince has attended the opening. The fair’s new General Manager, Kristian Digre received much positive

Here are the visitor numbers for 2019: Tuesday: 6952 Wednesday: 8774 Thursday: 8557 Friday: 3811

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Industry Events

feedback from the exhibitors, “The seminar programme has developed tremendously. We received feedback from participants from abroad that Aqua Nor is the world’s leading aquaculture exhibition.” Digre added that the fair will develop both the professional and social content even further for Aqua Nor 2021. “The professional content will be continued and further developed. Digre said. “Aqua Nor is a technology fair, so we want to actively contribute to all of the technology, research and development being actively promoted.”

The power of networking

A wander through any of the show’s main halls immediately reinforced the notion that Aqua Nor was a technology show, as evidenced by all the cuttingedge hardware on display. But equally important is the social aspect of the show, as fish farming technologists and innovators were drawn to an event which fostered the exchange of ideas and the forging of new business alliances. The social events are an important feature of these shows, and the organisers promised that this aspect will

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FISH FARMING TECHNOLOGY

be further developed for future shows. “After the fair closes its doors in the afternoon,” Digre added, “it is important that everyone has a place to meet. The Solsiden area in town is a great arena and we are already looking at opportunities to develop the social gathering place in the area for the future.” Steinsbø said, “Now we have learned a lot about the implementation here, which we take with us to Nor-Fishing in 2020 and Aqua Nor in 2021. I also have to say thank you to all the exhibitors who have tackled new guidelines on transport and logistics in a fantastic way, and who have understood that small challenges can arise in a brand new building, Thank you for this year’s fair!” Hopefully, this brief report will have whetted your appetite to learn more about this milestone even in the world of fish farming. Because Aqua Nor 2019 was such a major show, we will be covering the event in a two-part report spanning our September and October issues.

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Welcome to the market place, where you will find suppliers of products and services to the industry with help from our friends at The International Aquafeed Directory (published by Turret Group) Air products Kaeser Kompressoren +49 9561 6400 www.kaeser.com

Additives Chemoforma +41 61 8113355 www.chemoforma.com Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com Liptosa +34 902 157711 www.liptosa.com Nutriad +32 52 409596 www.nutriad.com Sonac +31 499 364800 www.sonac.biz

Analysis IMAQUA +32 92 64 73 38 www.imaqua.eu Laboratorio Avi-Mex S.A. de C.V +55 54450460 Ext. 1105 www.avimex.com.mx

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

STIF +33 2 41 72 16 80 www.stifnet.com

Westeel +1 204 233 7133 www.westeel.com

Certification GMP+ International +31703074120 www.gmpplus.org

Conveyors Vigan Enginnering +32 67 89 50 41 www.vigan.com

VAV +31 71 4023701 www.vav.nl

Elevator & conveyor components 4B Braime +44 113 246 1800 www.go4b.com

Enzymes Ab Vista +44 1672 517 650 www.abvista.com

Colour sorters

JEFO +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com Satake +81 82 420 8560 www.satake-group.com

Computer software Adifo NV +32 50 303 211 www.adifo.com Format International Ltd +44 1483 726081 www.formatinternational.com Inteqnion +31 543 49 44 66 www.inteqnion.com

Coolers & driers

Equipment for sale ExtruTech Inc +1 785 284 2153 www.extru-techinc.com

Extruders Almex +31 575 572666 www.almex.nl Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com Brabender +49 203 7788 0 www.brabender.com

R-Biopharm +44 141 945 2924 www.r-biopharm.com

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Romer Labs +43 2272 6153310 www.romerlabs.com

Bühler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com

Ferraz Maquinas e Engenharia +55 16 3615 0055 www.ferrazmaquinas.com.br

Consergra s.l +34 938 772207 www.consergra.com

IDAH +866 39 902701 www.idah.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Insta-Pro International +1 515 254 1260 www.insta-pro.com

FrigorTec GmbH +49 7520 91482-0 www.frigortec.com

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br

Amino acids Evonik +49 618 1596785 www.evonik.com

Bags Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Bag closing Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Bulk storage Bentall Rowlands +44 1724 282828 www.bentallrowlands.com Chief Industries UK Ltd +44 1621 868944 www.chief.co.uk Croston Engineering +44 1829 741119 www.croston-engineering.co.uk Silo Construction Engineers +32 51723128 www.sce.be

Geelen Counterflow +31 475 592315 www.geelencounterflow.com Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Elevator buckets

Silos Cordoba +34 957 325 165 www.siloscordoba.com

Alapala +90 212 465 60 40 www.alapala.com

Symaga +34 91 726 43 04 www.symaga.com

Tapco Inc +1 314 739 9191 www.tapcoinc.com

62 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed

Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wenger Manufacturing +1 785-284-2133 www.wenger.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Feed and ingredients Aliphos +32 478 210008 www.aliphos.com Aller Aqua +45 70 22 19 10 www.aller-aqua.com


APC +34 938 615 060 www.functionalproteins.com

Ehcolo A/S +45 75 398411 www.ehcolo.com

Jefo +1 450 799 2000 www.jefo.com

PAYPER, S.A. +34 973 21 60 40 www.payper.com

SPAROS Tel.: +351 249 435 145 Website: www.sparos.pt

Manzoni Industrial Ltda. +55 (19) 3765 9330 www.manzoni.com.br Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Hatchery products

Used around all industrial sectors.

Fr. Jacob Sรถhne GmbH & Co. KG, Germany Tel. + 49 (0) 571 95580 | www. jacob-pipesystems.eu

Visit us! www.pipe-systems.eu

Clextral +33 4 77 40 31 31 www.clextral.com Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl FAMSUN +86 514 87848880 www.muyang.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com

Hydronix +44 1483 468900 www.hydronix.com

Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Seedburo +1 312 738 3700 www.seedburo.com

Yemtar +90 266 733 8550 www.yemtar.com

Nets & Cages FISA +51 1 6196500 www.fisa.com.pe

A-MECS Corp. +822 20512651 www.a-mecs.kr Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Aqualabo +33 2 97 89 25 30 www.aqualabo.fr Agromatic +41 55 2562100 www.agromatic.com

Training

Buhler AG +41 71 955 11 11 www.buhlergroup.com

Doescher & Doescher GmbH +49 4087976770 www.doescher.com

Palletisers

Sensors

Amandus Kahl +49 40 727 710 www.akahl.de Andritz +45 72 160300 www.andritz.com

CHOPIN Technologies +33 14 1475045 www.chopin.fr

Mondi Group +43 1 79013 4917 www.mondigroup.com

Jacob Sohne +49 571 9580 www.jacob-pipesystems.eu

TSC Silos +31 543 473979 www.tsc-silos.com

Plants

Moisture analysers

Cetec Industrie +33 5 53 02 85 00 www.cetec.net

Tornum AB +46 512 29100 www.tornum.com

Pipe systems

FineTek Co., Ltd +886 2226 96789 www.fine-tek.com

CB Packaging +44 7805 092067 www.cbpackaging.com

FAMSUN +86 514 85828888 www.famsungroup.com

Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

BinMaster Level Controls +1 402 434 9102 www.binmaster.com

Packaging

Denis +33 2 37 97 66 11 www.denis.fr

Pellet mill

Level measurement

NIR-Online +49 6227 732668 www.nir-online.de

Silos

Akzo Nobel +46 303 850 00 www.bredol.com

Reed Mariculture +1 877 732 3276 www.reed-mariculture.com

NIR systems

Sanderson Weatherall +44 161 259 7054 www.sw.co.uk

Pellet binders

Hammermills Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl

Second hand equipment

Zheng Chang +86 2164184200 www.zhengchang.com/eng

Probiotics Biomin +43 2782 803 0 www.biomin.net Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com

Pulverizer (large fine) Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Roller Mill - vertical Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Safety equipment Rembe +49 2961 740 50 www.rembe.com

International Aquafeed - September 2019 | 63

Aqua TT +353 1 644 9008 www.aquatt.ie/aquatt-services

Vaccines Ridgeway Biologicals +44 1635 579516 www.ridgewaybiologicals.co.uk

Vacuum Dinnissen BV +31 77 467 3555 www.dinnissen.nl Wynveen International B.V. +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Weighing equipment Parkerfarm Weighing Systems +44 1246 456729 www.parkerfarm.com Ottevanger +31 79 593 22 21 www.ottevanger.com Wynveen +31 26 47 90 699 www.wynveen.com Yemmak +90 266 733 83 63 www.yemmak.com

Wet expansion machine Soon Strong Machinery +886 3 990 1815 www.soonstrong.com.tw

Yeast products ICC, Adding Value to Nutrition +55 11 3093 0753 www.iccbrazil.com Lallemand + 33 562 745 555 www.lallemandanimalnutrition.com Leiber GmbH +49 5461 93030 www.leibergmbh.de Phileo (Lesaffre animal care) +33 3 20 81 61 00 www.lesaffre.fr


the interview Dr Clara Trullàs, Project Manager of Aquaculture, Tanin Sevnica Dr Trullàs holds a degree in Veterinary Medicine, a Masters degree in Aquaculture, and a PhD in Animal Production, focused on Fish Nutrition, from Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Spain. She has also conducted research in the field of pre- and probiotics in fish during a Postdoctoctorate in Chulalongkorn University, Thailand. For the last two years she has been working as a Product Manager of feed additives from natural origin for aquaculture.

What drove your own, unique passion, for the aquaculture industry? How did you come to be involved in this industry?

It all started at the end of my Veterinary degree, when I chose a subject called Aquatic Animals Production. It had always called my attention, but I never thought it would make such a big impact in my professional pathway. Aquaculture was so different than all the other fields, so refreshing for me in that moment, that I decided to go deeper in it and try to learn as much as possible. In fact, there are not many veterinarians involved in aquaculture, and that made it even more interesting to me, as the potential that came with the challenge seemed major.

Could you tell us some more about what tannins are, and what they do?

Tannins are polyphenols extracted from plants, and they can be of different types. In Tanin Sevnica we work with hydrolysable tannins, a specific type of tannin that has beneficial properties at different levels when included in animal feeds or drinking water. I would say that tannins are generally known for being antinutritional factors present in plants, but they are in fact beneficial on the health status of animals when the right type of tannin is used in the right amount. I am very eager to keep exploring what tannins can offer to fish and shrimp farming.

What benefits do tannins have for the animal nutrition industry?

Tannins have many different uses in animal nutrition. They are widely used as a prophylactic or therapeutic agent in cases of intestinal problems such as necrotic enteritis in poultry and diarrhoeas in young animals such as piglets and calves. They are also used to reduce the production of ammonia in farm animals, to improve the faeces consistency in pets, etc. The direct action they exert on the intestine leads to a better performance of the animal. In fish and shrimp we have also observed a stimulation of immune- and antioxidant-related enzymes and a higher survival, which is something we are ready to continue working on.

Could you tell us more about Tanin Sevnica’s brand for aquatic nutrition?

The line of products for aquaculture is more recent than those for other species. We started with the product Farmatan Aqua, aimed at fish and shrimp, but from there we are now focused in two different lines, Aquatan Fish and Aquatan Shrimp. We believe that by having this division we will be able to target the main challenges of both industries in a better way. Besides, we are currently doing research in Sapotan, a product aimed at improving the quality of the water in farms.

How much of your research is aimed at improving the health of fish and other aquatic species? How is this achieved?

This is achieved by running experimental and farm trials with a predefined clear goal in order to see how each product performs, and by adjusting what needs to be changed or improved from there. Continuous innovation is key.

What do you believe will be a big issue for the aquaculture industry in the next five years, and what can we do to combat and resolve this issue?

I believe that the occurrence of diseases will continue being an issue for which we need to keep working hard. Indeed, one of the biggest challenges I see in the aquaculture industry is how to find the harmony between satisfying the growing consumer demand in a sustainable way and reducing the incidence of diseases.

Aquaculture sometimes suffers from quite a negative public image. How does your company help to address the negative sustainability issues that aquaculture is suffering from, to help show the public that this is in fact a very sustainable, and beneficial industry?

In Tanin Sevnica we produce 100 percent of the tannins we work with. This makes it possible for the company to use every single by-product of the manufacturing process, so the waste is minimised. Indeed, the overall functioning of our facilities is based on an eco-friendly concept. Hence, our way to promote the sustainability of the industry is by being sustainable ourselves, and let people know. Our aim is to offer alternative solutions to the use of antibiotics and other chemicals in the aquaculture industry, and that is what we are doing and the message we are taking everywhere we have the chance to work in.

Your company is present in the aquaculture industry, and you clearly also hold a great deal of passion for the industry. How would you recommend young people get involved in this rewarding, and in some ways not very well advertised, industry?

You are correct, it really is a not very well advertised industry, even though I believe this is slowly changing. For instance, aquaculture is now a compulsory subject in the studies program of the faculties of Veterinary Medicine of different countries, whilst it was not when I was a student. I would definitely encourage young people to explore and to get involved in aquaculture. I would explain them that a lot still needs to be done in order to overcome the existing challenges, meaning there is a very big door open to creativity.

You recently presented about the benefits of tannins at International Aquafeed’s Aquatic Asia Conference at VIV Asia in Bangkok - how was your experience participating in this conference?

Fish and shrimp are the most recent animal species to which Tanin Sevnica has committed, after the good results in other monogastric species and in ruminants.

It was great! It was a very good opportunity for us to present the results of our work and to start sharing information on the potential of tannins in shrimp farming. Also, the fact that the conference was focused on shrimp made it especially interesting, as it is a production in which there is still so much to do.

From our colleagues in the research and development department to the laboratory, product managers and partners abroad, we all work together to make sure the products offer a real solution to the current problems the industry is facing.

Besides, I felt very honoured to speak alongside such important names in the aquaculture industry, as it was the perfect chance for me to learn from their experience. We will stay tuned for information on the future editions!

64 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


THE INDUSTRY FACES New General Manager of AKVA group Chile

A

s a result of high activity in the aquaculture industry, AKVA group Chile has been experiencing sustained growth over the last few years. To respond to the opportunities this growth represents, Christian Schäfer has been appointed as the new General Manager of AKVA group Chile.

Christian Schäfer

“We are in an intense period of increased production and project delivery, with this year’s activity probably being the best in our history. By facing the challenges that this represents and to be the best partner for our customers, we want to leverage the experience of our organisation, implement additional process improvements, and further develop innovative products and services. We will continue to support the industry by offering the best possible solutions,” Schäfer says. Christian Schäfer has worked for AKVA for 16 years, including two years as General Manager of AKVA group’s Australasia office. He succeeds Andrew Campbell, who will focus further on his position as Regional President for the Americas, Australasia, UK and Ireland, allowing him to assume a more strategic role in each of these businesses.

Elizabeth Paull new Managing Director for Chelsea Technologies

C Elizabeth Paull

helsea Technologies, a world leader in the design and manufacture of sensors for the maritime sector and a Sonardyne company, has announced the appointment of Elizabeth Paull as its new Managing Director. Elizabeth, who joins the company from leading subsea technology developer Sonardyne International, has been appointed to further develop Chelsea Technologies as a market leader in environmental sensing technology across a variety of industry sectors, and particularly in maritime where the regulatory landscape of today is creating significant challenges for shipowners and operators. “I am excited to lead Chelsea Technologies at a time when the company is undergoing such incredible expansion, more notably so following the recent acquisition by Sonardyne. Building on many years of experience in the marine instrumentation and systems sector, I hope to further cement Chelsea Technologies’ position as a market leader and increase our reach across international territories, with a strong focus on dedicating our efforts to providing the support shipowners and regulators need to not only ensure compliance, but ultimately protect the environment.”

AFIA hires new Meetings and Events Specialist

T

he American Feed Industry Association has announced the addition of Lynette Tucker as its meetings and events specialist. Tucker will assist in planning AFIA meetings and events, partner educational programs, committee meetings, board meetings, one-time events and webcasts.

Lynette Tucker

Ms Tucker will also be responsible for sponsorships, researching venues, meeting room arrangements, speaker coordination, promotional materials, menus, tours, audio-visual equipment needs, signs, promotions, vendor contracts, hotel relationships and on-site management. Prior to joining AFIA, Ms Tucker provided event management services and administrative and office management duties for small businesses and agencies. She has a long history of experience in meetings and administration, previously working for Plumbline Public Affairs, RML Strategies, Direct Design Communications, COSMOS Corporation and the Alabama Association for Justice. Hailing from Manila, Philippines, Ms Tucker holds a bachelor’s degree in Management and Accounting from the University of the East Manila in the Philippines.

Daisy Rodriguez joins AFIA

D

aisy Rodriguez has recently joined AFIA as its meetings and events coordinator. In a newly created AFIA position, Ms Rodriguez will be responsible for all meeting registration-related functions, including set-up, support and management of the registration technology system and on-site registration. She also serves as the primary contact for registration and exhibitor questions for all meetings.

Daisy Rodriguez

Prior to joining AFIA, Ms Rodriguez provided administrative and event support for VersaTel Solutions, the Laurel Ridge Elementary School Parent Teacher Association, Road Runner/Time Warner Cable and the law office of Shapiro and Burson.

66 | September 2019 - International Aquafeed


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