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Seasons greetings from International Aquafeed The International Aquafeed team would like to wish all our advertisers, columnists, aquaculture industry supporters, and most of all you, our readers, for another brilliant year of support.

In 2018, our magazine has continued to expand and excel, and, as our magazine transforms and gains a new look for 2019, we are excited to say that International Aquafeed will only be getting bigger and better! The team would like to wish you all a prosperous 2019! Rebecca Sherratt, Production Editor, International Aquafeed

Ioannis Zabetakis When the dietary guidelines on fish are…wrong


ne of our latest papers is on the dietary guidelines in Ireland, with regard to meat and fish. We need to bear in mind that we rely on dietary guidelines provided often in a form of a pyramid. The current food pyramid in Ireland (see figure one) was published in December 2016. When such a pyramid is projected on a piece of paper, or a screen, it looks like a triangle with several shelves. The lower the shelf a food occupies, the healthier this food is and therefore the more often it must be consumed. Therefore, we can get a general guideline on what to eat and how often by looking at the pyramid. This is widely available and is also taught in all secondary schools around the country. Alas it is wrong! And this is why… The concept of food pyramids stemmed from the pioneering Seven Countries Study that was inspired by Ancel Keys in the 1950s and was carried out in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s. Keys’ research collaborators around the world screened the diet, the levels of serum cholesterol and the incidents of heart disease in different populations around the world. They found a clear linear relationship between serum cholesterol and

heart disease in countries like US, Finland and Netherlands. The higher the cholesterol in the blood, the more fatal heart incidents were observed. However, no such correlation was found in countries like Greece, Italy and Japan, i.e. blood cholesterol did not have an impact on heart-related deaths. Their observations were used, in order to design the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, by combing all the dietary habits in these countries. The message of this pyramid is that this diet has a cardioprotective effect and cholesterol does not cause heart diseases. Here’s the current version of the Mediterranean diet pyramid. Taking into account this data and the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, we would suggest that the Irish Food Pyramid should be edited as soon as possible to convey the correct dietary message to the public. This would include: Do not group fish, meat and poultry together and move fish to a lower shelf of the pyramid Nuts and olive oil should be moved to the same group as fruits and vegetables The moderate amount of one to two glasses of red wine per day could be encouraged in line with the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid (see glass of red wine on the left of that pyramid).

Ioannis Zabetakis is also pleased to announce that his new book, ‘The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases’ will be available to buy from January 1, 2019. Written with fellow nutrition experts, Ronan Lordan and Alexandros Tsoupras, the book presents the latest in published research on the role of food in inhibiting the development of cardiovascular diseases, analyses of statin therapy, and a bioscientific approach towards inflammation and the lipid hypothesis.



Currently working on Food Lipids at the University of Limerick, Ireland, focusing on feeds, food and nutraceuticals against inflammation, Ioannis is a co-inventor in two patents, has edited a book on marine oils, and has published more than 60 peer-reviewed articles (h-index 19). He is currently writing a book on "The Impact of Nutrition and Statins on Cardiovascular Diseases" for Elsevier. 7 | December 2018 - International Aquafeed

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DEC 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine  

DEC 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine