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FEATURE

Results to date demonstrate that 5 mg FUM/kg feed significantly increased mortality (p < 0.05). Final mean body weight, specific growth rate and protein efficiency ratio were significantly lower in the fish fed the FUM 1.0, FUM 2.0 and FUM 5.0 diets, and feed conversion ratio was higher, than fish fed the control or FUM 0.5 diets. 1–5 mg FUM/kg feed reduced the height of the villi in the distal intestine brush border and reduced hepatic lipid inclusion (p < 0.05). Results to date from these two trials Preparation of experimental feed manufacturing - Courtesy of Biomin are of great potential interest. To our knowledge, they are the first trials conducted in marine species, investigating a pelagic and a benthic describes the synergistic effect of aflatoxin and fumonisins species. Furthermore, FUM levels tested in previous trials are perfectly. within the contamination levels often found in commercial The authors observed that mortality only starts to increase (to aquafeeds, which highlights the importance of screening and 17%) above 2,000 ppb FUM and similar mortality is seen at preventing FUM in feeds. aflatoxin levels of 215 ppb. However, when both mycotoxins Marine fish and shrimp species may be highly sensitive to were combined, the authors found that mortality increased to 75 relatively low fumonisin levels (< 5000 µg FUM/kg feed), percent at 1,740 ppb FUM plus 255.4 ppb AF. affecting growth performance and immune status. This is much This synergistic effect was also observed in rainbow trout lower than the sensitivity levels of most freshwater species, and (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with AFB1 at 100 ppb and FB1 at also lower than livestock species. 3,200 ppb (Carlson et al., 2001); in Pacific white leg shrimp This presents additional challenges to the marine aquaculture (Litopenaeus vannamei) with 300 ppb AFB1 and 1,400 ppb FB1; sector as the European Commission guidance values for and in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) with AFB1 at 7.3 ppb FUM (fumonisins B1 + B2) in complementary and complete and FB1 at 15,000 ppb. feedingstuffs for fish is 10 mg FUM/kg feed (European Commission, 2006), which might be too high, at least for Sparus Conclusions aurata, Psetta maxima and Litopenaeus vannamei. Further Seabream, turbot, and Pacific whiteleg shrimp appear to be research is required to confirm whether other marine species are highly sensitive to FUM contamination. Sensitivity levels in these as sensitive to FUM, and to better understand the effect of other species are below the European Commission guidance values mycotoxins co-occurring with FUM. for FUM (fumonisins B1 + B2) in complementary and complete feedingstuffs for fish of 10 mg FUM/kg feed. We understand that these guidance values are based on the Synergism can reduce sensitivity levels sensitivity of freshwater aquaculture species. The immense Although FUM is the predominant mycotoxin in plant meals diversity of species makes it difficult to produce guidelines for and the subsequent feed, an average of 80 percent of all finished the aquaculture industry. Further evaluation of FUM sensitivity feed samples are contaminated with more than one mycotoxin. in other marine species is essential to determine the risk that It is, therefore, important to understand the effects of FUM and FUM may present to aquaculture feed manufacturers and its interaction with other mycotoxins that may be present in the farmers. feed, especially other Fusarium mycotoxins that are produced Although freshwater species are less sensitive to FUM, it is alongside FUM. Synergism, i.e. the interaction of two or more important to remember that feeds used in these species contain mycotoxins to cause a combined effect that is greater than the high levels of a wide range of plant proteins. This significantly sum of their separate effects, has not been fully described in increases the probability of mycotoxin co-occurrence in aquaculture. However, aflatoxin B1 and fumonisins are known to freshwater aquafeeds, increasing sensitivity to these mycotoxins interact synergistically in fish and shrimp. The study conducted in the feed. by Mckean et al. (2006) in mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis)

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DEC 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine  

DEC 2018 - International Aquafeed magazine