• Regular feeding with farm made feed consisting largely of rice bran mixed with different types of oil cakes and mineral mixtures. • Heavy fertilisation with both organic manures and inorganic fertilisers. • Proper tank / pond management from stocking to harvesting time Similar spectacular developments in carp culture have taken place in the state of Punjab and the farmers have modified the technology to suit their areas and obtain an average production of more than 5000 kg/ha/year. Besides these two states, West Bengal on Eastern part of the country not only produces significant amount of carp, but also most of the production from the states like Andhra Pradesh have been reaching fish markets in West Bengal and other Eastern States.
Though the country is producing significant level of carp production still there is a scope to enhance the carp production further. Seed: The country is self sufficient for fry production at present but non – availability of quality fingerlings of desired species and size has been a major constraint over the years in carp farming. The fingerling rearing process is often ignored due to shortage of rearing space in carp farming. Higher cost involvement and cumbersome process of long distance transportation of fingerlings also forces the farmers resorting to stocking their tanks/ponds with fry, often in irrational quantity, which leads to poor survival and low production. The culture technology recommends different species ratios of the carp species depending on their combination; the farmers do not have any choice but to depend on the seed supply by the seed farm/vendors. Such a situation often leads to irrational stocking and this failing to harvest at potential level.
Feed and manures: In many tanks / ponds in the country though continue carp culture activity, productivity levels in small ponds have declined since most farmers resort to stocking large number of fish seed without providing any other inputs like feed and manures in significant quantities. Feed costs are also increased significantly in the market and fish cost was not enhanced proportionately.
Keeping in view of these constraints, there is a large yield gap between potential production and actual productions obtained. For example, the research and farmers in Andhra Pradesh have demonstrated the potential for obtaining over 15 tones / ha production in carp culture and, the national average presently is around 2.20 tonnes / ha and in some states it is much lower. Hence it is necessary to reassess the methods being followed for transfer of research outputs to the farming community. Carp culture in India, during the last five decades, has grown in geographical coverage with diverse systems, besides intensification of farming practices. A concern however is with regard to species diversification, in spite of the fact that the country possesses several other potential and cultivable medium and minor carp species having a high region demand, viz. Labeo calbasu, L.fimbriatns, L. gonius, L. dussumeieri, L. bata, Cirrhinus cirrhosa, C. reba, Puntius sarana, P. jerdoni (Figure 20-27) etc. Presently, efforts are being made for mass-scale seed production of these species and their inclusion as a component of conventional carp polyculture, based on their regional importance. References available upon request
42 | INTERNATIONAL AQUAFEED | March-April 2015
Published on Mar 16, 2015