Issuu on Google+

(Soft) Mobility POSSIBILITIES FOR AN — INDIAN CONTEXT

Learnings and experience from the workshop


The number

01 P R E FA CE — I N TR O DU C TI O N

of people living in 5,161 Indian cities and towns in 2011 is 310 million. That is like cramming the entire population of America into 1/3 the place. In some Delhi 18 million areas of Mumbai, 101,066 people live in a square kilometer. In 2030 urban population will grow to 575 million and in 2045 it will grow to 800 million Indian has the 2nd largest urban system in the world. Every minute, 30 Indians leave rural India for it's cities. Estimates Ahmedabad predict that in the near future India will need 14 Delhis' or 18 Mum4 million bais' or 30 Bangalores. Every day traffic jams in Delhi alone Kolkata 16.2 million waste 3 million litres of fuel worth US$2.5 million. Indian metros generate 21,275 tonnes of waste every day. 60% of Mumbai 20.4 million the untreated sewage pollutes our rivers and oceans. Bangalore has 10,000 US $ millionaires and 1000 Hyderabad 6.3 million slums where 25% of it's population lives... Bangalore 8.5 million

FRAGMENTS ABOUT INDIA THAT NEED QUESTIONING AND CURATION.

?

Chennai 8.24 million


a llion

—0 Preface Introduction While 30% (328 million) of the Indian population is now living in urban areas, the urban growth will reach 473 million in 2021 and 820 million in 2051. As a world-wide phenomenon, the pace of urbanization which is directly correlated to the concentration of economic wealth and human resources in a physically limited space is generating an increase of motorized vehicles, overcrowded public transport, pollution and congestion. Balanced urban development is now an imperative and requires careful understanding and coordination. Interactions between economy, housing stock, social development, transportation systems, natural environment, must be well-integrated for the cities’ efficiency. This implies a radical change in the way one plans and forecasts the evolution of the city. All components of the city are now linked and only a systemic approach can guarantee the emergence of a broader and global development strategy. In most major Indian cities, population and economic growth have exceeded the capacity of organization and anticipation of urban amenities, particularly in terms of mobility, water supply, sanitation, electricity, waste management and environment. This situation is particularly exacerbated in the field of transportation. In the five major metropolises of India – Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore, Chennai, and Kolkata – growth of motor vehicles has outpaced population growth! Nowadays, the most common strategic quandary of biggest cities is “how to retain the economic benefits of city scale while limiting the deterioration of transport performance?” Whatever are the “heavy” transport infrastructures (new roads, flyover, metro lines…), they will not be efficient if they are disconnected from issues on urban functions (economical, residential, leisure, commercial...), urban density and urban renewal. Climate change, the need to reduce energy consumption and have access to renewable energy, correct water management, preservation - even gain of green


02 P R E FA CE — I N TR O DU C TI O N

spaces, regulating the growth of social inequality, the growth of physical and social mobility, of humans, of materials, of products and information…All these elements are pushing us to say that it is the metropolis that will yield the most efficient answers to these problems, on competitive, national and global levels. In this context, it is evident that small steps are no longer possible; an innovative and radical change is necessary. Innovation is a shift in perspective that requires time as well as clear and determined ideas. “Soft Mobility: possibilities for an Indian reality” was the first workshop organised by 7HighStreet think tank*, in the summer 2009, to understand and question one of the most important factor tied to the future of Indian cities and propose several fundamental shifts and new perspectives. During two weeks, a team of experts from various backgrounds (architects, urban planners & designers, philosopher, sociologists, designers, engineers) has worked extensively to collect data, interview people on their mobility patterns and analyse some iconic urban situations. This workshop didn’t ended by a finished and highly detailed project, but more by a reflexion allowing identification and engagement in a dialogue concerning the priorities for a new phase of metropolitan development. A public exhibition was held, to communicate and disseminate ideas and perspectives developed during the workshop. This first collective initiative was the starting point of wider process of thoughts which aims to understand the relationship between mobility and planning, focusing on prevalent mobility patterns in the city with the logic of low carbon solutions. This booklet gathers all the information, data and perspectives collected during the first workshop and highlight the evolution of the process since then and the development of new research topics.


*7 High street think tank is a shared working space, a platform appropriated by INterland India / INLAB and Karun Kumbera, architects & urbanists. This space was primarily envisaged with the intention to create a ground for experimentation, production and diffusion, which op-erates beyond the realm of design, architecture and urbanism but also encompasses economy, sociology, urban anthropology, political sciences, engineering and visual research. www.7highstreet.com


01.(soft) mobility : possibilities for an Indian context

Part 1. Factsheet

—1 Automotive industry - GDP share of automotive industry (2010) : 7%

13 million 50 billion - Vehicles sold in India in 2008 - 2009 : 11 million - of which exports : 1.5 million - Rank in the world production : 12 - Indian automotive industry turnover : 8.95 million US$) per day. - People employed in the industry :

03 FAC TS H E E T

- Size of auto and ancillary industry : US$

The automotive industry in the emerging countries is often used as a catalyst to create multiple small scale industry, employment and boost the international trade market.


— Automotive industry in India


*Increase in motorized vehicle ownership in India (%) 30% 25% 20% 15%

Loans ? Economic boom ? 1988

1998

2001

10%

2007

— Germany has a fleet size that is 0.5x that of india Germany has 3.9x more cars than india Germany consumes 1.2x the amount of transport energy than India. 90% of German transport sector is fueled by oil products,5% by combustible renewables+waste and 2% by electricity China has a fleet size that is 1.4x that of india.

— China has 4.3x more cars than india. China consumes 3.4x the

0 4 FA C TS H E E T

amount of transport energy than India. 95% of chinese transport sector is fueled by oil products,1% by coal, 0.9% by combustible renewables+waste, 1% by electricity and 0.1% by natural gas.

America has a fleet size that is 2.8x that of india. America has 20x more cars than india. America consumes 13.3x the amount of tranport energy —

than India. 94% of american transport sector is fueled by oil products, 4.8% by combustible renewables+waste, neg% by electricity and 2.4% by natural gas. 93% of indian transport sector is fueled by oil products, 0.3% by combustible renewables+waste, 2.2% by electricity and 4.2% by natural gas.


—2 Evolution of the registration of motorized vehicles In India the current

74/1000*.

motorisation rate is

[*Motorisation rate is the number of motor vehicles in a country per thousand inhabitants of the country. It includes all road motor vehicles (buses, freight, personal and commercial vehicles). The world bank describes the rate in India as 10 /1000 but the world bank does not include two wheelers. Two wheelers are an important mode of transport for a country like India. On a recalculation of motorisation rate including two wheelers, we achieve a rate of 74 / 1000]

This indicates a huge potential of growth domestically and it also indicates a huge opportunity to evaluate fuel diversity and modality diversity. In comparison, the motorisation rate in Germany 554/1000 and 838/1000 in the U.S.

is


— Bangalore The total number of motorized vehicles in the city on 31 December 2009 was 3 653 368. (RTO) Between 1991 and 2009, the population growth in the city stood at 94% whereas the motorized vehicles growth rate was 451 % in the same period !

— Number of motor vehicles registered & kept in use in Bangalore city in 2009 (RTO) 2 wheelers

2 607 536

Cars - 606 427 Trucks -129 312 3 wheelers - 105 630 Others - 68 843 Buses - 42164 Taxies - 31 879 Maxi Cab - 20 903 Tractors - 20 353

05 FA CT S H E E T

Trailers - 12 133 Jeeps - 8 188

With 14% of annual growth of motorized vehicles, Bangalore is the highest vehicle growth rate among all million-plus people cities.

About 1000 new motorized vehicles are registered per day !


—3 Fleet composition in the 5 biggest cities in India

— Mode share in selected cities When a person is doing a trip in the city, which mode of transportation is he/she using ? (Wilbur Smith Associates, 2008)

Bangalore Delhi Mumbai Kolkata

7% 8% 6% 14% 7 % 8% 4% 8%

35%

17% 43%

45% 54%

7% 5% 12% 7 % 6% 4% 11%

26% 21% 27% 19%

— Bangalore : budgetary allowance (2007 - 2024):

Public transport

Road network

Pedestrian facilities

Parking facilities

Grade separator

BTRAC


—4 Changing vehicular fleet composition in Bangalore over time While in 1960’s bicycles dominated the vehicle fleet in Bangalore, their share was reduced to a mere 3% in 2009. (CRRI & Rites)

5%

5% 10% 10%

70%

1965

5% 20%

20% 5%

06 FA CT S H E E T

50%

8%

1998

3%

4%

25%

60%

2009

Cycle Car Two wheeler Para-transit solution Public transport


Bangalore: Car city ? 4,200 km of road within the BMRDA limits, 2 000 flyovers are currently under construction 270 roads are widened, which lead to the displacement of 300 000 people The 9km flyover is the longest in Bangalore and the second longest in the entire country ; the highest flyover is about 18 meters high, which is equivalent to a 6 storeys building.

% OF TOTAL VEHICLE FLEET

% OF TRIP

Buses city ? 4810 BMTC Buses, Carrying 3.7 million passengers daily, Mayking 65,121 trips daily.

40%

77 375 auto-rickshaws officially registered.

70% 46% 4%

cars, 2 wheelers, para-transit solution

buses

Accident rate (%): - two wheelers riders : 31 % - pedestrians : 26% - pillions : 12% - cyclists : 8% In Bangalore, in 2009, 761 people died in a traffic accident caused by: - Motor cycle (17%), - Car (15%), - Lorry (14%), - BMTC buses (11%) 5 668 were injured, by : - car (28%) , - Motor cycle (24%), - Lorry (7%), - Tempo (7%), - BMTC buses (6%)


—5 Urban sprawl and space used The average length of a trip in Bangalore City in 2009 (IIMB) : -average:15km, (Berlin : 6.9km, Paris : 7.1km) -poor pocket: 25km

07 FA CT S H E E T

km

15

25

In 2001, the same average length of a trip was : -average: 7.1km, -poor pocket: 13km

TERI’s assessments in the slums did reveal that travel cost were an important issue or the poor who reportedly spend 15 to 25% of their household income on travel every month, which is a significant share.


—6 Operating journey speed

— Mode wise operating journey speed - average speed in Bangalore in 1 hour (Sudhir Gota & Prashant Mutalik)

3km/h

pedestrian

6km/h

cyclist

15km/h

bus autorickshaw

18km/h

car

20km/h

bike scooter

Comparison with : — Paris : car = 15 km/hour ; cycle =17km/hour, bus=12km/hour, pedestrian= 5km/hour.

— Berlin : car=24km/hour; cycle =13km/hour, bus=17 km/hour, pedestrian=5km/hour) Per day : A person in Bangalore spends Rs.

6.09 per Km, travels to an average length of 15 km, with an average speed of 15km/h. Even a 5% reduction in traffic will increase vehicle speed by at least 10%


—7 Congestion cost Traffic congestion cost in Indian cities means a loss of

Rs. 300 billion every year Traffic congestion cost in Bangalore means a loss of

Rs. 208 million per day Equivalent to : - Indian automotive industry turnover

Rs. 450 million per day - Cost of metro construction

Rs. 22.2 million per day - Net income (after tax) of Infosys

08 FA CT S H E E T

Rs. 7 million per day


—8 Mobility, congestion and economic attractiveness Overall, since 2003, the concentration of FDI projects in the top five cities has fallen by 40%. This is partially due to : - the rising cost of land and office spaces, - the rising cost of qualified labor, - the increase of traffic jam and congestion, - the deterioration of the quality of life and the environment. This is also correlate with the increasing attractiveness of satellite cities and Tier II cities. — Priority measures to improve future attractiveness in India Survey done with international CEO, MD, CFO, ... 1.Invest in major infrastructure and urban projects

70

18

2 10

2. Improve transport connectivity 3. Provide a stable political regulatory environment 4. Encourage anti-corruption practices 5. Support high-tech industries and innovation 6. Adopt a proactive approach to attract investors 7.Access to highly skilled labor force

70

17

3 10

60

25

60

21

9 10

58

27

5 10

56

27

5 12

55

29

6 10

49

8. Improve the legal framework

5 10

35

6 10

9. Enhance security

46

35

9 10

10. Ease of purchasing land 11. Support small and medium size entreprises

45

37

7 11

42

12. Lower state taxation on companies

41

13. A better social climate

40

14. Easier access to credit 15. Promote CSR practices

35 32 High

38

10 10

38

10 11

42

8 10

43 42 Medium

11 10 16 Low

10 Very low

Source : E&Y - India attractivness survey (2011)


—9 Environmental cost and impacts Slow moving pollution: - at 75km/h, an automotive emits 6.4g of carbon monoxide per km.

0 9 FAC TS H E E T

- at 10km/h (the peak hour speed average) a car spews 33g of carbon monoxide per km.


“Congestion is not the problem,but a symptom of a bigger problem of poor urban planning and uncontrolled rates of motorisation” — SUDHIR GHOTA


01.(soft) mobility : possibilities for an Indian context

REDUCED PUBLIC SPENDING ON BUSES AND ROUTES TRANSPORT COST SUBSIDISED BY REDUCED HOUSE COST INCREASE OF PERSONAL AUTOMOBILES

10 FA CT S H E E T

MARGINALISATION OF PAVEMENTS/ CYCLE TRACKS INCREASE IN ROAD SURFACE ELEVATED HIGHWAYS/FLY OVERS


— Self perpetuating congestion trap

CITY FRAGMENTED BY INCOME

URBAN SPRAWL

REDUCED BUS SPEED AND PERFORMANCE MARGILISATION OF THE BUS LANE

LACK OF STREET SPACE OVER LOAD OF NON ROAD PUBLIC TRANSPORT

CONGESTION


01. (soft) mobility : possibilities for an Indian context

11 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Part 2. Changing the mobility paradigm

In the late 19th and early 20th century, the ideology behind many of the cities in the world, was guided by urban theories that linked notions of social progress, economic development and spatial concentration of information, human capital and wealth. Spatially, these functionalist and hygienists theories, led to the development of basics amenities: roads, communication networks, and city zones. Schematically during this phase, efforts were concentrated on city centers (business districts), functionally organised localities (residential, commercial) and connectivity through public transportation networks. Over time, these urban theories have been layered, and sometimes even replaced by economic theories of production of space as seen in the late 20th century. This layering and (or) replacement of urban theory runs parallel to the modifications seen in the structure of economy. Post War industrialisation and technological innovation formed the basis of cities in the 1960s with focus shifting from utopian forms to utopian systems of urban planning. “Flexibility” and “organic” were the buzz words. With the emergence of the economy of services in the 1980s, new proclaimed criteria of “competition and attractive-

ness” exist between cities and territories replacing older unstated criteria based on narratives of history, culture and tradition and geographical and linguistic affinities. Strong interaction between the global economy and the “modern city”, introduced principles of networks, interconnection, concentration and exchange of flows of people, materials, energy and information as the determining form of attractiveness and hence planning requirement. To meet this new focus on exchange and flow, local authorities focus on developing massive investment plans to acquire «generic infrastructures» (airports, shipping terminals, public transportation system, highways and flyovers, IT campuses, broadband network). In Bangalore during the “IT boom”, the metropolitan area has grown independently of the efforts of city planners, in a process that we might call amorphous urbanism. No new urban theory has emerged even as the economic territory underwent radical change because ideology has not been able to keep up with ground realities speeds of change. Urban planning has become merely reactionary rather than projective. This calls for a reevaluation of urban planning methodology to cater to this period of immediacy, extensive growth and rapid change.


Some of the repercussions of the reactionary mode adopted by urban planning is seen in the ad-hoc land patterns, scale and cost of public amenities and inequalities of city geography. Centres or areas develop where growth has occurred, resulting in a consistent pattern of low-rise, low-density land use and urban sprawl. The scale and cost of urban and public services to public agencies has considerably increased. This period, marked primarily by a concern with flows and exchange, also symbolizes the progressive disconnection between the city (urban components), the individual (quality of life) and the natural ecosystem (natural replaced by the artificial). Population and economic growth have exceeded the capacity of organization and development of basic urban amenities (networks, publics equipments, public spaces, sewage and waste management). A large majority of cities have become fragmented, where both social and geographical barriers are reinforced: Medium income home ownership is found in midsuburban areas where private vehicles are the only form of mobility while low income neighbourhoods are situated as far as possible for the city core. The main output of this situation is a rapid and uncontrolled rate of motorization,

congestion and traffic jams and deterioration of the quality of life and environment, which contribute, to the weakening of the city in its ability to remain attractive. For public authorities, where vehicular growth has outpaced population growth, the big question is “How to retain the economic benefits at the city scale while limiting the deterioration of transport performance and quality of life?” In India, as well as in many countries in the world, authorities answered this question by quick-fix solutions (road widening, construction of flyover, ring road and satellite cities, promotion of investment corridors,...) to address the issue of congestion. The result is a paradoxical situation where urban sprawl feeds congestion, which in turn reinforces local decision makers in the idea of increasing the capacity of transport infrastructure! But congestion phenomenon can be summed up the following statement “The more you provide, the more it seeks”. This situation leads cities into a vicious circle, leading to offset the lack of public investment in urban planning through the development of huge infrastructure projects.


12 CH AN G IN G TH E MO B IL I TY PAR AD I G M

*Image from a government brochure shows a futuristic Bangalore whose mimetic ideal, the Singapore model, is depicted in images of the proposed airport: illuminated passenger lounges, high roofs, coffee shops with uniformed attendants, glittering outlets interspaced by palm trees (1996) Source : B. Salomon - Occupancy Urbanism : Ten Theses


--A strategy that combines spatial and energy efficiency, revitalisation of existing urban fabrics, integration of non-built spaces and ecosystems, development and encouragement of soft infrastructure, and emergence of strategic urban governance forms the basis of the ideology of contemporary urban ideology. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Softâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; mobility is way to investigate contemporary urban mobility by looking at mobility through a lens of energy and ecology, infrastructure, spatial equality and democratisation of the city and economy along with the given fundamentals of optimisation and efficiency. Generic infrastructure has proved to be a single layer in the infrastructural spectrum in a city and not the only one, this is also the belief of authorities and businesses as the ubiquitousness of <<generic infrastructure>> does not meet demands of quality of life and economic attractiveness of the city. The past decade, has shown the collapse of planning solutions only based on transportation and infrastructure development plans. Hence it is time adopt a systematic and holistic approach to integrate all components of the city, and measuring the relevance of choices in the mid and long-term perspectives.


URBAN THEORIES Hygienist Quality of life and reduction of urban sprawl and slums

Hierarchy of street Efficient mobility

1898

1922

Sir Ebenezer Howard Garden City

Le Corbusier La Ville Contemporaine

13 CH AN G IN G TH E MO B IL I TY PAR AD I G M

URBAN REALISATION of the THEORIES (partially) 1908

1956

The Griffins’ Canberra Australia

Oscar Niemeyer Barsilia


PLANNING AUTHORITY VISION FOR THE CITIES OF INDIA

treet ity

Creation of Suburbia Designed for the automobile and other motorised transport

1924

1932

L. Hilberseimer High Rise City

Frank LLyod Wright Broadacre City

Continued 1970

Hong Kong

1940s

Palm Springs California

TOWARDS AN AUTOMOBILE PLANNED CITY


URBAN THEORIES

14 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Megastructure: high density mixeduse partially non motorised

1953

1960

Yona Friedman Spatial City

Kenzo Tange Metabolism

URBAN REALISATION of the THEORIES (partially)


REALITY SUITED TO INDIAN CITIES IN 2012 Hyperstructure Non motorised or low carbon transport

1964

1970

Archigram Plug-in City

Paolo Soleri Arcology

1967

2006

Moshe Safdie Montreal

Sir Norman Foster Masdar

TOWARDS A MULTI MODALITY PLANNED CITY


URBAN MODALITY VISIONS 1900

1910

15 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

cable/track mod 1930

Multi level movement


1920

track modality

Vehicular movement airborne 1940

Congestion is a problem


URBAN MODALITY VISIONS 1950

16 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Rethinking car travel

Solar energy!

1970

1980

Demanding for safety and clean air


1960

Scientific modality 1980

Blade Runner : collective representation of urban catastrophia !


17 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

URBAN MODALITY VISIONS

1940s 1960s


2010s Amount of space required to transport the same number of passengers by car, bus or bicycle.

Every form of mobility has an optimum distance of travel. Multi modality mobility solutions in city allow for a realisation of that optimal distance. Cities have to be planned for multi modality mobility solutions.


18 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

PUBLIC TRANSPORT


19 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

SERVICES

PERSONAL (FAMILY/INDIVIDUAL <20KM/HR)

DISABLED/ELDERLY


Part 3. Learning from the workshop â&#x20AC;&#x201D;1 Towards a new metropolitan strategy The growth of Indian cities comes from an exponential economic development often accelerated by other markets. Today, with the changing global economy, Indian metropolises are confronted with an impending paradigm shift.

20 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

How must the economy manage the structure of emerging territories? With what socio-spatial consequences? In this context, two hypotheses emerge: - Should we give priority to economically innovative activities which are developing on a global scale, without strong regulation of the important consequences this development could have on the lifestyles (generally speaking) of the inhabitants of the city? - Or on the contrary, should we imagine that it is the improvement of spatial, social, and environmental factors that will engender innovative activities, creating new, better working conditions? Our idea is that the second hypothesis, even if it doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t reflect collective trends, is more interesting and fertile. We are convinced that before the lifestyles and per-


formances of the residents can improve, there must first be an environmental, infrastructural, and urban reconstruction. In this context, the demand for growth in mobility must not be looked at negatively and condemned. Strong mobility is indispensable for an open and democratic society. All individuals should be free to travel in sanitary conditions, in good time, all over the city. But the main shift in this strategy is to reduce the use of individual motorized transport within the metropolis. This implies the construction of a new geography of central urban spaces as well as open natural spaces (using multiple tools for urban renewal), by developing a grid on all scales to guarantee the most isochronous permeability and accessibility. In a prospective view, the urban fabric must become permeable, connected and accessible, in order for the city to adapt to the rising need for renewable energy, to evolving lifestyles, and to the amalgamation of diverse activities. The emergence of an urban form of “soft mobility,” will be capable of structuring projects on a local scale, and within a strategy on a metropolitan scale. To guarantee this scaled permeability and articulation, soft mobility networks must be developed

using and optimizing the already existing networks (railway, public transportation lines, pedestrian walkways, street networks…) and integrated into the city’s elements (public spaces, poles of administration, commerce, and leisure). This network must be organized by interconnection hubs. These spaces must manage flow, interconnections, and become significant poles in themselves—fundamental points which make the agglomeration more easily decipherable.


21 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

— lakes and tanks

— valleys

— tanks and drains

—road network

— non-participatory lands

— urban expansion by 2020


—2 Metropolitan strategy / reveal the existing components Urban renewal process : In Bangalore’s particular case, future urban development must be re-evaluated for available mutable spaces. The many “noncity” spaces, characterized by urban and railway neglect, military spaces, gigantic private land corporations, make Bangalore a fragmented city, heterogeneous and discontinuous. It is time to imagine a public re-appropriation of these spaces, in order to develop new, more dense and durable sections of the city, brought on by the need to establish large, open, public and natural, permeable and interconnected spaces.

Park and go ! transportation hub

I am a potential ! (railway network)

Ulsoor lake

I am a potential ! (non-participatory land)

Belandur lake


—3 City center possibilities Overall program break-up [proposition] Parks / public spaces

Soft mobility network

Housing

Commercial high tech use

Cultural and leisure

Military occupation

URBAN RENEWAL POTENTIAL PROGRAM

Sankey tank

22 C H AN GIN G T H E M O B IL ITY PAR AD IG M

Palace Ground

PALACE GROUND 568 acres 3 47 31 182ft² 5x Race course 7x Bangalore Gulf Strenghts / transport connectivity (road and railway track) / availability of the land / already uses as an entertainement and cultural place / closeness with Cubbon Park Objectives / develop and consolidate the area as an “entertainment and cultural hub” / create a leisure corridor related with Cubbon Park Potential program : Metropolitan equipment / exhibition center / housing / entertainment park / public park

Ulsoor lake

MILITARY LANDS 372 acres 1 62 04 190 ft² Strenghts / transport connectivity (road and railway track) / closeness with Palace ground Objectives / imagine the evolution of the military lands in a prospective approach / develop a urban renewal project to limit urban sprawl / optimise the location of the urban transport system to increase density of these lands Potential program : Housing / pedestrian and cycle path / park

MILITARY LANDS 2 320 acres 10 01 05 840 ft² 23 x Cubbon Park 50 x Infosys Campus Strenghts / close to central Bangalore and Ulsoor Lake / transport connectivity (road and railway track) Objectives / imagine the evolution of the military lands in a prospective approach / develop a urban renewal project to limit urban sprawl / optimise the location of the urban transport system to increase density of these lands Potential program : Housing / military offices / commercial and high tech use / pedestrian and cycle path / park


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;4 Urban renewal and soft mobility network The project proposes to use existing public transportation lines (railway, existing and proposed metro lines) and the spaces constituted by the drains, to implement the network of soft mobility, so as to bypass intersections and possible conflict with other modes of transportation, allowing for an efficient way to traverse Bangalore. The connections between these routes are managed at the street level, with specific developments, guaranteeing safety and comfort in their use.

Ulsoor lake

Ulsoor lake


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;5 Pilot project for soft mobility network implementation

23 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Railway tracks : 130 km Drain network : 570 km Soft Mobility along the railway tracks: the railway is currently an important urban divider. It constitutes a physical delineation between localities. The main challenge of this process is to re-appropriate the railway as a system to implement soft mobility infrastructure and to generate urbanity. It is structurally reconfigured (elevated, trench, underground) and especially in its width (crossover devices, managed public spacesâ&#x20AC;Ś) Soft mobility and drain network: In the short-term perspective, the waste and sewage managment must be reconsidered. This is a sanitation and environmental obligation. Within this proposal, the physical space generated by the covering of the drains could be used to develop a network of soft mobility and pluri-functional public spaces. Different technical systems have been developed to optimize and manage water purification, biomass reuse, and energy generation


Railway crossing

Drain systems and overhead pathways


24 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Road network

+


—6 City strategy creating a layer of program and movement along the ‘soft-mobility’ network

Biophysical network : an alternative potential for the urban development ?

+


25 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Road network

+ The existing road network is treated as a system to facilitate efficient movement and connectivity for motorised city traffic. It is treated differentially when it meets a junction of the soft mobility network to allow for transition between the social network and the transport network


â&#x20AC;&#x201D;6 City strategy creating a layer of program and movement along the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;soft-mobilityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; network

Biophysical network : an alternative potential for the urban development ?

+ The soft mobility street network functions for interaction and low motorised connectivity across the city. This network is programmed with cultural and community economic programmes like urban agriculture, local stadiums, cafes and markets, music spaces.


Participants of the workshop | Soft Mobility : possibilities for an Indian context (July 30th - August 9th) Margot Pons, Virginie Maurice, Deepak Prasad, Karun Kumbera, Clara Daguin, Violaine BuetKumbera, BÊrengère Mercier, Alexandre Vuillaume, Thibault Nugue.

http://issuu.com/INterland/docs/soft_mobility_09/1

Booklet conception

Naina Gupta, architect - researcher Shruti Chamaria, graphic designer Thibault Nugue, urban planner & designer

Edition

INterland India & INLAB March 2012

26 C H A NG I NG TH E MO B I LI TY PAR AD I G M

Naina Gupta Shruti Chamaria Thibault Nugue


Programs under development - INLAB Rethinking the urban metabolism of Indian cities, is a program of applied researches, initiated by the INLAB and various partners, which aims to question the model of development of Indian metropolis, develop some new thoughts, idea and concepts, to address the concerns of our complex reality. Initiated by a generation aware of the urgency to tackle the challenges posed by climate change, the main objective of this program is to build an analysis and vision of a city more sustainable, balanced and effective in the Indian context. By the involvement of various professionals and partners to broad skills, the program should fuel the debate on the development of Indian cities, through a scientific, rigorous, non-partisan and shared approach. This program is divided in four pilot projects : 2a - Urban renewal strategy in indian cities : Pilot Project : Exploring the potential along the metro line (Bangalore) The construction of the Metro in Bangalore offers a unique opportunity to initiate this process of urban renewal and densification. For this it is essential to change our pattern of thinking about the link between mobility and urban planning. It is in this perspective that INLAB wish to conduct an initial study, with the aim of demonstrating the benefits of elaborating a strategic plan for the urban regeneration in the perimeter of influence of the metro. | read more ! 2b - Urban ecology in indian cities : the need to integrate biophysical spaces in urban areas : The main purpose of this research is to reveal the potential and the role of the urban ecology in the evolution of the indian metropolitan areas. Noting the fact, that the common approach to reveal the historical, natural or symbolic value of the existing biophysical spaces unfortunately does not weigh against the economic and functional arguments that lead to a rapid and metastatic urbanization, the position of the team reflects the determination to build a multidisciplinary constructive approachâ&#x20AC;Ś 2c - Soft Mobility ² : possibilities for an indian context : this project as an extension of the first workshop (Soft Mobilities, possibilities for an indian context), intends to study the conditions of interaction between mobility and urban (re-)development of Indian citiesâ&#x20AC;Ś 2d - Urban culture : Collective intelligence in indian cities : this study is based on the hypothesis that urban culture should be part of urban development policy and urban fabric. It is developed and harnessed by creating the structural framework that permits the spontaneous sprouting of sub cultures. The structural framework might be policies that encourage public space, public amenities and equal participation frameworks or urban planning strategies that facilitate public interaction, dialogue and learning. www.in-lab.org


urban think tank not for profit organisation

www.in-lab.org


Soft Mobility