Page 1

Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu Eutropija, studija slučaja

Introduction to Speculative Design Practice Eutropia, a Case Study

•  today  ———  time  →

plausab le /  

p

vatljivo rih

e /

uće og  m

  wild card scenarij

pos sib l

probable / vjerojatno preferable / preferirano

 scenarij

HDD & DVK UMAS Zagreb/Split, 2015


Ivica Mitrović je edukator i istraživač. Od 2001. godine radi na promociji dizajna interakcija i kritičkih dizajnerskih praksi te posebno na razvoju nove dizajnerske edukacije kroz seriju radionica pod nazivom Interakcije. Svojim radom neprestano propituje definiciju i današnju ulogu dizajna u društvu.

Ivica Mitrović is an educator and researcher. Since 2001, he has been working on the promotion of interaction design and critical designer practices, and especially on the development of a new design education with a series of workshops under the name Interactions. Through his work, he constantly questions the definition and today’s role of design in society.

Oleg Šuran je freelance dizajner. Za njega je dizajn jezik. Kroz umjetničku organizaciju Fazan bavi se lokalnom zajednicom i edukacijom. Suosnivač je časopisa za poeziju Polet i portala nakonjusmo.net.

Oleg Šuran is a freelance designer. For him, design is a language. Through Fazan artistic organisation, he deals with the local community and education. He is the co-founder of Polet poetry magazine and nakonjusmo.net web portal.

Marko Golub je likovni kritičar, kustos galerije Hrvatskog dizajnerskog društva, urednik je različitih publikacija o dizajnu, su-urednik tv emisije Transfer i scenarist emisije Trikultura Hrvatske radiotelevizije. Bio je član uredništava stručnih časopisa kao što su Čovjek i prostor i Oris.

Marko Golub is an art critic, curator of the Croatian Designers Association Gallery and editor of various design-related publications. He is currently co-editor for the tv show Transfer and screenwriter for Trikultura, both produced by the Croatian radiotelevision. He was a member of the editorial boards of magazines Man and Space and Oris.

Ilustracija korica i naslovnice: Stožac budućnosti (Voros via Dunne and Raby, via Revell ) – vidi str. 18.

Front page and cover illustration: The Future Cone ( Voros via Dunne and Raby, via Revell ) – see page 19.


Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu Eutropija, studija slučaja

Introduction to Speculative Design Practice Eutropia, a Case Study

 scenarij

plausab le /  

•  today  ———  time  →

p

vatljivo rih

e /

uće og  m

  wild card scenarij

pos sib l

probable / vjerojatno preferable / preferirano

HDD & DVK UMAS, Zagreb/Split II. izdanje / 2ⁿd edition, Listopad / October, 2015.


8–23 — Ivica Mitrović — Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu Introduction to Speculative Design Practice 26–33 — Marko Golub — “Što ako?” – dvije-tri bilješke o spekulaciji “What if?” – Two or Three Notes on Speculation 36–49 intervjui / Interviews 52–55 — Ivica Mitrović — Hrvatski kontekst / Croatian Context 58–65 — Ivica Mitrović, Oleg Šuran — Eutropija – studija slučaja / Eutropia – a Case Study

ISBN 978-953-6778-10-2


“Spekulativnost je jedan kraj dizajnerskog spektra” Anthony Dunne

“Speculative is at one end of the design spectrum” Anthony Dunne


Jedna od kritika ovog pristupa je da on privlači interes veoma specifične vrste ljudi koja ionako posjećuje galerije. Naravno da je to problem, no mi se ne zaustavljamo samo na galerijama nego se često koristimo i medijima kao galerijskim prostorom. Za velik broj naših ideja podjednako je i zanimljiv način na koji ih predstavljamo, putem fotografija, video scenarija te čitavog spektra tehnika, a sve su one prikladne za diseminaciju putem blogova, video materijala, novina ili časopisa. Najednom sve ove medijske sfere postaju galerijski prostori. —— James Auger: Galerije


One of critiques of this approach is that you get a very particular kind of people that go to galleries anyway. Of course that is an issue but we don't just stop at the gallery, we are often using the media as a gallery space as well, and a lot of these ideas are quite interesting, as is the way we present them, like through photography, video scenarios and a range of other techniques, and they are all good for dissemination, either though web blogs, video materials, newspapers, or magazines. Suddenly, all of these media spheres become a gallery space. —— James Auger: Galleries


Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu —— Ivica Mitrović

a dizajnerska

ivn

krit ič

spekulativna dizajnerska praksa

k sa ra

k sa

dizajnerska p

disku rz

8

pra

ka

i cionalni dizajn trad

— — Diskurzivna i kritička dizajnerska praksa

slika 1  Tradicionalni dizajn vs spekulativni dizajn.

Iz modernističke perspektive, dizajn je promatran prvenstveno kao praksa koja rješava probleme, i to najčešće one detektirane od strane drugih profesija ( npr. ekonomije, sociologije, filozofije ). Misija dizajna u ovom je smislu usko vezana uz potrebe industrije, ili u širem smislu projektiranje boljeg, kvalitetnijeg životnog standarda. U ovoj modernističkoj percepciji dizajn se vidi kao uslužna djelatnost koje prije svega adresira probleme klijenata. Međutim, kao što ističe grafički dizajner i publicist Dejan Kršić, dizajn je oduvijek bio i značenjska praksa, ono što stvara, analizira, distribuira, posreduje i reproducira društvena značenja, a posebno danas, u novim društvenim, tehnološkim, medijskim i ekonomskim uvjetima.1 Odnos dizajna i umjetnosti ( i ostalih srodnih disciplina ) možemo promatrati u nekoliko faza. Od visokomodernističke sinteze primijenjenih umjetnosti, likovnih umjetnosti i dizajna 50-tih godina 20. stoljeća; do scijentifikacije dizajna u 60-tim godinama kroz isticanje njegove racionalnosti; do postmodernističke pozicije u kojem se ponovo javlja u središtu međuodnosa različitih disciplina, međutim ne više kroz potpunu sintezu, već prije svega kroz njihovu interakciju. Stoga i ne čudi da sve više dizajnera prakticira nove dizajnerske pristupe, “novi dizajneri” djeluju na rubovima tradicionalno shvaćenih disciplina, brišući njihove granice.2


Introduction to Speculative Design Practice —— Ivica Mitrović

e design pr a

l design prac

v rsi

cri t

speculative design practice

e tic

ce c ti

ica

dis cu

tional design tradi

— — Discursive and Critical Design Practice

fig. 1  Traditional design vs Speculative design.

From the modernist perspective, design has been primarily regarded as a problem-solving practice, and usually those aimed at problems detected by other professions ( such as economics, sociology, philosophy, etc. ). In this sense, the mission of design is closely related to the needs of the industry or, in a broader sense, the creation of a better living standard. Through a modernist perspective, design is viewed as a service industry that primarily addresses clients' needs. However, as the graphic designer and publicist Dejan Kršić points out, design has always been a signifying practice that generates, analyses, distributes, mediates and reproduces social meaning, especially today, in the context of the new social, technological, media and economic conditions.1 The relation between design and art ( and other related disciplines ) can be observed in several stages. From the high modernist synthesis of applied arts, visual arts and design in the 1950s, the scientification of design throughout the 1960s and the emphasis of its rationality and the postmodernist position in which it is once again positioned at the centre of the interrelations of various disciplines, no longer through a complete synthesis, but, above all, through their interaction. It is no surprise, therefore, that an increasing number of designers is taking upon some new approaches to design. These “new designers” are acting on the borders of traditionally defined disciplines, removing the borders between them.2

9


10

Novi dizajneri se u svojim istraživanjima povezuju s različitim područjima znanosti, prije svega računalne znanosti i inženjerstva, sociologije, psihologije, arhitekture, a u posljednje vrijeme sve više i s biotehnologije, sve u cilju kritičke refleksije razvoja i uloge tehnologije u društvu. Dizajneri promišljaju ulogu tehnologije u svakodnevnom životu, na način da se više ne bave aplikacijama tehnologije, već njenim implikacijama. Dolazi do odmaka od komercijalne perspektive dizajna, koja je usmjerena zahtjevima tržišta, prema širem društvenom kontekstu. Novi dizajneri koriste dizajn kao medij i fokusiraju se na koncepte i artefakte koji ne rješavaju probleme, već postavljaju pitanja i otvaraju teme. Istraživačica i edukatorica Ramia Mazé navodi tri različita pristupa kritičkoj dizajnerskoj praksi: u prvom slučaju dizajneri refleksivno kritički propituju vlastitu dizajnersku praksu; drugi pristup polazi iz makro perspektive, gdje se propituje dizajnerska disciplina kao takva; a u trećem slučaju dizajnerski diskurs je usmjeren prema širim društvenim i političkim fenomenima.3 Mazé ističe da se ovi pristupi međusobno ne isključuju, već najčešće nadopunjuju i isplepliću u praksi. Povijesne reference kritičke dizajnerske prakse vezane su uz talijansku radikalnu arhitekturu 60-ih godina 20. stoljeća, a dijelom i uz kritičku praksu avangardne i neoavangardne umjetnosti. Posebnu inspiraciju nalaze i u narativnosti i imaginarnim svjetovima karakterističnima za književnost i film. Dizajn i kritička praksa intenzivniju poveznicu ostvaruju kroz dizajn interakcija, dizajnersku specijalizaciju koja nastaje početkom 90-tih godina prošlog stoljeća, a vezana je za ubrzani razvoj digitalnih tehnologija. Klasična definicija dizajn interakcija opisuje kao praksu koja se bavi načinima na koji se ljudi povezuju preko proizvoda, tehnologije kojom se koriste, tj. oblikovanje našeg svakodnevnog života putem digitalnih artefakata. Danas se najčešće vezuje uz dizajniranje digitalnih proizvoda, aplikacija ili usluga. U ovom kontekstu, kroz osobnu dizajnersku praksu, a kasnije i kroz uspostavljanje specifičnog obrazovnog pristupa kao pročelnik Odsjeka za dizajniranje interakcija na Royal College of Art ( RCA ), Anthony Dunne se kroz pristup koji naziva “kritički dizajn” bavi estetikom uporabe novih tehnologija u kontekstu elektroničkih proizvoda.4 Međutim, vremenom, u suradnji s Fionom Raby, širi fokus djelovanja prema kulturološkim, društvenim i etičkim utjecajima novih tehnologija, do trenutnog propitivanja, tj. spekuliranja o širim društvenim, ekonomskim i političkim temama.5 — — Spekuliranje kroz dizajn Spekulativni dizajn je kritička dizajnerska praksa koja obuhvaća ili je u relaciji s nizom sličnih praksi koje nalazimo pod nazivima: kritički dizajn, dizajn fikcija, dizajn budućnosti, antidizajn, radikalni dizajn, propitkujući dizajn, diskurzivni dizajn, kontradiktorni dizajn ( eng. adversarial ), futuristička imaginacija ( eng.


In their research, these new designers relate to diverse fields of science, primarily computer sciences and engineering, sociology, psychology, architecture, and, in the recent times, increasingly to biotechnology, all with the goal of critically reflecting on the development and role of technology in society. Designers rethink the role of technology in everyday life, not dealing with the applications of technology, but with its implications. Turning away from the commercial aspects of design with the focus on the demands of the market, they are now engaged with a broader social context. The new designers use design as a medium and focus on concepts and artefacts, which, rather than solving problems, ask questions and open issues to discussion. The researcher and educator Ramia Mazé says there are three different approaches to critical design practice: the first sees designers reflecting on and critically questioning their own design practice; the second approach is based on a macro-perspective, re-thinking the design discipline as such; and in the third approach the design discourse is directed towards broader social and political phenomena.3 Mazé points out that these approaches are not mutually exclusive, as they most often intertwine and supplement each other in practice. Historical references of critical design practice point to Italian radical architecture of the 1960s, and partially to the critical practice of avant-garde and neoavant-garde art. It is particularly inspired by a narrative quality and the imaginary worlds of literature and film. Design and critical practice established more intense connections through interaction design, a design specialisation that emerged in the early 1990s as a result of the accelerated development of digital technologies. The classical definition of interaction design describes it as a practice dealing with the ways in which people connect via the products and technologies they use, i.e. with the design of our everyday lives via digital artefacts. Today it is most commonly associated with the design of digital products, applications or services. In this context, through his own personal design practice, and later through the establishment of a novel educational approach as Head of the Design Interactions Department at the Royal College of Art ( RCA ), Anthony Dunne, through an approach he termed “critical design”, dealt with the aesthetics of the use of new technologies in the context of electronics products.4 However, with time, in collaboration with Fiona Raby, he expanded the focus of his activities to the cultural, social and ethical implications of new technologies, and most recently on speculations on wider social, economic and political issues.5 — — Speculating through Design Speculative design is a critical design practice that comprises or is in relation to a series of similar practices known under the following names: critical design, design fiction, future design, anti-design, radical design, interrogative design, discursive design, adversarial design, futurescape, design art, etc. For instance,

11


sada

 → ija ac

tik

es

m

do

tehnologije

12

futurescape ), umjetnički dizajn ( eng. design art ) i dr. Primjerice, dizajn fikcija jedan je od mogućih žanrova spekulativne dizajnerske prakse, a “kritički dizajn”, kako ga Dunne definira, jedan je od mogućih pristupa. Radi se o diskurzivnoj djelatnosti, koja je temeljena na kritičkom razmišljanju i dijalogu, te koja propituje dizajnersku praksu ( i njegovu modernističku definiciju ). Međutim, spekulativni dizajnerski pristup proširuje kritičku praksu korak dalje, prema imaginaciji i vizijama mogućih scenarija. Spekulativna dizajnerska praksa također je i jedan od najznakovitijih primjera nove interakcije disciplina. Stoga je zanimljivo promotriti kako novi dizajneri percipiraju svoju praksu: sebe nazivaju transdisciplinarnim, post-disciplinarnim ili čak post-dizajnerima, a nerijetko i samo – dizajnerima. Međutim, ponekad uopće ni ne navode da djeluju iz dizajnerske perspektive. Spekuliranjem, dizajneri promišljaju alternativne produkte, sustave i svjetove. Dizajner i nastavnik na RCA James Auger navodi da se ovakav dizajn( i ) odmiče od ograničenosti komercijalne prakse ( diktirane tržištem );( ii ) da koristi fikciju i spekulira o budućim proizvodima, uslugama, sustavima i svjetovima i tako refleksivno propituje ulogu i utjecaj novih tehnologija na svakodnevni život;( iii ) te da inicira dijalog između stručnjaka ( znanstvenika, inžinjera i dizajnera ) i korisnika novih tehnologija ( publike ).6 Dok tradicionalna dizajnerska praksa svojim djelovanjem zadržava i legitimira postojeće stanje, spekulativni dizajn predviđa i anticipira budućnost, ali u

tu

1. spekulativne budućnosti  →

2. alternativne sadašnjosti

slika 2  Alternativne sadašnjosti i spekulativne budućnosti ( Auger ). Sada i tu: svakodnevni život i stvarni proizvodi koji se mogu pronaći na tržištu. Što je viša linija, to je tehnologija više u porastu a sve je duži i manje predvidljiv put k svakodnevnom životu. Spekulativne budućnosti postoje kao projekcije linije u budućnosti. Alternativna sadašnjost predstavlja iskorak iz linije u nekoj točci u prošlosti, a kako bi se ponovno promislila tehnološka sadašnjost u kojoj se nalazimo.


design fiction is a potential genre of speculative design practice, and “critical design”, as defined by Dunne, is a possible approach. Speculative design is a discursive practice, based on critical thinking and dialogue, which questions the practice of design ( and its modernist definition ). However, the speculative design approach extends its critical practice one step further, towards imagination and visions of possible scenarios. Speculative design is also one of the most representative examples of the new interaction of disciplines. It is therefore interesting to see how new designers view their practice: they call themselves trans-disciplinary, post-disciplinary or even post-designers, quite often even simply – designers. However, occasionally they do not even indicate that their perspective is design at all. By speculating, designers re-think alternative products, systems and worlds. Designer and teacher at the RCA James Auger says that this design( i ) moves away from the constraints of commercial practice ( directed by the market );( ii ) use fiction and speculates on future products, services, systems and worlds, thus reflectively examining the role and impact of new technologies on everyday life;( iii ) and initiates a dialogue between experts ( scientists, engineers and designers ) and users of new technologies ( the audience ).6 Whereas traditional design legitimizes the status quo, speculative design envisages and anticipates the future, at the same time helping us to understand and re-think the world of today. This approach is most often based

→ n 

io

at

tic

es

m

do

technologies

now

here

1. speculative futures  →

2. alternative presents

fig. 2  Alternative presents and speculative futures ( Auger ). Here and now: everyday life and real products available on the market. The higher the line the more emergent the technology and the longer and less predictable its route to everyday life. Speculative futures exist as projections of the lineage in future. Alternative presents step out of the lineage at some time in the past to re-imagine our technological present.

13


14

isto vrijeme pomaže u razumijevanju i promišljanju današnjeg svijeta. Pristup se najčešće temelji na pitanju “što ako?” ( eng. what if? ), propitujući međuodnos potencijalnih promjena u tehnološkom razvoju i društvenih relacija. Ne radi se samo o budućnosti koju želimo, već i o onoj koja je i neželjena, koja je potencijalno moguća u izostanku kritičkog promišljanja uloge novih tehnologija u društvu. Ovakav dizajnerski pristup ne bavi se zadovoljavanjem sadašnjih i budućih potrošačkih potreba, već promišljanjem tehnološke budućnosti koja reflektira kompleksnost današnjeg svijeta. Spekulativna praksa otvara prostor za diskusije i promišljanja alternativnih mogućnosti i opcija, te otvara prostor za imaginaciju i redefiniranje samog odnosa sa stvarnošću. Kroz svoju imaginaciju i radikalni pristup, koristeći dizajn kao medij, tjera na razmišljanje, podiže svijest, propituje, provocira djelovanje, otvara rasprave, te može ponuditi alternative nužne današnjem svijetu. Spekulativne dizajnerske fikcije inspiraciju pronalaze u znanstvenoj fantastici, koja ima dugu povijest stvaranja imaginarnih scenarija, svjetova i likova s kojima se publika usko identificira. Imaginarni svjetovi su izniman izvor inspiracija dizajnerima u promišljanju budućnosti. Međutim, ovakvi pristupi spekulativnim fikcijama, primjerice kako ih, kroz dizajn fikcija, konceptualizira SF autor i futurist Bruce Sterling,7 često dolaze primarno iz tehnološke paradigme te umjesto da su kritični prema tehnološkom progresu, oni ga afirmiraju, a ne propituju. Stvaranjem imaginarnih svjetova, dizajniranjem fikcija, mi zapravo propitujemo svijet u kojem živimo – njegove vrijednosti, funkcije, njegov metabolizam, te očekivanja njegovih stanovnika. Dunne i Raby naglašavaju potencijal spekulativne dizajnerske prakse prema širim društvenim i političkim temama, kao što su primjerice demokracija ili održivost, ili alternativama postojećem kapitalističkom modelu.8 U ovom kontekstu, publicistkinja i aktivistkinja Naomi Klein upozorava na današnju dominaciju distopijskih scenarija u knjigama i filmovima, što dovodi do toga da ljudi katastrofične scenarije smatraju neizbježnim, te se pasiviziraju, umjesto da budu proaktivni.9 Stoga je važno naglasiti da namjera spekulativnih dizajnerskih fikcija nisu utopijske ili distopijske znanstveno-fantastične vizije budućnosti, već otvaranje dijaloga o tome kakva budućnost može biti. Primjerice, svojim eksplicitnim fokusom na budućnosti, spekulativni dizajnerski pristup nudi poticajan okvir promišljanju vizija umreženog grada budućnosti.10 11 Liam Young, spekulativni arhitekt koji za sebe kaže da djeluje u “prostoru između dizajna, fikcije i budućnosti”,12 govori o spekulativnim, fiktivnim gradovima budućnosti “kao polazištima za raspravu i razgovor, scenarijima koje ćemo voljeti ili mrziti, koji neće samo anticipirati, već oblikovati tehnološku budućnost kroz utjecaj scenarija na kolektivnu imaginaciju”.13 On ističe da “kroz provokaciju i scenarije spekulativni arhitekti iniciraju rasprave, otvaraju pitanja, te omogućavaju javnosti aktivnu ulogu u budućnosti gradova, te je približavaju tehnologijama koje sve više oblikuju našu urbanu stvarnost i znanstvenim istraživanjima koja radikalno mijenjaju naš svijet”.14


on the question “what if?”, questioning the interrelation between potential changes in the technological development and social relations. Rather than engaging only with a future that we desire, this approach also deals with the future we fear might come true if we fail to critically consider the role of new technologies in society. Such an approach to design does not deal with meeting current and future consumer needs, but with re-thinking a technological future that reflects the complexity of today's world. Speculative practice opens a space for discussing and considering alternative possibilities and options, and for imagining and redefining our relation to reality itself. Through its imagination and radical approach, by using design as a medium, it propels thinking, raises awareness, questions, provokes action, opens discussions, and can offer alternatives that are necessary in today's world. Speculative design fictions find their inspiration in science fiction, which has a long history of creating imaginary scenarios, worlds and characters with which audiences become closely identified. Imaginary worlds are an exceptional source of inspiration to designers in their re-thinking of the future. However, such approaches to speculative fiction, as conceptualized, for instance, by the science fiction author and futurist Bruce Sterling,7 are often part of the technological paradigm, and, as such, reaffirm the technological progress instead of questioning or being critical of it. Through the creation of imaginary worlds, and by designing fictions, we actually question the world we live in – its values, functions, its metabolism, as well as the expectations of its inhabitants. Dunne and Raby emphasize the potential of speculative design for largescale social and political issues, such as democracy or sustainability or for alternatives to the existing capitalist model.8 In this context, publicist and activist Naomi Klein warns us that the present domination of dystopian scenarios in books and films leads us to view catastrophic scenarios as unavoidable, thus making us passive rather than proactive.9 It should be kept in mind, therefore, that the purpose of speculative design fictions is not be utopian or dystopian science fiction visions of the future, but to engender dialogue on what the future can be. For instance, with its explicit focus on the future, the speculative design approach offers a stimulative framework for re-thinking visions of networked cities of the future.10 11 Liam Young, a speculative architect who says that his work lies in “a space between design, fiction and future”,12 sees speculative fictional cities of the future as a starting point for debate and discussion, scenarios that we will love or hate, which will “not just anticipate, but actively shape technological futures through their effects on collective imagination”.13 He points out that “cast as a provocateur and storyteller, the speculative architect instigates debate, raises questions and enables the public as active agents in the future of their cities, and bring us closer to the technologies that are increasingly shaping the urban realm and the scientific research that is radically changing our world”.14

15


— — Metodologija? Iako spekulativni pristup možemo prije svega gledati kao stav, tj. poziciju, a manje klasično definiranu metodologiju15, a posebno zbog toga što velik broj dizajnera koristi ovakav pristup iako ga tako i ne naziva, ipak možemo istaknuti određene specifičnosti pristupa i postaviti osnovne okvire djelovanja. Kako je spekulativni dizajn u kontinuiranoj interakciji s drugim povezanim praksama, područjima i disciplinama, on umjesto jedinstvene metodologije koristi one dostupne i prikladne u datom trenutku. Tako se, primjerice, legitimno koriste alati, tehnike, instrumenti, metode, žanrovi i koncepti kao što su fikcijski narativi, filmski jezik, scenarij, storyboard, testiranje korisnika, intervju / upitnici, igra, ali i fenomeni medijske i pop kulture, kao što su primjerice “skrivena kamera”, “elevator pitch”, “observational comedy”, “stand-up” i sl. Zapravo možemo reći da je sve ono što je prikladno u datom trenutku ujedno i legitimno. guće / ostvarivo mo

slika 3  Moguće, isplativo, poželjno ( definiranje ideje / koncepta kao proizvoda ) ( Near Future Laboratory ).

proizvod

ljn

o

la sp

po ž e

tivo

16

Svi proizvodi moraju biti prisutni u središtu kako bi bili održivi na širem tržištu. Spekulativni proizvodi i usluge ( uključujući sustave i svijetove ) mogu se fikcionalizirati kao da postoje u središtu.

i

Dizajnerska praksa utemeljena je na promatranju i razumijevanju svijeta oko nas, te svojim djelovanjem nastoji artikulirati naše potrebe, želje i očekivanja. Problem nastaje onda kad želimo proširiti horizonte promatranja s ciljem da bi se identificirale određene novonastale teme. Pitanje je kako započeti dizajnirati koncepte kada ne znamo kako će izgledati sam “dizajnerski prostor” ( eng. design space ), a kamoli tko će biti njegovi korisnici. Pristup i praksa spekulativnog dizajna izrazito je poticajna strategija istraživanja ‘prostora’ koji je smješten izvan onog ‘trenutnog’ i ‘sada’. Spekulativna praksa se na prvi pogled može čitati kao top-down pristup, koji postavlja dizajnera u centar procesa, tj. nudi njegovu osobnu viziju, bez uključenja ciljane publike. Međutim, ne zaboravimo da je jedan od temeljnih ciljeva spekulacija uključivanje javnosti u promišljanje i dijalog o novim tehnološkim stvarnostima i novim društvenim odnosima. Također, uspješan spekulativni projekt nužno je vezan uz istraživanje društvenog konteksta, te je temeljno usmjeren prema pojedincu, njegovim potrebama i željama.


— — Methodology? Although the speculative approach to design can primarily be seen as an attitude or position rather than a traditionally defined methodology15, especially since many designers practice the approach without using this term for it, we can still point out some distinctive characteristic of the approach and determine a basic framework. Since speculative design continuously interacts with other related practices, fields and disciplines, it uses any methodology that is accessible and appropriate at any given moment. For instance, it legitimately uses tools, techniques, instruments, methods, genres and concepts such as the, fictional narratives, film language, screenplay, storyboard, user testing, interviews / questionnaires, games, but also media and pop culture phenomena, such as the hidden camera, elevator pitch, observational comedy, stand-up, etc. Anything considered suitable at a given moment is legitimate.

sible / buildable po s

slika 3  Possible, Profitable, Desirable ( defining an idea / concept as a product ) ( Near Future Laboratory ). All product must exist in the center in order to be viable in general marketplace. Speculative products and services ( including systems and worlds ) can be fictionalized as existing in the center.

e

b fita ro

desi rab l

le

product

p

Design is based on the observation and understanding of the world around us, and by practicing it we endeavour to articulate our needs, desires and expectations. The problem arises when we want to expand the horizon of our observation in order to identify emergent themes. The question is how to begin with the design of concepts when we do not know what the design space itself will look like, let alone who its users will be. The approach and practice of speculative design is a particularly stimulative strategy for researching the ‘space’ that lies beyond ‘current’ and the ‘now’. Speculative practice may seem as a top-down approach at first glance, placing the designer at the centre of the process, offering her personal vision, without involving the target audience. However, let's keep in mind that one of the main goals of speculation is the inclusion of the public in the re-thinking and dialogue on new technological realities and new social relations. Also, a successful speculative project is necessarily connected to the research of a social context, and is fundamentally directed towards the individual needs and desires.

17


mog uć e

  “wild card” scenarij

•  danas  ———  vrijeme  →

 scenarij

prihvat

ljiv

o vjerojatno preferirano

slika 4  Stožac budućnosti ( Voros via Dunne i Raby, via Revell ). Dijagram potencijalnih budućnosti ( PPPP ). Vjerojatno: tradicionalni prostor dizajna. Prihvatljivo: alternativne budućnosti, povezane s današnjim svijetom. Moguće: uključuje sve ekstremne znanstveno moguće scenarije. Preferirano: primjena spekulativnog dizajna u raspravi što je to i kakva je željena budućnosti. Prostor izvan stošca: prostor fantazija. “Wild card” scenariji: imaju malu vjerojatnost, ali veliki utjecaj – pomoć pri promišljanju i raspravi, nude veći broj mogućnosti.

18

Praksa pokazuje da spekulativni pristup ima potencijal u multidisciplinarnim timovima, gdje inicira dijaloge te generira kontekst u kojem sudionici mogu u isto vrijeme preispitivati granice svojih disciplina i otkrivati poveznice s ostalim disciplinama.16 Proces se može podijeliti u nekoliko koraka: prvo se kroz kritičko dizajnersko istraživanje pronalazi i definira dizajnerski prostor, zatim se generiraju spekulativni koncepti i ideje, koji se dalje razrađuju, te na kraju artikuliraju u oblike pogodne za komuniciranje. Spekulativni pristup također koristi i metode suvremene umjetnosti, međutim za razliku od umjetnosti, usko je vezan sa stvarnim svijetom u kojem živimo, te nije odvojen od stvarnosti. Publicist i kritičar Rick Poynor navodi da se za razliku od umjetničkog, dizajnerski rad ne proglašava apriori umjetničkom maštarijom i ignorira od strane tvrtki, institucija i politike.17 Također je značajno da, za razliku od umjetničke prakse, dizajn koristi jezik prepoznatljiv širokoj publici, te da ne ostaje u galerijama i salonima. Dizajn je i u bliskom dodiru s novim tehnologijama, ali i potrošačkim društvom, popularnim medijima i pop kulturom, stoga danas i ima značajan medijski i društveni utjecaj. Spekulativna praksa vezana je za dva osnovna koncepta, jedan se odnosi na spekuliranje o mogućim budućnostima, a drugi na dizajniranje alternativnih sadašnjosti. Spekuliranje o budućnosti generira scenarije budućnosti koji kritički propituju razvoj, implementacije i korištenja novih tehnologija i njihove šire društvene konzekvence. Koncept alternativne sadašnjosti se odnosi na stvaranje paralelnih urbanih tehnoloških stvarnosti. Ovi specifični pristupi nude bogat narativni potencijal za propitkivanje i kritiku tehnološkog razvoja, ali i suvremenog


pos sib l

•  today  ———  time  →

 scenario

plausab le

  wild card scenario

e

probable preferable

fig. 4  The Future Cone ( Voros via Dunne and Raby, via Revell ). A diagram of potential futures ( PPPP ). Probable: traditional design space. Plausibile: alternative futures, linked with the today’s world. Possible: includes all extreme scientifically possible scenarios. Preferable: using speculative design to debate and discuss what is the preferable future. Beyond cone: fantasy. Wild card scenarios: low-probability and high-impact – to think about and discuss a much wider set of possibilities.

The practice demonstrates that the speculative approach has potential in multidisciplinary teams, where it initiates dialogue and generates a context in which the participants can simultaneously re-examine the boundaries of their disciplines and discover links with other disciplines.16 The process can be split in a few steps: the first one implies critical design research to define a design space. After this, speculative concepts and ideas are generated and further developed to finally articulate forms which are suitable for communication. The speculative approach also uses methods of contemporary art, but as opposed to art, is closely related to the real world that we live in, and is not separated from reality. Publicist and critic Rick Poynor points out that, as opposed to artistic practices, design is not declared an artistic fantasy out of hand, and ignored by companies, institutions and policymakers.17 It is also significant that, as opposed to artistic practice, design uses a language recognizable to a wider audience, and is not confined to galleries and salons. Design is also in close contact with new technologies and the consumer society, popular media and pop culture, which is why today it boasts a significant media and social impact. Speculative practice is related to two basic concepts: speculation on possible futures and the design of an alternative present. Speculation on the future generates scenarios of the future that critically question the concept of development, the implementation and use of new technologies and their wider social implications. The concept of an alternative present refers to the creation of parallel urban technological realities. These specific approaches offer a rich narrative potential for the questioning and criticism of technological development, but

19


slika / fig. 5  Aural Fixation ( City | Data| Future Exhibition, 2014 ) . Fikcijski produkt / rekvizit kao rezultat dizajnerskog procesa Fictional product / props as delivery.

20

društva općenito. Teme kojima se bave spekulacije mogu biti iznimno široke, od velikih socio-političkih tema do običnih svakodnevnih aktivnosti. Spekulativne fikcije ne postoje isključivo u futurističkom vakuumu, jer prošlost ( tj. sadašnjost u kojoj živimo ) temeljno utječe na našu dizajnersku viziju budućnosti. Za razliku od otvorene forme znanstvene fantastike, kod spekulativnih fikcija značajno je da postoji poveznica sadašnjosti i imaginarne budućnosti.18 Stoga, kad promišljamo o budućnosti, nužno je potrebno promisliti o tehnologijama i društvenim odnosima koji mogu nastati iz trenutnog svijeta u kojem živimo. Potrebno je dovesti u pitanje pretpostavke i predrasude o ulozi koju proizvodi i usluge imaju u svakodnevnom životu. Ekstenzija svakodnevnog u budućnost ono je što spekulativnu dizajnersku fikciju čini moćnom i iznimno zanimljivom. Dunne naglašava da se ovdje radi o dizajnerskim procesima koji se primarno bave dizajnom odnosa, a ne samih stvari.19 Stoga spekulativna dizajnerska praksa kao rezultat procesa može ponuditi nove spekulativne proizvode i usluge, ali i nove društvene i političke sustave ( svjetove ). Međutim, uspjeh i utjecaj spekulativnog pristupa u percepciji ciljane publike ovisi prije svega o uvjerljivosti dizajniranih artefakata i potencijalnih scenarija budućnosti. Koncepti se materijaliziraju i komuniciraju u formi narativnih ili dokumentarnih video i filmskih fikcija, proizvoda ( prototipova ), programskih aplikacija, instrukcijskih videa, korisničkih priručnika, grafova / dijagrama, televizijskih vijesti, modnih dodataka i sl. Spekulativna praksa crpi inspiraciju iz poetike književnosti, glazbe, likovne umjetnosti, filma, računalne grafike i arhitekture, posebno u njihovim avangardnim pokretima. Pričanje priča ima značajnu snagu i duboku tradiciju u ljudskoj povijesti u poticanju rasprave i kritičkog razmišljanja. Spekulativni scenariji su otvoreni i nude publici mogućnost osobne interpretacije. Oni često uključuju humor, često onaj crni, blizak satiri, koji na emocionalnoj i intelektualnoj razini aktivira publiku, kao i kod književnosti i filma. Spekulativni scenariji su često neobični, čudni, ponekad i uznemirujući, ali poželjni publici na privlačan način. Međutim, samo oni koncepti koji su uvjerljivo komunicirani izazivaju pozornost, emocije, te potiču na promišljanje i raspravu, što je i temeljni cilj spekulativne prakse.


also of contemporary society as such. The issues dealt with can be exceptionally broad, from big socio-political topics to ordinary everyday activities. Speculative fictions do not exist solely in a futurist vacuum, because the past ( i.e. the present we live in ) fundamentally impacts our designed vision of the future. As opposed to the open form of science fiction, in speculative fiction there is a link between the present and the imaginary future.18 Therefore, when re-thinking the future we must think about technologies and social relations that can emerge from the current world we live in. We must bring into question the assumptions and prejudice we have about the role of products and services in everyday life. The extension of the everyday into the future is what makes speculative design fiction powerful and profoundly intriguing. Dunne emphasizes that these design processes primarily deal with designing relations, rather then objects themselves.19 This is why speculative design can, as a result of such processes, offer new speculative products and services, even new social and political systems ( worlds ). However, the success and impact of a speculative approach, as perceived by the target audience, primarily depends on the believability of the designed artefacts and potential scenarios of the future. The concepts materialize and communicate in the form of narrative or documentary video and film fictions, products ( prototypes ), software applications, instructional videos, user manuals, graphs / diagrams, TV news reports, fashion accessories, etc. Speculative practice draws inspiration from the poetics of literature, music, visual arts, film, computer graphics and architecture, especially in their avant-garde forms. Storytelling has considerable power and a deep-running tradition in human history in stimulating discussions and critical thinking. Speculative scenarios are open-ended and offer the audience the possibility of personal interpretation. They frequently include humour, often of the dark variety, close to satire, which activates the audience on an emotional and intellectual level, in a way similar to literature and film. Speculative scenarios are often unusual, curious, occasionally even disturbing, but desirable and attractive to the audience. However, only concepts that successfully communicate with the suspension of disbelief, actually provoke attention, emotions, and stimulate thinking and discussion, which, after all, is the main goal of speculative practice.

21


A

B

Afirmativno

Kritičko

Rješavanje problema

Pronalaženje problema

Nudi odgovore

Postavlja pitanja

Dizajn za proizvodnju

Dizajn za raspravu

Dizajn kao rješenje

Dizajn kao medij

U službi industrije

U službi društva

Fikcijske funkcije

Funkcionalne fikcije

Za ono kakav svijet jest

Za ono kakav bi svijet mogao biti

Promijeniti svijet kako bi odgovarao našim potrebama

Promijeniti naše ponašanje kako bi odgovaralo svijetu

Znanstvena fantastika

Društvena fikcija

Budućnosti

Paralelni svijetovi

“Stvarna” stvarnost

“Nestvarna stvarnost”

Narativi proizvodnje

Narativi potrošnje

Aplikacije

Implikacije

Zabava

Humor

Inovacija

Provokacija

Dizajn koncepta

Konceptualni dizajn

Potrošač

Građanin

Navodi nas na kupnju

Navodi nas na razmišljanje

Ergonomija

Retorika

Upotrebljivost

Etika

Proces

Autorstvo

slika 6 A / B , manifest ( Dunne i Raby ). Kritički dizajn ( b ) vs Tradicionalni dizajn ( a ) .


A

B

Affirmative

Critical

Problem solving

Problem finding

Provides answers

Ask questions

Design for production

Design for debate

Design as solution

Design as medium

In the service of industry

In the service of society

Fictional functions

Functional fictions

For how the world is

For how the world could be

Change the world to suit us

Change us to suit the world

Science Fiction

Social fiction

Futures

Parallel worlds

The “real” real

The “unreal” real

Narratives of production

Narratives of consumption

Applications

Implications

Fun

Humor

Innovation

Provocation

Concept design

Conceptual design

Consumer

Citizen

Makes us buy

Makes us think

Ergonomics

Rhetoric

User-friendliness

Ethics

Process

Authorship

fig. 6 A / B , A Manifesto ( Dunne and Raby ). Critical design ( b ) vs Traditional design ( a ) .


Nazivam se dizajnerom: i to transdisciplinarnim, kako bih naznačio da ne proizvodim samo jednu stvar ili jednu vrstu stvari. —— Liam Healy


I call myself a designer. Trans-disciplinary, to denote that I don’t just produce one thing or type of thing.

—— Liam Healy


“Što ako?” – dvije-tri bilješke o spekulaciji —— Marko Golub

26

Ponajprije zahvaljujući različitim aktivnostima u sklopu Odsjeka za dizajn vizualnih komunikacija Umjetničke akademije Sveučilišta u Splitu ( DVK UMAS ), u hrvatskoj formalnoj visokoškolskoj dizajnerskoj edukaciji pojmovi i metodologije kao što su kritički dizajn ( u smislu u kojem ga populizira Anthony Dunne krajem 90-ih i početkom 2000-ih. ), dizajn interakcija, dizajn fikcija i konačno spekulativni dizajn, pojavili su se pravovremeno, ili barem bez većeg zaostatka za svijetom. Štoviše, kroz seriju radionica Interakcije, a recentnije i kroz međunarodni projekt UrbanIxD, ova se škola uspjela umrežiti s nekima od važnijih predstavnika i zagovaratelja navedenih praksi s europskih i svjetskih sveučilišta, posredno učeći iz njihovih primjera i pritom stalno ažurirajući i osuvremenjujući metodologije i diskurs kojim operira. Nije stoga čudno da su se u relativno kratkom vremenskom rasponu naizmjenično, ili čak simultano, koristili svi ovi spomenuti termini između kojih nije baš jednostavno pronaći linearne i jednosmjerne hijerarhijske odnose. Pojam “spekulativni dizajn” poslužio je kao glavni orijentir za ovogodišnje izdanje radionica Interakcije, a ujedno je i primijenjen u interpretaciji projekta / instalacije Eutropija čija je izložba u HDD galeriji bila povod za izdavanje ove knjižice.


“What if?” – Two or Three Notes on Speculation —— Marko Golub

27 slika / fig. 7  Splitopia ( Interakcije, 2012 ). Instrukcijski video kao rezultat dizajnerskog procesa  / Instructional video as delivery.

Mostly owing to diverse activities organized in the framework of the Visual Communications Design Department at the Arts Academy in Split ( DVK UMAS ), terms and methodology related to critical design (in the sense popularized by Anthony Dunne in the late 90's and early 00's), design fiction and, finally, speculative design, have appeared in Croatian formal higher education in the field of design at an appropriate time or, at least, without considerable delay. Moreover, through a series of workshops named Interactions and, more recently, also through the international UrbanIxD project, this school managed to network with some of the most important representatives and advocates of the above mentioned practices from various European and international universities, indirectly learning from their experience and at the same time persistently updating and modernizing its operating methodologies and discourse. Therefore, it is no surprise that in a relatively short period of time those terms have been used alternatively or even simultaneously, despite the fact that it is not really easy to find linear or one-way hierarchical relations between them. The term “speculative design” served as the main orientation for this year's edition of the Interactions workshops. At the same time, it has been used for


slika / fig. 8  The Future Cloud is Burried ( City | Data| Future Exhibition, 2014 ) . Maketa kao rezultat dizajnerskog procesa / Model as delivery.

28

“Spekulativno” doista nosi sa sobom s jedne strane relativno širok spektar konotacija, a s druge i određenu preciznost, pa i isključivost u vlastitoj kontekstualizaciji. Već u svom osnovnom značenju, taj pojam u okviru promišljanja dizajna kao prakse nedvosmisleno apostrofira njegovu djelatnu propitivalačku, intelektualnu, diskurzivnu dimenziju, čime je direktno povezan s pojmom kritičkog dizajna. Ništa manje važan aspekt je onaj koji proizlazi iz filmske i književne tradicije tzv. spekulativne fikcije, čiji kapacitet zamišljanja svjetova kakvi bi “mogli biti”, dijeli s idejom takozvanog “dizajna fikcija”. I konačno, sama praksa dizajnerskog “spekuliranja” gotovo je neizbježno inspirirana mogućnostima određenih otklona, šumova i stavljanja van ravnoteže dinamičnih relacija između društva, tehnologije i ljudi, čime dijeli isti fokus s dizajnom interakcija. Na prvi pogled može se činiti kako je riječ samo o otvaranju još jedne niše za novu vrstu specijalizacije, ili još gore, o zatvaranju dizajnerske prakse i diskursa o dizajnu u još dublji, hermetičniji, ekskluzivniji dizajnerski meta-jezik, ali zasad se, srećom, čini da nije tako. Budući da nije usmjeren na masovnu proizvodnju stvarnih, fizičkih proizvoda, nego tek eventualno na razmatranje uvjeta u kojima bi takvi proizvodi ušli u našu svakodnevicu i posljedica koje bi na nju imali, spekulativni dizajn nerijetko se služi narativnim mogućnostima videa, filma, televizijske reportaže i općenito masovnih medija. Naime, prototipovi spekulativnog dizajna ( ili prototipovi predmeta nastalih spekulativnim pristupom ) izrazito su međuovisni sa zamišljenim kontekstom za koji su dizajnirani, te stoga, da bi bili razumljivi, zahtijevaju da se njihova priča ispriča što jasnije, što razumljivije, što bliže našem svakodnevnom iskustvu. Samim tim, spekulativni dizajn u popularnoj kulturi nalazi svoje prirodno okruženje, a jezik kojim govori nekako nam je čudno blizak, bilo da smo odrastali uz Zonu sumraka ( The Twilight Zone, 1959. – 2003. ) ili uz Crno ogledalo ( Black Mirror, 2011.— ), dva fenomenalna primjera spekulativne fikcije koji pripadaju čistom mainstreamu. Black Mirror posebno je zanimljiv utoliko što svoja polazišta u gotovo svakoj epizodi temelji na potpuno istim principima kao i spekulativni dizajn, štoviše,


the interpretation of the project / installation titled Eutropia, the exhibition of which at the CDS Gallery lead to publication of this booklet. On the one hand, “speculative” really implies a relatively broad scope of connotations, and on the other, it also implies a kind of precision and even exclusiveness of its own contextualisation. In its basic meaning, in the context of analysing design as a practice, this term unambiguously highlights its active analytical, intellectual and discursive dimension, which is a direct link to the notion of critical design. Another important aspect results from film and literature traditions of socalled speculative fiction whose capacity to imagine possible realms is shared with the idea of so-called design fiction. And finally, the very practice of “speculation” in design is almost unavoidably inspired by possibilities of certain variance, noise and unbalance of the dynamic relations between societies, technologies and humans, where it shares the same focus with interaction design. At the first glance, one might think that this implies nothing but opening another niche for a new type of specialization, worse still, binding the design practice and discourse to an even deeper, more hermetical and exclusive design meta-language; however, for the time being it seems that this is luckily not the case. Since it is not oriented only to mass production of real physical products but rather to an opportunity to re-think conditions in which such products might become part of our everyday lives and the resulting consequences / implications, speculative design often uses narrative techniques found in video, film, television or the mass media in general. Namely, speculative design prototypes ( or prototypes that emerged as the result of speculative approach ) are extremely interdependent with the imagined context for which they have been initially designed, and therefore, to become understandable, they require their story to be told in a clear and intelligible manner that is closest to our everyday experience. Consequently, speculative design finds its natural environment in popular culture, and the language it uses seems to be strangely familiar, no matter whether we grew up watching The Twilight Zone ( 1959 – 2003 ) or Black Mirror ( TV series, 2011— ), the two superb examples of speculative fiction that belong to pure mainstream. Black Mirror is especially interesting because it bases almost every episode on the same principles as speculative design; nevertheless, designed fictional objects for everyday use, interfaces, technical artefacts and scenarios are very often the central part of the plot, i.e. in the episode titled The Entire History of You, such object is an implant allowing its user to ‘rewind-fast-forward’ his or her previous experiences, whereas in White Christmas there is a device providing the experience of expanded reality where it is possible to ‘block’ certain individuals from one's environment, similarly to blocking on social networks; in Fifteen Million Merits we see a dystopian world where systems of labour and leisure, virtual economy, social media and reality television as we know today get prearranged in their creepiest possible perversion. The power of speculative design is very close

29


30

dizajnirani fiktivni upotrebni predmeti, sučelja, tehnološki artefakti i scenariji u njemu su nerijetko u samom središtu priče. U epizodi The entire history of you, to je implantat koji omogućava korisniku da po želji ‘premotava’ sve čemu je prethodno svjedočio; u White Christmas riječ je pak o uređaju koji omogućava iskustvo proširene stvarnosti u kojoj je određene osobe iz svoje okoline moguće ‘blokirati’ kao na društvenim mrežama; dok smo u Fifteen million Merits suočeni s distopijskim svijetom u kojem su se sustavi rada i dokolice, virtualne ekonomije, društvenih mreža i reality televizije kakve već danas poznajemo – prearanžirali u najjeziviju zamislivu perverziju sebe samih. Snaga spekulativnog dizajna bliska je sugestivnoj moći ovih bizarnih satiričkih pripovijesti utoliko što se bavi scenarijima koji su, iz današnje perspektive, ne samo zamislivi, nego kao da već jesu tu. Bez obzira jesu li izmješteni u blisku budućnost ili su tu ‘sa strane’ u alternativnoj sadašnjosti, oni nam govore o nama samima sada i ovdje, o tehnologiji koju koristimo i načinu na koji ona utječe na društvo i na naš svakodnevni život, o ulozi koju dizajn može igrati u takvom kontekstu, ne nužno tim redoslijedom. Od lokalnih referenci, iako ne u području dizajna, nego suvremene umjetnosti, ovdje svakako vrijedi izdvojiti tri projekta Andreje Kulunčić nastala kasnih devedesetih i ranih 2000-ih godina. Kao jedna od prvih autorica koje su za galerijski i muzejski kontekst realizirale kompleksne online projekte interaktivnog tipa, ova umjetnica je već u svojim prvim zapaženim radovima primijenila upravo spekulativni pristup. Rad Zatvorena zbilja: Embryo20 ( 1998. – 2000. ) oslanjao se na online platformu koja je davala korisnicima u ruke fiktivni scenarij koji im je omogućavao da zajednički ( u paru ) genetskim inženjeringom po želji, do u detalje, dizajniraju vlastitog potomka. Iza te naizgled bezazlene igre stajala je, međutim, puno ozbiljnija priča koja se rastvorila naknadno

slika / fig. 9  CUBA ( City | Data| Future Exhibition, 2014 ) . Aplikacija kao rezultat dizajnerskog procesa / App as delivery.


to the suggestive power of those bizarre satirical stories in as much as it deals with scenarios which are, from our perspective, not only imaginable, but they seem to have already been present. Whether they are displaced in the near future or they exist on the ‘side’ within an alternate present, they can tell us something about ourselves here and now, about the technology we use and the way the technology influences the society and our everyday lives, and about the role that design can play in that context and not necessarily in this order. From local reference works, although outside of the scope of design and rather in the domain of contemporary art, there are three projects by Andreja Kulunčić dating back to the late 1990s and early 2000s that deserve our attention. As one of the first Croatian artists to create complex online interactive slika / fig. 10 It's a plastic world ( Interakcije, 2015 ). Televizijske vijesti kao rezultat dizajnerskog procesa / TV news report as delivery.

31

projects inside galleries and museums, Kulunčić started using the speculative approach in some of her earliest works recognized by the public. Her work titled Closed Reality: Embryo20 ( 1998 – 2000 ) relied on an online platform providing fictional scenarios allowing joint ( in pairs ) genetic engineering in line with individual preferences and detailed instructions on how to design a child. However, behind this seemingly naïve game there was a much more serious story that opened subsequently: users were able to create the new fictional population based on personal wishes, preferences and projections thus producing one of the possible samples for a future society, and finally, opening a whole set of very uncomfortable ethical, political and social issues. Soon after this project, the author realized the work titled Distributive Justice21 ( 2001 ), which allowed its user to take a step forward and project what he or she believes is a just distribution of social goods or a ‘just’ and ‘healthy’ society. Alongside the artist, there was a multidisciplinary team of experts from social, humanistic and technical sciences behind both projects, which also included a detailed programme with many workshops, lectures, discussions, etc.


32

– korisnici su stvorili čitavu novu fiktivnu populaciju baziranu na vlastitim željama, preferencijama i projekcijama i time praktički proizveli jedan od mogućih uzoraka društva budućnosti, te u konačnici – otvorili gomilu nezgodnih etičkih, političkih i društvenih pitanja. Ubrzo nakon toga ista autorica realizirala je i rad Distributivna pravda21 ( 2001. ), koji je korisniku omogućavao da ode još korak dalje i projektira ono što on osobno smatra pravednom raspodjelom društvenih dobara, odnosno ‘pravednim’ i ‘zdravim’ društvom. Iza oba projekta stajao je, osim same umjetnice, čitav multidisciplinarni tim stručnjaka iz društvenih, humanističkih i tehničkih znanosti, a uključivali su i detaljno osmišljen program radionica, predavanja, diskusija i slično. Mnoge druge aktivnosti na lokalnoj sceni mogu se retrogradno zabilježiti kao bliske spekulativnom pristupu, poput čitavog niza gostovanja i produkcija radova u sklopu različitih izložbi, festivala i drugih događanja u organizaciji Biroa suvremene umjetničke prakse Kontejner, ili pak nekoliko projekata dizajnerice Line Kovačević kao što su Set za romantičnu online večeru i Future artefacts22 koji kroz dizajn artefakata rekombiniraju konvencionalne scenarije iz svakodnevice, stvarajući svojevrstan hibrid između prošlosti, sadašnjosti i budućnosti. Današnji spekulativni dizajneri pozvat će se dakako s pravom i na nasljeđe avangardi i neoavangardi dvadesetog stoljeća, modernistički projekt, različite utopističke vizije i projekcije arhitekata, umjetnika i dizajnera u blisku, obično bolju budućnost. Kontekst je, naravno, nesumnjivo drugačiji, uskogrudniji, ciničniji, manje optimističan, u nemogućnosti da zamisli ikakve alternative postojećem stanju stvari, a sam je dizajn unutar njega gotovo isključivo okrenut rješavanju pragmatičnih zahtjeva naručitelja. Upravo se na ovo ne tako davno pokušao osvrnuti Zgraf 11 ( 2012. ) pod teoretičarskim natuknicama Dejana Kršića i znakovitim naslovom Danas je jučer bila budućnost.23 Praksa spekulativnog dizajna, čini se, zasad nema bezrezervni globalni vizionarski žar svojih prethodnika, ali ima, u samoj svojoj jezgri, klicu zamišljanja alternativa, zamišljanja stvarnosti i društava koja su drugačija – bolja ili još gora od ovog. Dizajnerima ona omogućava, štoviše po svojoj spekulativnoj logici prisiljava ih, da sagledaju širu sliku stvari, odnosno da načas vide svoju profesiju u širem kontekstu nego što je to uobičajeno. ‘Korisnicima’ ili ‘publici’ omogućava, pak, da ‘kušaju’ takvu stvarnost prije nego što će je prihvatiti kao svoju, ili s užasom odbaciti.


Many other activities on the local scene can be retrospectively marked as close to the speculative approach, such as guest visits and production of works for a host of various exhibitions, festivals and other similar events organized by the Bureau of Contemporary Art Practice – Kontejner, or several projects by the designer Lina Kovačević, such as A Set for Romantic Online Dinner and Future Artefacts22, which use artefact design to recombine conventional everyday scenarios creating a kind of hybrid between the past, present and future. Today's speculative designers would rightfully, of course, make a reference to the heritage of avant-garde and neo-avant-garde of the 20th century, modernism, various utopian visions and projections of close and usually better future by various architects, artists and designers. Of course, the context is different, more limited and cynical and less optimistic, unable to imagine any alternatives to the existing state of affairs whereas design itself remains almost entirely oriented to finding pragmatic solutions for a client's requests. This phenomenon was in the focus of rather recent edition of Zgraf 11 ( 2012 ) following Dejan Kršić's theoretical guidelines, appropriately titled This used to be the Future.23 It seems that the speculative design practice for the time being does not have an unreserved global visionary zest in its core, but it does have a seed of imagining the alternatives – realities and societies which are different from the existing ones, for better or worse. It allows designers, or rather, in line with its speculative logic, it forces them to look at the broader picture or to get a broader perspective of their profession than they usually tend to do. On the other hand, ‘users’ or ‘the public’ gets an opportunity to ‘taste’ that kind of reality before embracing it as their own or deciding to renounce it to their dismay.

33


Recimo da postoje dva glavna područja u kojima praksa spekulativnog dizajna ima potencijala u kontekstu zarađivanja za život. Prvi bi bio primjena spekulativnog dizajna zajedno s aktualnim shvaćanjem tehnologije, društvenih utjecaja i aplikacija u bliskoj budućnosti, u radu s velikim tehnološkim kompanijama ili znanstvenim institucijama s vrhunskim stručnjacima. Unutar ovog područja trenutačno postoji potreba da se široj publici pomogne vizualizirati, zamisliti i prenijeti potencijal budućih tehnologija te da se promoviraju specifični načini razmišljanja o tome kako bi “budućnost” mogla izgledati, funkcionirati ili kako bismo je mogli doživljavati. Drugi put, put koji sam ja odabrao, jest da se upotrijebi sličan interes za stvaranje umjetničkih radova, intervencija i obrazovnih projekata koji nastoje propitkivati i raspravljati, a da pritom u konačnici ne pokušavaju promicati bilo koju tvrtku, brand ili ideologiju. —— Nicholas Mortimer: Živjeti od spekulativnog dizajna


There are seemingly two major approaches in which the field of speculative design could potentially lead in the context of making a living. The first would be to apply speculative design with an up to date understanding of technology, social impacts and near future applications and work with a large technology company, or think tank agency. Within this field of work there is currently a drive to help visualise, imagine, and convey the potential of future tech to a wider audience – and to advertise specific ways of thinking about how “the future” may look, feel or operate. The other route, and the route that I have chosen, is to use a similar interest and output to form artworks, interventions and educational projects that seek to question and debate, without ultimately trying to promote any company, brand or ideology.

—— Nicholas Mortimer: Making a living out of speculative design


Intervjui Anthony Dunne je voditelj studijskog programa Design Interactions pri Royal College of Art. Također je i partner u dizajnerskom studiju Dunne & Raby. Koristi se dizajnom kao medijem za poticanje rasprava o društvenim, kulturnim i etičkim implikacijama postojećih i novih tehnologija. James Auger je dizajner, edukator i istraživač. U središtu njegova istraživanja je proučavanje ljudske interakcije posredovane tehnologijom temeljeno na dizajnu. Od 2005. godine podučava i nastavlja istraživati u sklopu studijskog programa Design Interactions pri Royal College of Art. Nicolas Nova je publicist, etnograf i konzultant za Near Future Laboratory te kustos niza međunarodnih konferencija i radionica o digitalnoj kulturi i inovacijama pod nazivom Lift Conference. Tobias Revell je umjetnik, dizajner i edukator. U svom radu bavi se sustavima povezanima s tehnološkim promjenama te budućnošću gospodarstva i politike. 36 Dionysia Mylonaki je dizajnerica i umjetnica koja proučava optimizaciju čovjeka kao društvenog bića pomoću tehnologije i ulogu popularnih tehnologija u razvoju društvenih sustava. Liam Healy je freelance transdisciplinarni dizajner. Koristi se dizajnom za široki spektar projekata i ishoda. Trenutno istražuje dizajn za smak svijeta. Tuur van Balen radi sa Revital Cohen. U svome se radu bave značenjem materijala i proizvodnje u širem smislu. Njihov studio eksperimentira koristeći se dizajnom kao medijem, pri čemu rekonfiguriraju procese, sustave i organizme kako bi propitkivali kontekste u kojima oni djeluju. Nicholas Mortimer spaja kulturologiju i studije medija s tehnologijom, povijesnim istraživanjima i teorijom kako bi istražio odnose između percepcije stvarnosti, sustava kontrole i nejasnih granica između stvarnosti i fikcije. Michael Smyth je istraživač i edukator koji radi na razvoju dizajna interakcija u urbanom okruženju. Od 1987. godine aktivan je na području interakcije čovjeka i računala te dizajna interakcija. Jedan je od urednika knjige pod nazivom Digital Blur: kreativna praksa na granicama arhitekture, dizajna i umjetnosti.


Interviews Anthony Dunne is Head of the Design Interactions programme at the Royal College of Art. He is a partner in the Dunne & Raby design practice. He uses design as a medium to stimulate discussion and debate about the social, cultural, and ethical implications of existing and emerging technologies. James Auger is a designer, educator and researcher. The main focus of his research is a design-based investigation into technology-mediated human interaction. Since 2005, he has been teaching and continuing his research in the Design Interactions programme at the Royal College of Art. Nicolas Nova is a writer, ethnographer, and consultant at the Near Future Laboratory. He is the curator for Lift Conference, a series of international events about digital culture and innovation. Tobias Revell is an artist, designer and educator. His work looks at systems around technological change as well as the future of economics and politics. 37 Dionysia Mylonaki is a designer and artist that explores the optimisation of the human as a social species through technology and the role of the popular technologies in the development of social systems. Liam Healy is a freelance trans-disciplinary designer. He uses design for a wide range of projects and outcomes. He is currently researching design for the end of the world. Tuur van Balen works with Revital Cohen. Their work is preoccupied with broad meanings of materials and production. Their practice experiments with the use of design as a medium, reconfiguring processes, systems, and organisms in order to question the context in which they operate. Nicholas Mortimer brings together cultural studies of media and technology, historical research, and theory to explore relations between perceptions of reality, systems of control, and the blurred boundaries of fact and fiction. Michael Smyth is a researcher and educator, working on the development of urban interaction design. He has been active in the fields of human computer interaction and interaction design since 1987. He is the co-editor of the book entitled Digital Blur: Creative Practice at the Boundaries of Architecture, Design and Art.


——

Gdje biste smjestili svoj rad u kontekstu suvremene dizajnerske i umjetničke prakse?

JA: Danas se pojavljuju ponešto drukčiji oblici dizajna, konceptualniji i eksperimentalniji. Dizajn koji se odmiče komercijalnog svijeta gdje nismo sputani i ograničeni pravilima, propisima ili konzervativnom naravi uobičajenog dizajnerskog promišljanja. Razbijanje tih kontekstualnih lanaca omogućuje nam da uistinu oslobodimo imaginaciju, kao i da ponovno promislimo i dovedemo u pitanje kakve stvari jesu i kakve bi mogle biti. Radim unutar tog okvira, prilično novog oblika konceptualnog dizajna. NN: Zbog svog zanimanja za dizajn fikcija, zainteresiran sam za dodirne točke u kojima se susreću dizajn i umjetnost. Drugim riječima, intrigira me što kreativne prakse omogućavaju spekuliranje o novim idejama izradom prototipova i pričanjem priča, što mogu pomoći pri dizajniranju, propitivanju i razumijevanju spekulativnih budućih stvarnosti.

38

TR: Bavim se ‘budućnostima’ kroz različite discipline. Radim u akademskoj zajednici, bavim se dizajnom, korporativnim predviđanjem, te kao aktivni umjetnik s ‘javnošću’. To su četiri međusobno vrlo različita područja s nizom rezultirajućih formi, medija i publika, no s jedinstvenim inputom, te se često nadograđuju na iste ideje, teorije, dizajn i osobnosti. Trudim se djelovati u svim tim područjima. To podrazumijeva upotrebu širokog spektra medija i promišljanje o tome kako tehnike koje u nekom području jako dobro funkcioniraju povezati s ostalim područjima. DM: U nedostatku boljeg izraza nazivam se umjetnicom i dizajnericom, iako se ni u kojoj od tih uloga ne osjećam previše udobno. U svom radu istražujem ulogu koju popularne tehnologije imaju u razvoju naših društvenih sustava. Da bih u tome uspjela, stvaram participativna iskustva, koja za cilj imaju izazvati kod sudionika neku vrstu bihevioralne ili verbalne ‘ispovijedi’. Svoje djelovanje vidim kao alat koji nas tjera da otkrijemo jedan aspekt samih sebe, onaj koji inače ne vidimo jer smo skloni pridržavati se društvenih normi i prevladavajućih moralnih kodeksa. TVB: Počinjemo shvaćati da se previše ne zamaramo etiketama koje su dodijelili našim projektima, bez obzira na to radi li se o dizajnu ili umjetnosti. Oboje smo dizajneri, no počinjemo shvaćati da naš rad djeluje u kontekstu umjetnosti te se predstavlja na izložbama, u kolekcijama i muzejima. Unatoč tomu što često posuđujemo iz umjetnosti, trenutno smo, na neki način, između umjetnosti i dizajna.


——

How would you place your work in the context of contemporary design and art practice?

JA: Today, there is an emergence of slightly different forms of design, a little bit more conceptual and a bit more experimental. Design stepping out of the commercial world, so we are not constrained to the rules, regulations and conservative nature of mainstream design thinking. Breaking those contextual chains allows us to free our imagination and challenge how things are and to re-imagine they could be. I practice very much within that framework, this newish form of conceptual design. NN: My interest in design fictions makes me interested in the intersections between design and art. In other words, I'm intrigued by how creative practices enable speculating about new ideas through prototyping and storytelling, how they can help designing, challenging, and understanding speculative future realities. TR: I work primarily in futures across a variety of disciplines. I work in academia, design, corporate foresight, and as a practicing artist with the ‘public’. These are four very different outlets with a diaspora of output forms, media and audiences but a unified input, often building on the same ideas, theories, design, and personalities. I do try and cross over between them all. This means using a wide variety of media and thinking about how techniques that may work really well in one field could be linked across to all other fields. DM: I call myself, for the lack of a better term, an artist and designer, although none of these roles really feels comfortable. Through my work, I explore the role of popular technologies in the development of our social systems. To do so, I create participatory experiences aiming to provoke a sort of behavioural or verbal ‘confession’ by the side of the participants. I see my practice as a tool to make us reveal an aspect of the self, one we wouldn't normally see, because of our tendency to adhere to social norms and dominant moral codes. TVB: We are starting to realize that for a lot of our projects we are not worried much about labels, whether it is design or art. We are both designers but we are starting to realize that our work operates in the context of art and it is presented in exhibitions, collections and museums. Even though we borrow a lot from art, we are sort of in between at the moment.

39


——

Kako vidite trenutni odnos dizajna i umjetnosti?

AD: Mislim da ta distinkcija nije bitna, za mene je rad rad. Utječe na ljude i potiče ih na razmišljanje, ili to ne čini. Općenito vjerujem da je to više praktično nego filozofsko pitanje. Međutim, ipak smatram da je za nekoga tko se bavi obrazovanjem izrazito važna činjenica da se dizajn može širiti izvan funcionalnosti i biti eksperimentalan. Tradicionalno dizajn djeluje na praktičnoj razini, dok je umjetnost maštovita, spekulativna i provokativna. Za mene je važno da i dizajn može djelovati na ovakav način. JA: Naša metodologija, ako pogledate kako djelujemo i što radimo, i vrste tehnika kojima se koristimo, u velikoj su mjeri čisti dizajn. Dakako, predmeti koji nastaju kao rezultat ovog procesa često završe u galeriji pa je moguće da zbog toga dolazi do zabune. No, jasno navodimo da dizajn koji proizlazi iz našeg djelovanja nije umjetnost i blisko je povezana sa svakodnevnim životom, kućanstvom i ljudima.. Veza između objekata i svakodnevnog života (makar i imaginarna) glavna je razlika zbog koje bih rekao da se radi o isključivo dizajnerskoj praksi.

40

NN: I jedno i drugo pripadaju kreativnoj praksi koja djeluje uz različita ograničenja. Neobično je kako se neki ljudi trude svrstati na jednu ili drugu stranu. Mislim da su oboje važni i međusobno mogu imati koristi, pogotovo zbog različitih načina na koji djeluju te zbog vrste ishoda koje proizvode. TR: Unutar područja kojim se bavim dizajn i umjetnost se međusobno izmjenjuju. Granica koju povlačim među tim disciplinama više dolazi u obliku pitanja za koga je što i zašto to radim. Razmišljanje o tuđem briefu ili istraživanje od koga netko drugi ima koristi pripadaju dizajnu. Ako se radi o osobnom istraživanju ili razgovoru o stvarima o kojima ja želim razgovarati, radi se o umjetnosti. Oblik konačnog proizvoda u velikoj je mjeri nebitan, baš kao i razlog zašto se uopće izrađuje. TVB: Smatram da je granica koja dijeli umjetnost i dizajn nejasna i na neki način postaje sve nejasnija jer dizajneri prelaze na područja koja su manje primijenjena, a više konceptualna i možda više teorijska. Oklijevam nazivati se isključivo umjetnikom jer smatram da bi područje dizajna trebalo biti dovoljno široko da može uključiti i ovakve radove. U tom smislu sam na neki način dovoljno povezan s područjem dizajna da bih rekao da bi i ove stvari trebale biti dizajn, no također sam dovoljno pragmatičan da shvatim da se neki radovi više ne mogu nazivati dizajnom.


——

How do you see the current relation between design and art?

AD: I don't think it is such an important distinction, work is work. It impacts people and it makes them think or it doesn't. Generally, I think it is more of a practical issue than a philosophical one. But for someone who teaches, I think it is very important that design can expand beyond utility and be more experimental. Traditionally design operates on a practical level, whereas art can be imaginative and speculative or provocative. For me it is important that design can do this work as well. JA: Our methodology, if you look at how we behave and what we do, the kind of techniques we use, to a large degree it is pure design. Of course, then, the artefacts that come about as a result of this process often end up in a gallery, which is where the confusion largely comes from. But we make it clear that the design that comes from our practice is not art and it has so much closer relationship with everyday life, in the domestic landscape, with people. The connection between the object and everyday life (even if it is imaginary) is the main difference why I would argue it would be purely design practice. NN: They both correspond to a creative practice that operates with different constraints. It's curious to see how some people are concerned with being on one side or another. I think both are important and can benefit from one another, especially because of the different ways they operate and the type of outcome they produce. TR: In the area that I work in, they are interchangeable. The delineation I draw between practices comes more in the form of who it's for and why I'm doing it. Thinking about someone else's brief or researching for someone else's benefit falls into design. If it's exploring my own interests or talking about things I want to talk about, it's art. The form of the end product is largely irrelevant as much as the reason for doing it in the first place. TVB: I think the dividing line between art, what art is, and what design is, is sort of a blurry line and in a way it is becoming more blurry as designers are moving to territories that are less applied and more conceptual and more theoretical perhaps. I am reluctant to just refer to myself as an artist, because I think the field of design should be broad enough to also incorporate this sort of work. So, in that sense, I am kind of affiliated to the field of design enough to say that this should also be these things but I am also pragmatic enough to realize that some of the work cannot be classified as design anymore.

41


——

Koja je danas uloga spekulativnog ( kritičkog ) pristupa dizajnu i koliko je on važan u vašem radu?

NN: Za razliku od alata povezanih s predviđanjem ( mape mogućnosti, scenariji, itd. ), dizajn fikcija koristi se svakodnevnim predmetima i medijskim konvencijama kao načinom komuniciranja ideje o budućnosti: lažnim katalogom proizvoda, kartom izmišljenog područja, novinama, kratkim videom koji prikazuje dan u životu neke osobe, i slično. Dizajn fikcija je donekle poput znanstvene fantastike po tome što priče naglašavaju pojedina pitanja, primjerice: kako će izgledati život, kako se koristi određena tehnologija, koje su njene implikacije, i što možemo pretpostaviti da će uslijediti. TR: Držim da način funkcioniranja dizajna i tržišta sve češće prikriva iza njih skrivene ideologije i motivacije, čak i za njihove tvorce. U ovako složenom i višedimenzionalnom svijetu kritički pristup pruža mogućnost da se analiziraju, seciraju i pokušaju razumjeti mehanizmi koji pokreću i kontroliraju svijet. Svojim različitim praksama pokušavam u konačnici izložiti, objasniti i sagledati što bi oni mogli značiti.

42

DM: U svom radu počinjem od spekulacije; promatranje stvarnosti može vam pružiti dokaz, no da biste mogli promatrati paralelnu stvarnost u pozadini društvenih normi, morate početi isključivo s čistom spekulacijom. Zatim, dizajniram istraživački proces koji uključuje ljude i pomaže pri prikupljanju potrebnih dokaza za bolje razumijevanje nas samih, naših društvenih interakcija i njihovog odnosa s tehnologijom. Kada svoj rad dokumentiram, uvijek ga nastojim ostaviti otvorenim, ponuditi publici na osobnu interpretaciju. LH: Dizajniranje u spekulativnom prostoru omogućuje vam da prihvatite da živimo u složenom, kaotičnom svijetu koji često ne razumijemo. Fikcionalni svjetovi omogućuju nam da budemo otvoreni i da eksperimentiramo, da otkrijemo kako se možemo nositi s novim i postojećim problemima, bez praktičnih ograničenja. Smatram da je svaki dizajn spekulativan – crtež je oblik spekulativnog dizajna. Na neki način ne volim odvajati taj pojam. Više volim reći, jednostavno, dizajn! NM: To je način da ozbiljno shvatimo nove ili različite ideje – i da dozvolimo idejama da vode dizajnerski proces. Cilj razmišljanja o proizvodu kao ideji te o korisniku kao publici jest uključiti ljude s mišljenjima, mogućnostima i znanjima kako bismo im ponudili pokretač za razgovor ili tijek misli. Fizički predmeti, proizvodi, filmovi, boja ili bilo koji element diskursa fizičkog dizajna ipak su sekundarni. Ne započinjite dizajniranjem funkcije, radije dizajnirajte razlog.


——

What is the role of speculative ( critical ) design approach today and how important is it in your work?

NN: Unlike foresight-related tools ( opportunity maps, scenarios, etc. ), design fiction uses standard objects and media conventions as a way to express ideas about the future: a fake product catalogue, a map of a fictional area, a newspaper, a short video showing a day in the life of a person, etc. To some extent, design fiction is like science fiction in that the stories bring into focus certain matters-of-concern, such as how life is lived, questioning how technology is used and its implications, speculating about the course of events. TR: I find that design and market techniques are more and more aimed at obfuscating ideologies and motivations, often even to their creators. In a world that is so complex and so multidimensional, a critical approach gives the opportunity to unpick, dissect and try to understand the mechanisms that drive and control the world. Through my various practices, the aim is ultimately to expose, explain, and consider what these might mean. DM: In my work, speculation is where I start from; observing reality can give you evidence, but to enable an observation of a parallel reality that lies beyond our social norms, you can only start with pure speculation. Then, I design a research process that involves people and helps collect the necessary evidence to better understand humans, our social interactions and their intersection with technology. However, I always avoid taking a clear position when I document my work, in order to let the viewers make their own speculations and give their interpretation of what they actually see. LH: Designing in a speculative space allows you to embrace the fact that we live in a complex, messy world, which we don't always understand. Fictional worlds allow us to be open and experimental, to discover how we might deal with new and existing issues, outside practical constraints. In my view, speculative design is all design – a drawing is a piece of speculative design. In some ways I don't like separating the terms – I prefer just design! NM: It is a way to take new or different ideas seriously – and to let the ideas be at the forefront of the design process. By thinking of the product as an idea, and the user as an audience – the goal is to engage people with opinions, possibilities, and knowledge to offer a starting point of a conversation or a train of thought. Physical objects, products, films, colour, or any element of a physical design language are secondary. Don't start by designing a function, but instead design a reason.

43


——

Zašto je, po vašem mišljenju, važno propitkivati trenutačni znanstveni i tehnološki razvoj?

AD: Najveći dio tehnološkog razvoja pokreće ekonomija i ona ga neće nužno nastojati voditi prema najhumanijem kontekstu. Mi, kao dizajneri, možemo dovoditi u pitanje sile koje pokreću tehnološki razvoj i nuditi alternative koje ne pokreće prvenstveno ekonomija. Znanstvena istraživanja se odvijaju u izoliranom akademskom okruženju, ali kad jednom dospiju na tržište, tj. u svakodnevni život, iskrivljuju se i počinje ih voditi iracionalnost. Dizajneri mogu vizualizirati potencijalne probleme koji bi se mogli dogoditi u bliskoj budućnosti i ponuditi platformu za raspravu.

44

JA: Cilj je da se znanstvena istraživanja ‘prodrmaju’ u vrlo ranoj fazi. Tradicionalno, to je funkcioniralo na način da se dizajner uključivao na kraju razvojnog procesa, s ciljem da učini tu novu tehnologiju atraktivnijom i jednostavnijom za upotrebu. No, dizajner u taj proces može znatno ranije u implementirati ‘ljudski’ aspekt – područje ljudskih želja, kompleksnih ponašanja, kao i aplikacije / implikacije tehnologije na stvarni život čovjeka. Ovdje se ne radi o tržištu, o zarađivanju novca, slijedeći uobičajene pretpostavke i narative o napretku i boljem životu, već o dovođenju u pitanje tih pretpostavki i propitivanju što je to zapravo “bolji život”. Ako možemo postići da ovakvo dizajnersko razmišljanje utječe na istraživanje u puno ranijem stadiju, možda će se u budućnosti više voditi računa o tome što proizvodimo i kakav utjecaj tehnologija ima na nas. NN: Obrazovan sam u tradicionalnim znanostima, kognitivnoj znanosti i interakciji čovjeka i računala te me stoga uvijek čudio nedostatak značaja koji se pridaje pitanjima “zašto” u znanstvenom i tehnološkom razvoju. Zašto ovo činimo? Zašto razvijamo ovaj dio sekvenciranja genoma? Zašto je ovaj dio uređaja za geopozicioniranje značajan za naše društvo kao cjelinu? Pretpostavke se rijetko dovode u pitanje, a predodžbe znanstvenika ili inženjera o životu, spoznaji, društvu i sl. malokad se osporavaju. Postoji potreba da se o njima razmišlja drugačije, da se o njima barem razgovara i izbjegne uzimanje najnovijih mogućnosti zdravo za gotovo. TR: Smatram da, ako nismo kritični, onda, poput mnogih, zapravo prihvaćamo ono što većina smatra istinom. Svijet je podijeljen i djeljiv i lako je tražiti jednostavne odgovore ili osjećaj solidarnosti – okrenuti se prema već uspostavljenom obrascu razmišljanja koji se najbolje slaže s onim kako mislimo da bismo se trebali osjećati ili onim što mislimo da bismo trebali vjerovati. Kritički pristup daje nam priliku da iščitamo prošlost, kao i da proučimo prikrivene učinke tehnologije. Možda i nismo u mogućnosti predložiti alternative. No, činjenica da smo ih svjesni može nam pomoći da bolje upravljamo osobnim i profesionalnim životom.


——

Why do you think it is important to question current scientific and technological development?

AD: Most technological developments are driven by the economy which is not necessarily going to lead to the most human, profound, and meaningful existence. As designers, we can question the forces shaping technological developments and suggest alternatives that are not driven purely by economics. Science research, is developed in a very pure academic environment but once it travels into everyday life via the market place it becomes distorted and driven by irrationality. As designers, we can raise some of these issues before they happen. Designers can visualize potential problems that might occur in everyday life and provide platforms for discussion. JA: The goal is to impact or influence scientific research at a very early point. Traditionally the designer becomes involved at the end of the development process (of technology) – making it easier to use, more attractive. But the designer can also operate upstream, introducing human aspects such as desire, complex behaviour and real-life application / implications much sooner. It is not about the market, or about making money – following normative assumptions and narratives about progress and the better life. It is about challenging these assumptions and asking what is a ‘better’ life? If we can get this kind of thinking to impact the research at a much earlier stage, perhaps the type of products and the impact that technology has will be much more considered in the future. NN: Having a background in life sciences, cognitive sciences, and human-computer interaction, I have always been amazed by the lack of consideration given to “why” questions in scientific and technological development. Why are we doing this? Why are we developing this piece of genomic sequencing? Why is this bit of geopositioning device relevant to our society as a whole? Assumptions are rarely questioned, and scientists or engineers' preconceptions about life, cognition, society, etc. are scarcely challenged. There's a need to think about these differently, to at least have a conversation about them and avoid taking very new possibilities for granted. TR: I think that if we're not critical, then we just accept the major consensus narrative, as so many do. The world is divided and divisive and it's easy to look for easy answers or a sense of solidarity – to turn to an established narrative that best aligns with how you think you should feel or what you think you should believe. A critical approach gives us the opportunity to read the past and read into the obfuscating effects of technology. We may not be able to propose alternatives. But being aware of them might allow us to steer better.

45


TVB: Mnogo smo radili u području sintetičke biologije i surađujemo sa znanstvenicima. Zapravo se radi o prostoru budućnosti i mogućnosti. Smatram da je najzanimljivija vrsta rada ona koja postavlja pitanja jesu li ovo stvari koje želimo, želimo li živjeti u ovakvoj društvenoj budućnosti, u ovakvom svijetu. Mislim da je ovakav rad poput platforme za postavljanje pitanja. Važno je propitivati jer znanstvenici za to nemaju vremena, a to ne možemo očekivati od industrije zato što nju pokreću vlastiti motivi, i pitanje je tko će od tog razvoja imati koristi. ——

Na koji način dizajn može pomoći društvu da se pozabavi ovim pitanjima?

AD: Tako da ponudimo idealističnije alternative pokazujući kakav bi svijet mogao biti, stvaranjem različitih alternativa. Trenutno nedostaje jedno – društveni snovi. Rođen sam šezdesetih godina i mi smo u djetinjstvu, primjerice, prigrlili san o putovanju svemirom. Ako govorimo o djeci danas, što su njihovi snovi? Stoga me trenutno zanima mogu li dizajneri potaknuti društvene snove. Ne da daju ljudima snove, već da na neki način potaknu snivanje. Mislim da je to važna uloga za dizajnere, međutim za to bi trebali više koristiti svoju maštu. 46

TR: Novi trendovi u financiranju i proizvodnji, poput grupnog financiranja ( eng. crowdfunding ) i 3D ispisa potencijalno mogu ponuditi izlaz, gdje potporu ideji mogu temeljno uspostaviti ljudi koji takvu ideju i trebaju, a koji prije nisu mogli raditi na njezinu ostvarivanju. Kritički dizajn također igra ulogu u osvještavanju i inkluziji. Ako možemo pomoći ljudima da kritički čitaju svijet i da se odmaknu od onoga što većina smatra istinom, onda obični ljudi mogu postati mobilizirano društvo koje može nešto ostvariti.


TVB: We did a lot of work with synthetics biology and we are in collaboration with scientists. It is really about the future and possibility space. I think the most interesting sort of work is the one that questions if this sort of stuff is what we want, if this is the kind of social futures, the kind of world that we want to live in. I think this kind of work is like a vehicle to ask these questions. I think it is important to do, because scientist don't have time to and we cannot expect the industry to do it, because they have their own motivation such as incentives and the question is who will benefit from these developments. ——

How can design help society to address these issues?

AD: By offering more idealistic alternatives showing how the world could be , making many alternatives. One thing is missing at the moment – social dreams. I was born in the 1960s, and during my childhood we embraced the dream of space travel, for example. If I think of children today, what are their dreams? One of the things I am interested in at the moment is whether designers can help to spark social dreaming. Not to give people dreams but to somehow activate new dreams. I think this is an important role for designers, but we need to make more use of our imagination. TR: New funding and production streams like crowd-funding and 3D printing have the potential to offer a way out of this, where support for an idea can be built at a base by the people who genuinely need it most and who previously would not have been able to act on it. Critical design also plays a role in awareness and engagement. If we can help people to read the world in a critical way and to move away from the major consensus narrative, then the commons can become a mobilised polity that can make things happen.

slika / fig. 11  Candid Camera ( Interakcije at Magdalena, Maribor, 2010 ). “Skrivena kamera” kao dizajnerski alat / “Candid Camera” as design tool.

47


——

Koje bi vještine mladi dizajner ili istraživač trebao imati da bi se u budućnosti bavio ovim područjem?

AD: Mislim da treba propitkivati sve, uključujući dizajn. Mašta u dizajn postaje sve važnija. Danas imamo puno racionalnosti, puno analiza i puno razloga, no nedostaje nam sposobnost da snažno sanjamo. Potaknuo bih mlade dizajnere da puste svoju maštu da teče, te da zatim eksperimentiraju s time kako da je usmjere prema dizajnerskim idejama koje inspiriraju druge ljude. Također je važno znati kako koristiti dizajn kao katalizator za poticanje drugih stručnjaka na maštanje, bez obzira na to jesu li ekonomisti ili filozofi.

48

JA: Kritičko razmišljanje. Maštu. Sposobnost razmišljanja o proizvodima kao dijelovima beskrajno kompleksnog sustava stvari i isprepletenih faktora: političkih, ekonomskih, bihevioralnih, kulturoških, koji su u konstantnoj interakciji. Dizajner bi trebao moći propitivati te sustave, iz razloga što su oni zastarjeli, konzervativni i ne nužno optimalni. Čini mi se da danas skoro 99% svjetskih dizajnera razvija proizvode koji se proizvode na brzinu na traci, da bi završili na odlagalištima. To, naravno, pomaže ekonomijama razvijenih država i velikim korporacijama, ali je učinak na sve ostalo je u najmanju ruku dvojben, a u najgorem slučaju destruktivan. Poanta je u tome da je naša odgovornost ogromna, a ‘dobar dizajner’ sutrašnjice to će biti spreman prepoznati i prihvatiti izazov. TR: Očajnički entuzijazam i kritički um pun pouzdanja. Morate sagledati stvari iz široke perspektive da biste razumjeli veze i implikacije involvirane u izgradnji svijeta. Svaka dizajnirana stvar proizvod je višestoljetne povijesti i trajat će još stotinama godina. Što mladi dizajner to bolje razumije, to će svjesnije dizajnirati. Razgovarajte sa svima, čitajte sve, gledajte sve, naučite sve što možete o svemu što ne radite. I, iako ovo zvuči otrcano, morate biti odlučni u naumu da se ne “prodate” – da ne pretvorite svoju ideju u još jednu korporativnu zlatnu koku koja potvrđuje status quo. To postaje sve lakše i zbog toga smatram da je sad pravo vrijeme za izvrsne ideje. TVB: Podučavam na Goldsmith Collegeu kao gostujući nastavnik gdje smo osmislili program koji nije definiran točno određenim skupom dizajnerskih vještina, dakle, nije organiziran prema grafičkom dizajnu, dizajnu interakcija ili produkt dizajnu. Program se zove jednostavno dizajn, prilično je širok i temeljen je na idejama. Studenti se moraju angažirati na projektima na konceptualnoj razini, no sami mogu birati kojim će se medijem koristiti. To je važan aspekt razvijanja stava, a ne podučavanja vještina, razvijanja znatiželje i otvorenosti te zadržavanja te otvorenosti i sposobnosti uočavanja zanimljivljivih stvari i ponašanja, praksa i rituala.


——

What skills would a young designer or researcher need to work in this field in the future?

AD: I think you have to question everything, including design. And imagination, although not exactly a skill is extremely important. We have a lot of rationality, a lot of analysis and a lot of reason, but we are missing the ability to dream in a very powerful way. I would encourage young designers to let their imagination flow and then to experiment with how to direct that into design ideas that excite other people. It is also important to use design as a catalyst for encouraging other experts to dream, no matter if they are economists or philosophers. JA: Critique. Imagination. To be capable of thinking not about their products in a vacuum but as part of an infinitely complex system of things and factors – political, economical, ecological, behavioural, cultural each overlapping and interacting, for both good and bad. The designer should be able to challenge these systems – as they are old and conservative and not necessarily optimal. Perhaps (this is a wild guess) 99% of the World’s designers develop products that are on a fast-track to landfill sites. This of course helps the economies of developed nations and the value of large corporations – but benefits elsewhere are at best spurious at worst destructive. The point is that we do have an enormous responsibility and a good designer of tomorrow will acknowledge it and embrace the challenge. TR: Desperate enthusiasm and a confident critical mind. You need to spread your mind far and wide to understand the connections and implications that go into building the world. Every designed thing is the product of hundreds of years of history and will result in hundreds more. The better this is understood by a young designer the more consciously they will design. Talk to everyone, read everything, see everything, learn all you can about everything you're not doing. And, cheesy though it is, you have to be determined not to “sell out” – not to turn your idea into another corporate cash cow that reinforces the status quo. This is getting easier and easier to do, which is why I think it's a great time to have great ideas. TVB: I teach a little bit as a visiting teacher at the Goldsmith College and we designed this programme not towards a specific set of design skills, so it is not organized to graphic design or interaction design or product design. It is just called design and it is quite broad and all of these are idea driven. So students have to engage in projects on the conceptual level, but they can choose themselves which medium they use. This is an important aspect of developing attitude rather than teaching skills, developing curiosity and openness, and also keeping it open and being able to spot interesting things and behaviours, practices and rituals.

49


Najveći doprinos radionica spekulativnog dizajna je u tome što su za značajan broj sudionika i sudionica otvorile nove načine razmišljanja i percipiranja obrazovnog procesa. Za neke od sudionika to je rezultiralo i nastavkom studija na međunarodnim ustanovama koje prakticiraju slične edukacijske koncepte. Metode, alati, tehnike, tj. pristup koji prakticiramo ima sasvim praktičnu primjenu u svakodnevnoj dizajnerskoj praksi, bilo da se radi o komercijalnim radovima ili samoiniciranim projektima. Osobno, radionice mi predstavljaju zadovoljstvo jer se na potpuno slobodan način i u skladu s najboljom praksom akademskih ustanova možemo na kritičan, zabavan i satiričan način baviti temama koje nas zabrinjavaju ili vesele. —— Ivica Mitrović: Spekulativnost kao obrazovni pristup


The biggest contribution of speculative design workshops is that they have opened new ways of thinking and perception of the educational process for a significant number of participants. For some of the participants this resulted in continuing their studies in international institutions that practice similar educational concepts. Methods, tools, techniques, i.e. the approach we practice, has a very practical application in everyday design practice, be it in commercial works or self-initiated projects. For me personally, workshops are a pleasure because we can engage in topics that worry us or make us happy in a critical, amusing, and satiric manner, completely freely, in accordance with the best practices of academic institutions. —— Ivica Mitrović: Speculative design as an educational approach


Hrvatski kontekst —— Ivica Mitrović

52

U hrvatskom kontekstu temeljno mjesto prakticiranja i edukacije u području spekulativnog dizajna je Odsjek za dizajna vizualnih komunikacija Umjetničke akademije. Odsjek od 2004. godine organizira međunarodne radionice u području dizajna interakcija pod nazivom Interakcije24, na početku usredotočene na dizajnersku praksu usmjerenu korisnicima, a zatim prvenstveno kritičku dizajnersku praksu. Stoga, ove godine radionice mijenjaju naziv u radionice spekulativnog dizajna25. Spekulativni pristup je vremenom i integriran u nastavni proces diplomskog studija. Primjeri ovakvih radova su prezentirani na mini retrospektivnoj izložbi u HDD galeriji Interakcije 2004. – 2012.26 Aktivnosti se dodatno internacionaliziraju i fokusiraju kroz europski projekt UrbanIxD27, odnosno ljetnu školu i izložbu City | Data | Future – Interakcije u hibridnom urbanom prostoru28. Razvoj ovog spekulativnog pristupa, prije svega je vezan za kritičku metodologiju razvijenu na Odsjeka za dizajniranje interakcija na Royal College of Art ( RCA ) koji su vodili Anthony Dunne i Fiona Raby. Stoga je razumljivo da je najveći broj voditelja radionica dolazio sa navedene ustanove. Posebno je značajno predavanje o spekulativnoj metodologiji koje je James Auger održao u sklopu otvaranja City | Data | Future izložbe u srpnju 2014. godine. Teško bi bilo zaobići i utjecaj rada Tomislava Lerotića, koji je kritički pristup neprestano prakticirao kroz svoje aktivističko dizajnersko djelovanje. Primjerice, u projektima letaka i plakata fikcionalnih genetski modificiranih životinja uzgajanih za prehranu29, ili kroz edukacijski projekt Nova akademija, kroz fiktivne arhitektonske ilustracije i scenarije30. U radovima nastalim kroz platformu Interakcije također je vidljiv i utjecaj novih manifestnih umjetničkih pokreta s ovih prostora iz 80tih godina 20. stoljeća, kolektiva Neue Slowenische Kunst, odnosno u hrvatskom kontekstu odgovarajuće pojave Nove Evrope ( NEP ). Recentni primjeri spekulativne dizajnerske prakse na ovim prostorima su rijetki. Međutim, ipak možemo navesti nekoliko relevantnih radova koji, iako često sami sebe tako ne nazivaju, spadaju u područje spekulativnog dizajna. U HDD galeriji 2013. godine Lina Kovačević je na izložbi Future Artefacts predstavila instalaciju i performans nastao kroz magistarski studij, na St. Martins School of Art u Londonu, koji spekulira o “artefaktima bliske budućnosti”. Fiktivni artefakti, proizašli iz određenih scenarija kao svojevrsni objekti performansa “Set za online romantičnu večeru”, bave se obrascima digitalne komunikacije te istražuju fetiše u virtualnom i predstavljaju svojevrsne kritičke artefakte medijskog krajolika u kojem živimo.31


Croatian Context —— Ivica Mitrović In the Croatian context, the primary institution for practice and education regarding speculative design is the Department of Visual Communications Design at the Arts Academy in Split. Since 2004, the Department has been organizing the so-called Interakcije24, international workshops in the field of interaction design that initially was focused on the user centered design practice, and subsequently on critical design practice. For that reason, this year's workshop changed its name into Speculative Design Workshop25. Over time, the speculative approach has been integrated into various teaching processes at the masters level. Some examples of such works were presented at a mini-retrospective held at the Croatian Designers' Society Gallery titled Interakcije 2004 – 201226. The activities have been additionally internationalized and developed through the European project UrbanIxD27 and the summer school and exhibition titled City | Data | Future – Interactions in the Hybrid Urban Space28. The development of this speculative approach is primarily linked to the critical methodology developed at the Design Interactions Programme of the Royal College of Art ( RCA ), lead by Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby. This is why the greatest number of workshop leaders comes from this institution. James Auger held a particularly interesting lecture on speculative methodology at the opening of the City | Data | Future exhibition in July 2014. It would be very hard to take no account of the impact of Tomislav Lerotić's work and the critical approach he has been continuously practising through design activism; e.g. in the projects involving leaflets and posters for fictional genetically modified animals for use as food29, in the framework of the educational project titled The New Academy ( fictional architectural illustrations and scenarios )30. Works that emerged through the platform named Interakcije also show the influence of the new manifest art movements from the 1980s, the Neue Slowenische Kunst art collective, or, in the Croatian context, the corresponding appearance of the New Europe ( the NEP ). There are only a few recent examples of speculative design practice in this region. Nevertheless, it is possible to list several relevant works that, although their authors would not use this term, fall within the scope of speculative design. In 2013, the Croatian Designers' Society Gallery hosted an exhibition by Lina Kovačević titled Future Artefacts. The author presented an installation together with a performance, developed during her MA studies at the St. Martin's School of Art in London, which speculate on “artefacts of the near future”. The fictional artefacts, derived from specific scenarios as the kinds of objects used for the

53


54

Robert Čanak se susreće sa spekulativnom praksom kroz magistarski studij na međunarodnom Virginia Commonwealth University u Kataru. Završni rad Hibridni Zaljev se kroz dizajn fikcija bavi hibridnom kulturom i koegzistencijom različitih kultura u Kataru i Perzijskom zaljevu. Dizajniranjem hibridnih predmeta budućnosti, nastalih nakon uništenja planete, tj. u novom početku, kada dolazi do potpune hibridizacije kultura, a posebno kroz njihovu arheologiju, projekt se zapravo bavi današnjim identitetom Zaljeva. Anselmo Tumpić na 49. zagrebačkom salonu izlaže ironičke objekte ( tenisice, dječju igračku i štednu kasicu ). Iako ih autor eksplicitno ne naziva tako, oni su zapravo konceptualni kritički objekti koji nastaju u “bliskoj budućnosti hiperkapitalizma”, te kako i autor navodi, nikada neće postati stvarni proizvodi, već imaju funkciju “umjetničkog objekta”.32 Nikola Bojić spekulativnu praksu, započetu provokativnim virtualnim projektom Stakleni Peristil, dalje razvija kroz magistarski studij na Harvard Graduate School of Design. U projektu Praznina u ulici Felton u maloj ulici u tehnološki naprednom okruženju sveučilišta Harvard i MIT, pronalazi dio prostora u potpunosti bez bežične veze. Generira trodimenzionalni model prostora, koji kasnije materijalizira u objekt žudnje obložen 24 karatnim zlatom.33 Zajedno s Damirom Prizmićem za skorašnju izložbu u HDD galeriji radi na projektu Objekti opasnih namjera u kojima hakiranjem svakodnevnih uporabnih predmeta, propituje današnje proizvodne i konzumerističke procese. U specijalnom izdanju časopisa Život umjetnosti Instituta za povijest umjetnosti, s temom Dizajn i primijenjena umjetnost iz 2009. godine, uz intervju Maroja Mrduljaša s Tomislavom Lerotićem, Ivicom Mitrovićem i Marcellom Marsom, o kritičkom dizajnu piše također i Ivana Fabrio.34 Također je značajno spomenuti i aktivnosti Biroa suvremene umjetničke prakse Kontejner, koji posebno kroz festivale Device_art i Touch Me kontinuirano prezentira radove spekulativnog pristupa i dovodi relevante autore. Posebno je važno bilo predavanje ( i uvodni tekst ) Tobie Kerridgea i Jimmy Loizeaua, Material Beliefs − otvoreni laboratoriji, spekulativni dizajn, znanost i društvo na Touch me festivalu 2008. godine.35 Kontejner organira i povremenu produkciju domaćih radova koji se dijelom mogu svrstati u spekulativnu praksu.


performance named A Set for an Online Romantic Dinner, deal with the patterns of digital communication and investigate fetishes in the virtual landscape represent critical artefacts of the media landscape that we inhabit.31 Robert Čanak encountered speculative practice in the course of his master's degree programme at the international Virginia Commonwealth University in Qatar. Through design fictions, his master's thesis titled Hybrid Gulf deals with hybrid culture and coexistence of diverse cultures in Qatar and the Persian Gulf. By designing hybrid objects of the future, which come into being after the destruction of the Earth, i.e. after a new beginning and the complete hybridization of cultures, and especially through their archaeology, the project actually deals with the present identity of the Gulf. At the 49th Zagreb Salon, Anselmo Tumpić exhibited ironic objects ( sports shoes, children's toys and a piggy bank ). Although the author himself never uses the term, the objects represent conceptual critical objects that appear in the “near future of hypercapitalism”, and as the author indicates, they will never become real products, but have the function of “arts objects”.32 Nikola Bojić has been developing his speculative practice, starting with a provocative virtual project named Glass Peristyle, in the course of his master's degree programme at the Harvard Graduate School of Design. In the framework of his project titled Felton Street Emptiness, in a small street in the technologically advanced environment of Harvard University and MIT he found a space that is completely devoid of wireless connection. He generated a three-dimensional model of the space, which he later materialized into an object of desire coated with 24-carat gold.33 In collaboration with Damir Prizmić, for the forthcoming exhibition at the Gallery of the Croatian Designers Society, he is working on the project named Objects of Dangerous Intentions in which, by hacking everyday objects, he questions today's manufacturing and consumer processes. Ivana Fabrio wrote about critical design in the special edition of the Život umjetnosti – Magazine for Contemporary Visual Arts, published by the Institute of Art History in 2009 and dedicated to the topic of Design and Applied Arts.34 The same issue also brought Maroje Mrduljaš's interview with Tomislav Lerotić, Ivica Mitrović and Marcell Mars. Activities of Kontejner, the bureau of contemporary arts practice, are also worth mentioning, especially in the context of the Device_art and Touch Me festivals. Kontejner has been continuously presenting works that have a speculative approach, gathering relevant authors. In 2008 Tobie Kerridge and Jimmy Loizeau gave a particularly important lecture ( and introductory text ) titled Material Beliefs – Open Laboratories, Speculative Design, Science and Society at the Touch Me Festival.35 Kontejner occasionally organises production of local designs that can be partially classified under the category of speculative practice.

55


Dizajn ne samo da služi kao zrcalo stanja društva, on pokazuje i kakve bi stvari mogle biti. Stoga sam smatrao da je pozicija spekulativnog dizajna koji je okrenut prema budućnosti prirodna metoda za istraživanje i opisivanje novonastalih istraživačkih tema u području dizajna interakcija u urbanom okruženju. Spekulativni dizajn pojavljuje se kao nova strategija propitivanja prostora koji primamljivo leži iza ‘trenutnog’ i ‘sada’. Stvaranjem dizajnerskih fikcija ovaj pristup nastoji potaknuti pretpostavke i predrasude o ulozi koju proizvodi i usluge imaju u svakodnevnom životu. Te fikcije mogu stvoriti priče koje otkrivaju i humaniziraju budućnost, mogu služiti kao katalizatori za razmišljanje i raspravu o zajedničkim konceptualnim vizijama. Spekulativni dizajn istraživačima na području dizajna interakcija u urbanom okruženju nudi metodu za istraživanje načina na koji doživljavamo život u urbanom prostoru te kako bi isti mogao izgledati u bliskoj budućnosti. —— Michael Smyth: Spekulativni pristup u dizajnu interakcija u urbanom okruženju


Design not only holds a mirror up to the human condition, but it also points ahead to how things could be. So I felt that the intentionally forwardlooking stance of speculative design was a natural method for exploring and describing the emergent research topic of urban interaction design. Speculative design is emerging as a new strategy for examining the space that lies tantalisingly beyond the ‘current’ and the ‘now’. Through the creation of design fictions the approach attempts to challenge assumptions and preconceptions about the role that products and services play in everyday life. These fictions can create stories that unpack and humanise the future, to act as catalysts for reflection and discussion around shared conceptual visions. Speculative design offers a method for researchers in urban interaction design to investigate how we experience urban living and what that might be like in the near future. —— Michael Smyth: Speculative approach in Urban interaction design


Eutropija – studija slučaja —— Ivica Mitrović i Oleg Šuran Eutropija je inspirirana radom Čekingrad koji je nastao na radionici dizajna interakcija Hibridni grad pri Umjetničkoj akademiji Sveučilišta u Splitu, 2011. godine.36 Sudionici radionice propitivali su kako će tehnološki prošireni grad budućnosti, kroz infrastrukturne promjene uvjetovane tehnologijom, utjecati na različite aspekte svakodnevnog života svojih stanovnika. U fiktivnom gradu budućnosti – Čekingradu – informacija znači sve. Gradska ekonomija temelji se na akumulaciji i trgovini informacijama koje se od lokalnih stanovnika i turista prikupljaju u kontrolnim točkama ( gradskim kafićima ). Projekt se na satiričan način bavi navikama građana koji vrijeme dokolice provode u razmjeni informacija u kafićima ( od tračeva do osobnog DNK ). Rad Eutropija produciran je za potrebe izložbe City | Data | Future. Izložba City | Data | Future sadrži ukupno devet radova, od kojih je pet inicirano na ljetnoj školi UrbanIxD, dva rada su kurirana za potrebe izložbe, a dva rada su namjenski producirana za izložbu. Izloženi projekti, nastali kroz kritičku di58 Čekingrad ( Interakcije, 2011 )


Eutropia – a Case Study —— Ivica Mitrović i Oleg Šuran Eutropia was inspired by the work titled Čekingrad ( Check-In City ) which resulted from an interaction design workshop named A Hybrid City and organized by the Arts Academy at the University of Split in 2011.36 Workshop participants questioned various technological impacts of an technologically augmented, hybrid city of the future, including changes to the infrastructure conditioned by technology, on various aspects of its citizens' everyday. In that fictional future city named Čekingrad or Check-In City – information is everything. The economy of the city is based on accumulation and trade of information collected from locals and tourists at control points ( city cafes ). In a satirical way, this project deals with certain habits characteristic for the locals who spend their free time in cafes exchanging information ( ranging from pure gossip to personal DNA ). Eutropia was produced for the exhibition titled City | Data | Future. The City | Data | Future exhibition shows nine works, where five works have been initiated during the UrbanIxD summer school, two have been curated for the exhibition purposes and the remaining two have been directly commissionedfor the exhibition. The exhibited projects emerged from critical design practice and represent fictions speculating about possible future scenarios that we, as citizens living in technologically expanded hybrid cities of the future, can expect. Whether we are talking about complex infrastructural changers or simply about certain instances of urban life, the cities of the future presented at the City | Data | Future exhibition are entirely technologically augmented and saturated by ubiquitous technology. Immersed in a continuous flow of information with an urban system, a person disappears as an individual / creature / being. However, although those fictional cities are projected as planned systems, the scenarios indicate the the shortcomings of top-down approach in future developments and technology implementation in the real world. The exhibition shows that planning such cities also implies foreseeing possible scenarios with reactions on that very system, whether we are talking about hacking or abuse, or modification and appropriation of the system and its segments ( depending on the observer's position ).37 In this design fiction, Eutropia is a city expanded by a series of sensors that completely interfere with private / intimate spaces, collecting and storing almost all information about its citizens and their habits. With citizens' approval, the city sells the collected data to corporations thus ensuring continuous welfare to everyone. This scenario questions whether privacy within such a system remains an ideological misconception from previous times or an individual's human need.

59


zajnersku praksu, predstavljaju fikcije koje spekuliraju o mogućim budućim scenarijima, koje mi, kao građani tehnološki proširenih hibridnih gradova budućnosti, možemo očekivati. Bilo da je riječ o kompleksnim infrastrukturnim nadogradnjama, ili tek o određenim instancama gradskoga života, gradovi budućnosti izložbe City | Data | Future u potpunosti su tehnološki prošireni, tehnologija ih prožima i sveprisutna je. Utopljen u neprekidni protok podataka unutar urbanog sustava, osoba kao pojedinac / jedinka / individua nestaje. Međutim, iako su gradovi u ovim fikcijama projektirani kao planirani sustavi, ovi scenariji pokazuju nemogućnost jednostranog planiranja razvoja događaja i jednostrane implementacije tehnologije u stvarnom svijetu. Izložba pokazuje da je kod promišljanja ovakvih gradova potrebno promišljati i scenarije reakcija na sam sustav, bilo da se radi o hakiranju i o zloupotrebi, ili modificiranju i aproprijaciji sustava i njegovih segmenata ( ovisno o poziciji promatrača ).37 U dizajnerskoj fikciji Eutropija, grad je proširen mrežom senzora koji u potpunosti zadiru u privatne / intimne prostore građana, sakupljajući i arhivirajući gotovo sve informacije o njima i njihovim navikama. Prikupljene podatke grad, uz pristanak građana, prodaje korporacijama i tako osigurava kontinuirano blagostanje svojim građanima. Scenarij propituje da li je privatnost u ovakvom sustavu ideološka zabluda prošlog vremena ili ljudska potreba pojedinca. 60

Eutropia ( 2014 )


— — EUTROPIA Eutropia is a Mediterranean city with more than 300,000 inhabitants located on the northern coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The very mention of its name inspires jealousy in an average post-neoliberal European. Namely, due to topnotch entrepreneurial and political capabilities of the city government that is in power for 40 years already, for over 30 years this city-state lives in complete material security and social wellbeing. Back in the times of the great global recession of the 21st century, the city government signed a contract with an international consortium regulating trade of information generated by the city. After a decade of investments, Eutropia developed a state-of-the-art infrastructure for collecting data generated by its citizens ( from privately-owned apartments, public institutions, leisure and entertainment facilities to public urban areas ). First-rate city services are all put in function of the system, i.e. they assist in data-collection together with citizens who cooperate in order to assure a constant flow of information. The new information-based economy, or rather the export of data, guarantees independence and welfare to all citizens. In this city there is no unemployment and work belongs to the sphere of leisure. In Eutropia, a consumerist welfare oasis, privacy is nothing but an ideological misconception.

61


— — Eutropija Eutropija je mediteranski grad od preko 300.000 stanovnika, smješten na sjevernim obalama Sredozemnog mora. Spomen imena ovog grada, zasigurno prosječnom post-neoliberalnom Europljaninu izaziva zrnce ljubomore. Naime, zahvaljujući vrhunskim poduzetničkim i političkim sposobnostima gradske, danas već 40 godišnje vlasti, ovaj grad-država živi skoro 30 godina u potpunoj materijalnoj sigurnosti i blagostanju. Gradske vlasti, još tijekom velike svjetske recesije 21. stoljeća, potpisale su ekskluzivni ugovor s konzorcijem velikih svjetskih kompanija o trgovini podacima koje grad generira. Kroz desetogodišnje ulaganje, Eutropija je osigurala najsuvremeniju infrastrukturu prikupljanja svih podataka koje građani generiraju ( od privatnih stanova, javnih ustanova, objekata za odmor i zabavu, do gradskih javnih prostora ). Vrhunski organizirane gradske službe servisiraju sustav, tj. pomažu prikupljanju podatka, zajedno s građanima, koji svojom kooperacijom osiguravaju konstantan priljev informacija. Novom ekonomijom temeljenom na podacima, odnosno njihovim izvozom grad je osigurao neovisnost i blagostanje za svoje stanovnike. Ovo je grad u kojem nema nezaposlenih, grad u kojemu dokolica postaje poslom. 62

U Eutropiji, konzumerističkoj oazi blagostanja, privatnost je ideološka zabluda.


Eutropia ( 2014 )

63


— — PREZENTACIJA

64

Koncept, tj. fiktivni grad budućnosti Eutropija prezentiran je kroz video, tekst uvoda te pripadajuće mu objekte. Tekst uvodi publiku u priču kroz koju povezuje sadašnje vrijeme s bliskom budućnosti. Video prati pojedinca, prikazujući na koji način ovakav grad budućnosti djeluje na njega i njegov svakodnevni život. Naglašavanjem banalnih trenutaka svakodnevnice teži se postizanju uvjerljivosti i imerzivnosti. Dizajnirani objekti korišteni u videu izloženi su uz projekciju videa u cilju stvaranja sveobuhvatnog iskustva, prateći tendencije izlagačkih praksi u obliku, uvjetno rečeno, arheologije budućnosti. Video produkcija je izvedena, u suradnji s autorima, od strane studenata odsjeka za Film i video Umjetničke akademije u Splitu. Početni koncept, u formi scenarija, prvo se razvio u redateljski koncept, te je nakon toga razrađen u knjigu snimanja. Za potrebe videa i prezentacije dizajnirani su posebni artefakti. Ne radi se samo o rekvizitima oblikovanim za potrebe potvrđivanja autentičnosti videa, već o dizajnerskim proizvodima, spekulativnim objektima koji dodatno pridonose uvjerljivosti priče, koji sami po sebi potiču raspravu i propituju kontekst. Dodatna je pažnja posvećena i vizualnom identitetu ovakvog grada budućnosti, te odjevnom kodu protagonista usklađenom s pretpostavljenom estetikom bliske budućnosti. Ovaj tip rada moguće je prikazati kao samostalan online ili offline video rad, te u galerijskom kontekstu kao projekciju uz pripadajuće objekte.


— — PRESENTATION The concept of the fictional city of the future named Eutropia is presented in a video, introductory text and corresponding objects. The text introduces the audience to the story linking the present time with the near future. The video follows a citizen and shows how this city of the future impacts him and his everyday life. By highlighting some conventional moments from everyday life, it aims to persuade, convince and immerse ( to suspend disbelief ). The designed objects used in the video are displayed next to the projected video in order to create a far-reaching experience, following the tendency of exhibition practices, conditionally speaking, in the form of the archaeology of the future. In collaboration with the authors, the video production was created by students of the Film and Video Department at the Arts Academy in Split. The initial concept, in the form of a script, was turned into a director's concept and then in a shooting script. Special artefacts were designed for the video and its presentation. Those artefacts are not only stage props designed only the authentic video purposes, but also they are design products, or speculative objects that contribute to believability, inspire discussion and question the context. Additional attention was paid to the city's visual identity and the protagonists' dress code in line with the presupposed aesthetic of the near future. This type of work can be presented as an individual online or offline video project, or in the context of a gallery as a projection with complementary objects. CREDITS: Autori / Authors – Ivica Mitrović, Oleg Šuran; Režija i montaža  / Directed and edited by – Glorija Lizde; Kamera / Camera – Andrea Kaštelan; Glumci / Sound – Marko Jukić; Actors – Oleg Šuran, Matko Elezović, Nikola Marangunić, Maja Petrić, Mario Raguž, Ivana Kevo, Ivica Mitrović, Nikša Vukša; VFX – Jakov Šuran; Kostimografija / Costume Design – Margita Videtić, Katarina Bilan; Dizajn objekata / Objects designed by – Oleg Šuran, Ivica Mitrović; Temeljen na / Based on – Čekingrad ( Check-In City ) ( Oleg Šuran, Nera Nejašmić, Jernej Kejžar / Nelly Ben Hayoun / Ivica Mitrović, Interakcije, Arts Academy, Split, 2011 ); Interiors – Design Hostel Goli ± Bosi, Split; Zahvale /Special thanks to – Luciana Škabar, Saša Milanović, Andi Pekica, Noel Mirković, Darko Kokić, Maks Škabar; Dizajn opreme izložbe / Exhibition Equipment Design – Studio Manufakturist; Produkcija /Production – UrbanIxD ( EU FP7 FET ), 2014; Podržano od / Support – Grad Split / City of Split, Umjetnička akademija, Split  / Arts Academy, Split.

Eutropija na City | Data | Future izložbi / Eutropia at City | Data | Future Exhibition ( 2014 ).

65


Često razmišljam o izrazu “rekvizit” – fizičkom predmetu koji postaje središte interesa za dizajn, priču ili razgovor. Uistinu uživam u izrađivanju rekvizita ili artefakata kao fikcijskih elemenata, kao i u pronalaženju i pridodavanju konotacija na druge primjere u radovima, filmovima i umjetničkim djelima. Moć tih predmeta leži u tome da mogu pomoći u označavanju temeljnih elementa u projektu ili tekstu – pomažu da se probudi tajanstvenost ili da se otvore slojevi fikcije koji bi inače ostali skriveni ili neistraženi. Proces dizajniranja rekvizita može pomoći u razvoju samog projekta, te navesti vas, odnosno promatrača da rekvizitu pristupimo kao fikcijskom predmetu koji očekuje da ga se shvati ozbiljno. —— Nicholas Mortimer: Rekviziti kao dizajnerski artefakti


I spend a lot of time thinking about the term “prop”  – a physical object that becomes a focus for a design, story, or conversation. Creating props or artefacts as fictional elements is something that I really enjoy doing, as well as finding and referencing other examples in projects, films, and artworks. The power of these items is that they can help to signify a larger element in a project or narrative – they help to provoke mystery, or open up layers of fiction that would otherwise remain hidden or unexplored. The process of creating a prop can help in developing the project itself, as well as force you or the viewer to approach the prop as a fictional object expected to be taken seriously. —— Nicholas Mortimer: Props as design artefacts


Reference / References 1 Marko Golub, “Dejan Kršić: Dizajn je oduvijek bio značenjska praksa”, In: Dan D: Dizajn na rubu, HDD, Zagreb, 2014, 20–26. 2 Paul Rodgers and Michael Smyth, Digital Blur: Creative Practice at the Boundaries of Architecture, Design and Art, Libri, Faringdon, 2010. 3 Ramia Mazé, “Critical of What?”, In: Ericson et al. ( ed. ), Iaspis Forum on Design and Critical Practice: The Reader, Iaspis i Sternberg Press, Stockholm, 2009. 4 Anthony Dunne, Hertzian Tales, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2005. 5 Anthony Dunne and Fiona Raby, Speculative Everything, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2013. 6 James Auger, “Speculative design: crafting the speculation”, In: Digital Creativity, Vol. 24, Iss. 1, 2013, http://augerloizeau.tumblr.com/post /53524176947/definition-of-speculative-design ( 1. 2. 2015. ) . 7 Torie Bosch, “Sci-Fi Writer Bruce Sterling Explains the Intriguing New Concept of Design Fiction”, In: Slate, 2012, http://www.slate.com/blogs /future_tense/2012/03/02/bruce_sterling_on _design_fictions_.html ( 1. 2. 2015. ) . 8 Dunne and Raby, Speculative Everything, p. 12. 9 Geek's Guide to the Galaxy, “Dystopian Fiction’s Popularity Is a Warning Sign for the Future”, In: Wired, 2014, http://www.wired.com/2014/12 /geeks-guide-naomi-klein ( 1. 2. 2015. ) . 10 Ingi Helgason, Michael Smyth, Søren Rosenbak, Ivica Mitrović, “Discourse, Speculation And Multidisciplinarity: Designing Urban Futures”. In: NorDes 2015, Design Ecologies, Challenging anthropocentrism in the design of sustainable futures, Nordic Design Research, Stockholm, 2015. 11 http://www.ipu.hr/aktualno/188/zivot-umjetnosti -od-teritorija-do-specificnog-mjesta-poziv-na-prijavu -radova-za-ljetni-broj-96-2015 ( forthcoming ) . 12 Yunus Emre Duyar and Alessia Andreotti. “Liam Young on Speculative Architecture and Engineering the Future”, In: NextNature.net,

2015, http://www.nextnature.net/2015/03 /interview-liam-young-on-speculative -architecture-and-engineering-the-future ( 20. 4. 2015. ) .

13 Liam Young ( ed. ), Brave New Now, Lisbon Architecture Triennale, Ebook, 2014, loc 37. 14 Young, Brave New Now, loc 50. 15 Dunne, Hertzian Tales. 16 Helgason, Smyth, Rosenbak, Mitrović, “Discourse, Speculation and Multidisciplinarity: Designing Urban Futures”. 17 Rick Poynor, “Art's little brother”, In: Icon Magazine (023), 2005, http://www.iconeye.com/404/item /2628-arts-little-brother-%7C-icon-023-%7C-may -2005 ( 20. 4. 2015. ) . 18 Dunne and Raby, Speculative Everything, p. 100. 19 Daniel West, Digital poets, In: Icon Magazine (043). 2007, http://www.iconeye.com/read -previous-issues/icon-043-|-january-2007 /digital-poets-|-icon-043-|-january-2007 ( 5. 6. 2009. ) . 20 http://embryo.inet.hr 21 http://www.distributive-justice.com 22 http://stari.dizajn.hr/#1318-lina-kovacevic -future-artefacts-28-5-11-6-2013 23 http://www.zgraf.hr/wp-content /uploads/2011/11/Tema-HR.pdf 24 http://dvk.com.hr/interakcije 25 http://dvk.com.hr/interakcije/2015/03/02 /speculative-design-workshop-interakcije -2015-alternative-present 26 http://dvk.com.hr/interakcije/2012/09/16 /interakcije-2004-2012-izlozba-exhibition 27 http://urbanixd.eu 28 http://www.citydatafuture.eu 29 http://lerotic.de


30 http://umas.hr/nova_akademija 31 http://stari.dizajn.hr/#1318-lina-kovacevic -future-artefacts-28-5-11-6-2013 32 http://www.49zagrebackisalon.com /#!anselmo/c1tl 33 http://nikolabojic.com/art-design /felton-street-emptiness 34 http://www.ipu.hr/izdanja/zivot-umjetnosti /66/zivot-umjetnosti-dizajn-i-primijenjena -umjetnost-design-and-applied-arts 35 http://www.kontejner.org /material-beliefs-symp 36 http://dvk.com.hr/interactions /workshop2011/projects3.htm

5 Aural Fixation, Bronwyn Cumbo, Mads Hobye  / Chris Hand, Hrvoje Živčić / Daria Casciani, Oleg Šuran ( City | Data | Future Exhibition, 2014 ) . 6 Dunne and Raby, Speculative Everything, p. vii. 7 Splitopia, Marina Jukić, Ivor Vrbos, Ivona Mihajlović, Nada Maleš, Mia Vučemilović, Alma Topalović, Marina Bošković, Milica Golubović, Josip Kaloper, Luka Bekavac / Dash Macdonald, Demitrios Kargotis ( Interakcije 2012, Split ) . 8 The Future Cloud is Buried, Søeren Rosenbak, Andreas Foerster, Leyla Nasibova / Gordan Savičić, Hrvoje Kedžo / Oleg Šuran ( City | Data | Future Exhibition, 2014 ) . 9 Coordination of Urban Busy Areas ( CUBA ), Luis Veracruz, Jona Dajçi / Chris Hand, Hrvoje Živčić  / Ivo Holanec  ( City | Data | Future Exhibition, 2014 ) .

37 Ivica Mitrovic, Michael Smyth, Ingi Helgason, City | data | future – Interactions in Hybrid Urban Space: The UrbanIxD Exhibition, UrbanIxD, Split / Edinburgh, 2014, p. 29.

10 It's a plastic world Aleksandra Tomc, Ivan Kunjašić / Liam Healy ( Interakcije, 2015 ) .

Ilustracije / Illustrations

11 Candid Camera, Jan Foraus, Matija Raos, Ana Bekš , Hristina Papadopulos, Koraljka Jukić / Dash Macdonald, Demitrios Kargotis ( Interakcije at Magdalena, Maribor, 2010 ) .

1 Inspirirano / inspired by: Bruno Latour “How to Better Register the Agency of Things: Semiotics”, The Tanner Lectures in Human Values, Yale, 2014. 5:12, http://www.youtube.com/watch?v =18pYfcbBRL8 ( 10.5.2015. ) ( via Nikola Bojić ) . 2 Auger, “Speculative design: crafting the speculation”.

12 Helgason, Smyth, Rosenbak, Mitrović, “Discourse, Speculation And Multidisciplinarity: Designing Urban Futures”; The Design Council ( UK ) , The Double Diamond model, 2005, http://www.thecreativeindustries .co.uk/uk-creative- overview/news-and-views/view -what-is-design- and-why-it-matters ( 8. 5. 2015. ) .

3 Julian Bleecker ( ed ), TBF Catalog, Near Future Laboratory, 2014, p. 107.

Intervjui / Interviews

4 Joseph Voros, “A Primer on Futures Studies, Foresight and the Use of Scenarios”, Prospect, the Foresight Bulletin, № 6. Swinburne University of Technology, 2001, http://thinkingfutures.net /wp-content/uploads/2010/10/A_Primer_on _Futures_Studies1.pdf ( 8. 5. 2015. ) ; Dunne and Raby, Speculative Everything, p. 5; Tobias Revell, “Critical Design / Design Fiction lecture finally written up”, blog.tobiasrevell.com, 2013, http://blog.tobiasrevell.com/2013/12/critical -design-design-fiction-lecture.html ( 8. 5. 2015. ) .

Intervjui su prikupljeni tijekom UrbanIxD projekta ( Resonate festival, Beograd 2013; UrbanIxD ljetna škola, Split 2013; UrbanIxD radionica “Moguće Pule”, Pula 2014 ) te na radionici Interakcije, Split 2015.

Interviews were collected during UrbanIxD project ( Resonate festival, Belgrade 2013; UrbanIxD Summer School, Split 2013; UrbanIxD workshop “Possible Pulas”, Pula 2014 ) and at the Interakcije workshop, Split 2015.


Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu Eutropija, studija slučaja An Introduction to Speculative Design Practice Eutropia, a case study Nakladnici / Publishers – Hrvatsko dizajnersko društvo / Croatian Designers Association, Odsjek za dizajn vizualnih komunikacija Umjetničke akademije Sveučilišta u Splitu  / Department for Visual Communications Design, Arts Academy, University of Split; Urednici / Editors – Ivica Mitrović, Marko Golub, Oleg Šuran; Tekstovi / Texts – Ivica Mitrović, Marko Golub; uz sudjelovanje / with contributions from – Anthony Dunne, James Auger, Nicolas Nova, Tobias Revell, Dionysia Mylonaki, Liam Healy, Tuur van Balen, Nicholas Mortimer, Michael Smyth; Prijevod / Translation – Mirna Herman Baletić ( Language Lab ); ZAHVALE – Dejan Kršić, Mirjana Jakušić, Gwyan Rhabyt, Luciana Škabar; Dizajn / Design – Oleg Šuran; Tipografsko Pismo / typeface – Thema & Thema Moderato ( Typonine.com ); Tisak / Print – Tiskara Zelina; Naklada II. IZDANJE  / 2ⁿd Circulation – 200; ISBN 978-953-6778-10-2; CIP zapis je dostupan u računalnome katalogu Nacionalne i sveučilišne knjižnice u Zagrebu pod brojem 000905820. Exhibition / Izložba ( 15. 5. – 29. 5. 2015 ) Dizajn fikcija: Eutropija Uvod u spekulativnu dizajnersku praksu Design fiction: Eutropia An Introduction to Speculative Design Practice Koncepcija izložbe / Exhibition concept – Ivica Mitrović, Oleg Šuran; Organizator  / Organised by – Hrvatsko dizajnersko društvo / Croatian Designers Association, HDD galerija / HDD gallery; Kustos HDD galerije / Curator – Marko Golub; Dizajn elemenata postava / Installation design – Manufakturist; Grafički dizajn / Graphic design – Oleg Šuran; Sponzori / Sponsored by – Cerovski Print Boutique, Ars kopija. Program HDD galerije podržavaju Ministarstvo kulture RH i Grad Zagreb. Program je sufinanciran sredstvima zaklade Kultura nova. / The HDD gallery program is supported by The Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia and the Zagreb City Council. The program is co-funded by the Kultura nova foundation.


Ilustracija stražnje korice:

Back cover illustration:

slika 12  Spekulativna dizajnerksa praksa mapirana kroz tradicionalni dizajnerski proces.

slika 12  Speculative design practice mapped through traditional design process.

FAZA OTKRIVANJA I DEFINIRANJA: odnosi se na generiranje ideja / koncepata / dizajnerskog prostora, tj. apstraktnih spekulacija, s pripadajućim pristupima ( označenim u dijagramu ) .

Discover and define phase: refers to generation of ideas / concepts / design space ( abstract speculations ), together with related approaches ( mapped in the diagram ) .

Faza razrade: odnosi se na razradu koncepata, s pripadajućim alatima, tehnikama, instrumentima, metodama, žanrovima, konceptima ( označenim u dijagramu ) .

develop phase: refers to concept development, together with related tools, techniques, instruments, methods, genres, concepts ( mapped in the diagram ) .

faza isporuke: odnosi se na materijalizaciju  / ekspliciranje / komunikaciju / prezentiranje u različitim formatima ( označenim u dijagramu ) .

Deliver phase: refers to materialization / explication  / communication / presentation in various formats ( mapped in the diagram ) .


ot kr iva

ch ar se  re e / nj

nj e /  di

sc

ov er

a živ ra ist

ira fin  de e / nj e

fin

problem definition

t en pm elo ev td ep nc  co a  / at ep nc ko

lop

a ad zr ra

 de

ve

Alati / tools: dizajn fikcija ( fikcijski narativi ) / design fiction ( fictional

a /

narratives ), film language / filmski jezik, screenplay / scenarij, storyboard,

ra zr ad

testiranje korisnika / user testing, intervjui i upitnici / interviews and

questionaries, igra / game, fenomeni medijske i pop kulture / media and pop culture phenomena, …

Materijalizacija / materialization: fiktivni proizvod / fictional product, katalog proizvoda / product catalogue, prototip ( dijegetski prototip ) 

at io

diagrams, korisnički priručnik / product manuals, video i film ( nara-

n

/ prototype ( diegetic prototype ), grafovi i dijagrami / graphs and

isp

er ia

liz

tivni i dokumentarni ) / video and film ( narrative and documentary ),

/ m

uk

at

or

software ( apps ), usluge / services, instrukcijski video / instructio-

ac

eli

ija  

 d a /

nal video, modni dodaci / fashion accesories, karte / maps, novinski

ija

r

ve

liz

tekst i televizijske vijesti / newspapper article & TV news report, web

at er

sjedište / web site, “skrivena kamera” / candid camera, elevator pitch,

m

Mitrović, Golub, Šuran

definiranje problema

observational comedy, stand-up, …

ISBN 978-953-6778-10-2

de

ge ne rir an je id eja  / g en era tio n

of id ea s

“kritički dizajn” / “critical design” spekulativne budućnosti / speculative futures alternativne sadašnjosti / alternative presents

Introduction to Speculative Design Practice – Eutropia, a Case Study  

As the part of the exhibition "Design fiction: Eutropia – Introduction to Speculative Design Practice" small educational booklet about specu...

Introduction to Speculative Design Practice – Eutropia, a Case Study  

As the part of the exhibition "Design fiction: Eutropia – Introduction to Speculative Design Practice" small educational booklet about specu...

Advertisement