Page 1

Spring 2018

www.igsmag.com

Intelligent Glass Solutions • An IPL magazine

Re-birth of the Earth Smart Cities & Smart glass

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

SPRING 2018

The Age of Intelligence igsmag.com

WATERT IG H T CURTAI NWAL L S Picture: Topping off the Lakhta Tower in St.Petersburg


Building and Construction

Proven performance. Accelerated innovation.

ENABLING

VISIONARY DESIGN 50+ years of proven performance and continuing advances Decades after Dow Corning helped pioneer the four-sided silicone structural glazing technology that opened architects’ eyes to a new era of design, studies confirm our structural silicone sealants have an expected service life of at least 50 years. Emphasizing silicone’s high performance, these sealants – and our full line of proven highperformance building products – will soon be available as DOWSIL™ brand, with the same trusted silicone chemistries, features and product benefits you’ve come to expect from Dow Corning® brand products.

Imagine a future that’s possible with long-service-life sealants. www.dowcorning.com/50plus Trademark of The Dow Chemical Company (“Dow”) or an affiliated company of Dow. The Corning portion of the Dow Corning trademark is a trademark of Corning Incorporated, used under license. © 2017 The Dow Chemical Company. All rights reserved. AGP15298. dow_42218047915.

®™


WELCOME to IGS Spring 2018 Issue SPECIAL THANKS to all those who contributed to this edition of INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

The IGS Team

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 1


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

INSIDE THIS ISSUE “The convergence of mobility and energy strategies can magnify the economic and social benefits of electric mobility in cities, and ensure increased sustainability, reliability and customer choice” World Economic Forum: page 10

“Is a window glass that reduces solar gain or the level of light automatically, better than a blind or curtain?“ Ian Ritchie : page 16

“Many of today’s building technologies operate in the same manner as our autonomic body functions”. Kevin Hydes : page 24

“The spire as the final part of the Lakhta Center skyscraper was installed without involving helicopters, with the use of the highest crane in Europe.” Dr.Jochen Mignat: page 40

2 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

INSIDE THIS ISSUE “A mix of cultural, residential, hotels and commercial uses, all using the latest facade and architectural glass technologies, enabling the all glass concept to be fully optimized; with maximum transparency, allowing daylight in, views out, providing a feeling of space and connection, benefits no other material we are aware of can achieve, whilst keeping the rain out!. Rachel Haugh: page 50

“Glazed building façades are now becoming vehicles for news and advertising messages – projecting moving images. Once at the office, you no longer need keys to enter the workplace because the scanner built into the screen authorises anyone arriving and opens the door – or denies them access”

glasstec 2018: page 72

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 3


FOREWORD

Re-birth of The time has finally come for us to build that brave new world we’ve heard so much about, that  new frontier, that new horizon, that new dawn, that new beginning, middle and end.  That’s what we’re proposing all things considered. As in many other industries, the architectural glass industry boasts an abundance of compassionate individuals who are protective of the planet and care deeply about its current and future wellbeing.  In many cases throughout Europe and right across the globe, it’s comforting to see how blessed we are with inspirational individuals who don’t simply talk the talk, they walk the walk and actively go ahead and put what they preach into quantifiable practice, creating architecture visible for the whole world to see.  As a youngster I was taught from a very early age that people who say this can’t be done, or that can’t be done, need to get out of the way of people who are doing it. The whole world steps aside to let any man (or woman) pass, if he knows where he’s going.  Right now, the world is going to readdress the imbalance on this earth, to right the wrongs our predecessors created throughout almost all of the ages that went before us, at the time they were doing what they believed was right but, ignorance is bliss. Consequently, you gain experience of life and learn as you move forward.  With hindsight, an exact science, we can look back and see where we’ve

4 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

gone wrong then make properly informed decisions about the things we need to do to resuscitate the earth and get it blossoming in peak health again. We must advance with caution however, the proliferation of new digital technologies, artificial intelligence, autonomous transportation including trains, buses and planes not to mention cars of course. Robots capable of thinking for themselves and able to hold a meaningful conversation will all very soon be commonplace, as of course will smart glass and smart systems and technologies which have intrinsic roles to play when discussing, creating, planning and constructing life in the intelligently connected world to come. The Writings on the Glass The writing used to be on the wall but they say modesty stifles talent so its sensible to point out that “The Battle for the Wall”, as Scott Thomsen (ex-Guardian Industries) perfectly phrased it a few years ago, has been won, all competitors and false gods have been annihilated. Visual connection to the outside is key, so walls are now made of everybody’s favourite see-through material - sexy, shimmering, shiny glass.  Earlier this year Zachary Karabell of “Wired” wrote a piece that went something like this:   There are strong resemblances between today’s tech culture and the elites

igsmag.com


FOREWORD

the Earth who dominated finance, business, and politics at the turn of the 20th century. Those elites had their moment as cultural icons….it’s not just that today’s tech elites are as wealthy as—or really, far wealthier than—the robber barons of yesteryear. It’s that digital technology is much more central to our lives today than even oil ever was.

that can malfunction without the possibility of manual override or can’t protect themselves from being hacked, require constant updating and become obsolete within a few years are not ‘smart’ - they’re worse than dumb”. This gripping thought-provoking article begins on page 16. The Age of Intelligence

Add in the coming waves of artificial intelligence, with smart homes just the beginning, and the arc is for these companies to reach ever-deeper into our personal and professional lives,” according to Karabell. “That’s why there is and will be an even greater pushback against the idea that a small group of companies and executives can reap such vast rewards, dictate the architecture of the online, cloud, AI, and robotic worlds.”   Another spokesperson raised these critical points: “For all the exciting applications of artificial intelligence, phones you can unlock with your face, there remains plenty of cause for concern. Like any technology AI is vulnerable to misuse by nefarious people, a helpful cleaning robot could be re-purposed as a weapon of assassination; an autonomous vehicle could be used to deliver explosives or other weapons of mass destruction.  In the Executive Boardroom Commentary section of this issue of IGS Architect Ian Ritchie says “Attention demanding devices

There is a strong thread running throughout all industries and that is the desire to develop smart cities and smart homes all around the world with a clear objective of a sustainable and human centric earth. Smart systems and technologies play starring roles in this refurbishment of our planet and are much more than simply a trendy phrase in the style of high performance everything a few years ago. As we advance headlong into this “Age of Intelligence” we must proceed with caution, cybersecurity and cyber-resilience have already opened new vocational opportunities with new departments to protect our tech being formed in many multi-national corporations. As smart as we like to think we are any one of us can fall victim at any given moment to a determined hacker. Data and news unfolds at tremendous speed, and nowadays by virtue of the internet and social media, all this data flows seamlessly across borders, this data needs to be fiercely protected.

Move forward for sure, just remember it’s smart to walk before we run igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 5


CONTENTS

4

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

44

Foreword

C a s e S t u d i e s

4.

34. Keeping it tight JeanPaul Hautekeer, Dow Group

Re-birth of the Earth

Introduction 10. Electric vehicles for smarter cities, the future of energy and mobility The World Economic Forum Executive Boardroom Commentary 16. Smart glass will take us sharply into the “Age of Intelligence” Ian Ritchie, Ian Ritchie Architects 24. When buildings learn from our bodies Kevin Hydes, CEO & Founder of Integral Group

40: Sky High - Tallest European skyscraper in St. Petersburg has reached 462 meters Dr.Jochen Mignat, Mignat PR 44: Baha’I House of Worship. Drapery of light with translucent cast glass and marble Juergen Wax, MD, Josef Gartner GmbH 50 One Blackfriars Rachel Haugh & Christian Male SimpsonHaugh

16

24

THE TOWER - INNER SKIN

40

igsmag.com • Website Introduction 31. Lewis Wilson, Marketing Director igsmag.com Intensified engagement with the industry - Welcome to our World!

igsmag.com

50

50

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 7


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

CONTENTS

78

87

Now is Tomorrow

*COVER STORY*

60: To Shade or not to shade, that, is the question Bruce Nicol, Merck Group

78: Watertight Curtain wall systems, key factors to consider Kawneer

68

68: Glazing into the future, how media facades will change our cityscapes Orhan Ertughrul, G-SMATT Europe 72: glasstec says glass is getting smart glasstec 2018 in Duesseldorf

72

Spring 2018

www.igsmag.com

Intelligent Glass Solutions • An IPL magazine

Re-birth of the Earth Smart Cities & Smart glass

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

SPRING 2018 igsmag.com

Picture: Topping off the Lakhta Tower in St.Petersburg

96: AUTHORS DETAILS

Director of International Business Network Development: Roland Philip

Intelligent Glass Solutions is Published by Intelligent Publications Limited (IPL)

Marketing Director: Lewis Wilson

Publisher: NIck Beaumont WAT E RT I G H T CU RTA I N WA L L S

87 Guardian introduce us to high society by detailing US$1.25 billion Jeddah Tower in Saudi Arabia.

Front Cover Photo: Topping off the Lakhta Tower in St.Petersburg Image Courtesy of: Josef Gartner GmbH

ISSN: 1742-2396 The Age of Intelligence

G U A R D I A N GLASS

Accounts: Richard Marks Editor: Sean Peters Production Manager: Kath James

Manager of International Business Network Development: Maria Jasiewicz Design Director: Antony Parselle Page Design Advisor: Arima Regis Design and Layout in the UK by: aparselledesign Tel: +44 (0) 1727 811842

Intelligent Glass Solutions is a quarterly publication. The annual subscription rates are £79 (UK) , £89 (Ireland & Mainland Europe), & £99 (Rest of the World) Email: nick@intelligentpublications.com Published by: Intelligent Publications Limited 3rd Floor, Omnibus House, 39-41 North Road, London N7 9DP, United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 7703 487744 Email: nick@intelligentpublications.com www.igsmag.com

The entire content of this publication is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. None of the content in this publication can be reproduced, stored or transmitted in any form, without permission, in writing, from the copyright owner. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information in this publication, however the publisher does not accept any liability for ommissions or inaccuracies. Authors’ views are not necessarily endorsed by the publisher.

8 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018


INTRODUCTION: TOMORROW IS NOW

Electric Vehicles for Smarter Cities: The Future of Energy and Mobility Smart Cities ‌in particular, the smartest ones

Electric Vehicle Revolution Will Slash Travel Costs in Cities A new approach to electric mobility is needed to stimulate economic growth and reduce carbon emissions, says new Forum report Electrified autonomous vehicles (AV) will revolutionize urban mobility by reducing travel costs by up to 40% and cut down CO2 marginal emissions to 0 Generation of new jobs, combined with resulting improvements in air quality, will benefit human health and could result in up to $635 billion of value creation for society by 2030

10 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

Autonomous and shared mobility, digitalization and decentralization of energy systems require new approaches to electric mobility, according to the World Economic Forum’s report Electric Vehicles for Smarter Cities: The Future of Energy and Mobility. The report, produced in collaboration with Bain & Company, examines the major trends affecting the transformation of energy and mobility systems, with a special focus on cities. In this context, it considers

electrification, decentralization and digitalization of the energy system, along with the shift towards shared mobility and autonomous driving. The report calls for the urgent integration of urbanenergy-mobility patterns to accelerate the ability of cities to meet climate goals, support energy efficiency and foster innovation of services and infrastructure. Combined, these could dramatically increase productivity and generate economic growth, ultimately providing great benefits to citizens.

igsmag.com


INTRODUCTION: TOMORROW IS NOW

World Economic Forum

In the US alone, achieving the transformation will quadruple value for society by 2030, a gain that could be worth up to $635 billion. As the share of journeys made by electrified vehicles increases, the energy system will see: • A reduction in cost per mile of up to 40% as a result of increased use of electrified autonomous vehicles (AV)

igsmag.com

• Additional flexibility for energy system management as electrified non-AV and AV fleets of public, commercial and mobility-as-a-service vehicles connect to smarter charging and ancillary services • Lower carbon emissions driven by increased use of solar and wind energy to meet demand for the electricity required to power electric fleets

“The convergence of mobility and energy strategies can magnify the economic and social benefits of electric mobility in cities, and ensure increased sustainability, reliability and customer choice” – Roberto Bocca, Head of Energy and Basic Industries, Member of the Executive Committee, World Economic Forum.

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 11


INTRODUCTION: TOMORROW IS NOW

“Autonomous vehicles and grid edge technologies are around the corner, and cities, in particular the smartest ones, will deploy them at rapid pace. The mobility and energy players should start building strategies and business models now to embrace these changes and leverage them for sustainable and profitable growth” – Joseph Scalise, who leads the Americas Utilities and Alternative Energy Sector at Bain & Company.

Cities leading the charge on electric vehicles Berlin, Germany: The EUREF Campus business park hosts technology companies and research institutions, and offers charging stations for electric vehicles (EVs) as well as inductive charging for fleet operation. Its microgrid uses artificial intelligence to optimize EV charging and send energy surplus back to the grid, based on dynamic pricing. Buenos Aires, Argentina, Montreal, Canada and Santiago, Chile: Have all prioritized the electrification of public transport through the public procurement of electric buses. 12 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

Dortmund, Germany: The city is developing non-financial incentives for last-mile delivery companies to electrify their fleets: EVs receive permission for extended access to the city centre. Guangzhou, China: The city plans to speed up bus electrification and aims to reach 200,000 new units in 2018. China’s government has also announced it will develop national regulations for testing AV on public roads in cities across the country. Hong Kong SAR: The local government encourages developers to scale-up the EV charging infrastructure. This includes solutions integrated

with the smart payment system, Octopus, which is also used to access the public transport network. Los Angeles, USA: The Los Angeles Police Department (LAPD) decided to switch 260 fleet vehicles to EVs. Charging infrastructure development is also under way and being integrated with decentralized solar power generation. By leasing rather than buying vehicles, the LAPD can invest in charging stations, including fastcharging stations in city centre car parks. London, UK: The Transport for London office requires all new black cabs to be electric or igsmag.com


Permasteelisa Group is the world’s leading contractor in engineering, project management, manufacturing and installation of architectural envelopes and interior systems. The Group brings its Know-How and expertise to all projects, in particular when dealing with Special Features Buildings, beginning with the design development phases all the way to the successful completion, achieving the customer’s expectations.


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

Intelligent Glass Solutions Issue 4 2013

Winter

Issue 4 2013

5 jie Han na Chi io an ud uh NSt , W l, U re ua ke Sq Ber da van WanBen

An IPL magazine

Subscriptions

Architectural stars shine at the Glass Supper 2013

BAU, glasstec, GPD & fensterbau/frontale: the industry’s top 4 events together inside this issue

IntellIgent glass solutIons

Annual subscription is available at: Intelligent Glass Solutions

2015

Winter

5

2015

Winter 2015

£59 (postage within UK) £70 (postage within Ireland and mainland Europe) £96 (postage to rest of the world) Individual copies are available at £40 per copy

An IPL magazine

Name...........................................................................................................................................................

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

Company.................................................................................................................................................... . ....................................................................................................................................................................

Intelligent Glass Solutions

Address.......................................................................................................................................................

RIBA President says: “Be Proud of what we do” GPD celebrates 25 years of Silver Service Society of Façade Engineering: SFE Awards at this years Glass Supper Neuroscience & Architecure, a clever connection

L o n d o n

H o n g

K o n g

M u n i c h

2016

. .................................................................................................................................................................... Fax................................................................................................................................................................

2016

Email............................................................................................................................................................ Please contact me by Tel

to discuss subscription options

(Tick as appropriate)

or email

The IGS Interview: Straight talking from Guus Boekhoudt Lisa under the glass slide

An IPL magazine

Please send me a subscription form by fax

Winter

5

Winter 2016

Tel.................................................................................................................................................................

Schh... Miriam’s talking INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

Post this form to: Nick Beaumont, Intelligent Publications Limited, 3rd Floor Omnibus House, 39-41 North Road, London N7 9DP, United Kingdom. Or Telephone: +44 207 607 9907


INTRODUCTION: TOMORROW IS NOW

emission-free, and diesel vehicles will not be permitted in London by 2032. A total of 80 charging points will be dedicated to black cabs, with plans to implement 150 by the end of 2018 and 300 by 2020. Oslo, Norway: The city plans to have its fleet of 1,200 public vehicles using electricity by 2020, has introduced restrictions on cars entering the city centre and granted access to priority lanes for shared EVs only. A project in Vulkan on the city’s outskirts demonstrates a public-private cooperation model between the city, a utility company and a realestate firm for smart charging stations. Paris, France: The region of Ilede-France and private partners developed Autolib, an electric car sharing service with 4,000 EVs and 1,100 charging stations with more than 6,200 charging points across the region, accessible to service users and other EV owners. San Francisco, USA: The Department of Motor Vehicles provides licences to test driverless cars on public roads in the Silicon Valley as part of an experimental programme. Recommendations for action The report gathers and analyses practical examples and best practices, which can be tailored to local specificities. The principles – required for action by both public and private sectors – and their corresponding recommendations are described

igsmag.com

below. Take a multistakeholder and market-specific approach: A comprehensive approach to electrification of transport will require engagement of stakeholders from different industries and sectors and may vary significantly across different markets based on the local energy mix or mobility patterns. Prioritize high-use vehicles: The shift of the approach to transport electrification, through advancing and reforming regulation, should prioritize high-use vehicles, such as fleet and autonomous vehicles. The goal is to accelerate the electrification of miles to maximize the value creation.

edge technologies are around the corner, and cities, in particular the smartest ones, will deploy them at rapid pace. The mobility and energy players should start building strategies and business models now to embrace these changes and leverage them for sustainable and profitable growth”, added Joseph Scalise, who leads the Americas Utilities and Alternative Energy Sector at Bain & Company. For full report: www.weforum.org/reports/ electric-vehicles-for-smartercities-the-future-of-energy-andmobility

Deploy critical charging infrastructure today while anticipating mobility transformation: In the context of mobility and energy systems transformation, planning charging infrastructures is critical to cope with the risk of stranded assets as well as ensure the sustainable implementation and use of the charging stations and hubs. “The convergence of mobility and energy strategies can magnify the economic and social benefits of electric mobility in cities, and ensure increased sustainability, reliability and customer choice”, explains Roberto Bocca, Head of Energy and Basic Industries, Member of the Executive Committee, World Economic Forum. “Autonomous vehicles and grid

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 15


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

SMART GLASS will take us sharply into

The Age of Intelligence Glass is the most magical and ethereal of all materials, including carbon nanotubes. So - glass is the answer, but what are the important questions today? In October 1999, the American cable network A&E began broadcasting a biographical countdown of the 100 most influential people of the millennium, chosen by a jury of 360 scholars, scientists, theologians and historians.

Ian Ritchie

Johannes Gutenberg, who introduced moveable type to Europe in 1493, headed the list - and with good reason. Mechanical movable type printing was a revolution in communications technology. Within 20

What is a smart city? “A city that uses information and communication technology (ICT) to enhance its liveability, workability and sustainability.” – The Smart Cities Council

16 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

years of its invention, printing presses were all over Europe, initiating the era of mass communication which altered the structure of society forever. Although not his original intention, by creating a means of exchanging information and ideas quickly, cheaply and easily between people of every social class and between different cultures, Gutenberg made possible the Protestant Reformation, the Renaissance, the Scientific Revolution and the Age of Enlightenment. Over half a millennium later, our societies, our economies and our world are being reshaped by the forces of digital technology. And, in an echo of the disruptive force of the printing press, that technology is evolving faster than the legal and moral frameworks needed to manage it. We are not certain where its evolution will take us, but its impact is being multiplied by the data revolution,

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

“Learning from nature - the future is biological as is an all-electric future based on photons” Ian Ritchie. which places more information in the hands of consumers, businesses and governments than we have ever had before, in great part generated through the Internet of Things.

We are learning from nature through neuroscientists

As our everyday lives are colonised by the IoT, we have gradually come to regard the quality of ‘smartness’ in relation to devices as an intrinsic good, worthwhile for its own sake. The term ‘smart’ in this context was first used as an advertising slogan in the 1990s. Although previous meanings of the word included ‘showing quick-witted intelligence’, there still seems little critical thought about what exactly makes these things ‘smart’ or ‘intelligent’. ‘Smart’ seems to equal the ability to sense, plus the ability to exchange data over the internet. At a consumer level, such a device is labelled ‘smart’ regardless of whether it offers a valuable service or whether it only adds a layer of expensive technology to something that can be accomplished more simply, effectively, and cheaply in another already-existing manner.

Is a window glass that reduces solar gain or the level of light automatically, better than a blind or curtain? Which is not to say ‘smart’ home and personal technology isn’t fun and might make life marginally more convenient - that is, until your cloud dependent device receives an update which renders it and your home thermostat non-functional in the middle of winter. The teething problems of this emergent technology are well known by now. Attention demanding devices that can malfunction without possibility of manual override or can’t protect themselves from being hacked, require constant updating and become obsolete within a few years are not ‘smart’ - they’re worse than dumb. More important is that we have lost sight of the hidden thread linking all the ‘smart’ services, devices, and apps we buy: their

igsmag.com

Top: Zebra fish: 6 embryos: Shows Sox10-GFP transgenic embryos, in which GFP and DAPI fluorescence are merged. Image credit: Mariana Herrera Cruz (Instituto de Biotecnología, UNAM, Mexico) Bottom: Zebra Fish embryo: Zebrafish are small social animals that swim together in groups. Their brains are transparent, and neuroscientists use powerful microscopes to watch every single neuron while they behave. They are helping to understand how the brain generates these fundamental social drives that we share with all social animals – Dreosti Lab, UCL Image credit: Annie Cavanagh and David McCarthy, Wellcome Images (Zebrafish embryo)

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 17


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

Transparency in nature

lucrative data stream. Data collected by the corporations which manufacture and enable our ‘smart’ devices helps them develop and maintain a competitive advantage in the marketplace by building ever more desirable consumer products and incentivising their use - in the process generating more user data. Eventual benefits to the individual and society are incidental to the profit motive. Moreover, most of the data being collected about us is not under our control. We don’t know how it is used, or with whom it is shared. It is used to make decisions but examined and acted upon in the light of corporate and, now the potential of data has been understood, political agendas. This imposes a new social dynamic upon our interactions, social institutions, and politics, and one very different from the changed dynamics that resulted from the development of the printing press. When the integration of software, hardware, data and service that we call the IoT is controlled by a few unaccountable companies, we are really considering the implementation of a new system of privatised power.

Glasswing butterfly Greta oto. image credit: Wikipedia

Transparency in nature

This is not a mere technology trend but a political and ethical challenge to which we must apply human intelligence. Surely there is another way? Perhaps reversing it, such that it works for the individual and humanity? We must be able to genuinely examine how ‘smart’ design can be abused or corrupted. It is vital to be able to mitigate the undesirable effects of interconnected technologies while encouraging the participation and creativity they can facilitate. This is not easy to accomplish. And there is no guarantee that private sector investments made-for-profit will create vibrant, healthy cities and societies or broad social, economic and environmental benefits. As we talk about designing ever ‘smarter’ homes, the current estimate of the world’s homeless migratory population is 60m and growing, and the vast urban majority live in poverty.

Composite image of fly against white and black backgrounds. Most insects have wings that appear to be transparent. Researchers from the University of Lund have found that they actually have rainbow colors, but the background of those wings makes all the difference in what the human eye sees. Image credit: /PNAS [Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences]

18 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

In the renderings of bland, luxurious ‘smart cities’ being promoted by big tech companies, designed by top architects, planners and consultants, there seems to be no room for the poor, or vibrant street life, or the

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

opportunity to stray toward the wilder shores of the human spirit. Perhaps that is why the utopian ‘smart cities’ created from the ground up, such as Songdo in South Korea, are generally regarded as failures.

Spectral communication (bioluminescence) in nature

I consider the potential for effective integrated design technology to be greatest for city resource and infrastructure management, public health and safety, and transport applications - all the processes functioning in the background of the large, complex human nests we call ‘cities’. In this context an interconnected system is useful, and smart design could create more resilience within these systems while making them more efficient. However I believe the truly smart cities of the future will otherwise be human centric recognising people as their smartest asset. Truly smart cities are not data mines, but focus on enabling societal integration and creating resilient communities able to mitigate the stress of the rapid changes taking place in our world. Better physical connectivity to encourage discourse amongst the city’s inhabitants would be recognised as even more important than digital connectivity. Integrated communities have always been more a function of the physical city than of digital technology. Architecture which expresses public and community values, not those of the private sector, is healthier and ‘smarter’ if the well-being of citizens, rather than data mining, is the goal. As an architect who has long been engaged in the neuroscience of architecture, I am aware of the scientific evidence that the built environment itself impacts on our brains and mental health. New information and tools

Fruitfly male courting a female: Image credit: Credit: Qinyang Li

Transparency in nature

Sea walnut, comb jelly. Image credit: https://geneticliteracyproject.org/2014/05/22/aliens-of-the-seashow-theres-more-than-one-way-to-build-a-brain/

I believe the truly smart cities of the future will otherwise be human centric - recognising people as their smartest asset igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 19


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

When cities forget about people

cities to use digital technology is to make modest, strategic, specific interventions after determining exactly where they are needed, using the data and mobile technology already available. Even complete connectivity may not be a requirement: a group of Oxford scientists have developed an inexpensive system that will allow any vehicle - not just cars - to navigate streets without the internet’s help. Creating genuinely smart cities will require asking ourselves the right questions and one thing is certain: the answers will vary from culture to culture, and city to city.

La Défense, Paris. Image credit: Philip Beard

are already available to enable us to make the places and environments people live in compatible with their human needs. The interconnected technologies of a genuinely smart city would be used to enable citizens, corporate players and civic society to become genuine collaborators in local government. That would mean encouraging and investing in the shared interests of citizens and permitting the public to access more of the data affecting their lives. Economically, for example, we could (theoretically) have AI software checking companies for the type of behaviour leading to the breakup of Carillion, that would alert the public and government before the situation became critical. It would give governments a better chance to mend loopholes and remove tax breaks from companies that clearly don’t need them. Creating smart cities does not require complex, city wide, technology-driven solutions implemented and controlled by private entities. Successful case studies worldwide indicate that the best way for

20 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

But the political aspects of implementation are inescapable. Smart infrastructure benefiting a city’s citizens can’t be justified in purely commercial terms, and there are good reasons to be wary of semi-privatised infrastructure built on opaque but highly lucrative public-private partnership models. Governments and countries must to be willing to take on the disruption and longterm costs involved, without ignoring the viability of the environment - the natural infrastructure of our world. The human race is facing acute challenges - population growth, global urbanisation and economic inequality, climate change and declining eco-systems. These will not be solved by applying the powerful, revolutionary technologies we are developing to creating toys or smart systems which perpetuate the status quo: commerce unfettered by watchful governance, where financial reward can be obtained from being manipulative, irresponsible, from not caring for others or our environment. Although competition remains the conceptual and economic trigger of our present information-based economy and society, I do not believe that this is inevitable. Collaboration, cooperation and indeed altruism are as common a natural inheritance as ‘survival of the fittest’. We have the opportunity to create an Age of Intelligence, both human and cybernetic, whose morality, informed by cultural and environmental awareness, is concerned with both local and global welfare and where the flows of information, ideas, energy

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

and matter that connect us are enabled by networks of human communication, trust, and distribution. In the meantime, if we are able to free ourselves of the cognitive bias that expresses itself in the tendency of solutions to be adapted to existing tools, rather than adapting tools to potential solutions, we might consider that in the future ‘smart’ may not only mean being connected to the Internet of Things, but might be an intrinsic quality of materials - Smart Glass, for example. Glass is a support surface for inks, thermal and electrochromic coatings, but Smart Glass is a support for information - and hence communication. It is not information in itself. It relies on being touch sensitive, scratch resistant, super clear, unbreakable, available both in large, solid, ideally super-thin display glass format, or a flexible (roll-up) format for carrying.

Structure in nature

Glass sponge skeletal silica 3D structure [Euplectella aspergillum] Image credit: Hierarchical assembly of the siliceous skeletal lattice of the hexactinellid sponge Euplectella aspergillum/ Journal of Structural Biology 158 (2007), pages 93–106.

Microencapsulation in nature

I consider the following areas and issues to be the principal direction of future glass developments: Information: where glass is used as an information carrier (fibres and screens), and when we consider the dream of the information media wall, glass is the essential support. For example: low-cost thin carbon film, combining the electrical conductance of crystalline graphite with the electron release characteristic of diamond, may enable high brightness, sharpness and wide angle view imaging to be created by the controlled illumination of phosphor coatings with thin wall glass construction. Colour creation: not in the sense of creating coloured glasses or dichroic film deposit

Glass Frog – microencapsulation Microencapsulation is a process of coating of small particles of solid or liquid material (core) with protective coating material (matrix) to produce microcapsules in the micrometer to millimeter range. Image credit: Wikimedia.org

We have gradually come to regard the quality of ‘smartness’ in relation to devices as an intrinsic good, worthwhile for its own sake. igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 21


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

Photonic energy

much to stomach – but the technological capability is imminent. However, the developments of coatings on glass to date have barely shown the potential of sensitivity qualities. Critical to future high environmentally performing glass constructions will be the ability of the glass industry to overcome some of the technical issues involved in coating glass at the molecular level.3

Special coatings have been developed in the following areas: Low-E window glass: Buildings / energyconservation Solar control + low-E glass: Buildings in hot climates glare/energy Ubiquitous Energy pv R&D. Image credit: Ubiquitous Energy

Flat-panel displays: TV, computer information / communications Electro-chromic mirrors: Automatic rearview mirrors in cars

glass, but by utilising micro-encapsulation, either as coatings or as part of the interlayer sandwich in laminated glass.

Touch-panel controls: Appliances Anti-reflective TV: Picture viewing Anti-static copiers: Printing, defogging supermarket freezers, vehicle windows

Environmentally responsive walls: A building’s enclosure could have an improved dielectric performance as well as incorporate variable light transmission and would be an example of an active multi-functional glass façade. PRIVA-LITE®, developed by St Gobain in the late 80’s varies (two levels only) the light transmission.

Anti-abrasion: Bar-code readers

Dielectric performance has now a much higher profile, and the impact within the UK of the new Building Regulations 3 Part F (ventilation) and part L (energy) will accelerate the development of new dielectric glass and glass assemblies

Other coating fields include:

Sensitivity readings of the environmental performance of buildings could be made possible through the micro-encapsulation of material that could have insulating qualities, and be able to communicate the effectiveness of the building’s enclosure directly. The thermal imaging we are familiar with that shows the distribution of energy leakage could become overt in the skin of the building itself. The potential embarrassment, as well as the kaleidoscopic city image this would produce, might be too

22 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

UV protection: Protecting organic materials – fabrics and artworks. Energy capture: From ultraviolet and infrared parts of the spectrum while visible light passes; and from single photon activation of multiple electrons. Windows finally become efficient energy generators.

Fibres – fibreglass reinforced composites, glass-polymer composites Optics – optical-electronics, optical security devices Sun Power – solar lenses, mirrors, photovoltaic panels Protective coatings – fireproof, anti-scratch flooring High-Strength Glass – flexible glass, selfhealing glass, lightweight 3D structural glass Self-cleaning – TiO2 Biological coatings – detoxing microbes, air cleaning, and future chameleon ones. For the current markets, the most important developments will be those associated with energy efficiency in manufacture

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

(reducing waste and the need to recycle glass in the process), application (improved thermal performance), longevity of seals, and maintenance (e.g. self-cleaning glass and self-healing glass). I suspect that in the future multi-functional performance glasses incorporating combinations of the above characteristics will be the most useful.

Photonic energy

In the meantime, the evolution of spectacles is an example of how user-friendly intelligence could be embedded in glass. Since their inception corrective lenses have had a single job, and they’ve done it well: bend light. But until recently there has been little evolution in the technology since the pince-nez. Soon, there may be advances in corrective lenses allowing them to change their refractive profile in response to a softwarecontrolled electric current, allowing wearers to input their own prescription and changing it as necessary. Eye strain might be reduced with advanced digital refraction technology integrated into the eyewear itself. Dynamic technologies, such as low-light enhancement and optical zoom, embedded videos and social media, as well as AR, might be integrated into smart lenses which are also attractive. These technologies might subsequently be applied to glass in the building industry, incidentally reducing the need for separate devices. On that note, a final thought for the future. When it comes to sustainability, people’s behaviour makes the biggest difference. With this in mind, the new challenge is to deliver environments and buildings that exhibit

Ubiquitous Energy pv R&D. Image credit: Ubiquitous Energy

intelligence by really meeting human needs, measured by how the people’s brains and bodies actually respond. Our cities and architecture may then be defined as a positive neuro-design learning loop. Natural and artificial light and their quality inside buildings, at all times of day and night, will be central to this. I believe glass, as both protector and transmitter of light and information, will have an everincreasing role for we are optically driven animals with phototropic tendencies! © Ian Ritchie 2018

I believe glass, as both protector and transmitter of light and information, will have an ever-increasing role for we are optically driven animals with phototropic tendencies! igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 23


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

When buildings learn Our high performance future will be ‘autonomic’ and ‘somatic’ Many of humanity’s greatest technological advances and unexpected innovations have happened when engineers drew inspiration from related fields or from the natural world. The late Owen Finlay Maclaren helped design the Spitfire’s landing gear and later invented the folding pram by applying his knowledge of lightweight, collapsible structures. Eiji Nakatsu was head of technical development for the 500-series Shinkansen, or bullet train. Faced with the problem of “tunnel boom” that afflicted fast-moving trains entering narrow tunnels, he took inspiration from the Kingfisher, whose elongated beak allows the bird to transition from air to water with precision and efficiency. The bullet train’s nose-cone design is an example of biomimicry, a concept brought into the mainstream by Janine Benyus in her 1997 book. Janine awoke our curiosity, encouraging designers to look to the genius of nature’s patterns to provide the inspiration for new technologies that could create a healthier and more sustainable planet. Biomimicry draws upon the catalogue gifted to us by the entire natural world, but my own fascination rests with the increasingly close alignment between the design of our own bodies and that of the latest high performance buildings - anthromimicry I suppose. There are some easy comparisons to be made between buildings, their

24 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

component parts and systems, and how you and I function day in, day out. The air handling plant is like our lungs, the facade is analogous to our skin, the building structure to our skeletons, and so on. But dig deeper and the similarities can be far more complex and fascinating. To better understand how this way of thinking has the potential to positively impact our experience of these buildings, we need to explore the difference between ‘autonomic’ and ‘somatic’ systems - terms you might dimly recall from high school biology.

Autonomic and somatic - as in bodies so in buildings The human body is a truly remarkable system, managed through a combination of unconscious and conscious functions. The ‘autonomic’ nervous system, regulated by the brain’s hypothalamus, is responsible for involuntary body functions such as breathing, keeping your heart beating and our fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, the ‘somatic’ nervous system is responsible for the voluntary body functions such as you when you choose to move your hand to scratch that itch on your nose. In simple terms, autonomic functions happen in the background without conscious effort while somatic functions are driven by our decisions. Now, a little context will go a long way at this point. I founded Integral Group ten years ago, a building services

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

from our bodies

435 Indio Way – an Integral project which used Dynamic Glass Windows

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 25


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

engineering and sustainability firm with over 400 incredibly smart individuals. In simple terms, we look after the pipes, wires, lights and ducts that make buildings come alive. We spend a lot of time working with our clients and design collaborators trying to eliminate the need for these systems in the first place - going far beyond the basic engineering by exploring every opportunity



to harness natural systems to do that work for us. Much or our work is purposely hidden from view systems that we expect to just, do their job - much like the autonomic nervous system and the organs that it controls. Many of today’s building technologies operate in the same manner as our autonomic body functions.

Take ‘demand controlled ventilation’ as an example; DCV systems regulate how much air we put into an occupied space based on feedback on the level of CO2 in the breathing zone, just as the autonomic respiratory system regulates the body’s levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide by adjusting how often and deeply you breathe. Or systems of air filtration and heat recovery in

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

modern air handling units, a service provided without any effort on your part by the intricate design of your nose.

Autonomic problems and somatic responses Regrettably, most existing building stock isn’t working cohesively in the background leading to performance

issues. Ineffective and outmoded building controls are often coupled to outdated assumptions of what conditions make people happier and more comfortable. The thermostat that is probably ruling the roost when it comes to thermal comfort in the room you are in right now is most likely programmed based on studies of male-dominated offices of the 1960s. It’s not then surprising

that conditioning a building to keep a ‘typical’ 40-year-old, 70 kilogram male, leaves a lot of room for complaints from today’s diverse workforce. And what does this unyielding, traditional style of autonomic control lead to? A negative somatic response from building occupants - frustration, a building management complaint,

We are moving towards an age where analogs of the self-regulating mechanisms that maintain our body’s health and comfort will become ubiquitous technologies in the built environment.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 27


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

met with a step-change system reconfiguration response from the facilities manager. A response to extremes leads to extreme responses. Conditions swing wildly from too hot to too cold. Sound familiar?

Taking inspiration from the body So how can autonomic systems provide the inspiration to design better buildings? In the past few years the industry has made significant progress with the emergence of a whole raft of technologies that are bringing autonomic intelligence to our buildings, allowing them to continuously sense their environment, respond dynamically and automatically, without human intervention. We are moving towards an age where analogs of the selfregulating mechanisms that maintain our body’s health and comfort will become ubiquitous technologies in the built environment.

28 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

Consider the benefits of dynamic glazing, which last year was ranked in the top 100 solutions for mitigating global warming in Paul Hawken’s bestseller “Drawdown”. Dynamic glass is able to tune the quantity of incoming natural light, and with it to control the heat of the sun, by changing the tint of the glass. This is the same reflex employed by your eye - constricting and dilating the pupil in response to the intensity of light reaching the retina. Understanding how these two responses interact formed an intriguing part of a recent white paper on Merck’s liquid crystal window published by our analysis team in London. Another building technology that is gaining momentum is circadian lighting, which utilises advances in LED technology to automatically tune the colour of artificial light throughout the day in alignment with our body clock, or circadian rhythm. Our body relies on the autonomic secretion of melatonin, in part driven by our access to natural light, to regulate sleep patterns and blood

pressure, among other processes. Our increasingly indoor lifestyles can wreak havoc with this process - in the same way that jetlag hits us all. Circadian lighting holds the prospect of positively supporting our body’s natural functions, promoting an increase in our health and wellbeing. The Therma-Fuser by Accutherm is a building technology that provides an autonomic response that mimics the human body’s thermoregulatory systems, particularly arterial dilation whereby blood flow is increased in response to overheating. Each Therma-Fuser diffuser contains a built-in thermostat and actuator that controls the flow of air based on the thermal requirements of the zone served by each diffuser. This solution provides significant energy and comfort improvements over a more traditional variable air volume approach, and was used in our LEED Platinum rated Oakland office. The Internet of Things (IoT) is maturing within the building industry and will lay a foundation

igsmag.com


EXECUTIVE BOARDROOM COMMENTARY

of the building in real-time, while collecting valuable data on occupant preferences and satisfaction.

for smart building innovations to come. Technologies such as the Nest Learning Thermostat, which still feels novel but remarkably made its first splash way back in 2011, utilise these networks of sensors and actuators with an added layer of machine learning. Nest technology is able to algorithmically tune a building’s operation in response to the behaviour of its occupants. The mesh networking principles of IoT will continue to support the development of adaptive and resilient building systems. In yet another parallel to the human body, these selfconnecting networks operate in a similar way to synapses in our brains. They first formed in our baby brain as the most useful connections became hardwired, and remarkably can sometimes be rerouted and reconfigured following trauma.

Satisfaction is somatic Although our human responses are a combination of autonomic and somatic functions, we get the most pleasure from our somatic

igsmag.com

interactions. Imagine: on a hot summer day your eyes begin to squint from the sun, you perspire to keep cool and you instinctively seek shade. All autonomic responses that make things feel better. But to really feel good, I’d much prefer to choose to sit in the sunshine, shades on, at the beach, cool waves lapping over my feet, with a refreshing cold beer in hand. That’s somatic. Perhaps unsurprisingly there is good evidence to suggest that occupant satisfaction in buildings is higher when we have access to options to exert adaptive control, or somatic regulation, of our environment. The Comfy app platform is a great example of a building technology that works with this evidence base to harness existing autonomic infrastructure while providing a level of somatic input for occupants. Users of a Comfy-enabled building can register and update their preferences for temperature within a space, in real time, via the Comfy app. This data is then used by the autonomous HVAC system to tune the performance

That’s just the beginning. The next generation of building occupants will demand data and performance visibility at their fingertips and expect building systems to prevent or at least actively address any shortfalls. Consider the availability of low-cost air quality monitoring devices such as the Foobot and Awair that are raising our awareness of indoor environmental quality to levels unimaginable only 5 years ago. Devices like these can be setup to automatically communicate with the wider world. IFTTT - If This Then That - is a free platform that enables anyone to add autonomic intelligence to these technologies. No wiring, no expensive or complicated building management interface, no facilities manager or training needed - just a $99 smart plug that can merrily tweet its grievances with your building to the planet.

What Next? I foresee innovation in building systems and autonomic response keeping pace with our thirst for feedback on the quality of our environments. Autonomic innovations will provide the essential infrastructure taking care of fundamental building operations - providing fresh air, clean water, circadian light and shelter from the climate - and meeting our zero carbon goals - without our active intervention or conscious input. Inspired by the genius of our own bodies building technologies may eventually match the simplicity, reliability and hidden wonder of our own autonomic systems. Leaving us all free to devote our attention to what matters - scratching that itch with one hand, maybe with a cool beer in the other. Kevin Hydes, CEO and Founder of Integral Group

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 29


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

y mEntar

IC NTRic -CEntr PLE-ce PEOPle Peo

NTR -CEntr PLE-ce PEOPle Peo

ic -centr People esigned

gs d Buildin ple in mind o e with p

SEEN to

It must

ved be belie

be SEEN

It must

Author:

itects

Rouven

Seidler,

reflec Circles,

Squares,

reflective,

Winter

d could lamellas)  dribsor nted (alsocalle tripsmou e Glassfins aslongglasss Thefinsar al efaçade. bedefined andvertic faceofth orizontal he tothesur inboth:h rentanglesint re mounted ce.Finsa ndatdiffe e de’ssurfa positiona decorativ othefaça tionaland nce func relationt curre tructural, de.Theoc iththe usedass fthefaca relatedw gs, ously elemento fittin lass ndisobvi areaofg allowsnarrow ofthistre entinthe int ation.This developm safelypo andlamin ying cturedand mounting eatavar emanufa thefaçad stripstob edto ount oredgem heights. ent

tren Glass fin

as Glass fin

Center 2014) ention Tech Conv a & Associés, Fig 6: Swiss er Dahl Roch (arch. Richt

ions | 39

2017 |

Intelligent

Glass Solut

al elem a structur

 spacefor offersno ructural tpreview ofst Thisshor dpresentation butatleast lassfins, ussed. thedetaile isticsofg disc ult character eissuescanbe lytheres aremain ntsdesireto someofth glassfins irclie seof Structural t’sandthe des.Theu  hitec faca when glass ofthearc calledall he1950s, ows createso- datesbacktot shopwind t thissystem sedtostabilize nsbeinga applicatio (arch.Henry finswereu fthefirst Paris oneo ioin mthe with delaRad ssfinsfro eopaque theMaison -1963).Gla edth 1952 eplac ard, iewr Bern pointofv structural

|43

tions tGlassSolu |Intelligen

Winter2017

 igsmag.com

igsmag.com

igsmag.com

regular 17 |Winter20

r 2017

ions | Winte

Glass Solut

tpre ralmorph hor Thisshor edongeneesthattheaut llowed finsisbas rentfacad 017.Thisa ds–a oftranspa from2015to2 maintren ves, oneofthe conducted thorbelie lationof ,astheau tion fortheiso rendthat iew.Itsdescrip glassfint graphs ashortrev adephoto deserves on-sitem fapplication. dby easo isfollowe ifferentar showingd

igsmag.com

ar

tive, regul

igsmag.com

rear, regul

S FACADE

tyof lproper t thelas eoptica d,over ecture. odasth finedan narchit ent ndersto çadesi ngrede ency(u vancem anspar ntlybei arentfa ns transp fthead cturaltr sconsta latedto terial)i archite ssando pecificfunctio rt porary progre ughma lopedre Apa htthro Contem ological gerlimitedtos ssionitself. vedeve ttinglig ntrendsha ctechn terials transmi dynami arencyisnolon lofformalexpre rmeablema  esig wd ltof ,ne esu t-pe fins decade rether science.Transp sbecomeatoo euseofligh s.Glass rendsa sth retation ound tha cya dar terp ),bu Thoset ldofmaterials cytren ativein interior goftransparen nsparen andcre inthefie ationofthe ovative danttra rstandin min inn nde bun .illu her isa rdu (e.g tsofth nfindot standa elemen ,oneca fromthe amental edesign hefund infaçad ogy s oneoft onofglas Methodol became eapplicati studies 0’s. viewofth ology the195

ar

tive, regul

reflec Circles, ar

black Circles,

r 2017

S FACADE

the ends in New tr ture of c archite ent facades ar transp

igsmag.com

ions | Winte

igent 20 | Intell

ARENT : TRANSP

IGENCE

T INTELL

MARKE

Seen

ARENT : TRANSP

IGENCE

T INTELL

MARKE

al exception ing for are look in architecture, e who options All thos n of their ntation the executio the be just impleme or design find SEEN to product interior ideas, will high-quality provides design ner. The atile and light, and right part emely vers extr haptics, is s, des e optic rang it inclu range of other things, ralness, a wide Among ue natu es. uniq its shap us ways e with on thin ston be used in vario glass or , n with which can connectio addition the rials. In through carrier mate special, g s with ts glas rent lic growin diffe represen ant acry rtions n rapidly plicated . extravag ensional inse s) has bee com every room three-dimhighlight for s fins (rib dive into the surface of to of glas a special n by the to the t the use g trend – not also show extends fashion ical positions. de) is e ntly tha rgin dicular r shin h now erved receas a strong eme in a perpen tal and/or vert nal (sun sha d inlay A particula lopment, whic side nted beendobs ty ked izon tren twofunctio safe hor mou mar the d latest deve a special,Its de), n h: ps nate rall, bot bee ll faca e: s stri lami has s or ws de. Ove of the nted in and the rang sma– long glas l, ns be mou nated glasof individua ichment ent of the faca glass, that allo the of nitio for lami mal enr degreeThe fins can consists bitdefi a high de. hing ive (for -bearing) elem proper quality This trend with ew, glass. It faça – anyt as decorat thesize load nted. which exhie and nce of short revi tion. forms, e tod ng and abunda are point mou circluse in shap Fins do in a orare lica al (stiffeni result of the that flexibility re, rectangle cturtion s of app ch we will In addi stru ible. elements er look whi different area and fins is a ers,sthe from squalogos is poss d vene ly small g glas ion woo s a clos g the usin a vers company non-shinyof of relative fins deserve showin lies in us use llic uctsafe s on-site n to vario y of the prod glas meta for a of take s gy out of ed use high, and tograph specificit ial pieces incr eastwo Technolo part with pho with the ed nce and of the ions. material illustrat y of Scie Universit reflectiveective basic vers i, Wroclaw a size semi-refl s with inrsBrzezick ll formor: Marc mete idual sma Auth ty milli The indiv two and twen between

er the we gath s? How can user nce of intellige der es Foun oui Hugh e Akka itects. Stephani A Arch of AKK & ceo , speaker Architect or. and auth vision hanie’s n by Step n. Based on is drive AKKA Interactio actions itecting inter that of Arch f , ’s belie Stephanie s of innovation res seed explo r action are the ing Inter can foste Architect and contexts also es hanie is how spac actions. Step ’s inter Stephanie human speaker. n: How or and Interactio ns was an auth itecting actio book Arch through Inter ate to Innov 2017. early launched

believed

lieved

n. A an optio be to – is not would t suggest native an This is some migh mature alter follow. . It more birds to by push better, for the pull, not certain throw food leadership by uraging of ext. of enco example ul cont example a fruitf s as an with ning A serve at point ns by desig get the standing interactio e of the need to you are re sens meters for’ to s. You matu Imagine two t the brick gning rs in ction of h is abou A. What from ‘desi our leaders’ a colle To be leade B – whic to shift shift to point your point ing the , we have . We need to bricks ming word leaving ut throw of with’ to beco witho you away – may think ‘designing being dictators imagine do? You . Now, d work do you roles from this time s. That woul point A, but at bricks. ction of at the facilitator a colle standing B Let’s look ocative are still s, you have birds to point tation? are 3 prov is facili of brick . There get the the birds instead But what emphasize need to story again Throwing can fly like to birds. You I would point A. architect they leaving , since guidelines ly work without ming that design e. Assu necessari – as ions | 21 will not they pleas ing them Glass Solut ever throw Intelligent away wher and then 2017 | Winter the birds killing

By Step

lieved

t be SEE It mus

to be be

IVE:

EXCLUS

be SEEN

WORLD

to be be

ind produc compan iety of r by the the var latest offe used. The GmbH

A Arch

hes, AKK

oui-Hug

USIVE: D EXCL WORL

t be E: ty It mus s IVE: a universi EXC CLUSIV LUS design building ent LD RLD EX asked to artmWOR WOtion itect was igned the 3 dep to the expecta An arch y . She des . Contrar university she campus them on site she of the t instead and buil f and students or pathways, the staf tes s. After of the any rou pus with gras s and the ign didn’t des whole cam ed in the gras e pathways the form ed thes sual planted s in unu k and pav ester, path first sem then came bac were the path none of ed, t only d. Not architec e predict emerge ldn’t hav SEEN, as they that she cou ing – at re s the someth . This is whe location e straight. story are and special nce are ur of this h that importa avio them wer ch they ects beh asp of nt ducts wit ticular s in whi t importa rs, the honesty 2017. Pro ail are of par as the project The mos ember det use s. nce of in glas att, Dec attention to as impressive e. intellige Waldst shapes ity and lity of tim y: shiny ts are just ividual the qua

oom com

Boardr

hanie Akka

N to be

oom com

Boardr

tionS ur Ac All o tionS A ter c Are in

IC ic

y mEntar

ivE ExEcut

ivE ExEcut

Solut igent Glass

38 | Intell

Solutions

gentGlass

42|Intelli

Reprints Whenever your company products or services are mentioned in IGS, whether it’s an article, case study or new innovation we can produce a tailor-made reprint for you to use in your future marketing and promotional campaigns. Reprints can vary from a single page to multiple page brochures. To order your reprints simply contact us at the following email address: nick@intelligentpublications.com or go to igsmag.com 30 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


IGSMAG.COM IGSMAG.COM WELCOME TO OUR WORLD

Welcome to

our world!

Over the next 10 years 18 billion sqm of space will be designed by architects and engineers to shelter 1.5 billion people. An unbelievable stat provided by our hardworking brothers and sisters at ArchDaily and worth repeating to you here. Intelligent Glass Solutions magazine (IGS) serves as the source for inspiration, innovation and building design trends. With igsmag.com we pledge to complement the print magazine and bring you the latest news, technologies, developments and projects in the architectural glass and facade design and construction field. Our readers can enjoy absorbing content from authentic leaders of the industry, featuring amazing projects and case studies predominantly focused on glass, with informative and educational content that is rarely obtainable elsewhere.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 31


IGS magazine has reflected the industry’s momentum over the past 14 years by publishing expert testimony on the central issues that really matter

IGSMAG.COM WELCOME TO OUR WORLD

IGSMAG.COM FOR THE INDUSTRY

FOR OUR READERS

igsmag.com embraces exemplary projects and best practice within the industry. We work with pioneers who are spearheading technology in this transforming sector, and strive to bring their findings and results to our readers, fast. From magazine partners, videos, full length editorials and adverts, we offer you the perfect platform to reach your intended audience.

FEATURES: The features section within igsmag.com brings you the best of glass and facade architecture, Case studies, exclusive interviews, opinions from respected industry figures, and stunning architectural projects focused on glass. Many of our articles and content are written by renowned figures from inside the industry, giving our readers access to the thoughts and minds of key innovators in this transforming sector.

ADVERTS: Full and half page adverts in our print edition, prime advertising banners on our website, newsletter sponsorships plus unique products available in the IGS Shop. EDITORIALS: Interviews, press releases, articles on projects and products, events and innovative technology. PORTFOLIOS: We offer our partners in the glass industry a prominent spot on our website by creating a personalized portfolio page of your past, present and future projects with your beautiful pictures and project descriptions. A picture paints a thousand words. It’s an exciting time to strengthen your connections and intensify your engagement with this amazing architectural glass industry. Subscribe to: www.igsmag.com, do it now!

PORTFOLIOS: View past, present and future architecture from some of the most prominent architectural practices in the world. With amazing photography and project descriptions, readers can access inspiration and knowledge from the best and the brightest minds. PRESS RELEASES: Keep up to date with the latest press releases from glass, facade and architectural companies. Find out fast about the latest projects, technological developments, innovations in glass processing and gripping news stories.

MARKET TRENDS: igsmag. com brings you the latest in glass development, the hottest topics and industry trends. • Complex Geometry • Daylight in Buildings • Environmental/Sustainable/ Energy Efficiency • Glass Media Facades • Innovations in Glass • Intelligent Smart Glass • Super Tall Buildings TECHNOLOGY: We look at the latest developments in advanced glass technology, glass processing, glass protection, research, hurricane resistant/bomb blast resistant glazing, safety and security glazing, surface treatment, enhancement and modification... EVENTS: Discover what is happening in the glass industry calendar. All about the events before and after they happen. We bring you exclusive news from relevant events and connect you with the world of facade engineering and glass architecture assemblies from all around the globe.

TO SUBSCRIBE GO TO: igsmag.com


IGSMAG.COM WELCOME TO OUR WORLD

We work with pioneers who are spearheading technology in this transforming sector, and strive to bring their findings and results to our readers, fast.

IGSMAG.COM

THE MEMBERS AREA – IGS ONLINE

HISTORY

Access responsive e-magazines straight to your mobile device, ipad and computer. As part of the members area, you can read past and present issues of IGS magazine which is published quarterly. Coming soon: We are expanding the members area to include a student zone where architectural and engineering firms can connect with the bright young things, the much sought-after graduates from recognised architectural universities. Monthly and yearly subscriptions are available.

IGS magazine has reflected the industry’s momentum over the past 14 years by publishing expert testimony on the central issues that really matter, provided by and often exclusively written for this publication by individuals spearheading technology in their respective fields, the ones who really know. The objective from the outset was to capture the industry’s sparkle and tap into the entrepreneurial spirit of the global architectural glass business in areas of new technological solutions, and share examples of best practice with as wide an audience as possible. With influential opinion forming content, IGS has always been viewed as a valid and legitimate platform from which to address the glass industry. With dedicated portfolios of architectural firms that showcase their architecture, igsmag.com brings you stunning projects and technological solutions from those pushing the boundaries of façade and architectural glass design, standing on the verge of tomorrow and driving innovation…..hard.

THE PRINT MAGAZINE Do it old school, join visionaries of the glass industry and subscribe to IGS print magazine. Delivered right to your doorstep, home or office, you can receive this popular and beloved magazine first, published on a quarterly basis. With quality content and stunning layouts, each issue is a centerpiece for your coffee table that you and your colleagues will learn from and enjoy reading.

FOR MORE INFORMATION PLEASE CONTACT:

Lewis Wilson, Marketing Director Email: lewis@igsmag.com Or contact our Publisher: Nick Beaumont Email: nick@intelligentpublications.com Phone: +44(0)7703 487744 Facebook: IGS Magazine Twitter: @igsmagazine

TO SUBSCRIBE GO TO: igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

Structural Silicone Secures Incredible Glass Sculpture at 57th International Art Exhibition in Venice Case Study: Qwalala (2017) – A glass sculpture by Pae White

34 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

May 11th 2017 saw a monumental new glass sculpture titled Qwalala by American artist Pae White unveiled in Venice, Italy at LE STANZE DEL VETRO, Fondazione Giorgio Cini, on the Island of San Giorgio Maggiore. This coincided with the 57th International Art Exhibition – La Biennale di Venezia.

Artist Pae White City Venice Country Italy Products DOWSIL™ 993 Structural Glazing Sealant Client LE STANZE DEL VETRO Engineering Partner schlaich bergermann partner Sealant Applicator TM Beramo Glass S.r.l. Construction Contractor Costruzioni e Restauri G. Salmistrari S.r.l. Glass Brick Producer Poesia Glass Studio Project Manager David Hrankovic

The artwork’s name Qwalala references the meandering flow of the Gualala River in Northern California, USA, the wall’s ever-shifting play of light recalls the way the colour and temperature of the water changes minute by minute as it flows to the sea. igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 35


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

“The wall explores the limits of glass as a building material and bears witness to Pae White’s interest in combining common materials with cutting-edge technology, traditional craftsmanship with advanced engineering, and employing industrial manufacturing to challenge the limits of each of these.”

36 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

THE PROJECT The sculpture is a 75-meter-long, up to 2.4-meterhigh “self-supporting” serpentine wall created from thousands of one-of-a-kind, glass bricks, each handcast by Poesia Glass Studio in the Veneto region. The artwork’s name Qwalala references the meandering flow of the Gualala River in Northern California, USA, the wall’s ever-shifting play of light recalls the way the colour and temperature of the water changes minute by minute as it flows to the sea. According to LE STANZE DEL VETRO, the museum that commissioned the sculpture, “the wall explores the limits of glass as a building material and bears witness to Pae White’s interest in combining common materials with cutting-edge technology, traditional craftsmanship with advanced engineering, and employing industrial manufacturing to challenge the limits of each of these.”

THE CHALLENGE The beautiful but complex array of glass blocks posed some interesting construction challenges. Creating a self-supporting structure with bricks weighing 23 kilograms each is not only a work of art, it also is a feat of engineering. German engineering firm schlaich bergermann partner carefully calculated the geometry and stresses of the sculpture and researched multiple options for glues and sealants. The sculpture was erected on site, thus requiring ease of installation of the bonding material and fast cure. Exposure to the elements and the viewing public also necessitated good durability and mechanical strength of the sealant, to resist the stresses of both live and dead loads.

THE SOLUTION Following the selection of DOWSIL™ 993 Structrual Glazing Sealant as best fitting the demanding performance criteria for structurally bonding the glass blocks safely and securely into position, the artist, the museum, schlaich bergermann partner and Dow worked closely together to address the intricacies of the build. For Dow and their authorized applicator TM Bergamo Glass S.r.l., perhaps the greatest challenge revolved around the on-site preparation of a two component sealant and the subsequent application and bonding of around 3,000 individual blocks as the sculpture was built.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 37


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

The beautiful but complex array of glass blocks posed some interesting construction challenges. Creating a self-supporting structure with bricks weighing 23 kilograms each is not only a work of art, it also is a feat of engineering.

38 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: QWALALA

The structure is supported by a steel base and held together entirely by DOWSIL™ 993 Sealant, which has proven structural capabilities, is designed to accommodate movement and is highly resistant to UV radiation, temperature extremes and weathering.

About Pae White

In addition to supplying the sealant for the project, Dow provided product selection advice, technical support and application calculations. The Dow team also recommended their authorised contractor, TM Bergamo Glass S.r.l. who have the equipment and experience required to complete the preparation and onsite bonding of two-component sealant.

Pae White (b. 1963) is an American artist based in Los Angeles, California. Working across media, she pursues an expansive practice that embraces sculpture, installation and painting as well as architecture, furniture and graphics. White’s large-scale architectural installations often are carefully integrated into their respective sites. Her practice is characterized by an unconventional use of materials such as glass, fabric, paper, wire and vinyl and her desire to create work beyond her personal skill set by inviting artisans and industrial fabricators to help realize her ideas. Exploiting the perceived gaps between art, craft and design, White has created an extraordinarily diverse body of work.

SILICONE STRUCTURAL GLAZING

About LE STANZE DEL VETRO

A pioneer of this technique in the mid-1960s, Dow silicone structural glazing (SSG) is a curtainwall bonding technology that uses a structural silicone sealant for structural glazing applications. SSG has grown in popularity worldwide, freeing architects (and now artists!) to create structures previously thought to be beyond the realms of possibility. Two recent external durability studies carried out by Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) in Germany and on the original façade of the ift Rosenheim Building predict a potential service life of 50 years. For more information, please visit www.consumer.dow. com/50plus.

LE STANZE DEL VETRO is a long-term joint initiative between Fondazione Giorgio Cini and Pentagram Stiftung, devoted to exhibiting and studying the art of glassmaking in the 20th and 21st centuries. Pae White’s Qwalala is the second in a series of outdoor commissions by LE STANZE DEL VETRO on San Giorgio Island in Venice. The concept of these temporary installations is to allow an internationally acclaimed artist to work on a large scale and to engage with the space between sculpture and architecture. Each project will be presented over two years, during Venice’s Art and Architecture Biennales, aiming to address both of their respective audiences as well as the public at large.

Davide Bianchi (Dow High Performance Building Solutions Business Developer for Italy) commented, “DOWSIL™ 993 Structural Glazing Sealant’s white colour, mechanical strength and cure speed made it the ideal sealing and bonding choice to help Pae White achieve her artistic vision. DOWSIL™ 993 Sealant is based on more than 50 years of silicone structural glazing science and has a long history of proven performance worldwide,” Bianchi said. “How fitting that it should be showcased in conjunction with an international event celebrating more than a century of art innovation!”

Prior to February 2018, products listed were branded as Dow Corning.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 39


CASE STUDY: LAKHTA CENTER

Tallest European Skyscraper in Saint Petersburg has reached its final height of 462 meters Author: Dr. Jochen Mignat Designed by Gorproject SAO architects from Moscow, the skyscraper twists 90 degrees from its foundation to the top. This special geometry of the building with different storey sizes and the 0.82° twisted ceilings was extremely challenging in terms of its façade construction. Nevertheless, the tower seems to elegantly and uniformly spiral up into the sky. Such an effect can only be achieved with cold formed glass façades. Glazed atria at the five outside edges will be naturally ventilated, and together with other energy saving technologies, the Lakhta tower will be a Green Building. With a total of approx. 100.000 m2, the aluminium, steel and cold curved glass façade made by the German company Josef Gartner represents the size of around 14 soccer fields. Large parallelogram shaped façade

40 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

units give the skyscraper a very high degree of transparency. On the lower levels, the façade is inclined outwards while the upper levels are inclined inwards. The spire as the final part of the Lakhta Center skyscraper was installed without involving helicopters, with the use of the highest crane in Europe. Up to the elevation of Level 87 (368.8 m), the spire has an exploited space with an observation deck. From Level 88 (377.35 m), it accommodates a technical area for the installation of equipment of the building maintenance, communication and navigation systems. The spire has been clad with steel façade types, a stainless steel net, and stainless steel profiles whose elegant design looks almost as transparent as the glass.

With a total of approx. 100.000 m2, the aluminium, steel and cold curved glass façade made by the German company Josef Gartner represents the size of around 14 soccer fields.

igsmag.com


Installation with the highest crane in Europe The skyscraper of the Lakhta Center in Saint Petersburg has reached its design height of 462 meters – a new record of a high-rise building in Europe. At the end of January 2018, the 13 meters high upper part of the spire has been installed on top of the cold formed glass facade tower. The construction of the aboveground part of the skyscraper took two and a half years. The entire building complex with the 87-storey skyscraper, a multifunctional building and a main entrance arch should be completed on schedule by the end of 2018.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 41


CASE STUDY: LAKHTA CENTER

Upper part of the spire with LED illumination, aircraft warning system and ice-melting heating system On the 29th of January, profiting from good weather conditions, the 10 tons upper part of the spire with LED illumination, an aircraft warning light, and an ice-melting heating system has been installed using a rotating tower crane. At the company’s headquarter in Gundelfingen (Bavaria, Germany) Gartner, in cooperation with the stainless steel specialist Edelstahl-Mechanik in Göppingen (Germany), has produced stainless steel sheets up to a 8 cm in thickness. These profiled sheets have been laser- and waterjet cut and then welded and screwed to yield the complex construction. The upper (7.6 meters) and lower spire (5.3 meters) have been transported to St. Petersburg on two special transport trucks. The skyscraper of the Lakhta Center has not only acquired a complete architectural form, but has become a full-fledged part of the marine facade of the northern capital and a new symbol of the city looking to the future. The Lakhta Center is being implemented as a global urban development project, which is unprecedented from the point of view of the share of public spaces that combine educational and cultural functions,“ Elena Ilyukhina, Lakhta Center Director General, member of the board of Gazprom Neft PJSC told. As an innovative multifunctional complex the Lakhta Center will host the headquarters of Gazprom Group and offer public spaces.

On the 29th of January, profiting from good weather conditions, the 10 tons upper part of the spire with LED illumination, an aircraft warning light, and an ice-melting heating system has been installed using a rotating tower crane.

42 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


SMART CONNECTED SIDE STORY

City Planning Needed as 6 out of 10 Global Consumers Expect Driverless Revolution City Planning Needed as 6 out of 10 Global Consumers Expect Driverless Revolution • Nearly 60% of consumers in cities around the world are willing to travel in self-driving vehicles, according to a new World Economic Forum survey; acceptance highest in emerging markets such as China, India and UAE; around 50% in US and UK; lowest in Japan and Germany • City planners and governments need to prepare for introduction of self-driving cars; smart mobility cities such as Gothenburg and Singapore are already doing so. New York, USA 24 November 2015 – The age of autonomous vehicles is fast approaching, and city leaders need to take steps to prepare as the disruptive technology becomes a reality, according to new survey results by the World Economic Forum released today. Nearly 60% of consumers report willingness to travel in a fully self-driving vehicle (SDV), and cities expect shared SDVs to be more common in the next 10 years. In the consumer survey among 5,500 respondents in 10 countries, acceptance is highest in emerging markets, such as China, India and the United Arab Emirates, with about 50% in the US and the UK; acceptance rates were lowest in Japan and Germany. As part of a project the World Economic Forum also conducted interviews with over 20 city policy-makers and transport authorities from cities such as Dubai, Helsinki, New York, Amsterdam, Singapore and Toronto about their expectations for SDVs. The survey showed that most city authorities believe that applications like shared self-driving vehicles are coming very quickly and

will have the potential to be the last-mile solution for public transport. Nevertheless, most cities have yet to integrate SDV technology into their future mobility plans. “Many cities aren’t yet seeing how the programmes of today, such as car sharing and smart parking, might provide an essential backbone for shared self-driving vehicle programmes in the future,” said Alex Mitchell, Head of the Automotive Industry at the World Economic Forum. For cities that have started planning, trials with SDVs are often the first step to test their impact on urban mobility. Such trials are ongoing in Singapore, and are under way in Gothenburg, (Sweden) and Milton Keynes (UK). For the development of self-driving cars, 46% of consumers want traditional car manufacturers to play a leading role; 69% of those consumers preferring a car manufacturer would like to see technology players provide their relevant expertise. The central role of the car manufacturers was most important to consumers in France, Germany and Japan, all traditional centres for car manufacturing. Globally, two-thirds of consumers expect self-driving vehicles to be electric or hybrid. “This survey is reassuring news for the traditional automotive companies; consumers trust them to play a leading role in the roll-out of SDVs,” said Nikolaus Lang, a senior partner at the Boston Consulting Group and main knowledge collaborator of the report. To view the survey results, visit http://www.weforum.org/ industry-partners/groups/automotive.

Forecasted by the World Economic Forum in November 2015

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 43


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

Drapery of light cast glass and Author: Jürgen Wax, CEO Josef Gartner GmbH The Bahá’i Temple of South America, an open House of Worship welcomes its visitors with a unique lighting design. Translucent facade materials such as cast glass and marble create an extraordinary light experience. During the day, the translucent outer skin of the building captures light inside the dome creating an ‘ethereal’ light while at night the facade is suffused with warm light from the inside. The 30 meters high temple, inaugurated in October 2016, has been built on a hill with a spectacular view on the Andean mountains and on Santiago de Chile. With its nine cast glass and marble veils and its highly sophisticated steel structure, the building resembles the closed petals of a flower.

Within a short time, the Bahá’i House of Worship has become an architectural icon and attracts visitors from all over the world. On weekends, this sacred space welcomes thousands of visitors of all religions. Designed by Siamak Hariri, the temple has won the Royal Architectural Institute of Canada (RAIC) Innovation in Architecture Award for 2017, recognizing the innovations in materials, technology, and structure of the high-tech building. The building envelope which has been produced by the German facade manufacturer Gartner, with a geometrically challenging steel structure and translucent and partly bent cast glass, has played a major role in winning this Award.

44 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

with translucent marble The Bahá’i House of Worship in Chile – A temple flooded with soft light

Openness for all as an architectural challenge “This is a place that is welcoming to all the religions, or if you have no religion,“ said architect Hariri. It has been a special challenge for Siamak Hariri, Canadian architect of Iranian heritage, to translate this openness to all people into the architecture of the temple. Nobody should feel excluded. „So how do you create something new that is all-encompassing and open? A building that can be accessed from all sides, with a spirit of tolerance and transparency. My aim was to convey to the visitor a feeling of being levitated up to the sky when looking to the top of the temple,“ said Hariri. Like a flower following the sun, the visitor should follow the light. Hariri was inspired by dappled sunshine beneath a canopy of trees. Also in the Bahá’i religion, light plays a central role. In contrast to churches, synagogues or mosques, the eight continental Houses of Worship of the Bahá’is are round buildings with light-flooded domes and nine entrances. These nine entrances are a symbolic invitation to the believers of all religions to join in a common prayer and meditation. The religious community has been founded in Iran 200 years ago. This monotheistic religion has more than five million followers all over the world who are committed to a humanitarian vision of social development and cohesiveness.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 45


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

Organic shape of a curled flower bud with nine glass petals The architecture recalls the universal and organic shape of a curled bud with nine petals represented by glazed wings or veils. The aim was to create an interplay of contradictions such as stillness and movement, simplicity and complexity, intimacy and monumentality. For the construction of the temple, Hariri has exclusively used traditional materials such as bronze, glass and marble which have been processed with new methods and technologies. As the Bahá’i intended to build an earthquake proof temple that should last 400 years, only material of the highest quality and sophisticated technology were used. The Bahá’i Temple of South America was designed to act as a drapery of light capturing the light. The light is supposed to penetrate the translucent glass and marble and unveil the steel structure portraying leaf veins making the dome an illuminated tent. At night the building casts a very soft and ‘ethereal’ light against the surrounding landscape.

A sacred building at the foot of the Andes accommodating up to 600 visitors Surrounded by nine curved water pools and nine gardens, the Bahá’i Temple is built at the foot of the Andes on a 50 hectares area at an altitude of approx. 900m. The 30-meter-high temple in immediate proximity to the metropolis of Santiago de Chile has a diameter of 33 m and is designed to accommodate up to 600 visitors. It is composed of nine geometrically identical wings converging into a light dome made of transparent glass with a Bahá’i symbol at the central oculus of the dome’s apex. Between each of the veils, the building envelope has been closed by glazed facade stripes with a bronze substructure. The temple can be accessed by nine bronze entrance doors with doublecurved glass panes at the foot of the veils.

The Bahá’i Temple of South America was designed to act as a drapery of light capturing the light. The light is supposed to penetrate the translucent glass and marble and unveil the steel structure portraying leaf veins making the dome an illuminated tent. 46 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

To protect the House of Worship from earth quake impact, it rests on ten seismic bearings that will allow compensating for horizontal movements of up to 600 mm during an earthquake. These seismic isolators are ring-shaped and aligned on a concrete foundation.

Highly complex super-structure consisting of rectangular steel hollow sections and steel nodes During planning and design of the building Gartner has optimized the highly complex steel structure of the temple further reducing the steel tonnage. In total, 420 tons of steel have been used – approx. 165 tons for the space frame trusses, 110 tons for primary trusses, and 100 tons for the steel nodes. The customized steel nodes have been homogeneously aligned and the rectangular steel hollow sections have been connected to the mechanically processed steel nodes. The building is composed of 8,800 individual slimprofile steel members (7,300 steel profile top and bottom chords and 1,500 diagonal members) well as 3,200 steel nodes. In total, 16.800 individual steel trusses as well as 225 support trusses had to be installed. The steel structure is made of main steel tubular trusses, tension rods, bottom chords for the marble interior cladding, and space frame trusses, top cords for the cast glass exterior cladding, as well as the cladding of the columns. The irregularly shaped framework creates highly individual geometries of the steels nodes leading to different angles and rod lengths. Each of the nine veils is constructed in the same way, however, within the individual veils, every single part is unique.

Primary structure and double-skin space frame At the headquarters of Gartner in Gundelfingen (Germany) production of the primary structure started with manufacture of a circular frame with a diameter of approx. 4 meters to allow for connection of all the main steel membres for the nine veils. This ring is the apex of the dome and accommodates the oculus. The nine main steel columns of the structure have been fixed to the circular truss with a Y-piece. Each main member consists of two hollow sections which are connected to the concrete foundation via brackets. The building rests on 18 steel hollow sections with a length of approx. 26,5 meters. Interior and exterior claddings are installed onto the double-skin space frame made of top and bottom chords.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 47


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

The semi-nodes have been calculated individually with advanced 3D computer programs. After transferring the data to the CNC machines, the semi-nodes have been processed with flame cutters. Exterior façade with 3,022 sqm of cast glass, interior façade with 2,015 sqm of Portuguese marble For the 3,022 sqm of exterior cast glass façade, a Canadian company has produced translucent cast glass panels melting down several layers of glass fragments to yield a 32-mm thick glass. With this procedure,

48 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

the original glass fragments remain visible. In Germany, from these cast glass panels with a size a approx. 1.2 x 1 meter, individual glass panels of different sizes have been cut out with 3D-water-jet cutting machines and conical bore holes have been incorporated. With button-head anchors, the individual glass panels have subsequently been connected to an aluminium sub-structure which is fixed directly to the steel structure. Since the individual glass panels within each veil are unique in size and shape, a large puzzle of around 600 pieces

has been produced for assembly. The exceptionally translucent Portuguese marble for the interior cladding has been fixed according to the same principle. For cladding, 1,500 stone panels and approx. 950 round stone units have been used. The 4-meter-high alcove glazing at the bottom end of the nine veils is made of multiple bent cast glass panels. The glass has been multiply warm bent in a concrete mould and then given its final shape. In total, 950 bent cast glass units have been installed amounting to a total area of 500 sqm.

igsmag.com


CASE STUDY: THE BAHA’I TOWER

Construction Project Signboard Owner and Client: The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá´is of Canada, Thornhill, Ontario The National Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá´is of Chile Architect: Hariri Pontarini Architects, Toronto, Ontario Façade Consultant: Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Los Angeles, California Steel Construction and Facade: Josef Gartner GmbH, Gundelfingen Fotos / Photographs: Jose Luis Stephens Nähere Informationen: www.josef-gartner.de

The individual steps of the assembly procedure At the Gundelfingen headquarters of Gartner, the main parts of the steel structure have been pre-assembled to verify fitting accuracy, and then shipped to Santiago. At the construction site, a guyed support tower had to be erected in the centre of the ringshaped foundation. First, the ring trusses have been fixed using two tower cranes. Then the 18 steel hollow sections which had been pre-assembled on site have been connected to the circular truss with

igsmag.com

the Y-piece. In a third step, these main columns had to be aligned to their correct position. Since the main columns are multiply twisted, assembly is challenging. Only by use of chain blocks these multiply bent components could be placed by the crane in their correct position. In a forth step, the cross beams were mounted and then, as a fifth step, the space frame was installed starting from the bottom and progressing towards the top. For this procedure, the installers had to climb into the steel structure in order to adjust and fix the large

number of connections. In a sixth and seventh step, the stone cladding as well as the cast glass cladding have also been fixed from bottom to top. The bronze units and the alcove glazing have then been installed. Light strips made of laminated toughened glass with sun protection coating close the open space between the new veils. In order to tightly close the building envelope the glazing joints between the units have finally been sealed with silicone and the doors have been installed.

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 49


WORLD EXCLUSIVE

ONE BLACKFRIARS

W

e are delighted to present One Black Friars to you. In particular, I am going to be providing a broad overview of the inspiration behind the scheme, what has determined the architectural expression and the presentation of some of our technical challenges in achieving that expression. A little bit closer to home, you may be aware that the project is not too far from here, and is currently under construction. With the shell and claw due to complete early 2018, and the fit out and final completion by mid 2018. By then, unbelievably, we will have worked on the project for 15 years, roughly half of the time that we have been in practice. This year (2017) is our 30th Anniversary. Over those 30 years, we have worked on a number of fully glazed buildings: Urbis, No.1 Deansgate, Beetham Hilton Tower, No.1 Spinningfields, Owen Street (Manchester), Holloway Circus in Birmingham, Dollar Bay and the first phase of Battersea Power Station in London. A mix of cultural, residential, hotels and commercial uses, all using the latest facade and glass technologies, enabling the all glass concept to be fully optimized; with maximum transparency, allowing daylight in, views out, providing a feeling of space and connection, benefits of no other material, that we are aware of can achieve, whilst keeping the rain out. In terms of One Black Friars, we were working with Saint-George, part of the Barclay Group to provide a mixed use scheme occupying a whole city block, comprising three distinct buildings of which the tower is the most dominant component. It provides 274 new homes and a viewing lounge. There is a podium building which contains leisure facilities, bar and restaurants. Hovering over the podium is

50 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


ONE BLACKFRIARS

WORLD EXCLUSIVE RACHEL HAUGH FO U N D I N G PA R T N E R

CHRISTIAN MALE PA R T N E R

THE TOWER - INNER SKIN

In terms of context, it is most obviously a central London site on the south side of the northern most bend of the River Thames, very close to St Paul’s Cathedral. Amazingly, given its proximity, the site has no impact on the viewing corridors.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 51


WORLD EXCLUSIVE

ONE BLACKFRIARS

a four-storey linear form that houses 160 hotel bedrooms. All are located around a new public square and over a three-storey basement. In terms of context, it is most obviously a central London site on the south side of the northern most bend of the River Thames, very close to St Paul’s Cathedral. Amazingly, given its proximity, the site has no impact on the viewing corridors. However, one view, from the 1950s bridge in St.James’ Park was contentious with historic England and resulted in a significant height reduction from 180m to 170m during its evolution. Given its location, there is no front or back to the building, it presents a face to St Pauls, to the city. In particular, it presents a face to Southwark at the bridge head of Black Friars Road. What we see is a gateway to Southwark, signalling change and ambition. In terms of our key objectives for the project, they were to create a beautiful, elegant marker on the skyline, a form rising to address the city and St Pauls, a new public place responding to the characteristics of the place, reactivating and enhancing the immediate locality and becoming an integral part of the dynamic of London and a desirable, comfortable and enjoyable environment to live in, in the heart of a vibrant city; the program for which would allow us to work with the form. In terms of the marker, the tower marks the centre-line of the bend in the river, the gateway to Southwark. It forms part of a sign-wave composition with other developments along the South Bank. It responds to the dynamic movement of the river and the road. It is not static, it is not a formal tower like a column or a pillar; its located deliberately on the edge of the site, almost leaning over the river; it is a bespoke, unique form derived from place and context; it is not reliant on the program or technical requirements to determine its architectural formal expression. We explored many iterations of form in an attempt to create the essence of place. In summary, the form was shaped to address the river which folds around it, inclined to

52 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


ONE BLACKFRIARS

WORLD EXCLUSIVE

We explored many iterations of form in an attempt

THE TOWER - INTEGRATION OF the PENETRATIONS to create the essence of place. In summary, form was shaped to address the river which folds around it, inclined to meet the ground and the sky and rotated towards St Pauls.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 53


THE THE SCHEME: SCHEME: HOTEL HOTEL && PODIUM PODIUM

WORLD EXCLUSIVE RENNIE RENNIE STREET STREET BUILDING BUILDING

ONE BLACKFRIARS

TOWER TOWER TERRACE TERRACE PUBLIC PUBLIC SQUARE SQUARE PODIUM PODIUM BUILDING BUILDING

meet the ground and the sky and rotated towards St Pauls. Finally, sculpted to reduce width and introduce a dynamic directional quality. Basically, it was shaped by eye until we felt that it had a certain beauty and elegance. Having sculpted the form, we then needed to rationalize and describe it geometrically so that it could be constructed. From the geometry, 3D models were built; illustrating one of the many models showing the precedence of smooth taut skins that we shared with Yuanda, the envelope sub-contractor. These models generated all the general arrangement drawings, and in all, over 1500 drawings formed the envelope package.

A SENSE A SENSE OFOF PLACE PLACE

THE THE SCHEME: SCHEME: GROUND GROUND FLOOR FLOOR

In terms of the timeline, this was a process of evolution of this highly bespoke form which was only possible where and when end values (residential values) were sufficiently high to sustain the investment. The residential tower has a slender profile as distinct for a commercial brief and the corresponding requirement for a large floor plate. It is half the width of Swiss Re (The Gherkin) for example. The opportunity for a delicate shaped solution has resulted in what we believe is an elegant, beautiful and dynamic form. Fundamental to the design of the tower was the creation of a new public space at the heart of the site and new city block. It’s central focus is reinforced by routes across and through the site and by the definition of the site edges and soft corners of the new buildings that suggest and encourage movement and connections to a wider pedestrian network, linking it to the South Bank framework of pedestrian walkways and connecting the London Eye, Royal Festival Hall, National Theatre, Tate Modern with The Globe Theatre, Moore London and City Hall. The ground level plaza is activated by the main entrances and frontages to all activities, together with the landscape, including water features and art work. The generous scale of the open space is only made possible by the tapering nature of the tower and the resulting variation of plan size across the floors, exemplified by the contrast shown between the ground floor and roof plan and the two intermediate

54 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


ONE BLACKFRIARS

WORLD EXCLUSIVE

THE SCHEME: GROUNDGROUND FLOOR FLOOR THE SCHEME: THE SITE

THE SITE THE TOWER - THE INNER SKIN

THE TOWER - THE INNER SKIN

THE TOWER – ELEVATIONS

Ladder 6 – 2nd coat

igsmag.com

THE TOWER TOP - ASSEMBLY OF BIRDCAGE IN CHINA

Ladder 1 upper – Galvanised lower section due back tomorrow Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass

Solutions | 55


WORLD EXCLUSIVE

ONE BLACKFRIARS

residential floors. This horizontal scan through the building illustrates the variable floor plates that allow the required flexibility of form and also for the apartments to be arranged to provide a wide variety of sizes, with each apartment unique. In terms of the external expression of the tripartite composition, the component parts of the tower, the hotel and the podium retail are all linked by form, materiality and detail. In this way, they comprise a singular composition, creating and defining a real sense of place, a new public amenity and everchanging experience. A sense of arrival at the drop-off is heightened by means of free standing mono cut canopy structures located independently of the tower that they are serving. The way the building hits the ground is critical; it touches the ground lightly by means of minimal physical contact and materials. The fourteen free-standing, fully expressed and articulated columns at ground level are gently tapering and the outer glazed skin drops over them, stopping short and hovering above the ground to define a shallow entrance zone. The elegant and slender, smooth, off-white columns reinforce the integrity of the materiality. They appear crafted and appropriate to the tower form and though formed by complex means, seem to defy the load that they’re each supporting, the equivalent of 23 blue whales, 65 tanks or 365 buses. The whole development sits on a threestorey concrete basement, housing car parking and amenities including a swimming pool and a spa. It comprised the largest single concrete pour ever achieved in Europe and that was 17 hours long from 400 trucks, to form a raft slab supported by 36 large diameter bearing piles. Returning to the form, we wanted to create a beautiful building on the London Skyline, to add positively to the silhouette of the city. Whilst subjective, we believe this perception to be based on slenderness, elegance, proportion, symmetry, a timelessness. With these aspirations in mind, the form developed like a sculpture, working to a height of 170m with a residential program. Our approach to the envelope was to

56 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


ONE BLACKFRIARS

WORLD EXCLUSIVE

In terms of the external expression of the tripartite composition, the component parts of the tower, the hotel and the podium retail are all linked by form, materiality and detail.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 57


WORLD EXCLUSIVE

ONE BLACKFRIARS

design it to reinforce the form, using glass to moderate the weather, allowing natural light in and allowing views out. We developed a building within a building, a twin skin format, with an inner and outer, separated by a winter garden which would achieve a layering, a depth and texture at all distances. We believe the gathering together of the 274 apartments into a singular form has validity in that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts. A typical floor plan illustrates generous apartment layouts with interior design client-led with Tara Bernard. Although each plan is different, it is about maximising access to daylight, the view, aspect and outlook to St Pauls and the city whilst moderating the internal/external relationship by means of the twin skin and the winter gardens; It’s not about expressing structure or services here. In terms of the twin skin, the outer skin is flush, fluid, smooth, single-glazed, defined in part by discrete pin stripes and low iron reflective glass with two reflective coatings. It reinforces the buildings organic geometry, it prescribes the form with very little relationship to the inner skin. The space between the two acts to temper the internal environment; the inner skin is formed from back painted and insulated glass panels in 15 metallic colours from orange and earthy tones at the base to silver and sky at the top; It’s the thermal line and includes doors, walls and effectively windows. The inner skin will therefore be evident through the outer skin, the combination provides depth and layering, a layering of texture, grain and colour signifying an inner life, a vitality, a duality of both the singular form and a series of articulated individual homes that’s constantly changing, both externally by means of the light, shade, reflections, refractions and louvers; and internally by activity and individual intervention. These progress shots are beginning to illustrate our intention; we are currently delivering the scheme with multiplex. As we know it is all well and good having a concept, but it is that translation into production and delivery that is key to the success of a project.

58 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


ONE BLACKFRIARS

WORLD EXCLUSIVE

it is about maximising access to daylight, the view, aspect and outlook to St Pauls and the city whilst moderating the internal/external relationship by means of the twin skin and the winter gardens; It’s not about expressing structure or services here.

This Case Study on One Blackfriars was presented at The Glass Supper 2017

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 59


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

To shade or not to shade There is no question that great architecture is about space and light. What makes a quality space work? One that provokes emotion and rational discussion? How are these spaces ultimately rationalised to produce the expectation of quality of life we now treat as the norm in our society? Light is the main contributing factor. We have known the benefits of natural light for many years. The desire to create spaces which maximise the use of natural daylight

60 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

is growing all the time as we move towards societies which spend more time living and working in urban environments. Many studies show the benefits of natural daylight in terms of health, productivity, efficiency, well-being and comfort. Therefore, architectural space becomes more a vehicle to temper, in some way, the amount and quality of light that enters the living/working environments we occupy.

igsmag.com


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

– that, is the question. These are the two basic ingredients used for millennia by architects to produce timeless human responsive designs.

Our natural light source is of course our sun. The sun produces our light and heat. Depending where we are on the planet has an immediate bearing on how many hours light and solar heat gains we are able to benefit from. With this comes a requirement to provide some degree of shading. To shade a façade allows not just the control of the solar heat gains, but brings with it a degree of control of the space and light which enters into our lives. Shading has been used over time as a climate modifier and is as old as architecture itself. So called “smart” technology has been with us from day one. The requirements of today’s growing urbanisation, together with a desire to combine the benefits of natural daylight, has meant that façade design has become the art of protecting the building envelop from the effects of too much solar heat gain. We have therefore seen a proliferation of varying

igsmag.com

shading techniques from basic external shading devices to complex double skins and closed cavity systems. All have been considered as ways to keep the energy of the sun off the glass whilst providing as much light transmission and daylight as possible for the building occupants. The evolution of the high performance coatings for glass to facades is one way to be selective of which wavelengths of light, and energy, enter an internal space. Cut

To shade a façade allows not just the control of the solar heat gains, but brings with it a degree of control of the space and light which enters into our lives.

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 61


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

out as much of the infra-red spectrum as possible and therefore reduce the amount of heat gain entering a building. This has the knock-on effect of how much cooling is then required for those spaces to be comfortable to live and work in. Coatings have been a very successful way to deal with some of the heat build-up issue. Apart from producing the desired light transmission and shading co-efficient (g-value) they are, to all intent and purposes, transparent. Transparency is of course, a major requirement for the world we live in today. The connection to the outside world and the benefits this brings is also starting to be well documented and better understood. However, the physical limits of coating technology has almost been reached. The advantages of 4 silver coatings as opposed to the best current triple silver high performance coatings is negligible. These coatings have all been tried and tested in many endless combinations together with the

other techniques being employed to enhance the shading to faรงade glass. Examples of the variances of shading devices, and techniques, can be seen on facades across the world. All take the shape of a physical barrier of one form or another. Most are static but some are moveable. The animation is due to a desire to remain as transparent as possible. All static systems stop transparency to some degree or other. Screen printing on glass is one form of passive solar shading. However, its effectiveness as a solar shading device, without any high-performance coating, is very limited. Therefore, printing on glass whether, through a screen or by digital means, can at best be an aesthetic contributor to the design of a faรงade. On its own this technique will not meet any current shading requirements and will only mean that more cooling loads, and therefore costs, would be required for any space behind those fancy facades.

Buildings, which account for more than 30% of global carbon emissions, are a key component of the climate change solutions, and many cities around the world have committed to minimising the environmental impact of their new and existing building stock

62 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

Codes and regulations have, and will in the future, become ever more stringent as we strive to produce more energy efficient façade designs. This has a knock-on effect of producing facades with more opaque areas, and more shading devices. Thus reducing the benefits of natural daylight and transparency. With this in mind, any glass that starts to offer some level of dynamism in a way that can control the light transmission and g-value, whilst keeping an optimal transparency, has immediate benefits to the aspirations of current designers as well as in the near future. We are now back talking about these timeless topics, space, light, transparency along with the additional qualities of the well-being and comfort for

the user/occupants. Those who are directly impacted by the nature of the façade design and quality of space provided. Dynamic glass already has some history in façade design. These are glass types which are able to alter appearance from a light state to dark state and back again. Controlling a changing range of both g-value and light transmission, whilst keeping the transparency, can mean facades no longer need shading devices or strategies like the double skin or closed cavity. The first generation in dynamic glass, electrochromic glass types, have been seen to have benefits that static high performance coatings and mechanical devices have struggled with. That

Merck Liquid Crystal Glass operating in a fully transparent, isolated shading mode. Data from Elementa white paper Chasing Transparency – February 2018

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 63


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

Recently, Merck have introduced what can be seen as a step change to the dynamic, adaptive glass world. is to say, how to control the solar heat gain whilst keeping a high level of transparency. However, these early first generation glass types have unfortunately been slow reacting and restricted in colours due to the coating technologies used to make them active. A great concept for façade designers, but lacking in the flexibility required to make truly dynamic adaptable facades that the design world wants to achieve.

This is a different technology from the first generation dynamic glass types. There is now a true dynamism when needed. The switching times from light to dark state are around a second. Irrespective of glass size. On-going discussions with architects have suggested this may actually be too quick. Therefore, dynamic switching speed is also possible. Studies into pupil reaction time suggest that switching speeds should be within a few seconds. Licrivision also has the possibilities to vary switching speeds to suit performance criteria. As the technology is one which is liquid crystal based there are also possibilities to add pigmentation into the individual liquid crystal mixtures making for a possible wide varied colour spectrum. However, the drive for colour neutrality, rather than full

Slow switching speeds from light state to dark state of these first generation glass types mean solar heat gains are still entering spaces during these switching times, which could be Double Glazed Unlit several times in a daily cycle. More – Unblinded heat gain equalling more cooling loads and costs.

Double Glazed Unlit – With blinds

Colours, and more importantly colour rendering, ie. how true surface colours behind these electrochromic glass types are perceived, has also been an issue. One which is just now being studied as part of the wellbeing comfort range of quality spatial experience. Recently, Merck have introduced what can be seen as a step change to the dynamic, adaptive glass world. With the liquid crystal technology employed in Licrivision, there is now a glass that has much better flexibility where needed.

Studies into pupil reaction time suggest that switching speeds should be within a few seconds. Licrivision also has the possibilities to vary switching speeds to suit performance criteria.

Insulated Glass Option pull blinds Loose transparency

64 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

Data from Elementa white paper Chasing Transparency – February 2018

igsmag.com


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

use of colour throughout, seems to be the overriding design factor in this field. The colour rendering of the liquid crystal is very similar to that of regular façade glass, giving little or no difference to internal finishes and the quality of perceived light. Again, according to discussions we have held with architects and building designers, this is one of the leading design requirements. Basically the technology that Merck Liquid Crystal Window product utilises is a transparent material comprising a mixture of dyes and liquid crystals and is applied

between two panes of glass that have an invisible conductive coating. As a very low power (1W/m2) is applied the crystals alter their orientation, thereby changing the position of the colour molecules. The position of these molecules determines the translucency of the system, which affects whether the glazing is perceived as bright or dark. This, simple transition allows for the dynamic range of both daylight transmission and g-value. Façade design can return to a simple external envelope that is both high performing whilst space saving and energy efficient.

The colour rendering of the liquid crystal is very similar to that of regular façade glass, giving little or no difference to internal finishes and the quality of perceived light. Closed Cavity Facade – Unshaded

Closed Cavity Facade – With fins

Closed Cavity Façade Option operate shading Reduce transparency

igsmag.com

Data from Elementa white paper Chasing Transparency – February 2018

Merck LCW – Bright state

Merck LCW – Tinted state

Merck Liquid Crystal Window Options – Change tint to glass Fully Transparent

Data from Elementa white paper Chasing Transparency – February 2018

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 65


NOW IS TOMORROW: TO SHADE OR NOT TO SHADE

To wrap up, the facts are that climate change is one of the greatest challenges that our global communities currently face, Buildings, which account for more than 30% of global carbon emissions, are a key component of the climate change solutions, and many cities around the world have committed to minimising the environmental impact of their new and existing building stock. With the renewed focus on occupants, buildings are now expected to enhance quality of life, improving health, wellbeing and productivity, both at home and in the workplace. The industry is now tasked with delivering efficient, low-carbon buildings that maintain a high level of occupant comfort. To coin a phrase, buildings designed with people in mind. The building’s façade, which provides an interface between the indoor and outdoor environments, has become a crucial factor in the performance of today’s buildings. The well-established issues of façade design, including the tensions between daylight

penetration, solar control, glare mitigation and thermal comfort are well documented. The continuing architectural trend toward highly glazed buildings has spurred the advancement of façade technologies that seek to resolve these issues while maximising façade transparency. Façade design now plays a major role in how much energy is required to run a building and therefore how much that building’s carbon foot print affects the environment we live in together. We know the overall carbon emissions need to be drastically reduced, so a dynamic glass that is able to reduce cooling loads will have a positive long term effect on reducing the overall carbon footprint. To shade or not to shade may still be the question, but liquid crystal glass is very much seen to be the answer.

Bruce Nicol RIBA Architect Head of Global Design Merck Liquid Window Technology

We know the overall carbon emissions need to be drastically reduced, so a dynamic glass that is able to reduce cooling loads will have a positive long term effect on reducing the overall carbon footprint.

66 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


We’re not done yet…

there’s so much more to come! On the very next page you can read about the anticipated impact of media facades glasstec 2018 are hitting the right spot with an article about the types of smart glass and glazing systems you can expect to see in Duesseldorf this October, read all about this on page 72 The paper beginning on page 78 is virtually THE LAW, immerse yourself in the comprehensive lesson Mark Hanson of Kawneer imparts to us on Watertight Curtainwalls, a riveting paper. All this and more, Guardian talk explicitly about Jeddah Tower and reveal why they are fast becoming the go to guys when it comes to supplying glass to record breaking tall buildings.

Don’t waste any more time, turn the page and enjoy your reading!


NOW IS TOMORROW: GLAZING INTO THE FUTURE

Glazing into how media facades will By Orhan Ertughrul, Executive Vice President, G-Smatt Europe

68 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

Our cityscapes and how we work, live and relax within both the buildings and the surrounding urban spaces are set to change beyond all recognition in the next 20 years. One of the key drivers of this change will be the continuing digital revolution and the evolution of what many are calling the ‘smart city’. A multiplicity of powerful and connected systems will be generating data on the health, status and well-being of not only our Smart Cities and all that that physically comprise eg transport, lighting, footfall, energy consumption etc but also of us, their citizens. However, the generation of information is only part of the smart city story. The gathering of data is not beneficial in its own right; it will only become meaningful and have commercial value if it, the data or information is processed and presented in a relevant and timely manner. If done properly both businesses, local governing bodies and citizens should be able to respond to the data in such a way as to add value and improve their own lives. Inevitably much of this data will be available through mobile devices and these will doubtless be the mainstay of communicating within the smart, digital city. >

igsmag.com


NOW IS TOMORROW: GLAZING INTO THE FUTURE

the future change our cityscapes Our cityscapes and how we work, live and relax within both the buildings and the surrounding urban spaces are set to change beyond all recognition in the next 20 years.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 69


NOW IS TOMORROW: GLAZING INTO THE FUTURE

These new and much larger façades will facilitate far more creativity and we should be prepared to expect the unexpected.

it will not be the only or most important feature, and any advertising that is done will be far more experiential and creative than just displaying a logo and product image, which is what we are familiar with today. These new and much larger façades will facilitate far more creativity and we should be prepared to expect the unexpected. Even at this early stage in the uptake of this technology architects, designers, appdevelopers and organisations are coming together and developing ideas that, if they come to fruition, will truly transform the digital cityscape. They include:

Interactivity & Integration – this can work

A sophisticated media façade allows an architect to create an aesthetically beautiful design using both the physical form and the additional medium of light.

Whilst it may be possible to send a message to numerous individual devices an alternative means of communicating with large numbers on a ‘live’ basis may be with large media façades. These additions to public and commercial buildings will provide a powerful new way of communicating relevant and pertinent information. Manufactured from an architectural grade glass that is both durable and resilient, but also fully transparent with full rich media capabilities, these facades have the potential to change the cityscape as we know it. Not only are they a channel for 21st century communication, but they will also provide opportunities for entertainment, new interactive leisure and play opportunities and will be a key influence on how both new and existing urban spaces are used, enjoyed and developed in the city of the future.

The role of glass in the smart city When you think of a media façade, the first image that comes to mind is probably Ridley Scott’s iconic depiction of the Coca Cola advert on the side of a building in “Blade Runner”. Whilst advertising is doubtless going to be a feature of these media facades

70 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

on several levels. For Chinese New Year 2016, an app for mobile devices was created that allowed people to ‘throw’ digital fireworks onto the side of a building. However, there are other things that can be done with this technology; we are able to react to sound, movement, weather and amend the displayed content accordingly eg transport information, weather warnings and emergency services advice, which could be life-saving in the case of a major incident. With ubiquitous mobile app penetration, it is not unfeasible to foresee a time when the media façade or screen could even react to the presence of individuals enabling them to receive a personalised message.

Architectural gaming, with the game taking place on the side of a building could breathe new life into run down or deserted areas. Imagine a square or plaza that falls dead and becomes a ‘no-go zone’ after office hours. Then install a glass façade upon which teams of players could interact and play games. This would drive regeneration as food and retail outlets would pop up to support the new game playing visitors to the neighbourhood, creating new energy and a new hub, for a different audience, within a city.

Digital Signage – Whilst these new glass façades obviously lend themselves to the latest, classical forms of advertising where the quality of the highest end products can be reflected and replicated on a huge screen there is scope for far more dynamic forms of advertising. Imagine the launch of a new car where it could be seen to be ‘driving’ around a city, using these media facades not only on buildings but may be smaller, pop

igsmag.com


NOW IS TOMORROW: GLAZING INTO THE FUTURE up installations that have been temporarily installed for the duration of the campaign. Target audiences could be encourage to “Take a photo of the car at a particular site and could win a prize”.

Architectural Design – A sophisticated media façade allows an architect to create an aesthetically beautiful design using both the physical form and the additional medium of light. The building may change colour throughout the day, or by playing with the perspectives, they would be able to create stunning visual illusions and merge the structure seamlessly into its environment. With clever use an outdated, ‘ugly’ building could be rendered far more pleasing and acceptable; a fix for failing architecture. It also gives the building the power to share externally experiences that previously have only be accessible to those inside the building eg whilst an original work of art may be being created in a museum or studio, its actual creation could be shared on the exterior for all those outside to witness. Not only does this generate wonder and engagement with a wider audience but its gives the building a new energy.

The technology behind the creativity G-SMATT Media Glass is a laminated glass product. It is composed of a 4mm base glass coated in fluorine tin oxide (FTO) which is both conductive and transparent. Each panel has an FTO surface layer into which is etched the necessary circuity, using one of the world’s largest etching machines. The LEDs are then attached in their precise positions. The cover glass is typically a heat soaked, tempered 6mm glass allowing the finished unit to be rated as a safety glass. A resin is then poured between the plates and hardened using UV light. The finished assembly is connected to drivers hidden in an aluminium frame by flexible printed circuit boards (FPCBs) which are connected to DVI controllers and an external power source. The controllers determine the orientation of the panels and how video files will be played across the glass.

The media display’s resolution is

determined by the: • spacing of the LEDs • coverage of the glass façade • distance from which the screen is viewed. Although still to be installed externally for the first time in the UK, the glass has already been used in Asia on for: • Architectural – large scale media facades • Interiors – Interior G-WALL products for board room walls • Events – G-Tainer, a modular G-SMATT Media Glass product the size of a shipping containers, suitable for both indoor and outdoor events.

These new and much larger façades will facilitate far more creativity and we should be prepared to expect the unexpected.

Whilst at first glance glass would not be thought of as the material of the future, the capability and functionality of the façades really could transform buildings into grand canvasses and the smart cities of the future will no longer be restricted to our imaginations.

Visit www.g-smatteurope.com for more information and videos igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 71


HOT OFF THE PRESS: GLASS IS GETTING SMART

Glass is getting smart In some science fiction films smart glass is already a reality. In the morning as soon as you get up major news is displayed on bathroom mirrors, in showers or on glass kitchen fronts. The images are controlled by swiping or voice commands. Glazed building façades are now also becoming vehicles for news and advertising messages – projecting moving images, obviously. Once at the office, you no longer need keys to enter the workplace because the scanner built into the screen authorises anyone arriving and opens the door – or denies them access. Many of these features are still fiction but various exhibitors at glasstec 2018 in Düsseldorf are specialising in the smart glass theme and showcasing interesting developments. The fact is, smart glass is currently still often neglected in architecture and buildings even though so many functions would already be technically feasible today. Various types of smart glass are known from smartphones. An article published by the Huffington Post in 2014 predicted that smartphones and tablets could very soon be completely transparent thanks to the glass technology used in them. This would have the advantage

72 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

of just looking through the smartphone to scan all the streets around rather than having to use Google Maps to select a restaurant. The software then reveals where matching restaurants are located in the vicinity. Smart glass can today already be found in many premium or luxury automobiles. Here the data generated by measuring sensors and the cameras built into the vehicle is interactively projected onto windscreens or

igsmag.com


HOT OFF THE PRESS: GLASS IS GETTING SMART

side windows. Connection with passengers’ smartphones and tablets is, of course, also possible. And the light transmission of automotive glass can also be changed when subjected to sunlight (photo-chromic glass), heat (thermo-chromic glass) and electrical voltage (electrochromic glass). Naturally, all of these features can also be used in the building sector. But when it comes to smart glass in buildings we often only think of the possibility of switching partition walls from transparent to translucent (meaning opaque). Especially in office architecture – where above all in expensive mega-cities mobile partition walls are needed to delimit new spaces in relatively small areas – glass with these properties becomes an increasingly important design tool. With the help of wall-mounted switches or remote controls users can select between transparent and non-transparent. This effect can be repeated any number of times because it is produced by liquid crystals in a conductive layer of these sheets. As soon as electrical current is applied the glass changes from opaque to transparent. This means, at a touch of a button, private or public conference situations, customer talks or working group meetings are possible on demand. After switching off the power supply the crystals re-arrange themselves and the glass returns to its opaque state.

An article published by the Huffington Post in 2014 predicted that smartphones and tablets could very soon be completely transparent thanks to the glass technology used in them.

Glass Surfaces to act as Light Sources Another topic also related to this area is lighting. After all, efficient and quality lighting eases our everyday routines. This not only applies to corridors and staircases but also to premises as a whole. With OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) new lighting technology is making increasing inroads in buildings. Unlike conventional LEDs and all other light sources OLEDs emit their light across the entire surface. This feature makes them the first real flat area light sources that make completely new design options possible. Their light is roughly comparable to natural sky light while the light emitted by conventional light sources resembles sunlight. And what is more: their light is glare-free.

Glass partition walls used in offices can often be switched between transparent and opaque. Photos: Dorma Hüppe Raumtrennsysteme

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 73


HOT OFF THE PRESS: GLASS IS GETTING SMART

The O in OLED stands for Organic. In actual fact, no manufacturers use either animal or plant components. OLEDs are very thin measuring as little as 0.7 to 1.8 millimetres. Since they only reach temperatures as low as 30°C they do not require any cooling – which makes OLEDs also suitable for materials so far not appropriate for lighting applications. And they make for light in places so far not necessarily associated with illumination. In future, the window panes of office buildings can be switched on, for example, when pleasant ambient lighting is desired. Even all-round illumination in your glass shower back home is conceivable once OLEDs are integrated there. OLEDs can also be manufactured in 3D – in the shape of drinking glasses, for example. As soon as the user places them on the counter they start glowing thanks to the induction surface installed there.

The O in OLED stands for Organic. In actual fact, no manufacturers use either animal or plant components. OLEDs consist of two glass sheets. During production very thin layers of hydrocarbon-based chemicals are vapour-deposited on these sheets. Since hydrocarbon is considered an organic chemical – these LEDs are referred to as organic. OLED manufacturing is a hightech process. The numerous layers that emit the light are thinner than a human hair split 1,000 times lengthwise. During production individual atoms are actually stacked to emit natural light later on. Usually one layer of aluminium is used as a cathode which is why OLEDs resemble make-up mirrors when switched off. If this aluminium is replaced by silver, which does not reflect so strongly after vapour-deposition, the OLED appears transparent. The possibility of emitting light from seemingly transparent glass without a visible light source when switched off is unique to this technology.

Has the industry probably slept through a development? This is what we wanted to know from Professor Dr. Ulrich Knaack of TU Darmstadt. Professor Knaack, in your opinion what will smart glass façades be capable of in ten years from now? Ulrich Knaack: Exciting question! Yes, there are many interesting things under development including display glass and OLEDs. And yes, as soon as we introduce these into the building skin, façades will become more active and will be able to contribute more to the function of the building. You could imagine that not only partition walls are controlled but the façade itself, thereby turning into a display and, hence, part of an office. Like the desktop that people are working on and not only as a screen for communication and information but as a workstation – comparable to PC screens today.

Why is the development of these technologies only making such modest progress? Ulrich Knaack: Modest – well – we are dealing with buildings here rather than consumer goods. Buildings come with high expenses. They have to “work” for a long period and meet high safety demands due to their size and possible consequential damage. Their development and production are correspondingly complex. Looking at glass in isolation you can say that it has made enormous leaps in terms of material development, integration in energy generation and control as well as in design terms. The transparent house is possible today! And within just one generation of scientists, engineers and designers. Hardly any other material has achieved this. But this is only the beginning and new themes are already on the horizon with an impact we can only guess. And like with all developments we are called upon to not only develop technical aspects but also function. What functions do we really want to use or which ones will we use and how; what costs are we prepared to pay for these functions? These are the most exciting development questions. In a nutshell: What is in this new technology for us and what is it worth to us?

74 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


Kuraray’s Trosifol™ business is a leading global specialist in the development, manufacture and supply of PVB and ionoplast interlayers for laminated safety glass applications in the architectural, automotive and photovoltaic industries.

trosifol@kuraray.com www.trosifol.com


HOT OFF THE PRESS: GLASS IS GETTING SMART

At glasstec 2018 the focus in the flat glass segment will be on interactive glass and in the container glass segment on energy-efficient and emission-reducing technologies for glass production.

76 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


HOT OFF THE PRESS: GLASS IS GETTING SMART

When incorporated into façades smart glass is capable of reducing energy costs because sunlight can be blocked or transmitted upon demand. What’s more, glass of this kind can prove a true alternative to mechanical shutters especially in buildings with extended glass façades – office buildings or skyscrapers. And if the technology required for this “migrates” from the housing into the glass direct you even save space that can be used for something else.

When incorporated into façades smart

Engineers are also working on special coatings that make glass glare-free and self-cleaning. These coatings can increase the performance of solar cells and thereby substantially increase the generation of solar energy. Unfortunately, many of these projects have not developed beyond the prototype stage and are not yet market ready. Frequently, the material and installation costs are too high and the service life is still too short.

The Author

glass is capable of reducing energy costs because sunlight can be blocked or transmitted upon demand.

Matthias Fischer has been working as a freelance journalist and textbook author since 2009. He looks back on over 25 years of experience in the industry and served as a vice editor-in-chief for a specialist construction magazine for many years.

glasstec, 23 – 26 October 2018 in Düsseldorf International Trade Fair for Glass – Production, Processing, Products From 23 – 26 October the world’s leading trade

suppliers. To trade visitors the high-quality contacts,

fair for glass, glasstec 2018, will be held at Messe

pooled demonstration of innovative power and

Düsseldorf. At glasstec 2018 the focus in the flat

visionary outlook on future developments and lines

glass segment will be on interactive glass and in

of business are most important.

the container glass segment on energy-efficient and emission-reducing technologies for glass production.

Synonymous with all this is the special show glass technology live in Hall 11, which is being organised by a cluster of universities for the first

The last edition of glasstec held in 2016 registered

time now. These include the Technical Universities

40,105 visitors from 121 countries who came to

of Darmstadt, Delft, Dresden and Dortmund.

see the latest products, machinery, developments

Innovative solutions complete with forward-looking

and visions from the 1,237 exhibitors from 52

technologies are presented here under the focal

countries. Making the trade fair particularly

headings Interactive Façades / Display Glass, Energy

attractive for exhibitors is the high number of

and Performance, Structural Glass (solid glass /

decision-makers among trade visitors. Three

thing glass). In Hall 10 the conferences pooled under

quarters of them come from executive to top

the umbrella brand of glasstec conference will link

management and attend glasstec with concrete

theory with practice.

investment intentions or come on a quest for new

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 77


COVER

STORY

WATERTIGHT A well-designed facade will have a long life. However, poor detailing or design, fabrication or installation can all result in water ingress. Building Regulations require that the facade of a building provides a total barrier to keep out rainwater. Therefore, it is necessary that every member of a project team understands how the installed product works – that is, how it prevents water penetration – so that problems can be tackled if they arise. This feature will look at the principles used in the design, testing and classification of curtain-walling systems. PRINCIPLES OF WEATHERTIGHTNESS Three factors are required for water leakage to occur: water, openings and forces. Eliminate any one of the three and there will be no leakage. If rain fell vertically, a curtain wall screen could be protected by an overhang, which functions in a similar way to an umbrella. However, rain seldom falls vertically. It is usually accompanied by some wind, and so the umbrella principle does not work. It is therefore not possible to design buildings that are completely shielded from the effects of water. This is why a dynamic test is carried out when systems are performance-tested, described in more detail below.

Wind patterns For any facade design, it is important to understand the patterns of wind over a building. • Wind action. When the flow of air impacts on a building, a pressure is exerted on the surface and the airflow changes across the surface of the facade. This causes changes in pressure.

The current trend is towards drainage slots, rather than holes. Drainage can

• Down draughts. These are created when the wind strikes a building, resulting in an increase in wind speed near the ground. • Vortices. As air flows along the roof, or is funnelled to the base of the building, this creates high suction at the edges. • Separation. Sharp changes in direction, such as parapets and corners, give rise to high local suctions. This also occurs at the rear of the building. • Funnelling. Wind speed can increase and change direction, particularly at the base of tall buildings. Tunnels and openings through buildings also produce funnelling effects.

Wetting patterns Wetting is initially greater at the edges of a facade than at the centre. With sharp changes in wind direction, such as at parapets and corners, the rain droplets separate from the wind flow, resulting in concentrated wetting in these areas. If the rain continues for long enough, water flows across the whole facade, heavily wetting all areas. Facades of impervious materials will shed large quantities of water to lower levels; it is therefore not possible to eliminate the water.

be either through the transoms or

Water flow patterns and weak points

mullions

There are a number of openings in a facade, including

78 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


COVER

STORY

Getting the curtain walling design right is essential if a building is to remain watertight.

Kawneer’s AA100 ‘stick’ curtain walling was used for the £3.5m redevelopment of the Smythe Library at Tonbridge School in Kent, which included this glazed stair tower Photo: © Hufton + Crow

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 79


COVER

STORY

At the 101 Embankment development in the Greengate regeneration area of Salford, Kawneer’s AA201 unitised curtain walling was installed at a rate of up to 30 panels a day, or five days per floor

80 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


COVER vertical expansion joints, the glass perimeter and gaps in gasket lengths. Water flows down and across a facade under wind action until it hits projections. It then runs down to corner areas – the position of most joints and openings. Joints or openings also occur between different adjacent materials or similar materials when dictated by fabrication or transport or handling needs. Even where joints are required to be sealed, it is difficult to ensure that this is completely effective.

STORY

There are three basic methods of resisting all these forces within a curtain wall system: with a front-sealed, fully bedded curtain wall; with a drained and ventilated curtain wall; or with a pressure-equalised curtain wall.

Forces operating on a facade • Gravity. If the design or installation of a system or component is such that water is shed into the building – that is, the joint slopes in and downwards – there is a potential problem. This force is counteracted at the outer skin to stop water entry. Joints should be horizontal/level and protected with a drip, or sloped upwards. Note that when water gets in, gravity can be harnessed to drain it out. • Kinetic energy. The kinetic energy of wind-driven raindrops will carry them through an opening. Therefore an upstand should be provided at the back. • Surface tension. Rain flows down the building, clings to its surface and tracks across any crevice or opening and into the building. And so a drip feature should be provided.

1. Front-sealed systems Front-sealed systems are designed to be totally impervious. They rely on exact positioning of the glazing panels and perfect mastic seals or glazing gaskets to provide a totally weathertight exterior shell. Frontsealed systems have obvious limitations because their effectiveness is totally dependent upon the quality of the workmanship during installation and the longevity of the sealing mastics or glazing gaskets. Essentially, frontsealed systems are only appropriate for use on low-rise buildings in sheltered locations, where the facade is likely to be changed within 10 years. However, there are some proprietary systems which combine continuous external gaskets with precautionary drainage, increasing the level of reassurance for specifiers.

2. Drained and ventilated systems • Capillary action. This occurs on small gaps up to 0.5mm wide (perhaps due to poorly fitting components). The liquid fills the gap and tracks inwards and can also track upwards. This is a real problem when combined with airflow, so a capillary trap should be added. • Airflow. This carries raindrops through gaps so openings should be baffled. • Wind pressure. As water runs down the building over a gap, the change in pressure will force water through the gap. This is common on glass and aluminium systems. .

Secondary sealed systems, as the name suggests, recognise that a totally weathertight seal is unlikely to be achieved for the life of a facade. Thus, although they are designed to be weathertight, any water that does penetrate is collected and drained back to the outside through holes or slots. It is important that these drainage holes are large enough to overcome surface tension and winter icing. For hole drainage, minimum openings of 8mm to 10mm are recommended, while drainage slots of at least 20mm by 5mm or 25mm by 5mm are the recommended minimum. The current trend is towards drainage slots, rather than holes. Drainage can be either through the transoms or mullions.

3. Pressure-equalised systems TYPES OF WEATHERTIGHT SYSTEM FOR CURTAIN WALLING

There are three basic methods of resisting all these forces within a curtain wall system: with a front-sealed, fully bedded curtain wall; with a drained and ventilated curtain wall; or with a pressure-equalised curtain wall.

igsmag.com

In these systems an outer rainscreen provides a protective barrier. Protected openings allow air ingress to a compartmentalised central cavity, which facilitates pressure equalisation. The inner leaf is designed to be airtight, and may be either curtain walling, traditional masonry or, for refurbishment projects, the existing building facade. The principle of the system is that the air pressure in the cavity changes in sympathy with the

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 81


COVER

STORY

Following the structural serviceability test, a dynamic test is carried out. This repeats the watertightness test, but with the addition of an aeroplane engine that acts as a fan to create a dynamic movement of air and water over the face of the curtain wall, recreating the behaviour of the wind over the face of a building. external wind pressure, thus eliminating the pressure differential across the external seal which would otherwise tend to draw moisture into the cavity. The size of the slots generally ranges from 25mm by 6mm up to 50mm by 8mm, depending upon the size of the cavity and the effectiveness of the inner airtight seal. Effective compartmentalisation is required to cope with differential air pressures across the facade caused by vortices, separation and funnelling. For curtain-walling systems with transom drainage, compartmentalisation can be simply achieved by closing off the cavity at every mullion/transom joint. The key difference from drained and ventilated systems is the position of the drainage – in a pressure-equalised system, the drainage is hidden. Drainage is achieved by one of two ways. It can be provided at each transom, so water drains out through the pressure plate into the cover cap zone for drainage to the outside. Alternatively, it can be provided via the mullions. Water that enters the system at transoms travels horizontally along them to drain into the mullion drainage channels. Mullions are drained to the outside either at the sill or every two or three storeys. Three is the maximum because the mullion should not act as a drainpipe. The water is more likely to be removed by ventilation via the mullions and transoms than by water travelling horizontally, but if a lot of water enters the system then it would drain to the mullions. Excessive vertical deflection of the transom will hinder or prevent water travelling to the mullions. Setting blocks (on which the glass sits) must not obstruct the drainage routes.

Rainscreen cladding Rainscreen cladding uses the same principle of pressure equalisation. The external panels are again the primary seal eliminating most of the water. The upstand on panels acts as a baffle providing protection to the openings, and helps create the cavity in which the pressure equalises. The backing wall is the airtight back seal. This may need to be plastered internally, or a membrane placed on the outside face to ensure it is airtight. Insulation may be placed on the external face, but a breather membrane should help prevent excessive wetting.

82 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

In a typical pressure-equalised system, the principles of weathertightness are met as follows: • The rainscreen seals outer gaskets as tightly as possible against rainwater ingress • The cavity makes infill areas into compartments, connected to exterior atmospheric pressure by protected openings • The air barrier ensures that inner gaskets are sealed as tightly as possible against air flow.

CLASSIFICATION OF CURTAIN WALLING SYSTEMS

Curtain walls are best defined as non-loadbearing walls designed to provide a filtering envelope for a building. Their own deadload and the wind loadings that act upon them are transferred to the building via anchorage points. In common with all other forms of wall construction, they are required to provide resistance to air infiltration, water infiltration, solar gain, heat loss and sound transmission. They can be classified according to the way in which they are fabricated and installed.

Stick Stick curtain walls are prepared and machined in the factory, and supplied to site in component form for installation. The vertical structural mullions are first fixed back to the structure, followed by the horizontal ones. Glass, spandrel panels and vents are installed after the grid has been erected, and are normally retained by pressure plate and face cap. These caps are the only element of the grid seen on completion, as well as the only part to face the weather. Customised or feature caps can be used to create a unique aesthetic. While the stick system does have to be assembled and sealed on site, and is therefore relatively labourintensive, it is a very popular and economical method of providing a building envelope. If designed, detailed

igsmag.com


COVER and installed correctly, the resulting facade is extremely reliable.

STORY

wall techniques. The grid is fixed to the structure, and factory-bonded panels are “toggled” or directly fixed to completed framing.

Unitised With unitised curtain walling, glazed or panelised units are assembled in factory conditions and stored until required on site. The glazing and spandrel areas are typically factory-glazed and seals are also applied or prepared in the factory. Anchors are fitted to the structure and accurately positioned, often using lasers. On site, these systems are installed as a series of frames, usually with interlocking mullions and transoms. One of the great advantages is that no scaffolding is required: units are lowered into position from the floor above using a simple hoist or crawler crane. The units then interlock together using specially designed features in the aluminium frame, providing both structural strength and weathertight joints. Installation can be carried out quickly, and while panels are described as “storey to storey”, joints can be placed at a convenient position. The main contractor needs to ensure that the whole facade is available, and that there is sufficient clear floor space to allow access for completed panels. This approach is used when the movements and/or deflections of the building are such that a stick system is not appropriate. It is also used when there is a need to maximise the speed of installation. Site sealing of the system is reduced although some sealing may need to take place. The other great benefit of a unitised curtain wall is that the building can be sealed very quickly, perhaps ten times faster than with conventional stick curtain walling.

WEATHERTIGHTNESS TESTING

Once designed, systems need to be tested. Suppliers offer test reports, but these may not have the same grid layout as a specific project. The test chamber is usually constructed as a steel frame and clad in plywood, leaving one side open. The curtain-wall test sample is built into the opening and sealed in position. Once the chamber is made as airtight as possible, a fan is used to gradually reduce the air pressure inside the chamber, thus creating a pressure differential between the inside and the outside of the facade. The airtightness test is first carried out with the curtain wall sealed with polythene sheeting and tape to measure the amount of airflow through the test chamber itself. This figure is deducted from the total airflow once the sheeting is removed to determine the airflow through the facade. The Centre for Window and Cladding Technology has established a testing regime. The latest Sequence B regime, in accordance with BS EN 13830:2015, is as follows: • Air permeability – infiltration • Air permeability – exfiltration • Watertightness – static • Wind resistance (serviceability)

Semi-unitised Semi-unitised curtain walls incorporate techniques from both stick systems and fully unitised systems. The fixed glazing and openable vents use the same carrier frame, giving a uniformed sightline. This system also lends itself to easier penetration for fixing external screening. Structural glazed systems also use semi-unitised curtain

• Air permeability (repeat) – infiltration and exfiltration • Watertightness (repeat) – static • Watertightness – dynamic • Watertightness – hose • Wind resistance – safety • Impact resistance – safety • Dismantle, inspect and report.

Curtain walls are best defined as non-loadbearing walls designed to provide a filtering envelope for a building. Their own deadload and the wind loadings that act upon them are transferred to the building via anchorage points.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 83


COVER

STORY

The test sequence starts with a measurement of the volume of air passing through the facade, followed by a static watertightness test. In this test, the pressure inside the chamber is reduced in increments, usually up to 600Pa, while water is sprayed on the outside of the facade. In order to pass, there must be no gross leakage of water through any part of the curtain wall. Following the structural serviceability test, a dynamic test is carried out. This repeats the watertightness test, but with the addition of an aeroplane engine that acts as a fan to create a dynamic movement of air and water over the face of the curtain wall, recreating the behaviour of the wind over the face of a building. Finally, the system is subjected to the serviceability pressure test to measure the deflection of the mullions and gaskets when subjected to the highest predicted gust pressures for the project location. These shortduration pressures are applied without water. CWCT testing requires a greater flow of water on the test unit than any other European standard.

Site pressure tests Commercial buildings larger than 500m2 will undergo a site pressure test – uncontrolled air leakage is easily the biggest factor in heat loss and high energy consumption. The minimum standard is 10m3/hour/m2, though in many cases specifiers demand considerably higher performance. Correctly installed curtain wall offers very low leakage rates. However, the problem tends to be around the perimeter at the interface of the construction and curtain wall. In this test, a mobile test fan is brought to site and plugged onto the building. The building is then pressurised to 50Pa and the air leakage measured. If the building fails to meet the standard, remedial works will have to be carried out and the building retested. There can be significant cost implications associated with correcting poor installation. Attention to detail is therefore vital during design and installation.

Summary Following the principles outlined in this feature will help achieve a well designed and functioning curtain wall. Content kindly provided courtesy of Building magazine & Kawneer. For further information visit www.kawneer.co.uk

84 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


COVER

STORY

Kawneer supplied a bespoke version of its AA110 capped curtain wall solution for Scottish Power’s new Glasgow headquarters, adapted to cater for the high movement inherent in the building’s design Photo: © Andrew Lee

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 85


SUMMER ISSUE Coming in June

INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

including... Summer 2018

www.igsmag.com

• ....part 2 of our gripping year long feature on curtainwalls, our lesson this issue is on the perfection of “Airtight Curtainwalls”. • Everybody loves beautifully designed curved and wavy glass shapes, but hot bent or cold bent? We ask the question. • Smart cities, smart homes, smart systems, smart tv’s, smart phones and smart media facades, all facilitated with smart glass by smart people. Copy date: 11th May. Magazine goes live to the world on 21st June

Coming to you “live” - June 2018 contact us now to secure your space! Nick@intelligentpublications.com • Lewis@igsmag.com intelligentglassolutions@gmail.com

IGS: Nothing more, nothing less....nothing else!


PRESS

FEATURE

Guardian Glass will clad Jeddah Tower

Guardian Glass is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of float and high-performance energy-efficient coated glass products.

Tallest building

Developers of Jeddah Tower – what will be the world’s tallest building – selected Guardian Glass to supply the façade glass for the project’s over one-kilometer-high landscape. Jeddah Tower (also known as Kingdom Tower) is an unprecedented project that dares to go beyond the one-kilometer threshold. The over $1.2billion USD (£800million) supertall building structure, to be completed in 2019, will cover an area of 5.3 million

square meters and include 439 apartments, 200 hotel rooms, 59 elevators and 2,205 parking spaces. It is set to break new world records for tallest building, highest occupied floor, highest architectural top, highest tip and highest sky terrace.

Picture: © Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture/Jeddah Economic Company

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 87


PRESS

FEATURE Gordon Gill and Adrian Smith Š Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

88 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


JEDDAH TOWER

Jeddah Tower – From the air © Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

Guardian Glass will supply more than 400,000 square meters, the area of approximately 55 football fields, of SunGuard coated glass in stock sizes, which after fabrication into finished IGUs for installation will meet the iconic landmark’s complex energy and performance requirements. The unprecedented size and height of the Jeddah Tower required Guardian Glass to work carefully with the project team to select a glass

igsmag.com

system that achieves a certain aesthetic while meeting performance goals. As Guardian Glass has seen with many architects, Adrian Smith & Gordon Gill appreciated the metallic silver look of Guardian’s popular SunGuard® Solar Silver 20 coated glass. Coupled with the low-E coating on surface #3, SunGuard® Neutral 60 High Performance glass, this custom-made, double-pane glass system provides the ideal combination of solar protection and thermal insulation while maximizing visible light transmission.

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 89


PRESS

FEATURE Sky terrace Š Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

90 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


JEDDAH TOWER

Jeddah Tower – Drop off area © Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

The skyscraper’s unique, circular, glass-floored sky terrace, located more than 610 meters (2,000 feet) above ground level, will also be supplied by Guardian Glass. Once completed, the new world’s highest sky terrace will overlook the Red Sea. Guardian Glass Middle East & Africa General Manager Mohammad Al Ibrahim said, “The unprecedented size and height of the Jeddah Tower required us to carefully work with the business team to select a glass system that offers a balance between energy savings and light transmission. For that reason, we have combined two of our most popular and reliable Guardian SunGuard products that we are confident will offer the best performance without compromising aesthetics.” As a high-performance, solar-reflective coated glass, the exterior SunGuard® Silver 20 pane will help block daytime heat yet allow for abundant natural light and provide a luxurious silver-green aesthetic. The interior pane, with SunGuard® Neutral 60, will help protect against indirect nighttime heat. A similar combination of products, SunGuard Solar Silver 20 and Guardian ClimaGuard® NLT, was also used in the Burj Khalifa tower in Dubai (also designed by Adrian Smith). The suitability of the glass for structures in the Middle East and anywhere in the world depends on the building characteristics. The glass coating will control the amount of light and heat entering (or escaping) the building. However, building characteristics such as the window-to-wall ratio, the climatic conditions, the surroundings of the building, the shape of the building, etc. will dictate the level of light and thermal control required for the façade. High rise buildings, particularly at the heights like Jeddah Tower, face very particular challenges. For example, the climate conditions at

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 91


PRESS

FEATURE Sky Terrace Š Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

92 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


JEDDAH TOWER

View near the stairs © Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

the top of the building can be significantly different from the bottom of the building. Guardian Glass works closely with the processor to ensure that the right products are selected and processed for the particular needs of each building. Guardian’s trained technical and design experts work side-by-side with the processor to achieve this objective and provide value to the building team. Our experts are experienced in regional building codes, climate conditions and processing requirements and can offer customers valuable help in selecting the right product for their application. Guardian also makes use of several tools, such as sun path analysis and BIM software to provide detailed analyses of requirements based on the particulars of each project. The glass for Jeddah Tower is being manufactured at the Al Jubail Guardian plant*, then delivered to United Arab Aluminium Co., which is fabricating and installing the glass. At the UAAC plant, the glass is processed into double glazed units, structurally glazed to the frame with highperformance secondary structural sealant applied. The fully assembled curtain wall system is then delivered to site for installation. At the start of the Jeddah Tower project, the TAC team agreed to be on-site in order to set up the process parameters at each stage of production, implement quality control checks, conduct online and offline inspection. The team also offered its expertise in improving the efficiency of the factory. UACC has since expressed great appreciation for Guardian’s support and suggestions, and asked that TAC continue to provide consistent supervision, maintenance and long-term postproject service. As with all project startups and the accompanying production, the project team had anticipated minor issues, but as a result of the support of the Guardian TAC team, these issues have been avoided.

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 93


PRESS

FEATURE Aerial view

Model photo

Š Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

Š Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

94 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

igsmag.com


JEDDAH TOWER

From the water © Adrian Smith and Gordon Gill Architecture - Jeddah Economic Company

Jeddah Tower Project Director John Zerafa of United Arab Aluminium Co. said, “Guardian Glass provides more value in comparison to other glass suppliers.” “Our commitment to a project extends well beyond the selection, production and supply of glass through processing, fabrication and cladding until the project is complete,” added Kevin Baird, president and CEO, Guardian Glass. “A project like Jeddah Tower can take several years of work to get to this point. It was a global team effort, and we are pleased to be the supplier of choice for this landmark project.” Guardian’s expertise in high rise buildings in particular speaks for itself: Three of the five tallest buildings in the world feature Guardian Glass. Jeddah Tower will be an exciting addition to Guardian Glass’ extensive portfolio of iconic landmarks and developments in hospitality, retail, residential, corporate and institutional properties in the Middle East and around the world. Whatever the project demands, SunGuard® Advanced Architectural Glass from Guardian Glass provides a comprehensive range of products that allow architects and designers to see what’s possible in all the aesthetic and functional possibilities of a variety of building types in every climate condition around the world. Whether curved, heat treated, laminated, incorporated into an IGU, in a range of standard and jumbo sizes, SunGuard coated glass have been engineered worldwide to provide the performance and aesthetics building owners and architects require. Building owners and architects of today’s buildings want beautiful facades, but they must deliver on energy performance. The possibilities are vast because of the wide offering of high-performance, low-E glass Guardian Glass offers. For more information, visit guardianglass.com

*The Al Jubail Guardian plant is a joint venture between Guardian Industries and the National Company for Glass Industries “Zoujaj.”

igsmag.com

Spring 2018 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | 95


INTELLIGENT GLASS SOLUTIONS

AUTHORS WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM 91-93 Route de la Capite Ch-1223 Cologny/ Geneva Switzerland Tel: +41 (0)22 869 1212 www.weforum.org IAN RITCHIE Ian Ritchie Architects 110 Three Colt Street London, E14 8AZ United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 20 7338 1100 www.ianritchiearchitects.co.uk E-Mail: iritchie@ianritchiearchitects.co.uk KEVIN HYDES Founding Partner Integral Group Canada www.integralgroup.com E-Mail: khydes@integralgroup.com JEAN-PAUL HAUTEKEER Global Strategic Director Dow Corning Rue Jules Bordet 7180 Seneffe Belgium www.dowcorning.com E-Mail: jeanpaul.hautekeer@dowcorning.com DR JOCHEN MIGNAT Dr Mignat PR Am Hexenpfad 11 D-63450 Hanau Germany Tel: +49 (0) 6181 507 9122 www.mignat.com E-Mail: j.mignat@mignat.de JÜRGEN WAX CEO Josef Gartner GmbH Gartnerstrasse 20 89423 Gundelfingen an der Donau Germany Tel: +49 (0) 9073 84 0 www.josef-gartner.permasteelisagroup.com E-Mail: gartner@permasteelisagroup.com

96 | Intelligent Glass Solutions | Spring 2018

SPRING 2018

DETAILS RACHEL HAUGH & CHRISTIAN MALE SimpsonHaugh & Partners United Kingdom www.simpsonhaugh.com E-Mail: r.haugh@simpsonhaugh.com c.male@simpsonhaugh.com BRUCE NICOL Merck Group Frankfurter Strasse 250 64293 Darmstadt Germany Tel: +49 (0) 61 51720 www.merckgroup.com E-Mail: bruce.nicol@merckgroup.com ORHAN ERTUGHRUL G-Smatt Europe Park End Street Oxford OX1 1JD United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1865 688221 www.g-smatteurope.com MESSE DÜSSELDORF GMBH Messeplatz Stockumer Kirchstrasse 61 40474 Düsseldorf Germany Tel: +49 (0) 211 4560 01 www.messe-duesseldorf.de E-Mail: info@messe-dusseldorf.de MARK HANSON Kawneer UK Ltd United Kingdom Tel: +44 (0) 1928 502 500 www.kawneer.co.uk E-Mail: mark.hanson@arconic.com GUARDIAN GLASS INDUSTRIES Auburn Hills Michigan United States Tel: +1.248.340.1800 www.guardian.com www.guardianglass.com E-Mail: info@guardian.com E-Mail: info@guardianglass.com

igsmag.com


PAlAiS de juStiCe de PAriS (2017) ARCHITeCT: ReNZO PIANO BUILDING WORkSHOP FACADe: SHeNyANG yUANDA

GLASS BONDING IS OUR PASSION Sika offers full range sealing and bonding solutions for insulated glass manufacturing, structural glazing and weathering sealing thereby ensuring system compatibility. With its profound competence in opaque and glass facades alike, Sika is the ideal partner for planners and applicators of all kind on building envelopes. Contact us now.

Sika Services AG FFI Facade · Fenestration · Insulating Glass Tueffenwies 16 · CH-8048 Zurich · Switzerland Tel. +41 (0)58 436 40 40 · Fax +41 (0)58 436 55 30 www.sika.com/ses

IGS Spring Issue 2018  
IGS Spring Issue 2018