CREATIVE SUSTAINABLE INCLUSIVE
Nยบ 02. NOV. 2011
EDITORIAL FOCUS SMART CITIES ARE MORE COMPETITIVE, SUSTAINABLE AND INCLUSIVE INTERVIEW WITH NIKOS KOMNINOS
CASE STUDIES SMART CITY AMSTERDAM รVORA INOVCITY ORACLE
FACTS SMART CITIES IN THE EU AGENDA RANKINGS
INTELI NEWS EVENTS SUGGESTIONS
A City with a Human Face Smart cities, digital cities and intelligent cities are concepts that have characterized recent academic literature. This research agenda is reflected in the design and implementation of concrete projects for smart cities around the world. In Asia and the Middle East, initiatives related to building cities from scratch prevail, as in the case of Masdar, the United Arab Emirates and Songdon in South Korea. In Europe and North America, smart urban regeneration projects prevail, which are centred in cities with a historical path marked by economic, social, cultural and institutional imperatives, as is the case with “Amsterdam Smart City” in the Netherlands. Large information technology and communication companies, and international consultancy companies such as IBM, CISCO, Oracle and Accenture, have been involved in these projects, providing innovative solutions in the areas of energy, mobility, waste and water management, health, governance, etc. The European Union, too, has put this topic on the agenda. The recent initiative ”Smart Cities and Communities” illustrates this bet made by Europe. Moreover, projects under the 7th Framework Programme and the CIP - Framework Programme for Competitiveness and Innovation - were recently approved, much associated with the potential of information and communication technologies in facilitating life in cities. However, the starting point of most of these approaches is the technology and the business, neglecting the human, social and political aspect. The smart cities of the future should start with the people and the communities where they live and work. This is a new paradigm on how to build cities, which requires new strategies, technologies, models and urban processes in order to meet the current challenges related to quality of life, balance of the environment and efficiency of natural resources, to inequality and social exclusion. This is particularly relevant in an era of European and global economic crisis. This vision implies new models of governance and new forms of relationship between governments, businesses, communities and people. This requires an active participation of citizens in defining local public policy and in the process of innovation, from the development stage to the testing of products, services and solutions in the real world. It is the so-called paradigm of open innovation. In parallel with the formal strategies of smart cities, several initiatives of the civil society have emerged, led by individuals, groups of citizens and non-governmental organizations, which seek the co-creation of solutions to local urban problems, strengthening social capital and promoting digital inclusion. The articulation of public policies with the agendas of local stakeholders seems to be essential for the emergence of a true “human economy”.
SMART CITIES ARE MORE COMPETITIVE, SUSTAINABLE AND INCLUSIVE Nicos Komninos is a reference for research networks on urban policies and development of intelligent urban spaces. In an interview to Citiesbrief, Komninos explains concepts and points out the evolution of intelligent cities. 1. Taking into account the diversity of concepts and visions about smart cities, what is your understanding on the smart cities concept? Cities all over the world consider innovation institutions and information technologies as major drivers of sustainable development. Digital infrastructures and web-based applications advance rapidly the informatisation of cities offering better communication, online spaces of collaboration, real-time information, open knowledge and information management tools. An extremely rich digital spatiality over the cities has given birth to a series of new concepts, such as those of cyber, digital, smart, and intelligent cities. ‘Smart city’ and ‘intelligent city’ are more or less equivalent concepts, describing cities having simultaneously the following characteristics:
1. A creative population and developed knowledgeintensive activities or clusters of such activities; 2. Institutions for learning and innovation, enabling cooperation for acquiring, adapting, and advancing knowledge and know-how; 3. Developed broadband infrastructure, digital spaces, smart environments, e-services, and webbased knowledge management applications and tools; and 4. A proven ability to innovate, manage and resolve problems that appear for the first time, since the capacity to innovate is critical factor for measuring intelligence. Smart cities are a strategy, a vision for the future, a planning paradigm. There is a long way to go before turning this vision into reality.
2. What is your vision on the future trends in the smart cities evolution? Smart cities are cities which address their problems by their own resources through institutions for collaboration, innovation, and advanced technology. As an ideal objective, they expected to offer full employment, promote educated citizens, and bet in a quality of life for all. In the near future, the smart/intelligent cities movement will be shaped by factors affecting their fundamental components: the globalization of cities and rise of highly competitive urban systems in Asia; the creation of open, people-driven, and data-driven innovation ecosystems in which citizens and end-users participate in all stages of innovation; the widespread of future internet technologies and the emerging technology stack of cloud computing, sensor networks, Internet-of-Things, and the semantic web.
3. Regarding your smart city concept, can you stress some examples, good practices or successful cases of smart cities? Documented good examples of smart cities are those selected by the Intelligent Community Forum (ICF) (http://www.intelligentcommunity.org) as “Smart-21”, “Top-7 Intelligent Communities”, and “Intelligent Community of the Year”. The ICF assessment of cities as smart or intelligent and the respective awards are based on metrics related to strategies towards innovative, broadband-based, and inclusive cities. The higher award of “Intelligent Community of the Year” is given to most advanced cities globally in terms of broadband and innovation strategy implementation.
4. What are the challenges and benefits that local authorities and communities face in the smart cities context? Urban challenges differ in cities of the developed and developing world. A recent public consultation among local and regional authorities and associations in the EU about the main urban and regional challenges identified three major areas: - Competitiveness, in particular, research, innovation and upgrading of skills to promote a knowledge-based economy, development of human capital through education and training, support for business activities and development of an entrepreneurship culture, strengthening of institutional capacity for innovation; - Creation of new employment, which reinforces social cohesion and reduces the risk of poverty; - Sustainable development for reduction of greenhouse gases emissions through mitigation policies improving energy efficiency and promoting the use of renewable energies. In developing countries, the UN Millennium Goals point out at challenges associated with rapid urbanization and city growth and the increasing demand for urban space; shortages in urban infrastructure and the need to do more with less resources; poverty, health, and mortality issues; and sustainable development, CO2 reduction, energy and water saving. Expected benefits from smart cities are related to all the above challenges for more competitive, sustainable and inclusive cities, both in developed and developing countries. Cities might also gain from a cultural point of view by placing technology, innovation, and human skills at the centre of urban strategies.
The award was received by the cities of Seoul, South Korea (2002), Glasgow, UK (2004), Mitaka, Japan (2005), Taipei, Taiwan (2006), Waterloo, Ontario, Canada (2007), Gagnam District Seoul (2008), Stockholm, Sweden (2009), Suwon, South Korea (2010), and Eindhoven, Netherlands (2011). All these cities are examples of good practices.
5. The majority of smart cities projects/concepts emphasize the technological dimension marginalizing the non-technological component. Do you believe that this type of projects could generate social exclusion? In which way could the smart city improve social inclusion?
It worth also mentioning two cities having implemented very sophisticated strategies: Singapore, for the Intelligent Nation 2015 Master Plan, a strategy sustaining the innovation economy of the city, and Amsterdam in the Netherlands, for a comprehensive strategy in the field of energy and the environment.
Technologies for smart cities do not involve serious risk of social polarization and exclusion. Cloud-based solutions and open source software are expected to standardize solutions, lower down technology costs, and facilitate the widespread of smart city solutions. Non-technological arrangements, however, such as
institutions building, organization and governance, involvement of all citizens into co-creation and innovation processes, new frameworks of intellectual property, represent more difficult gaps to fill. Smart cities presuppose institutional thickness, social capital for collaboration and social inclusion policies, enabling all citizens to be involved, turning them to producers and users of innovation. Smart cities - like all cities - are at the crossroad of social and technological objectives. They promote social inclusion by placing citizen’s empowerment and up-skilling at the centre of urban development strategies.
Nicos Komninos is a professor of Urban Development and Innovation Policy at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki (Greece). He is founder and director of the Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit (URENIO) and has co-ordinated about ninety research projects on Innovation (CIP), research (FP), and territorial cooperation (INTERREG). His research focuses on innovation ecosystems and intelligent cities (virtual innovation environments, intelligent clusters and technology parks, living labs, innovation and the future internet). In parallel to research he has been involved in the development of technology parks and regional innovation strategies in Greece, Spain, Italy, Cyprus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, and Lithuania, in UNIDO activities on regional innovation in developing countries and the OECD innovation strategy. He has authored more than hundred papers, coedited four books, and authored eleven books, including ‘Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces’ (Routledge 2002), and ‘Intelligent Cities and the Globalisation of Innovation Networks’ (Routledge 2008).
the city into a laboratory of strategic planning in real time.
IS SYNONYMOUS WITH PROXIMITY SOLUTIONS The “Amsterdam Smart City” (ASC) project is a unique partnership between the people of Amsterdam, the companies, the scientific institutions and the local authorities, to meet targets defined against climate change: • • •
Neutralize the impact of all municipal organizations on the climate, by 2015; Reduce CO2 emissions by 40%, by 2025, with reference to the level of emissions in 1990; Locally produce one-third of the energy needs using renewable sources, envisaging a reduction of 70-80% in CO2 emissions by 2040.
The initiative is more than the sum of innovative technologies, behavioural change and sustainable economic investments. The key to success is explained by the consolidation of strategic partnerships and the creation and bet on small local projects, which turned
The project was initiated in June 2009 by the entities “Amsterdam Innovation Motor” and “Liander”, in close collaboration with the municipality of Amsterdam. Located four metres below sea level and with a multitude of river channels, the city faces a serious problem of retention of air pollutants, namely NOx and PM10, with direct consequences on public health. The reduction of CO2 emissions and air pollutants was the topic for the execution of a set of integrated measures that turned Amsterdam into a successful example of an intelligent medium-sized city (750,000 inhabitants). About two years ago, the “Amsterdam Smart City” program started 16 sustainable projects aimed at changing the way one experiences the city, work, mobility and public space. The involvement of all parties (people, companies and institutions) and the use of technologies to implement and test innovative solutions have been key factors in gaining size and speeding up results in the fight against climate change. Following this methodology, the ASC program covers the following operational pillars:
“Amsterdam Smart City” Areas of Intervention Source: “Smart Stories – Amsterdam Smart City”, 2011.
• • • •
Cooperation at all levels between the partners (businesses, citizens, institutions), always including the involvement of the end user; Use of intelligent networks and technologies to solve problems and introduce behavioural changes; Transferral and sharing of all knowledge gained in the pilot projects of “Amsterdam Smart City”; Selection and launch of the economically viable initiatives.
The initiative demonstrated that innovation is also possible through the methods and management of the projects. It is possible to have communication and information technology (ICT) companies working with real-estate agencies, and telecommunications operators working with network operators. Taboos have also been broken in terms of companies, and it was possible to join SME’s and larger companies in common projects, without losing competitiveness.
Giving citizens the initiative The main focus of ASC are the inhabitants, and the quickest way to ensure its success is to provide citizens with the information and tools necessary for them to adopt sustainable and intelligent behaviours. The “Onze Energie/Our Energy” project is a clear example of the committed participation of the community in building a sustainable lifestyle in their city or neighbourhood. A smart action, not only for the technological resources it uses, but mainly because it contributes to improving public health, reducing energy bills and demystifying the idea that you can only get results with large investment.
Onze Energie/Our Energy Project Marketing Campaign Source: “Smart Stories – Amsterdam Smart City”, 2011.
Residents of 8,000 homes (equivalent to 20% of total dwellings in Amsterdam) were challenged to integrate a project for the collective financing of seven windmills installed in their area of residence, and thus produce their own energy. The energy consumption of the households represents 33% of the global volume of CO2 emissions in the city.
Collective Office Building ‘De Groene Bocht’. Source: http://www.degroenebocht.nl
The concept of collective financing for energy production has been designed to allow groups of consumers to participate, by investing small amounts, in the overall cost of the creation and operation of the windmills, with the remaining investment being financed by large operators. During the period of the construction of the community windmills, residents purchased clean energy at a price lower than the average market price, also resulting in immediate energy savings.
Time travel The objectives defined in the sustainable work area also included energy efficiency, but focused on the buildings and business processes. The project “Decentralized generation: fuel cell technology” paved the way for a real “time travel” by including twenty-first century technology in a buil-
ding dated back to the seventeenth century in order to reduce CO2 emissions by 50%, at the same time ensuring energy self-sufficiency in the offices. With this solution it was possible to obtain 85% of energy efficiency, seeing as the electrical efficiency of fuel cell is above 60% and heat recovery is used to supply hot water (25%).
Intelligent mobility Mobility is a basic necessity of life in the cities, but also the main factor in CO2 emissions and other air pollutants. Given this situation, compounded by the peculiarities of Amsterdam, the option was clear: electrical mobility, adapted to cars, boats and two-wheelers. The “Moet je Watt” project, designed by the entities “Liander” and “The New Motion”, proposes the creation of an intelligent electrical charge box that can be used for recharging the cars, both at home and at the office. This fully portable box was designed with a series of intelligent technologies, which only connect after identifying the user by means of an RFID scanner, also providing information and the measuring of the amount of energy consumed, through coloured LED lights. The “Amsterdam Smart City” has developed a charging system for electric boats.
MOBI.EUROPE AMSTERDAM AND PORTUGAL JOIN EFFORTS ON MOBILITY
Living the public space The points of intervention in the area of sustainable public spaces were the schools, swimming pools, public parks and streets. In other words, teaching and leisure spaces were provided with devices that facilitate the experiencing of those spaces, at the same time having a demonstrative effect and raising awareness toward the urgency of energy-efficiency measures. The ZonSpot project was conceived as a place for outdoor work - innovative and attractive. The combination of WiFi and solar panels for storing solar energy available to the public turned ZonSpot into a space that promotes public interest and awareness.
In January 2012, the municipality of Amsterdam and the local company “Liander” will join INTELI (coordinator) and other public and private entities in Portugal, Spain, Ireland and France in a project, co-financed by the European Commission, that will demonstrate the potential of electric mobility as a strategy for reducing CO2 emissions associated with transport. Electric mobility is assumed by the city of Amsterdam as a unique opportunity for the paradigm shift of the mechanisms of mobility of people and goods, and may contribute to a significant reduction of air pollutants in the city, as well as the associated CO2 emissions. In fact, the city is implementing one of the most ambitious plans in Europe by setting the goal of having the whole transport system based on vehicles of zero emissions by 2040. The main objective of the MOBI.Europe project is to promote electric mobility within the pan-European area, in an interoperable and integrated logic, so that in the near future you can circulate between the various regions of Europe without technological or commercial barriers. Currently, Amsterdam, like Portugal, is positioned as one of the most advanced and ambitious regions to fulfil this purpose.
Interior of the Building ‘De Groene Bocht’. Source: http://www.degroenebocht.nl
ÉVORA INOV CITY
INTELLIGENT FUTURE A World Heritage City, Évora is the first national urban centre and one of the first in the Iberian Peninsula to test the smart grid of energy in its various applications. With the participation of companies and institutions such as EDP Inovação, INESC Porto, EFACEC, JANZ and EDINFOR, the project aims to provide the electricity network with information and equipment fit to automate the networks’ management, improve service quality, reduce operating costs, promote energy efficiency and environmental sustainability and allow for the penetration of renewable energies and electric mobility. The pilot phase of InovCity includes 31,000 domestic customers. This number increases if we consider the impact of measures related to the smart energy grid, such as the MOBI.E electrical mobility project, which allows you to charge your electric vehicle and simultaneously access a series of services (check consumption, manage alerts and, in future - pay for the parking, car-sharing services or rent-a-car). The European Commission and Eurelectric considered Évora smart city a case study example. The smart energy grid management enables an integrated set of projects, also referenced internationally. In homes, the smart box replaced the old meter. Consumers can remotely access their installation and thus program the electrical appliances and lighting sources for savings rate periods. Consumption management in real time replaces the billing by estimate, thus minimizing costs. New services are provided as well as
pricing plans adjusted to consumption patterns, now with the possibility of opting for home automation solutions. Based on remote management, fault detection is automatic, and services such as changes in power or tariff can be activated remotely. The same happens with public spaces. Local authorities can make an intelligent management of energy consumption with significant economic gains. Remote energy management applied to structures, such as the University of Évora cluster or some municipal facilities, contributes actively to the promotion of sustainability and efficiency of the city. A comparison of detailed consumption of the various buildings will determine which one is more efficient and which should
be used more, according to necessity. As a practical example, the university cluster may choose to use its most efficient building for evening classes, or invest in the renovation of the building that spends most energy.
give you access to integrated home automation solutions to interact with several devices of domestic consumption.
Anyone can produce energy at home, for his/her own use, or to sell it to the network. The consumer becomes a producer and seller of energy and will be able to install solar panels or small wind turbines in his/ her own home. In case of power failure in a residential area, the production of a house or of a set of neighbours can ensure the supply of electricity to several other houses or even the entire neighbourhood. And if you have an electric vehicle in your garage, you can calculate the exact share of consumption allocated to its supply, in your home, for it will have the ability to measure the power consumption every 15 minutes. In addition, your retailer or Energy Service Company can offer you services and pricing plans permanently tailored to your profile and consumer needs, as well as
WHAT IS MOBI.E? MOBI.E is an integrated solution for electric mobility. It is much more that a charging system for electric cars, although this is the side most visible to the user. The program of electric mobility in Portugal is based on an intelligent information network, which puts new technologies at the service of people and of smart and sustainable cities.
The use of rent-a-car or car-sharing services gains new momentum. Overall, MOBI.E creates new forms of communication of the car with third parties (users, network manager, companies) through Web connection, and allows for the remote control of information using the computer, ipad or iphone.
Through MOBI.E, and with a single card, you can manage the energy bill, pay and manage mobility (public transport and electric car) including tolls and parking.
Portugal is the only country with a pilot network with national coverage, installed in 25 towns, working as a Living Lab for international companies. The implementation of this project, of worldwide recognition, involves a consortium of companies led by INTELI which include: Novabase, Critical Software, CEIIA, Efacec, Siemens, Magnum Cap and EDP.
In addition, MOBI.E created conditions for the development of new products and business areas, within the scope of urban mobility. The intelligent networks (smart grids) will change the way people circulate within cities, operating a change of mentality and spending habits.
MOBI.E is the engine for the development of a cluster of mobility, gaining market scale for national companies. In this way it contributes to the placement of the industry in a leadership position and to the increase in foreign investment in Portugal, always incorporating the national know-how.
MOBI.E IS SMART, INTEGRATED AND UNIVERSAL ORACLE is a company dedicated to develop intelligent platforms which support new “utilities” in the cities of the future. Bastian Fischer, Vice-president of Industry Strategy, Oracle Utilities, makes a brief summary of the work done by the company in various countries and highlights the participation in MOBI.E, a project with international recognition. 1. What are the main challenges that local authorities face today when they are in a transition to a smart city? A smart city is based on an urban concept focused on sustainability. It is the integration of a city’s entire resources, processes, security, utility services and activities into one planning and operations centre aimed at reducing the environmental footprint by lowering carbon emissions and water consumption. Every smart city is governed differently and has varied development rates and growth patterns; therefore each city develops different strategies towards transforming into a smart city. For example, European municipalities have a long history and signifi-
cant deployments of networks, and are focussed on converging assets, information and communication. On the other hand emerging cities in the Middle East, Africa and Asia, most of which are built on fewer previous foundations, are focused on implementing new infrastructure and possibly leapfrogging directly into a smart city. 2. In which smart cities projects is Oracle currently working now? Oracle provides systems, tools and analytical capabilities that optimize smart grid infrastructures. This provides cities with a more liveable infrastructure for their consumers, and enables them to attract new businesses, as well as create jobs. The Oracle approach is open, interoperable with systems and optimizes efficiency of systems. The city of Abu Dhabi is an example of where energy is being used intelligently to power the city’s desalination processes and produce drinking water. The city’s seawater desalination plants use multi-stage flash distillation technology, which uses steam from thermal power plants as an energy source. Water production is therefore proportional to electricity production and reaches a peak during the summer months, when electricity is required to power air conditioning, resulting in higher levels of production.
Oracle has provided technology solutions to support Veolia Water in France. Veolia Water has created a new company specialising in remote environmental data and water meter reading services, m2o city. M2o city improves the gathering and management of data related to water usage, and has significant implications for the reduction of waste. Individual customers are invoiced for exact water usage and receive automatic alerts in case of any abnormal consumption. Companies and real estate managers are able to keep a check on year-round usage across a number of properties. The real-time monitoring of the water network also enables the detection of serious or persistent leaks, and the detection of backflows. Veolia has implemented Oracle Utilities Meter Data Management, which will enable it to manage the vast amounts of data involved, and provides it with the potential to expand operations beyond water in the future. In the immediate term though, m2o city has already helped improve customer satisfaction levels: remote meter readings mean that customers are not disturbed by house visits, resulting in fewer complaints and billing inquiries. 3. Can you identify the quantitative and qualitative potential benefits derived from the introduction of intelligent infrastructures in the smart city solutions? The history and needs of every city are different therefore; one model cannot be applied to each. Instead each approach has to be adapted and catered for each city based on its infrastructure, regulatory and efficiency requirements. Some countries have also implemented e-mobility solutions for transportation as a way of transitioning to a smart city. An example of this is the MOBI.E vehicle electrification project in Portugal for which the Government has installed 1,300 slow charging and 50 fast charging stations across 25 municipalities across the country. MOBI.E is one of the first truly universal and integrated platforms for electric mobility in Europe. By having a network of charging stations in place across the country and integrating a network of private charging services, the country is increasing its use of renewable energy, reducing carbons emissions and pollution created. Additionally, consumers can
invest in electric vehicles knowing that they can refuel anytime, anywhere, at reasonable prices, using electricity generated from the cleanest possible sources. 4. What are the most important sectors to increase the energy efficiency of our cities? Improving energy efficiency is the main goal of a smart city. To achieve this, it is essential that country leaders emphasise the importance of virtual fittings in buildings to make them more energy efficient. Additionally, advanced tools such as smart meters and smart grids should be used to make energy consumption more visible to the consumer, empowering them to make smarter choices. Furthermore, to develop a smart city network, it is important to be able to balance and optimize resources between sectors. A way of doing this is to use waste facilities to generate heat and electricity, especially at times when wind is not blowing to compensate renewable forms of energy. Alternatively, in terms of bio-gas, a smart city can collect recycled waste and collect biological waste such as food, compost, residue of water treatment, and use this for gas production. 5. Can you identify other areas where smart cities may benefit the citizens? Smart grids can be used in healthcare and assisted living to enable the measurement and transfer of personal healthcare data in a secure fashion for a healthcare provider. For instance, smart grid technologies can help healthcare professionals manage weight, blood sugar levels and monitor heart frequency of patients. Moreover, as already mentioned, the smart grid is crucial for e-mobility platforms and MOBI.E is a perfect example of this. All in all, without the smart grid, creating a smart city will not be possible as it provides value services that benefit its constituents.
EUROPEAN UNION SETS THE AGENDA “SMART CITIES AND COMMUNITIES” INITIATIVE The EC is currently promoting the initiative “Smart Cities and Communities”, inserted in the European Strategic Plan for Energy Technologies (SETPlan), 2007, in which the goals of the EU Energy Package 20-20-20 (http://setis.ec.europa.eu/) are established. Cities are the prime arenas for the pursuit of the EU objectives: 20% energy saving by 2020 and the development of a low carbon economy by 2050. In fact, 70% of EU energy consumption comes from urban areas, which are also responsible for producing a significant amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The purpose of “Smart Cities and Communities” is to get a 40% reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases by 2020, through the production and sustainable use of energy, including energy efficiency, low carbon technologies and intelligent management of supply
and demand. The initiative points to measures that are integrated, sustainable and innovative, proposed by the cities and communities themselves, and which act on the challenges of energy efficiency, renewable energy and emission of greenhouse gases. In line with this guidance, a competition was launched for the presentation of proposals within the scope of FP7, specifically for the theme of “Smart Cities and Communities”. Teams of cities and partners in the industry can apply in the field of integrated urban energy flows, which also include water, transport and waste solutions. It also proposes the presentation of initiatives in buildings, heating and cooling, networks and power-supply technologies.
NET!WORKS EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY PLATFORM
The European consortium “Net!Works European Technology Platform” is dedicated to investigating and exploring the potential of information and communication technologies for the benefit of various areas of life in the cities. This consortium brings together over 700 European institutions in the area of communication networks, including companies and the academic world, with the mission to strengthen Europe’s position in technologies and services for communications networks.
The work group dedicated to “smart cities” is led by the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the ‘Instituto Superior Técnico’ (IST). The group’s mission is to identify opportunities for information technology and telecommunications in several areas of urban daily life, in order to provide intelligence to the city. The intelligence of cities focuses on six key pillars: economy (competitiveness), people (human and social capital), governance (participation), mobility (transport and ICT), environment (natural resources) and life (quality of life). In order to perform a thorough analysis of opportunities, challenges and barriers of the smart cities, the work group of Net!Works published the document “Smart Cities Applications and Requirements” in May 2011, based on the potential impact of telecommunications and information technology in cities. The document identifies a number of ICT applications and requirements within the challenges of smart cities, dividing them into five topics: social, privacy & economic implications; development of e-government; health, inclusion & welfare; intelligent transport systems; and smart grids, energy efficiency and environment.
RANKINGS Region of Eindhoven elected Intelligent Community 2011 The Region of Eindhoven, in the Netherlands, was elected as the Intelligent Community of 2011 by the ICF - Intelligent Communities Forum (http://www. intelligentcommunity.org/), with the presentation of the strategic plan Brainport Navigator 2013, which includes several projects in health. For example, in the eHealth Living Lab, senior citizens test new products and services, including remote diagnostics and monitoring via broadband connections.
Since 1999, the ranking of the ICF Intelligent Community awards and distinguishes the communities that implement strategies based on economic competitiveness of broadband. The evaluation of smart communities is carried out in five categories: broadband connectivity, skilled human resources, digital inclusion, innovation and marketing and promotion.
This initiative aims to increase productivity by 1% per year, generating savings of â‚Ź750 million in health costs and lead to the creation of 150 new businesses and 10,000 new jobs in the sector.
Small Scale Smart Cities Scientists at the Technical University of Vienna (Austria), of the University of Ljubljana (Slovenia) and of the Delft University of Technology (Netherlands) have developed an interactive tool that gave rise to a ranking of medium-sized smart cities (population under 500,000 inhabitants). The adopted smart city model is based on six key characteristics: smart economy, smart citizens, smart governance, smart mobility, smart environment and smart lifestyle (http:// www.smart-cities.eu/). Luxembourg held the first position in the final score of the smart cities ranking, followed by Danish cities such as Aarhus, Aalburg and Odense, and the Finnish city of Turku.
CREATIVE CAPITAL IN A CAPITAL REGION The Commission for Coordination and Regional Development of Lisbon and the Tagus Valley and the Institute of Geography and Regional Planning of the University of Lisbon are promoting an international conference focusing on “Creative Capital in the Capital Region”, on the following December 6th. The initiative will take place in Chapitô. What turns a person, a place, a street, a neighbourhood, a city, into a creative milieu? This is the topic on debate. http://www.ccdr-lvt.pt/pt/conferencia-capital-criativo-numa-regiaocapital/6954.htm
THE ECONOMICS OF CULTURE BREAKS BOUNDARIES INTELI attended the first seminar organized by the “Fénix” project, under the CBC program Portugal/Spain. The works took place between the 2nd and 4th of November 2011 in three towns in the area of Raia - Portalegre, Cáceres and Los Santos de Maimona. The Innovation Centre presented, in Portalegre, a communication centred on the strategies based on the creativity in small towns, with a focus on creative urban spaces. The main objective of the ‘Fénix’ Network - Network for Economic Innovation Centred in People - is to economically and socially revive low-density urban areas, which are located in border areas. For this to happen, the program develops urban regeneration projects, boosting the craft activities, and promotes the cultural and architectural heritage area. The project is coordinated by the Ayuntamiento de Los Santos de Maimona, in partnership with the Ayuntamiento de Cáceres, the Town Hall of Portalegre and the Robinson Foundation, among other local entities. http://www.inteli.pt/ProgramaSeminarioFenix.pdf
CREATIVITY, A TERRITORY OF NEW OPPORTUNITIES INTELI attended the International Conference “Creative Entrepreneurship for a Competitive Economy”, held in Tallinn (Estonia), between the 19th and 21st of October 2011. The event was organized by the “Enterprise Estonia”, the “Creative Estonia”, the Ministry of Culture and the Ministry of Economy and Communications of Estonia. The consultant, Tom Flemming, moderated the debate. The aim of the conference was to rethink the role of the creative economy in an era of economic crisis in Europe, connecting the agendas of arts, culture, economy, community and education. A draft of the “Manifesto of Tallinn” was presented and discussed at the event with a view to publishing a final version signed by the Ministry of Culture of Estonia and by the participants. The Manifesto presents five main themes around which 26 policy recommendations are proposed: creative talents, creative businesses, creative infrastructures, creative cities and regions and creative leadership. http://www.creativeestonia.eu/materials/The_Tallinn_Manifesto.Pdf
INTELI PARTICIPATES IN MALAYSIA’S MISSION TO EUROPE The EICI – “European Interest Group on Creativity and Innovation”, a network in which INTELI is involved, organized a visit to a delegation of the Ministry of Information, Communication and Culture (MICC) of Malaysia for Germany (Stuttgart and Karlsruhe) with the aim of raising awareness of the cultural and creative sector in Europe. The mission, held on the 14th and 15th of November, included visits to companies and organizations associated to the cultural and creative industries, and workshops on arts, culture and heritage. INTELI was invited to participate in the event through the presentation of a communication on cultural heritage and development of cities: “Creativitybased Strategies in Heritage Cities: Case Studies from Portugal.” Simultaneously, INTELI participated in the 2011 General Assembly of EICI. http://www.creativity-innovation.eu
Smart City Expo & World Congress 2011 The International Conference “Smart City 2011 World Congress & Expo” will be held between the 29th of November and the 2nd of December in Barcelona. It is the first European Expo with a global focus on intelligent cities. This event will be the meeting point for professionals of the sector, public administration and experts who contributed to understanding the functioning and implementation of the ‘smart city’ concept: cities that wish to develop better technologies in order to create urban environments that are more efficient in the management of the available resources, whether they are energy, water or air quality. In addition to the conferences, the event will also have an exhibition area where companies, cities and institutions will have the opportunity to showcase their most innovative projects, solutions and products. INFO+
Intelligent Cities Expo and Conference In November last, the 9th European Week of Cities and Regions took place in Hamburg under the organization of Smartershows in partnership with UKIP media events. An exhibition dedicated to the promotion of sustainable, connected and smart cities. For three days the participants heard speeches by the best experts in building smart and sustainable cities, addressing the application of innovative solutions in energy management, water and waste treatment, mobility, security and information technology. The conference was a forum for sharing and disseminating the best case studies, aiming at the future development of Smart Cities on a global scale. INFO+
SITES & LINKS URENIO – Urban and Regional Innovation Research Unit ICF – Intelligent Community Forum European Initiative on Smart Cities - SETIS Smart Cities INTERREG project European Smart Cities research project
Oracle’s Solutions for Smart Cities Amsterdam Smart City Évora InovCity B APOLLON Pilot-project FIREBALL Project
BOOKS & ARTICLES Creating Smart-er Cities The Journal of Urban Technology (Taylor & Francis), 2011. This publication provides an overview of various views and concepts of smart cities, inspired by a critical view of smart cities from a series of papers presented at the Trans-national Conference on Creating Smart(er) Cities, held in 2009. The compilation of these papers also aims at the dissemination of the main challenges faced by cities in their efforts to achieve the operating principles of smart cities.
Intelligent Cities: Innovation, Knowledge Systems and Digital Spaces Nikos Komninos, London and New York: Taylor and Francis, Spon Press, 2002. The book focuses on innovation environments of intelligent cities and presents the main models (technology centres, regions of innovation, smart cities) for the creation and support of the technological environment, innovation and learning.
Intelligent Cities and Globalisation of Innovation Networks Nikos Komninos, London and New York: Routledge, 2008. This book combines concepts and theories in the areas of urban development and planning, innovation mana-gement and virtual/intelligent environments, explaining the rise of intelligent cities in relation to the globalisation of innovation systems.
Smarter Cities Series: A Foundation for Understanding IBM Smarter Cities IBM, 2011. This IBM publication is the first of a series of publications of the group on smart cities. The document provides the vision of IBM on smart cities and explains how information and technology can help make cities more intelligent, describing the various problems inherent to the cities and presenting specific technological solutions for their resolution.
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