Page 1


sumário

apresentação

Apresentação 03 Editorial 04

Uma crise de longa duração

“Aqui é a sombra e a morte, mas lá longe, do outro lado das montanhas o sol se levantou sobre um mundo novo. Lá, além das planícies, o solo estremece sob os passos inumeráveis de homens impávidos e livres.µ 0DLDNRYVNL

08

Reordenamento dos de cima e reorganização dos de baixo 12 A revolução no centro da estratégia 18 Século XX: da coerência estratégica à desarticulação das lutas

22

Em defesa do ecossocialismo 36 Contribuição sobre as lutas estratégicas

38

Reorganização da classe e seus instrumentos

42

Os bons fundamentos de uma organização revolucionária

48

2VGHVDÀRVGHXPDRUJDQL]DomR militante nos dias atuais 52 PSOL na encruzilhada: é preciso defender o projeto original

60

PSOL: ou vai ou racha 64

Expediente: Essa publicação é de responsabilidade da Comissão de Ligação CSOL-Enlace, cujos membros são: Alvaro Neiva, Ana Carvalhaes, Bernardo Pilotto, Camila Valadão, Eduardo d’Albergaria, Fernando Silva, João Machado, José Correa, Junia Gouveia, Leandro Dias, Liliana Maiques, Veraci Alimandro. 'LDJUDPDomR+HOHQD0DUWLQV&DSD5DtVVD9HORVR*UiÀFD3ULPLO7LUDJHPPLOH[HPSODUHV

O

ÀP GH VHPDQD HUD FKXYRVR H D SDXWD WmR H[WHQVDTXDQWRRWDPDQKRGRVVRQKRVGRV SDUWLFLSDQWHV 3RU LQLFLDWLYD GH XPD FRPLVVmR GDV FRRUGHQDo}HV QDFLRQDLV GR (QODFH H GR &62/UHXQLUDPVHHPXPVHPLQiULRQRFHQWUR GH6mR3DXORGLDVHGHIHYHUHLURFHUFD GHPLOLWDQWHVGHFLQFRFROHWLYRVDWXDQWHVQR 362/FRPUHSUHVHQWDo}HVGHVHWHHVWDGRVGR SDtVHGR'LVWULWR)HGHUDO 2ODQoDPHQWRGDUHYLVWD­(VTXHUGDpRUHVXO WDGRGHVWHVGRLVGLDVGHWUDEDOKRTXHUHYHORXD VHULHGDGHHDPDWXULGDGHGDVRUJDQL]Do}HVHPL OLWDQWHV SUHVHQWHV SDUD HQFDUDU WHPDV HVSLQKR VRV WUDGLo}HV GLIHUHQWHV H DV VHTHODV GH SHOR PHQRV GXDV GpFDGDV GH LQWHQVD IUDJPHQWDomR GDHVTXHUGDVRFLDOLVWDQRPXQGRHQR%UDVLO 2FOLPDXQLWiULRHDVHULHGDGHGRWUDEDOKRDUHD OL]DUQmRGHYHULDPVXUSUHHQGHUHPERUDWHQKDP VXUSUHHQGLGRDPXLWRVGRVSUySULRVSDUWLFLSDQ WHV$ÀQDOQmRHUDPSRXFDVQHPVHFXQGiULDVDV VtQWHVHVTXHMiVHDQXQFLDYDP1RVWHPDVGHED WLGRV GXUDQWH R ViEDGR VLWXDomR LQWHUQDFLRQDO UHYROXomRSURJUDPDHHVWUDWpJLDGRVVRFLDOLVWDV  RV FROHWLYRV SUHVHQWHV UHDÀUPDUDP D GHIHVD GD UHYROXomRFRPRHVWUDWpJLDRSDSHOHVVHQFLDOQHOD GRVTXHYLYHPGRPXQGRGRWUDEDOKR²FRPRD ´KLSyWHVHHVWUDWpJLFDµGHTXHIDODYD'DQLHO%HQ VDLG²HDQHFHVVLGDGHGHUHFRQVWUXLUODoRVFRH UHQWHVHQWUHDHVWUDWpJLDGDUHYROXomRVHXSUR JUDPDHRVVXMHLWRVVRFLDOHSROtWLFRGDUXSWXUD 1R GRPLQJR TXDQGR R VLVXGR WHPD GH FRQ FHSomRGHRUJDQL]DomRSURPHWLDIDFLOLWDUDREUD GR FDQVDoR RFRUUHX XP GHEDWH TXDOLÀFDGR H IUXWtIHUR VREUH DV H[SHULrQFLDV GH FRQVWUXomR SUHJUHVVDVHDVOLo}HVTXHWLUDPRVGHODVSDUDD RUJDQL]DomRTXHTXHUHPRV2GLDWHYHIHFKRGH

RXURFRPXPDDQiOLVHFROHWLYDVREUHDVLWXDomR GR362/HRVGHVDÀRVQDOXWDSHODPDQXWHQomR GD QDWXUH]D VRFLDOLVWD FRPEDWLYD H DQWLUHJLPH GRSDUWLGR $VLQLFLDWLYDVFRPRRVHPLQiULRHRODQoDPHQ WR GD UHYLVWD ­ (VTXHUGD WHP XP REMHWLYR EHP FRQFUHWRDYDQoDUQDXQLÀFDomRHQWUHHVWDVFRP SRQHQWHV SDUD D IXQGDomR GH XPD QRYD RUJD QL]DomR PDU[LVWD UHYROXFLRQiULD QR %UDVLO XPD QRYDVtQWHVHTXHVHMDVXSHULRUjVRPDGDVSDUWHV TXHKRMHFRPS}HPHVVHHVIRUoRPLOLWDQWHFRQV WLWXLU XP DXWrQWLFR 0RYLPHQWR SHOD FRQVWUXomR GHXPDQRYDRUJDQL]DomRQDHVTXHUGDEUDVLOHLUD FRPYRFDomRGHVtQWHVHVSURJUDPiWLFDVHRUJD QL]DWLYDVFRPDYRFDomRGHDJOXWLQDUHXQLUIRU oDVHQmRGLYLGLU 1DV SiJLQDV GHVWD UHYLVWD HVWDPRV SXEOLFDQ GRRVDUWLJRVHWH[WRVTXHH[SUHVVDPRVDF~ PXORVHYLV}HVGHEDWLGRVQHVVHVHPLQiULRTXH EXVFDP DVVHQWDU IXQGDPHQWRV VyOLGRV SDUD HVWDQRYDFRQVWUXomR 2WLPLVWDV DQXQFLDPRV TXH YHP Dt XPD QRYD RUJDQL]DomRPDU[LVWDUHYROXFLRQiULDQDHVTXHUGD EUDVLOHLUD H QR 362/ 2WLPLVWDV DÀUPDPRV TXH D UHYLVWD ­ (VTXHUGD VHUi D H[SUHVVmR SROtWLFR WHyULFDGHVWHPRYLPHQWR (RWLPLVWDV “Cantamos porque chove sobre o sulco e somos militantes desta vida e porque não podemos nem queremos deixar que a canção se torne cinzaµ 0DULR%HQHGHWWL &RPLVVmRGH/LJDomR(QODFH&62/


EDITORIAL

Um levante popular sacode o Brasil

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI

Q

XDQGR IHFKiYDPRV HVWD UHYLVWD LUURPSHUUDP SRUWRGRRSDtVPRELOL]Do}HVPXOWLWXGLQiULDV$ IDtVFDGRV~ELWRLQFrQGLRVRFLDOIRLDOXWDYLWRULRVD SHODUHGXomRGDVWDULIDVGRVWUDQVSRUWHVQDFLGDGH GH6mR3DXOR&RPHL[RQDMXYHQWXGHRSURFHVVR WUDQVERUGRXHPPHQRVGHXPDVHPDQDSDUDPD QLIHVWDo}HV GH PDVVD FRQWUD RV JDVWRV FULPLQRVRV FRP DV REUDV GDV &RSDV GDV &RQIHGHUDo}HV H GR 0XQGRFRQWUDDFRUUXSomRJHQHUDOL]DGDHPGHIHVD GHVHUYLoRVS~EOLFRVGHTXDOLGDGHHFRQWUDDUHSUHV VmRSROLFLDO $V PDQLIHVWDo}HV FDGD YH] PDLRUHV FKRFDUDPVH DEHUWDPHQWHFRQWUDWRGRVRVSRGHUHVFRQVWLWXtGRV )RLFRPXPDVVLVWLUSDVVHDWDVFRPDo}HVRIHQVLYDV VREUH3UHIHLWXUDV$VVHPEOpLDV/HJLVODWLYDVSDOiFLRV GHJRYHUQRVHVWDGXDLVDWpDHPEOHPiWLFDWRPDGD FRQWUDR&RQJUHVVR1DFLRQDOHPGHMXQKR&RQ WUDWRGRVRVSDUWLGRVQRSRGHU0DQLIHVWDo}HVXQL WiULDVPDVVLYDVEORTXHLRVGHHVWUDGDVHSURWHVWRV QDVSHULIHULDVGDVJUDQGHVFDSLWDLVJHQHUDOL]DUDPVH QXPLQYHUQRFRPFDORUFRUHVHVRQVGHSULPDYHUD 2HGLWRULDOGH­(VTXHUGDTXHSUHSDUDPRVDQWHV GHVWHOHYDQWHWLQKDFRPRWtWXOR8PDQRYDVLWXDomR SDUDDUHFRQVWUXomRGDHVTXHUGDHGL]LD ´9LYHPRVXPDVLWXDomRGHUHWRPDGDGDVPRELOL]D o}HVVRFLDLVQR%UDVLO8PHVWXGRGR'LHHVHDSRQWRX TXHIRLRDQRFRPPDLRUQ~PHURGHJUHYHV GHVGH8PPRYLPHQWRDVFHQGHQWHSURVVHJXH HP  $OpP GDV EDWDOKDV GH PXLWDV FDWHJRULDV SRUPHOKRUHVVDOiULRVHFRQGLo}HVGHWUDEDOKRFUHV FHP WDPEpP PRELOL]Do}HV SRU XPD DJHQGD DP SOD D OXWD FRQWUD R FRQVHUYDGRULVPR KRPRIyELFR H UDFLVWD FRP PDLRU YLVLELOLGDGH DWp DJRUD SDUD D



OXWDFRQWUDDLQGLFDomRGRGHSXWDGR0DUFR)HOLFLD QRSDUDD3UHVLGrQFLDGD&RPLVVmRGH'LUHLWRV+X PDQRVGD&kPDUDGRV'HSXWDGRV DOXWDGHSRYRV LQGtJHQDVFRQWUDD3(& TXHUHYr²HQROLPLWH EORTXHLD²DVGHPDUFDo}HVGHVXDVWHUUDV FRQWUDD FRQVWUXomRGD8VLQDGH%HOR0RQWHSRUVHXVWHUUL WyULRVHGLUHLWRVLQFOXVLYHRGLUHLWRjYLGDFRPGHV WDTXHSDUDDVPRELOL]Do}HVHP0DWR*URVVRGR6XO DOXWDGHVHWRUHVSRSXODUHVSHORGLUHLWRjPRUDGLD HVXDYLRODomR FRPUHPRo}HVGHVSHMRVH´UHXUED QL]Do}HVµTXHVHJUHJDPRHVSDoRGDVFLGDGHV HP IXQomRGD&RSDGR0XQGRGHHGDV2OLPStD GDVGHDOXWDHPGHIHVDGRPHLRDPELHQWHD OXWDFRQWUDDHOHYDomRGRVSUHoRVGHSDVVDJHQVGR WUDQVSRUWH S~EOLFR SRU WUDQVSRUWH GH TXDOLGDGH H SHOD VXD JUDWXLGDGH TXH HVWi VH HVSDOKDQGR SHOR SDtV(VWHFUHVFLPHQWRGHOXWDVHPRELOL]Do}HVYLVt YHOGHVGHRLQtFLRGRJRYHUQR'LOPDDJRUDGiVLQDLV GHTXHHQWUDHPQRYRSDWDPDUµ 1RV RUJXOKDPRV HQWmR  GH HVWDU DWXDOL]DQGR HVWH HGLWRULDO QmR SRUTXH R DQWHULRU QmR VHUYLVVH RX DSRQWDVVH WHQGrQFLDV HTXLYRFDGDV $R FRQWUi ULRRVVLQDLVMiHVWDYDPDOL,QGLFiYDPRVRLQtFLRGH XPQRYRFLFORDSRVVLELOLGDGHGHXPDQRYDVLWXD omRGLDQWHGRDJUDYDPHQWRGDVPD]HODVGRPRGHOR FDSLWDOLVWDVXSRVWDPHQWH´QHRGHVHQYROYLPHQWLVWDµ DSOLFDGRSHOR37HPkPELWRIHGHUDOHSRUJRYHUQRV ²RLQFOXLQGRGDYHOKDGLUHLWD²QRkPELWRHVWDGXDO HPXQLFLSDO 0DVHLVTXHYHLRROHYDQWHHFRPHOHXPDYLUDGD HVSHWDFXODU QD FRQMXQWXUD H QD UHODomR GH IRUoDV 1RPRPHQWRHPTXHHVFUHYtDPRVHVWHQRYRWH[WR DLQGDHVWDYDPSDXWDGDVDVJUDQGHVPDQLIHVWDo}HV

QRVMRJRVÀQDLVGD&RSDGDV&RQIHGHUDo}HV$3(& MiKDYLDFDtGR'LOPDWLQKDIHLWRGRLVSURQXQFLD PHQWRV HP UHGH GH 79 VHP FRQVHJXLU VROXFLRQDU FULVHDOJXPD2VWUDEDOKDGRUHVHQVDLDYDPVXUJLUQD FHQDGHIRUPDRUJDQL]DGDFRPDPDUFDomRGHXP GLD GH SDUDOLVDomR QDFLRQDO FRQYRFDGR XQLWDULD PHQWHSHODVFHQWUDLVVLQGLFDLVFRPXPDMXVWDSDXWD GHUHLYLQGLFDo}HV 'LIHUHQWHPHQWH GH RXWURV PRPHQWRV GH DVFHQ VRGHPDVVDQD+LVWyULDUHFHQWHGRSDtVFRPRDV 'LUHWDV-iHR)RUD&ROORUQRHQWDQWRHVWHOHYDQWH QmR WHP XPD GLUHomR QDFLRQDO 3HOR FRQWUiULR Ki XPDSURIXQGDHJHQHUDOL]DGDUHMHLomRDRVSDUWLGRV HUHSUHVHQWDo}HVSROtWLFDVWUDGLFLRQDLVXPUHFKDoR jVWUDLo}HVGR37XPIRUWHDXWRQRPLVPR$SDUWLU MXYHQWXGHHVPDJDGRUDPHQWHPDMRULWiULDQDVUXDV DOXWDDYDQoRXSDUDRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVHDMXYHQWXGH PDLVSUROHWiULDGDVSHULIHULDVWURX[HWDPEpPSDUD DVPDQLIHVWDo}HVRVVHWRUHVDVVDODULDGRVPpGLRV 8PDFRQVFLrQFLDGLIXVD²DSyVDQRVGHWDQWRUHÁX [RHIUXVWUDo}HVFRPRVUHIRUPLVWDVQRSRGHU²FRP IRUWHWHRUQDFLRQDOLVWDDEULXWDPEpPDVSRUWDVSDUD TXHDGLUHLWDIRVVHjVUXDVWHQWDUGLVSXWDURVUXPRV GRPRYLPHQWREXVFDQGRWLUDUSURYHLWRGDUHMHLomR DRVSDUWLGRVGRKLQRHGDEDQGHLUDQDFLRQDLVWmR XVDGDVQHVWDVMRUQDGDVGHMXQKRPDVTXHQDGDWrP DYHUGHSDUWHGRVVHWRUHVSRSXODUHVFRPTXDOTXHU VHQWLPHQWRJROSLVWDRXGHGHIHVDGHSDXWDVUHDFLR QiULDVRXUHFKDoRDRVPpWRGRVGHPRELOL]DomR 6mRDVSDXWDVGRPRYLPHQWRRVHQIUHQWDPHQWRV DEHUWRVFRPDUHSUHVVmRSROLFLDODRFXSDomRGHYLDV HHVWUDGDVTXHHVWmRVHLPSRQGR(PUHVXPRXPD DXWrQWLFDGHPRFUDFLDGDVUXDVDYDQoRXVREUHR%UD

VLOGH'LOPDHGD*ORERHPXPSURJUHVVLYROHYDQWH SRSXODUHMXYHQLO 7UDWDVHDJRUDGHVHJXLUQDVUXDVHEXVFDUGLVSX WDU SDUD XPD YLVmR DQWLFDSLWDOLVWD RV UXPRV GHVWH SURFHVVROHYDQWDQGRXPDSODWDIRUPDSURJUDPiWL FDFRPWHPDVWDLVFRPRXPDUHIRUPDSROtWLFDFRP FRQWUROHHSDUWLFLSDomRSRSXODUMi'HPRFUDWL]DomR GRSRGHU1HQKXPFHQWDYRPDLVSDUDD&RSD5H FXUVRVS~EOLFRVSDUDVD~GHS~EOLFD(GXFDomRS~ EOLFDFRPGR3,%SDUDRVHWRUMi7UDQVSRUWHH PRUDGLDGHTXDOLGDGHQR´SDGUmR)LIDµFRPRSHGH RSRYR)LPGDV30VDVVDVVLQDV(PGHIHVDGRVGL UHLWRVKXPDQRVDEDL[RRHVWDWXWRGRQDVFLWXURHR SURMHWR GD ´FXUD JD\µ (P GHIHVD GRV GLUHLWRV GDV PXOKHUHVHGDSRSXODomROJEW'HPRFUDWL]DomRGRV PHLRVGHFRPXQLFDomRDEDL[RRPRQRSyOLRGDVUi GLRVH79VSHORVEDU}HVGDPtGLD'HIHVDGRVGL UHLWRVGRVSRYRVLQGtJHQDVGHPDUFDomRGDVWHUUDV FRQWUDDFRQVWUXomRGH%HOR0RQWH5HYRJDomRGRV OHLO}HVGRSHWUyOHRFRQWUDDSULYDWL]DomRGHSRUWRV DHURSRUWRVHURGRYLDV5HGXomRGDMRUQDGDVHPUH GXomRGRVVDOiULRV 1mR SRGHULD KDYHU PRPHQWR PHOKRU PRPHQWR SDUDRODQoDPHQWRGDUHYLVWD­(VTXHUGD(ODpH[ SUHVVmRGHXPSURFHVVRGHXQLÀFDomRHQWUHRUJD QL]Do}HVPDU[LVWDVUHYROXFLRQiULDVTXHIHOL]PHQWH SDVVDDFDPLQKDUDRODGRGHXPSRGHURVRSURFHVVR GHPRELOL]DomR2GHEDWHTXHID]HPRVGDHVWUDWp JLDGDUHYROXomRHGDVFRQGLo}HVSDUDDYDQoDUQD VXDGLUHomRJDQKDPXLWRPDLVDWXDOLGDGHHPPHLR DHVWHOHYDQWH &RPLVVmRGH/LJDomR(QODFH&62/GHMXQKRGH


Situação Internacional

)RWR'XGX9LDQD


situação internacional

uma crise de longa duração Por joão machado*

)RWR%ORFRGH(VTXHUGD

A

HFRQRPLD FDSLWDOLVWD VHPSUH VH GHVHQYRO YHDFXPXODQGRFRQWUDGLo}HVTXHSHULRGL FDPHQWH OHYDP D FULVHV GH PDLRU RX PHQRU JUDYLGDGH 8PD FRQWUDGLomR FHQWUDO IRL FKD PDGDSRU0DU[GH´WHQGrQFLDGHFUHVFHQWHGD WD[D GH OXFURµ D DFXPXODomR SURORQJDGD GH FDSLWDOFRPLQWURGXomRGHSURJUHVVRWpFQLFR OHYD DR DXPHQWR UHODWLYR GD SDUWH GR FDSLWDO LQYHVWLGDHPPHLRVGHSURGXomR FRPRLQVWD ODo}HV H HTXLSDPHQWRV PDWpULD SULPD  H j UHGXomRGDSDUWHGRFDSLWDOLQYHVWLGDHPIRU oDGHWUDEDOKR LVWRpjHOHYDomRGDFRPSRVL omRRUJkQLFDGRFDSLWDO &RPRRVOXFURVYrP GRYDORUDGLFLRQDGRSHODIRUoDGHWUDEDOKRD WD[DGHOXFURFDL 3RURXWURODGRDVFULVHVWHQGHPDFXPSULUXP SDSHOQHFHVViULRSDUDDSUHSDUDomRGDUHFXSH UDomR SRVWHULRU GD HFRQRPLD OHYDP j UHRUJD QL]DomRGDSURGXomRjUHGXomRGRVVDOiULRVH j GHVYDORUL]DomR H GHVWUXLomR GH SDUWH GR HV WRTXH DFXPXODGR GH FDSLWDO 'HVWD PDQHLUD D HFRQRPLDSRGHUiVDLUGDFULVHFRPXPDWD[DGH OXFURPDLVHOHYDGDHHQWUDUQXPRXWURSHUtRGR GHDFXPXODomR1DWXUDOPHQWHDVDtGDGDFULVH HDIRUPDFRPTXHVHGDUiGHSHQGHGHYiULRV IDWRUHVHQWUHHOHVGDSUySULDOXWDGHFODVVHV $ HFRQRPLD FDSLWDOLVWD PXQGLDO YLYHX VHX PDLRUSHUtRGRGHH[SDQVmRGHSRLVGD6HJXQ GD *XHUUD 0XQGLDO (VWH SHUtRGR VH HVJRWRX

8

* Economista, professor da PUC SP e membro da Coordenação Nacional do Enlace

QRVDQRV$SDUWLUGDtDVEXUJXHVLDVGH WRGR R PXQGR DGRWDUDP XP QRYR FXUVR ² R QHROLEHUDOLVPRTXHpXPSURMHWRGHUHWRPDU R FUHVFLPHQWR GD HFRQRPLD PXQGLDO FRP D LQWHQVLILFDomR GRV DWDTXHV DRV VDOiULRV H DRV GLUHLWRV VRFLDLV D UHFRQFHQWUDomR GD UHQGD D OLEHUDOL]DomR GRV PHUFDGRV SULYDWL]Do}HV PXQGLDOL]DomRGRFDSLWDOHH[SDQVmRGRVHWRU ILQDQFHLURHGHVHXSRGHU $ RIHQVLYD QHROLEHUDO WHYH YiULDV YLWyULDV FRQVHJXLXUHGX]LUUHODWLYDPHQWHRVVDOiULRVH UHFRQFHQWUDU D UHQGD H FRQWRX DLQGD FRP D IDOrQFLDGRDQWLJR´EORFRVRYLpWLFRµ PDOFKD PDGRGH´FDPSRVRFLDOLVWDµ HDUHLQWHJUDomR DRPHUFDGRPXQGLDOFDSLWDOLVWDGD5~VVLDHGH RXWURV SDtVHV HP HVSHFLDO GD &KLQD $ YLWy ULD LGHROyJLFD QHROLEHUDO IRL QRWiYHO D PDLRU SDUWH GD HVTXHUGD FRQYHUWHXVH DRV GRJPDV QHROLEHUDLV H D LGHLD GH TXH XPD DOWHUQDWLYD VRFLDOLVWDDRFDSLWDOLVPRpSRVVtYHOTXDVHGH VDSDUHFHXGRKRUL]RQWH (QWUHWDQWR QXPD TXHVWmR FKDYH R SURMHWR QmRIRLYLWRULRVRDUHFXSHUDomRGDWD[DGHOX FURIRLOLPLWDGDHDUHFXSHUDomRGDDFXPXOD omRGHFDSLWDOIRLPDLVIUDFDGRTXHQDVDtGD GH FULVHV DQWHULRUHV $ H[SOLFDomR GLVWR HVWi HPTXHDWDFDURVVDOiULRVQmRpVXILFLHQWHSDUD ORJUDU XPD WD[D GH OXFURV HOHYDGD FRPR IRL GLWRDFLPDpQHFHVViULRWDPEpPGHVYDORUL]DU HGHVWUXLUXPDSDUWHVLJQLILFDWLYDGRHVWRTXH GH FDSLWDO H[LVWHQWH ,VWR QmR IRL IHLWR SHOD SUySULDUD]mRGHTXHRVJRYHUQRVGHSRLVGD

GRVHHVTXHFHUDPGDVXDSUHJDomRDIDYRUGH ´PHQRV (VWDGRµ H GH ´FRQILDU QRV PHUFDGRVµ HVHXVJRYHUQRVLQMHWDUDPWULOK}HVGHGyODUHV H HXURV QD HFRQRPLD SDUD VDOYDU R VLVWHPD ILQDQFHLUR H D JUDQGHV HPSUHVDV DWUDYpV GR HVWtPXOR GD GHPDQGD $ TXHGD QXPD *UDQ GH'HSUHVVmRTXHWHQGLDDVHUSLRUGRTXHD GRVDQRVIRLHYLWDGDPDVDUHFXSHUDomRGD HFRQRPLDIRLOLPLWDGD $ SDUWLU GH  VHQWLQGRVH PDLV VHJXUDV DV EXUJXHVLDV VH LQFOLQDUDP SDUD RXWUD OLQKD GHSROtWLFDHFRQ{PLFD2HVIRUoRSDVVRXDVHU EDVLFDPHQWH GH UHGXomR GRV GpÀFLWV S~EOLFRV TXH p FODUR KDYLDP VH DPSOLDGR PXLWR FRP RVJDVWRVQRSHUtRGRDQWHULRU HGHFRQWURODUR FUHVFLPHQWRGRVHVWRTXHVGDVGtYLGDV ,VWR WHP VLGR IHLWR FRP XPD H[SOLFLWDomR DEHUWD GR FDUiWHU GH FODVVH GHVWDV SROtWLFDV FRPRSRXFDVYH]HVVHYLX'HSRLVGHGDUULRV GHGLQKHLURSDUDEDQFRVHJUDQGHVHPSUHVDV SDVVRXVHDXPDUURFKRGUiVWLFRSDUDRSRYR LVWR p D UHGXomR GRV VDOiULRV GHPLVV}HV GH WUDEDOKDGRUHVHUHGXomRGRJDVWRS~EOLFRVR FLDO(RGLQKHLURFRQWLQXDDIOXLUSDUDEDQFRV HPGLILFXOGDGH2VFDVRVPDLVH[WUHPRVGHV WDVSROtWLFDVWrPVLGRSRVWRVHPSUiWLFDQRVXO GD(XURSDVREUHWXGRQD*UpFLDHP3RUWXJDO HQD(VSDQKD Ferocidade contra o custo da mão-de-obra $ IHURFLGDGH GHVWDV SROtWLFDV QHVWH ~OWLPR FDVRWHPIHLWRTXHVHMDPFRQWUDSURGXFHQWHV 1D IDVH PDLV DJXGD GD FULVH HP  H QR GRSRQWRGHYLVWDGRFRQWUROHGDVGtYLGDVS~ LQtFLRGHDVEXUJXHVLDVGHWRGRRPXQ EOLFDV HODV WrP SURYRFDGR IRUWHV UHFHVV}HV 6HJXQGD*XHUUD0XQGLDOWrPDWXDGRVHPSUH SDUDUHGX]LUDSURIXQGLGDGHGDVFULVHV $ DFXPXODomR GH FDSLWDO PDLV OHQWD QRV SDt VHVFHQWUDLVIRLHPSDUWHFRPSHQVDGDSRUXPD DFXPXODomRPDLVYLJRURVDHPQRYRVFHQWURVGR FDSLWDOLVPR PXQGLDO ² D &KLQD H RXWURV SDtVHV DVLiWLFRV(QRVDQRVHQDSULPHLUDSDUWH GRVDQRVIRLFRPSHQVDGD²LOXVRULDPHQWH PDV GH IRUPD HIHWLYD SRU DOJXP WHPSR ² SHOD DFXPXODomR GH FDSLWDO ÀFWtFLR LVWR p SHOR FD SLWDO TXH VH YDORUL]D ´YLUWXDOPHQWHµ QD HVIHUD ÀQDQFHLUDFRPDH[SORVmRGRFUpGLWRHGRHQ GLYLGDPHQWR GHVWDYH]VREUHWXGRGDVIDPtOLDV H GDV SUySULDV LQVWLWXLo}HV ÀQDQFHLUDV  H D IRU PDomRGH´EROKDVHVSHFXODWLYDVµ 3RU RXWUR ODGR R UHIRUoR GD DFXPXODomR GH FDSLWDO HP SDtVHV FRPR D &KLQD VH FRQWULEXLX SDUDFRPSHQVDUDUHGXomRGRULWPRGDDFXPX ODomR GRV YHOKRV SDtVHV FHQWUDLV DFUHVFHQWRX QRYDV FRQWUDGLo}HV DR SURFHVVR HQGXUHFHX D FRQFRUUrQFLD QR SODQR PXQGLDO H DXPHQWRX D SUHVVmRFRQWUDRVVDOiULRVHRQtYHOGHYLGDPDLV HOHYDGRQRVSDtVHVGRFHQWUReVREUHHVWHSDQR GHIXQGRTXHpSRVVtYHOFRPSUHHQGHUDQDWXUH ]DGDFULVHLQLFLDGDQRV(8$HPTXH YROWRXDVHDJUDYDUDSDUWLUGHQHVWDIDVH FRPFHQWURQD(XURSD


TXHUHGX]HPDVDUUHFDGDo}HV2TXHVHGHL[D GHJDVWDUSRUXPODGRQmRpDUUHFDGDGRSRU RXWUR$OpPGLVVRRV3,%VFDHP$WpDJRUDDV GtYLGDVS~EOLFDVFRPRSURSRUomRGR3,% RLQ GLFDGRUPDLVUHOHYDQWHGDFDSDFLGDGHGHSD JDPHQWRGHVWDVGtYLGDV WHPDXPHQWDGRFRP RDUURFKRHQmRGLPLQXtGR 1HP SRU LVVR RV GHIHQVRUHV GHVWDV SROtWLFDV WrP UHFXDGR 1D YHUGDGH Ki XPD H[SOLFDomR SDUDHVWDDSDUHQWHIDOWDGHVHQVRVHXREMHWLYR PDLVGRTXHFRQWURODURJDVWRS~EOLFRRXUHGX ]LURGpÀFLWpUHGX]LURFXVWRGDPmRGHREUDH GR (VWDGR SDUD WHQWDU FULDU FRQGLo}HV GH XPD PDLRU UHQWDELOLGDGH SDUD RV FDSLWDLV HXURSHXV PDLVIUDFRV3UHWHQGHVHPHOKRUDUDVFRQGLo}HV GHFRPSHWLYLGDGHGRVSD tVHV GR VXO GD (XURSD HP UHODomRDRVSDtVHVGRQRU WH H GD (XURSD FRPR XP WRGR HP UHODomR j &KLQD H D RXWURV SDtVHV HP TXH RFXVWRGDPmRGHREUDp PXLWRPDLVEDL[R2XVHMD SDUDGLQDPL]DURFDSLWDOLV PR HXURSHX SUHWHQGHVH DSUR[LPDURFXVWRGDPmR GH REUD QRV SDtVHV PDLV IUDFRV WHFQRORJLFDPHQ WH GD (XURSD GR FXVWR GH PmRGHREUDGRVWUDEDOKD GRUHV PDLV H[SORUDGRV GR PXQGR

QXPDSUy[LPDIDVH$&KLQDWHPVLGRRFHQWUR PDLV GLQkPLFR GR FDSLWDOLVPR PXQGLDO PDV DLQGD HVWi ORQJH GH WHU FDSDFLGDGH GH OLGH UDQoD PXQGLDO 2V (8$ DSHVDU GH VHXV SUR EOHPDV DLQGD VmR R FHQWUR LQGLVFXWtYHO GDV ILQDQoDV H GR VLVWHPD PRQHWiULR PXQGLDO $ IDOWD GH XPD OLGHUDQoD PXQGLDO PDLV FODUD WRUQDPDLVGLItFLODFULDomRGRVFRQVHQVRVLQ WUDEXUJXHVHV QHFHVViULRV SDUD YLDELOL]DU XPD VDtGDFDSLWDOLVWDPDLVIRUWH(VWDVLWXDomRWHP DOJXPDVHPHOKDQoDFRPDGRVDQRVGRVp FXOR;;QDpSRFDHVWDYDHPFXUVRXPDPX GDQoD GD OLGHUDQoD GR FDSLWDOLVPR PXQGLDO GR5HLQR8QLGRSDUDRV(8$ $OJXQV HFRQRPLVWDV EXUJXHVHV EHP LQWHQ FLRQDGRV GH RULHQWDomR NH\QHVLDQD FRPR 3DXO .UXJPDQ WrP LQVLVWLGR HP TXH D VDtGD GD FULVH p UHODWLYDPHQWH VLPSOHV EDVWDULD S{U XP ÀP jV SROtWLFDVGLWDVGH´DXVWHUL GDGHµ LVWRpGHDUURFKR  TXH LPS}HP GHVQHFHV VDULDPHQWH VHJXQGR HOH VRIULPHQWR j SRSXODomR H LPSOHPHQWDU GH IRUPD FRQVLVWHQWH SROtWLFDV GH H[SDQVmR GD GHPDQGD DJUHJDGDFRPRDXPHQ WR H QmR D UHGXomR  GR JDVWR S~EOLFR 2 JUDQGH SUREOHPD GD HFRQRPLD PXQGLDOVHULDEDVLFDPHQ WHGHGHPDQGDDJUHJDGD LQVXÀFLHQWH .UXJPDQ WHP UD]mR p FODUR TXDQGR DSRQWD TXHDVSROtWLFDVGHDUUR FKR WrP DJUDYDGR D VL WXDomR GD HFRQRPLD QRV SDtVHV HP TXH VmR DSOLFDGDV PDLV IRUWHPHQWH H GD HFRQRPLD PXQGLDOFRPRXPWRGR eYHUGDGHTXHVXDLQYHUVmRHPGLUHomRDSR OtWLFDV H[SDQVLYDV UHGX]LULD R VRIULPHQWR GDV SRSXODo}HV HP FXUWR SUD]R H SURGX]LULD DO JXPD H[SDQVmR HFRQ{PLFD (QWUHWDQWR HVWDV SROtWLFDVQmRFRQWULEXLULDPSDUDDHOHYDomRGDV WD[DV GH OXFUR H WHQGHULDP DWp D UHGX]LOD Mi TXHPHOKRUDULDPDVFRQGLo}HVGRVWUDEDOKDGR UHV  ,VVR p QmR FRQWULEXLULDP SDUD D HOHYDomR GR LQYHVWLPHQWR SULYDGR H OHYDULDP DWp D VHX HQFROKLPHQWR e SRU LVWR H QmR SRUTXH VHMDP

Atacar a fundo os dogmas do Capital

... para dinamizar o capitalismo europeu, pretende-se aproximar o custo da mão de obra nos países mais fracos tecnologicamente da Europa do custo de mão de obra dos trabalhadores mais explorados do mundo.

8PDFRLVDTXHFRPSOLFD DVDtGDGDFULVHGRSRQWR GH YLVWD GDV EXUJXHVLDV p D PXGDQoD HP FXUVR QDFRUUHODomRGHIRUoDVLQWHUQDFLRQDO2V(8$ FRQWLQXDP D VHU D HFRQRPLD PDLV IRUWH HP ERUD VRIUDP XP GHFOtQLR UHODWLYR D (XURSD H R-DSmRHPERUDDLQGDPXLWRPDLVIRUWHVWHF QRORJLFDPHQWHGRTXHD&KLQDDÌQGLDHRX WURVSDtVHVHHPERUDDLQGDSHVHPPXLWRGH FRQMXQWR QD HFRQRPLD PXQGLDO WrP VRIULGR XPGHFOtQLRUHODWLYRPDLVIRUWHGRTXHRV(8$ 1mRDSHQDVQmRHVWiFODURTXDOSRGHULDVHUR QRYR PRGHOR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR FDSLWDOLVWD SDUDXPDQRYDIDVHGHH[SDQVmRGDDFXPXOD omRFRPRQmRHVWiFODURWDPSRXFRTXDOSDtV ² RX SDtVHV ² OLGHUDUmR D HFRQRPLD PXQGLDO 

GHVQHFHVVDULDPHQWH SHUYHUVDV TXH DV IUDo}HV GRPLQDQWHV GDV EXUJXHVLDV VH RS}HP D HODV 2XVHMDpYHUGDGHTXHDVEXUJXHVLDVVmRSHU YHUVDV²SRXFDVYH]HVLVWRÀFRXWmRFODURFRPR DJRUDPDVHVWDSHUYHUVLGDGHQmRpJUDWXLWD 3DUD TXH SROtWLFDV GH UHYHUVmR GD ´DXVWHUL GDGHµ WHQKDP UHVXOWDGRV PDLV FRQVLVWHQWHV pQHFHVViULRFXPSULUXPDFRQGLomRTXHHFR QRPLVWDV FRPR .UXJPDQ QmR PHQFLRQDP H QmRSRGHPPHQFLRQDUpQHFHVViULRWRUQDUD HFRQRPLDPHQRVGHSHQGHQWHGRLQYHVWLPHQ WR SULYDGR 2X VHMD p QHFHVViULR TXH RV JR YHUQRV HVWHMDP SUHSDUDGRV SDUD VXEVWLWXLU R GHFOLQDQWHLQYHVWLPHQWRSULYDGRSRUPDLVLQ YHVWLPHQWR S~EOLFR SRU FULDomR GH HPSUHJR S~EOLFR GH IRUPD SHU PDQHQWH e SRLV QH FHVViULR DWDFDU D IXQGR R VDFURVVDQWR GRJPD QHROLEHUDO GH TXH R HV WDGR QmR GHYH LQWHUYLU GH IRUPD VLJQLILFDWLYD QD HFRQRPLD 0DLV GR TXH LVWR p QHFHVViULR DWDFDU R DLQGD PDLV VD FURVVDQWR GRJPD GD SURSULHGDGHSULYDGDVH RV EXUJXHVHV QmR TXH UHP LQYHVWLU p QHFHVVi ULRTXHRHVWDGRDPSOLH R LQYHVWLPHQWR S~EOL FR VRE R FRQWUROH GRV JUDQGHV LQWHUHVVDGRV QLVWRRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV 'L]HQGR DV FRLVDV GH IRUPDFODUDpQHFHVViULR DGRWDU XP SURJUDPD GH WUDQVLomR

TXHWLSRGHUHFXSHUDomRYLUiGHSRLV(YLGHQ WHPHQWH WUDWDVH GH XPD SHUVSHFWLYD TXH GHYH VHU UHFXVDGD FRP YHHPrQFLD SRU WRGRV RVSRYRV 5HFXViOD GH IRUPD FRQVLVWHQWH FRPR YLPRV H[LJHRHQIUHQWDPHQWRFODURGDOyJLFDQHROLEH UDOHDOpPGLVVRGDOyJLFDEXUJXHVDGDSURSULH GDGH SULYDGD ([LJH XP YHUGDGHLUR SURJUDPD GH WUDQVLomR 1mR p XPD FRLVD IiFLO GHSRLV GH GpFDGDV GH GRPtQLR GD LGHRORJLD QHROLEHUDO H GH UHFXR GD LGHLD GH VRFLDOLVPR e QHFHVViULR UDFLRFtQLRFODURHPXLWDFRUDJHP 6RPRVFRPSHOLGRVDLVWR+iRXWUDTXHVWmRTXH FRORFDWRGDDSRVVLELOLGDGHGHVDtGDEXUJXHVDGD FULVHQXPDOX]DLQGDPDLVGHVIDYRUiYHOYLYHPRV XPDFULVHPDLVOHQ WD H SRU HQTXDQWR PHQRV YLVtYHO GR TXH D FULVH HFRQ{ PLFD PXQGLDO PDV PDLV SURIXQGD D FULVH DPELHQWDO 1RV ~OWLPRV GLDV IRL GLYXOJDGD XPD QRWtFLD TXH FRQÀU PD D JUDYLGDGH GH XPD GDV VXDV YHU WHQWHV D DPSOLDomR GDV HPLVV}HV GH JDVHV GH HIHLWR HV WXID TXH SURYRFDP XP DTXHFLPHQWR JOREDO D FRQFHQ WUDomR GH GLy[LGR GH FDUERQR &2  QDDWPRVIHUDMiHVWi XOWUDSDVVDQGR  SDUWHV SRU PLOKmR R TXH p FRQVLGHUD GR SHORV FLHQWLVWDV FRPRXPJUDQGHVLQDOGHDODUPH 2UD SRXFDV FRLVDV VmR WmR FODUDV TXDQWR D LQFDSDFLGDGH GH XP HQIUHQWDPHQWR PLQLPD PHQWH VpULR GHVWD FULVH QR LQWHULRU GR FDSL WDOLVPR 3UHFLVDPRV GH DPSOD FRRSHUDomR LQWHUQDFLRQDO H GH DEDQGRQDU D OyJLFD GR FUHVFLPHQWRLQILQLWRGDDFXPXODomRGHFDSLWDO HORJRGDSURGXomRSHODSURGXomR²WXGRR FRQWUiULRGRTXHRFDSLWDOLVPRSRGHGDU 3RU PDLV TXH D UXSWXUD FRP D HFRQR PLD FDSLWDOLVWD SDUHoD GLItFLO p D DOWHUQDWLYD PDLV UHDOLVWD VH TXHUHPRV HYLWDU XP IXWXUR FDWDVWUyÀFR

Há outra questão que coloca toda a possibilidade de saída burguesa da crise numa luz ainda mais desfavorável: vivemos uma crise mais lenta e, por enquanto, menos visível do que a crise econômica mundial, mas mais profunda: a crise ambiental.

Romper com capitalismo é a alternativa realista $SURIXQGLGDGHGDFULVHHFRQ{PLFDHPFXU VRQmRLPSOLFDTXHHODQmRSRVVDVHUVXSHUD GDHPWHUPRVEXUJXHVHV(ODSRGHPDVVHUi XP SURFHVVR GHPRUDGR H TXH SDVVDUi SRU DWDTXHV DRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H DR SRYR DLQGD PDLV GXURV GR TXH RV YLVWRV DWp DJRUD 3DUD UHFXSHUDU R FDSLWDOLVPR VHUi QHFHVViULR XP VRIULPHQWRSURORQJDGRGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVHD SHUGDSHORVWUDEDOKDGRUHVGHSDtVHVFHQWUDLV GH PXLWDV GDV FRQTXLVWDV TXH WLYHUDP GHVGH D 6HJXQGD *XHUUD 0XQGLDO ( QmR HVWi FODUR


situação internacional

Reordenamento dos de cima e reorganização dos de baixo Por ana carvalhaes*

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI

O

REMHWLYR GHVWD FRQWULEXLomR TXH SDUWH GR DFRUGRFRPDLQWHUSUHWDomRGDFULVHHFRQ{ PLFD H[SUHVVD SHOR FRPSDQKHLUR -RmR 0DFKD GR p LU XP SRXFR DOpP UHVSRQGHQGR D GXDV SHUJXQWDVDSDUHQWHPHQWHVLPSOHVDFULVHHFR Q{PLFD DEHUWD HP  Mi WHYH LPSDFWR VRFLDO H SROtWLFR VXÀFLHQWH SDUD PXGDU D VLWXD omRLQWHUQDFLRQDOYLJHQWHDWpVHXDGYHQWR"(P RXWUDVSDODYUDVMiVHGHXRXHVWiVHGDQGRXPD PXGDQoDGDFRUUHODomRGHIRUoDVHQWUHRFDSL WDO VXDV FRUSRUDo}HV RUJDQLVPRV ÀQDQFHLURV PLOLWDUHVGLSORPiWLFRVHVHXVHVWDGRVFHQWUDLV GHXPODGRHRVSRYRVH[SORUDGRVHRSULPLGRV GHRXWUR"6HIRUDÀUPDWLYDDUHVSRVWDjSULPHLUD SHUJXQWDTXDLVVmRRVWUDoRVHDSRVVtYHOGLQk PLFDGHVVDRXGHVVDVPXGDQoDV" 1HVWHV WHPSRV GH UHFRQVWUXomR WHyULFD H PHWRGROyJLFD QR HQWDQWR YDOHP DQWHV WUrV UiSLGDVFRQVLGHUDo}HV3ULPHLUDFRPDIRUWtV VLPD LQIOXrQFLD GR DFDGHPLFLVPR QRV GHED WHV HQWUH D HVTXHUGD VRFLDOLVWD EUDVLOHLUD SRU FRQWDGRUHIOX[RGHGXDVGpFDGDV FRPWRGR RUHVSHLWRHDGPLUDomRTXHPHUHFHRPDU[LV PR DFDGrPLFR  HQIDWL]DPRV TXH QmR LQWHU SUHWDPRV R PXQGR SRU LQWHUSUHWDU PDV SDUD PHOKRUPXGiOR1RVVRLQWHUHVVHpRLPSDFWR GHVVDV PXGDQoDV VREUH QRVVR GLDDGLD VR EUH QRVVDV UHDOLGDGHV QDFLRQDO ORFDLV VREUH QRVVRSURJUDPDSDUDDLQWHUYHQomRQDSROtWL

* Jornalista e integrante da Coordenação do Coletivo Socialismo e Liberdade



FDSHODUXSWXUDFRPRFDSLWDOLVPR 6HJXQGD HPERUD LVWR KRMH HP GLD SDUHoD PDLVGRTXHyEYLRGDGDDUDSLGH]YHUWLJLQRVD TXHDPtGLDHOHWU{QLFDHDVUHGHVVRFLDLVLPSX VHUDPjFLUFXODomRGHLQIRUPDo}HVpSDUDQyV HVVHQFLDOWHUHPPHQWHRTXDGURJOREDODLQ GDTXHGHIRUPDDSUR[LPDGDFRPRUHIHUrQFLD SDUDDFRPSUHHQVmRGHQRVVDVUHDOLGDGHVQD FLRQDLVHORFDLVSRUTXHDVJUDQGHVWHQGrQFLDV JOREDLV PDLV GR TXH QXQFD GHWHUPLQDP RV UXPRVHWHQGrQFLDVGRVDFRQWHFLPHQWRVPDLV SUy[LPRV ( HP WHUFHLUR OXJDU HVWXGDPRV D UHDOLGDGH SRUTXH HVWDPRV PDLV GR TXH QXQ FDFRQYHQFLGRVTXHRSURJUDPDGDUHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWDQXQFDHVWHYHQmRHVWiHQmRHVWDUi QXQFD´SURQWRµSDUDGHOLYHU\VHMDTXDOIRUDVL WXDomRSDUDPDVVDV´FRQVXPLGRUDVµSDVVLYDV GH SDODYUDV GH RUGHQV DFDEDGDV FRPR XPD IyUPXODPiJLFDEDVHDGDQXPPRGHORXQLYHU VDO 3RUTXH SDUWLPRV GH XPD FRQFHSomR GH SURJUDPDTXHVHQXWUHVHHQULTXHFHHVHUH QRYDQRPXQGRHPFRQIOLWRHWUDQVIRUPDomR ,QVLVWRHPQRVVDGLIHUHQoDGHDERUGDJHPHPUH ODomRjDFDGHPLDDRVQDFLRQDOLVWDVDRVFRPHQWD ULVWDVGHWKLQNWDQNVPDLVRXPHQRVLQGHSHQGHQ WHVHDWpGDTXHODSDUWHGDHVTXHUGDVRFLDOLVWDTXH VHDFKDGRQD´GRµSURJUDPDSURQWRSRUTXHDWp KRMHSDVVDGRVFLQFRDQRVGHVGHDH[SORVmR GDFULVHGRVXESULPHQRPHUFDGRLPRELOLiULRGRV (8$DLQGDKiVRFLDOLVWDVTXHPHQRVSUH]DPXPD DQiOLVH PDLV GHWLGD GD QDWXUH]D GD FULVH JOREDO GD VLWXDomR GR HVWDGR PDLV SRGHURVR GR PXQ

GRGDGLQkPLFDGDUHODomRHQWUHRVJUDQGHVHVWD GRVGRSDSHOGDMXYHQWXGHQDVPRELOL]Do}HVGH UHVLVWrQFLD GD FRQÀJXUDomR H GLQkPLFD GD FODV VH WUDEDOKDGRUD QRV SDtVHV FHQWUDLV YLVjYLV QRV ´HPHUJHQWHVµ SRU H[HPSOR (VVHV FRPSDQKHLURV WHQGHP D SUHIHULU R HVWXGR H D UHLYLQGLFDomR GH JUDQGHVWH[WRVÀORVyÀFRVHHFRQ{PLFRVGRPDU [LVPR GH XP ODGR H XPD JHQpULFD UHYROWDGD H MXVWDGHQ~QFLDGRFDSLWDOLVPRFDXVDGRUGDVFULVHV GHRXWUR(YLGHQWHPHQWHVHPWUDQVLomR FRPWUR FDGLOKRSRUIDYRU HQWUHDWHRULDHDSUiWLFDVRFLDO &RPRVHÀ]HVVHSRXFDGLIHUHQoDDWXDUQDVLWXD omRGHSyVSLFRGDFULVHGHQR LQtFLR GR VpFXOR ;;, RX DWXDU QDV EDUULFDGDV GH QDVRXQDVOXWDVGD5~VVLDGH 3RU LVVR p SUHFLVR UHVJDWDU R TXH HUD yEYLR SDUDDJUDQGHJHUDomRGHPDU[LVWDVUHYROXFLR QiULRV GDV SULPHLUDV GpFDGDV GR VpFXOR ;; H QRV GHEUXoDUPRV VREUH D QDWXUH]D GHVWD FULVH UHDOHFRQFUHWDDEHUWDHPQRV(VWD GRV8QLGRVKRMHHVSDOKDGDSRUWRGRVRVFRQ WLQHQWHV HP VXDV PDLV YDULDGDV H[SUHVV}HV H GHVLJXDOGDGHV VHP FDLU QD WHQWDomR PHVPR TXDQGRDVFRPSDUDo}HVKLVWyULFDVVmRLQHYLWi YHLVGHHQFDL[iODHPDOJXPPRGHORGHJDYHWD $VVLPSDUHFH~WLOFRPHoDURHVIRUoRSRUGLV WLQJXLUDVYiULDVGLPHQV}HVGDFULVH+iVLPD FULVHJHUDOGRPHWDEROLVPRGRFDSLWDOGHTXH IDOD 0q]jURV SRU H[HPSOR D FULVH GH ORQJD GXUDomR KLVWyULFD ORQJD GXUDomR QR VHQWLGR EUDXGHOLDQRPXOWLVVHFXODU (VWDHVWiHPSDX WD SRUTXH p HYLGHQWHPHQWH R SDQR GH IXQGR

GD FULVH FRQFUHWD (VVH PHWDEROLVPR p R FDO GHLUmRHPTXHVHFR]LQKDPDVJUDQGHVFULVHV FtFOLFDV'HVVDGLPHQVmRGDFULVHH[WUDtPRV² DWUDGLomRWURWVNLVWDH[WUDLHR-RmRH[WUDL²D FRQFOXVmR JHUDO TXH p SLODU GR SURJUDPD GH WUDQVLomR GH TXH DV SRVVtYHLV VDtGDV FDSLWD OLVWDVSDUDDFULVHFXMDVWHQWDWLYDVMiHVWmRHP SOHQDH[HFXomRQmRUHSUHVHQWDPVDtGDJHUDO SDUD D YHUGDGHLUD FULVH GD KXPDQLGDGH KRMH DWpPHVPRXPDFULVHGHVREUHYLYrQFLDGDGD DGLPHQVmRGDDPHDoDDPELHQWDO Crise do neoliberalismo (VWD FRQVWDWDomR UHSUHVHQWD PXLWR PDV VL PXOWDQHDPHQWH p PXLWR SRXFR GR SRQWR GH YLVWD GH XP SURJUDPD FRP D SUHWHQVmR GH DWXDUSDUDUHFRQTXLVWDURVSRYRVSDUDXPFD PLQKRDQWLFDSLWDOLVWD2TXHPDLVWHPGHHV SHFLDO HVWD FULVH FRQFUHWD" 7DO FRPR R -RmR LGHQWLILFRXVHPXVDUDH[SUHVVmRTXHXVDPRV YHPRVQHVWDFULVHDLQGDDEHUWDXPDFULVHGR PRGR GH IXQFLRQDPHQWR GR VLVWHPD FDSLWD OLVWD RX GR SDGUmR GH DFXPXODomR GH FDSL WDO TXH YLJRURX HQWUH DV GpFDGDV GH  GR VpFXOR ;; H D SULPHLUD GR ;;, 2 SDGUmR GH DFXPXODomR QHROLEHUDO WmR EHP GLDJQRVWL FDGR SRU )UDQoRLV &KHVQDLV H HVWUXWXUDOLVWDV ODWLQRDPHULFDQRV FRPR 0DULD GD &RQFHLomR 7DYDUHV FDUDFWHUL]RXVHSRUXPDGRPLQkQFLD VHPSUHFHGHQWHGDILQDQoDVREUHDSURGXomR SRU XP QtYHO GH FHQWUDOL]DomR SROtWLFRHFR


Q{PLFD WRWDO GR VLVWHPD QDV PmRV GRV ERDU GVGRVJUDQGHVEDQFRVJRYHUQDGRVSHOR)(' HVWDGXQLGHQVH SRU XPD HVWUXWXUD SURGXWLYD FUHVFHQWHPHQWH IOH[LELOL]DGD SHODV WHUFHLUL]D o}HVWUDQVIHUrQFLDVGDVIiEULFDVSDUDDVSHUL IHULDV SHOR HQIUDTXHFLPHQWR HFRQ{PLFR GRV HVWDGRV SRU PHLR GDV SULYDWL]Do}HV H FRUWHV GH JDVWRV SDUWLFXODUPHQWH VRFLDLV H DWDTXHV GHWRGDVRUWHDRVYHOKRVGLUHLWRVWUDEDOKLVWDV 3DUHFLDGXUDQWHHVVHVGXUtVVLPRVWULQWDDQRV KDYHUJUDQGHFRQVHQVRQDHVTXHUGDHPWRUQR GDLGHQWLILFDomRGHVVH´PRGHORµRXSDGUmRGH DFXPXODomRFRPRLQLPLJR 3RLVEHPHVWHDUUDQMRHQWURXHPFULVH6HP GHPRGRDOJXPWHUVLGRGHUURWDGRR´UHJLPH QHROLEHUDOµ VRIUHX XPD VDFXGLGD GD TXDO QmR WHUPLQD GH VH UHFXSHUDU 1HVVH DVSHFWR QRV SDUHFHP FRUUHWRV RV HFRQRPLVWDV PDU[LVWDV IUDQFHVHV 'XPpQLO H /HY\ TXDQGR IDODP HP FULVHGRQHROLEHUDOLVPRFRPRDTXDUWDJUDQ GH FULVH FtFOLFD GR VLVWHPD FDSLWDOLVWD GHSRLV GDVGHH´eDFULVHGH XPDRUGHPVRFLDOLQVXVWHQWiYHOµUHVXPLX'X PpQLO QR %UDVLO HP HQWUHYLVWD DR -RUQDO GD 8QLFDPS QžGH]HPEURGH  'L]HU TXH R PRGR GH DFXPXODomR HQWURX HP FULVHQmRTXHUGL]HUTXHIRLGHUURWDGRPDVTXH HVWi VH GHEDWHQGR QD EXVFD GH VDtGDV 5HUH JXODPHQWDUDVÀQDQoDVRXVHMDYROWDUDRVLVWH PD GyODURXUR H PHUFDGRV UHJXODGRV FRP UH ODWLYRFRQWUROHGRVÁX[RVGHFDSLWDLVGDpSRFD QmRpDRSomRGRLPSHULDOLVPR$R FRQWUiULR R UHPpGLR UHFRPHQGDGR SHOR TXDU WHOJHQHUDOGDÀQDQoDJOREDOFRQWUDDFULVHUH FHVVLYDHGHEDODQoRGHSDJDPHQWRVpXPDGRVH DLQGD PDLV IRUWH GR YHQHQR QHROLEHUDO FRUWHV GHJDVWRVS~EOLFRVHLQYHVWLPHQWRVGHVUHJXOD PHQWDomR DPSOD H LUUHVWULWD SULYDWL]Do}HV UH FRUWHV DLQGD PDLRUHV GH GLUHLWRV WUDEDOKLVWDV H FRQTXLVWDV SRSXODUHV FRPR YHUEDV À[DV SDUD HGXFDomR VD~GH SUHYLGrQFLD HWF  2 UHPpGLR QmRVRPHQWHDFHQWXDDVUHFHVV}HVRXVHMDHQ IUDTXHFH R VLVWHPD GRHQWH FRPR DOLPHQWD R GHVFRQWHQWDPHQWRGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVHGRVSR YRVFRPRHVWHVFLQFRDQRVMiFRPSURYDUDP

FRQGLo}HVGHYLGDMiIH]ERQVHVWUDJRV&RP WRGDV DV VLPLODULGDGHV TXH SRGHP VHU LGHQ WLILFDGDV HQWUH D FULVH DWXDO D FULVH GRV RV  D FULVH GR SDGUmR GH DFXPXODomR GR SyV JXHUUD  RV (8$ GH PRGR DOJXP SHUGHUDP VXD KHJHPRQLD PRQHWiULD H PLOLWDU ² DLQGD TXHDEDODGDSHORVDWROHLURVGR$IHJDQLVWmRH GR,UDTXH7rPDPRHGDGRPXQGRHYH]HV PDLV SRGHU GHVWUXWLYR TXH R VHJXQGR FROR FDGR QR UDQNLQJ GD PRUWDQGDGH  EDVHV PLOLWDUHVHVSDOKDGDVSHORSODQHWD 0HVPR DVVLP QDGD ÀFRX H[DWDPHQWH FRPR DQWHVGHSRLVGH3RUPDLVTXHPDQWHQKD VHX SRGHU GH IRJR H ELVELOKRWH D YLGD GH EL OK}HV R %LJ %URWKHU HVWDGXQLGHQVH FRQGX]LGR SRU 2EDPD WHP PHQRV PDUJHP GH DomR TXH QRVWHPSRVGH%XVK$FULVHHQIUDTXHFHXDSR WrQFLDKHJHP{QLFDGHELOLWRXDXQLGDGHGRVHV WDGRVGR´YHOKR2FLGHQWHµLQGXVWULDOL]DGRDEULX EUHFKDSDUDXPDV~ELWD HVHPSUHUHODWLYD UHD ÀUPDomRQRFHQiULRJOREDOGRVFKDPDGRVHVWD GRV´HPHUJHQWHVµFRPRDÌQGLD5~VVLDH%UDVLO 7UDQVIRUPRXDJRUDWDPEpPSHODHQWUDGDWULXQ IDOHPFHQDGDVUHYROXo}HVR1RUWHGDÉIULFDH R2ULHQWH0pGLRHPOLWHUDLVEDUULVGHSyOYRUD $ VLWXDomR DEHUWD FRP D FULVH GH  IH] PDLV HYLGHQWH D HVSHWDFXODU DVFHQVmR GD &KLQDTXHOLGHUDXPQRYREORFRLQGXVWULDOFR PHUFLDOQR/HVWH$VLiWLFRHVHFRQVROLGDFRPRD JUDQGHQRYDIURQWHLUDGHDFXPXODomRGHFDSLWDO GRV~OWLPRVDQRV3RUPDLVTXHRVGLVFXUVRV SDUDS~EOLFRLQWHUQRGD&DVD%UDQFDHGR3HQ WiJRQR HQIDWL]HP DV UHDLV HVFDUDPXoDV FRP R GUDJmR DVLiWLFR R TXH YLJRUD DWp R PRPHQWR HQWUHRV(VWDGRV8QLGRVHD&KLQDWRWDOPHQWH UHVWDXUDGDSDUDRFDSLWDOjPHGLGDTXHpSDUWH IXQGDPHQWDOGRVLVWHPDJOREDOpXPDFRPSH WLomRFRODERUDWLYDRXFRODERUDomRFRPSHWLWLYD 1mRKiHQWUHDYHOKDHDFDQGLGDWDDQRYDSR WrQFLD XPD FRQWUDGLomR PDLV SURIXQGD GR TXH DVTXHUHODVFRPXQVYH]SRURXWUDVVpULDVHQWUH QHJRFLDQWHVFRQFRUUHQWHV 7HPDPDLVGHOLFDGRHWUHPHQGDPHQWHLPSRU WDQWHSDUDXPSURJUDPDGDUHYROXomREUDVLOHLUD p D FRPSUHHQVmR GR SDSHO GRV FKDPDGRV HV WDGRV RX HFRQRPLDV ´LQWHUPHGLiULDVµ QD H[ Etapa de reordenamento SUHVVmR GR &pVDU %HQMDPLP  RX ´JLJDQWHV GD SHULIHULDµ QDGH3LQKHLUR*XLPDUmHV FRPRDV )LFRX HYLGHQWH QHVWD PHLD GpFDGD GH LQFHU GD5~VVLDÌQGLDH%UDVLOQRFHQiULRLQWHUHVWDWDO WH]DV TXH QR WHUUHQR GRV DUUDQMRV SROtWLFR FDSLWDOLVWD &RP LQVHUomR HFRQ{PLFD H SROtWLFD LQVWLWXFLRQDLVGRFDSLWDOLVPRJOREDOD´SDUD VXERUGLQDGDjVYHOKDVSRWrQFLDVGRDUUDQMRGR GDFDUGLRUUHVSLUDWyULDµGHVRPDGD SyV*XHUUD PDV PHUFDGRV LQWHUQRV VLJQLÀFD j UHVLVWrQFLD GRV SRYRV j GHVWUXLomR GH VXDV WLYRV ULTXH]DV QDWXUDLV LPSRUWDQWHV JUDQGHV 

FRUSRUDo}HV PXOWLQDFLRQDLV TXH H[WUDHP PDLV YDOLD GRV YL]LQKRV TXDQGR QmR RV RSULPHP SROLWLFDPHQWH  H YHOHLGDGHV GH OLGHUDQoD VREUH iUHDVGHLQÁXrQFLDUHJLRQDLVHVVHVSDtVHVMiKi PXLWRLQVLVWHPHPHVFDSDUGRPRGHORFHSDOLQR GHHFRQRPLDVHHVWDGRVPHUDPHQWHGHSHQGHQ WHV$FULVHDWXDOWRUQRXPDLVJULWDQWHRTXHQmR HUDH[DWDPHQWHXPDQRYLGDGH (VWi HP FXUVR SRUWDQWR XP UHRUGHQDPHQ WRJHRSROtWLFRPXQGLDOGHORQJRSUD]R2OH YDQWH iUDEH D UHVLVWrQFLD j WURLND GRV SDtVHV GR 6XO GD (XURSD H DJRUD R OHYDQWH MXYHQLO SRSXODU QD 7XUTXLD ² DVVLP FRPR XPD WHQ GrQFLDJHUDODRVOHYDQWHVMXYHQLVFRPRVHYLX QD (VSDQKD QR &KLOH QR &DQDGi H QD ÌQGLD ² YrP QHVVH FRQWH[WR FRPSOLFDU DLQGD PDLV R TXDGUR SDUD R LPSHULDOLVPR SRU FRQWD GD LQVWDELOLGDGHTXHSODQWDHPUHJL}HVHSRQWRV DEVROXWDPHQWHHVWUDWpJLFRVGRJORER 2IXQGDPHQWDODTXLpTXHDFULVHSURSLFLRX TXDQGRQmRSURYRFRXGLUHWDPHQWHRLQtFLRGH EDWDOKDV GHFLVLYDV DJRUD HP FXUVR %DWDOKDV TXH SRGHP YLU D PXGDU HP HVFDOD JOREDO D UHODomRGHIRUoDVHPIDYRUGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV H SRYRV RSULPLGRV $ FRQIXVmR R UHRUGHQD PHQWR D GLILFXOGDGH HP HQFRQWUDU VDtGD SRU SDUWHGRVGHFLPDIDFLOLWDHQIUHQWDURGHVDILR HPERUD QmR JDUDQWD QDGD GH DQWHPmR 7XGR LQGLFDTXHHVWHMDPRVYLYHQGRVLWXDomRVLPLODU j GRV DQRV  GR VpFXOR ;; XP LQWHUPH]]R HP TXH R YHOKR RUGHQDPHQWR GR VLVWHPD FRUUHODomR GH IRUoDV  p TXHVWLRQDGR PDV R QRYRQmRQDVFHX Reorganização dos de baixo 'iVHHQWmRDWUiJLFDFRQWUDGLomRGHTXHQXQ FDDQWHVXPDFULVH´GRVGHFLPDµWmRJUDQGHQRV HQFRQWURXDRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVSRYRVRSULPLGRV HHPSDUWLFXODUDRVVRFLDOLVWDVGRPXQGRLQWHLUR HPVLWXDomRGHRUJDQL]DomRWmRGHVSURSRUFLR QDO WmR GHVIDYRUiYHO SDUD D GLPHQVmR GR GH VDÀR KLVWyULFR 'R SRQWR GH YLVWD REMHWLYR VH p YHUGDGH TXH D FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD LQGXVWULDO QXQFD IRL WmR QXPHURVD H GHFLVLYD WDPEpP p YHUGDGHTXHHODFUHVFHLPHQVDPHQWHHPSDtVHV FRPR RV GR /HVWH GD ÉVLD VHP D WUDGLomR GH OXWD GH RUJDQL]DomR VLQGLFDO H SROtWLFD GD (X URSD2FLGHQWDOSRUH[HPSORHQTXDQWRQR2FL GHQWHRRSHUDULDGRLQGXVWULDOUHWURFHGHHFRP HOHVHXVVLQGLFDWRVSDUWLGRVHWUDGLo}HV $FRQWUDGLomRPDLRUQRHQWDQWRpDVXEMHWL YDDLGHROyJLFDHSROtWLFD$ILQDOQmRVHSDV

VDUDP DLQGD  DQRV GD TXHGD GR 0XUR GH %HUOLP GR JUDQGH UHWURFHVVR TXH VLJQLILFRX D UHVWDXUDomR FDSLWDOLVWD QRV HVFRPEURV GR TXHIRLD8QLmR6RYLpWLFDGDHQWXVLDVWDDGH VmR GDV PDVVDV GR /HVWH HXURSHX DR SURMHWR UHVWDXUDGRU GR IRUWtVVLPR LPSDFWR LGHROyJL FRTXHDTXHODGHUURWDSURYRFRXVREUHDLGHLD GRVRFLDOLVPRFRPRDOWHUQDWLYD3DVVDGRHVVH TXDUWR GH VpFXOR WDPEpP p QHFHVViULR DWUL EXLUDGHYLGDUHVSRQVDELOLGDGHSRUHVVDFULVH GD DOWHUQDWLYD VRFLDOLVWD j VRFLDOGHPRFUDFLD HXURSHLDHjWRGDDHVTXHUGDTXHVHYHQGHX HPSDUWLFXODUDR37EUDVLOHLUR $VVLP DSHVDU GH VH GHVHQKDU XPD QRYD VLWX DomR PXQGLDO GH IRUPD DOJXPD VXSHUDPRV R SHUtRGR KLVWyULFR GD UHRUJDQL]DomR GRV H[SOR UDGRVHRSULPLGRV5HRUJDQL]DomRTXHpHVWUX WXUDO SRUTXH D FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD VH UHRUJD QL]D QR HVSDoR GR WUDEDOKR H QR HVSDoR GDV FLGDGHVSRUTXHDMXYHQWXGHGHVHPSUHJDGDLQ YHQWDIRUPDVQRYDVGHFRQYRFDUUHVLVWLUHQIUHQ WDUSROtFLDVHH[pUFLWRVPRELOL]DUHVHRUJDQL]DU 5HRUJDQL]DomRVLQGLFDOHSROtWLFDGHVXDVHQWL GDGHVGHPDVVDVHVXDVUHSUHVHQWDo}HVSDUWLGi ULDV²XPSURFHVVRGLQkPLFRFKHLRGHDYDQoRV UHWURFHVVRVHVDOWRVTXHWHQGHDVHWRUQDUPDLV DFHOHUDGR QR FDORU GDV QRYDV EDWDOKDV 6LWXD omRHPTXHVmRFDGDYH]PDLVYiOLGDVTXDQGR QmR FRQGLo}HV LPSUHVFLQGtYHLV SDUD R DYDQoR D FRQVWUXomR GH IHUUDPHQWDV SROtWLFDV DPSODV SOXUDLV GHPRFUiWLFDV FDSD]HV GH DJOXWLQDU DV QRYDV FDPDGDV GH DWLYLVWDV H UHFRQVWUXLU HQ WUHDVQRYDVJHUDo}HVDVWUDGLo}HVSHUGLGDVGR GHEDWHGHPRFUiWLFRGDVROLGDULHGDGHHQWUHRV TXHOXWDPGDFRQVFLrQFLDGHSURWDJRQLVWDVGD WUDQVIRUPDomRQHFHVViULD 'HQWUH DV FHQWHQDV GH GHVDILRV GHVVHV QR YRV WHPSRV HP TXH R PXQGR GRV SRGHUR VRV EXVFD R UHRUGHQDPHQWR H R PXQGR GRV GHVWLWXtGRV VH GHIHQGH FDEH DRV VRFLDOLVWDV QDFRQVWUXomRGHQRYDVIHUUDPHQWDVGHOXWDH GH SURSRVLomR SROtWLFD VDEHU VXSHUDU D YHOKD GLFRWRPLDHQWUHDSDUWLFLSDomRLQVWLWXFLRQDOH DLQWHUYHQomRQDOXWDGLUHWD1RVVROXJDUpR GDOXWDGLUHWDQRVVDSDUWLFLSDomRLQVWLWXFLRQDO VyWHPVHQWLGRVHDVHUYLoRGDVPRELOL]Do}HV HGDGHQ~QFLDGRVFDGDYH]PDLVGHVSUH]DGRV UHJLPHV GHPRFUiWLFRILQDQFHLURV (VWD RSomR QmR VHUi IiFLO FRORFD PXLWR GLOHPDV SDUD RV SDUWLGRVDQWLFDSLWDOLVWDVDPSORVTXHYrPVHQ GR FRQVWUXtGRV SHOR PXQGR DIRUD PDV p R FDPLQKR GD FRQVWUXomR GH RUJDQL]Do}HV GLV SRVWDV D FRDGMXYDU VHULDPHQWH XP SURFHVVR GHUXSWXUDUHYROXFLRQiULD


estratégia, programa e sujeito social

)RWR$UTXLYR362/

A

LGHLDGHUHYROXomRpFHQWUDOSDUDVHSHQVDUDWUDQVIRUPDomRVRFLDO'RVSUR FHVVRVTXHOHYDUDPjGHUURFDGDGDRUGHPIHXGDOjVLQLFLDWLYDVTXHÀ]HUDP DYDQoDUHVIRUoRVGHVXSHUDomRGRFDSLWDOLVPRSDVVDQGRSHODVOXWDVTXHFRQ GX]LUDPjHPDQFLSDomRGHQDo}HVDVUHYROXo}HVVLPEROL]DPDUHMHLomRLQWUDQ VLJHQWHDRHVWDGRGHFRLVDVHVWDEHOHFLGRHRFRPSURPLVVRFRPDHVWUXWXUDomR GHXPDRUGHPVRFLDOHSROtWLFDGLVWLQWD (VWLJPDWL]DGDV SHORV FRQVHUYDGRUHV HODV VLQWHWL]DP ² IDFH j EDQDOL]DomR GR WHUPRVRFLDOLVPR²DLGHQWLGDGHGDHVTXHUGDUDGLFDOGDVFRUUHQWHVTXHEXVFDP DV YLDV SDUD XPD DOWHUQDWLYD HIHWLYD DR VLVWHPD FDSLWDOLVWD 1HVWD LGHLDIRUoD FRPELQDPVHWUrVGLPHQV}HVHVVHQFLDLVGDWUDQVIRUPDomRVRFLDOXPDVLPEyOL FDRXWUDVRFLDOHRXWUDDLQGDSROtWLFRHVWUDWpJLFD $UHYROXomRFRUUHVSRQGHHPSULPHLUROXJDUjLGHLDGHXPDPXGDQoDUDGLFDO GDVRFLHGDGH1mRVHWUDWDVRPHQWHGHVXSHUDURFDSLWDOLVPRPDVWDPEpPGH FRQVWUXLU RXWUD FLYLOL]DomR TXH VXSHUH DV PXLWDV RSUHVV}HV KHUGDGDV GH VR FLHGDGHV SUpFDSLWDOLVWDV SDWULDUFDGR UDFLVPR FDVWDV  TXH IRUDP UHIXQFLR QDOL]DGDVSHORFDSLWDOLVPR(WUDWDVHKRMHGHLUPXLWRDOpPGLVVRVXSHUDQGR RVDVSHFWRVGHVWUXWLYRVGDPRGHUQLGDGHSRWHQFLDOL]DGRVSHORFDSLWDOLVPR HP HVSHFLDOQDUHODomRSUHGDWyULDGDVRFLHGDGHFRPDQDWXUH]DWHRUL]DGDSHODFL rQFLDH[SHULPHQWDOHGHSRLVDODYDQFDGDSHODWHFQRFLrQFLD  $UHYROXomRVLJQLÀFDHPVHJXQGROXJDUDLGHLDGHDXWRHPDQFLSDomRGRFRQ MXQWRGDSRSXODomR8PDQRYDFLYLOL]DomRQmRHPHUJLUiGHSURFHVVRVSROtWLFRV WXWHODGRVSRUOtGHUHVFDXGLOKRVRXSDUWLGRVPDVVXUJLUiVRPHQWHVHDPDLRULD GDSRSXODomRVXSHUDUDDWRPL]DomRHDOLHQDomRHDVVXPLUHPVXDVPmRVFROH WLYDPHQWHDJHVWmRSROtWLFDHHFRQ{PLFDGHWRGDVDVGLPHQV}HVGDYLGDVRFLDO VXSULPLQGRQHVWHSURFHVVRDXVXUSDomRGRSRGHUSRUTXDOTXHUWLSRGHPLQRULD $LGHLDGDUHYROXomRFRUUHVSRQGHSRUÀPjFRQVWUXomRGHXPFDPLQKRSR OtWLFR D VHU FRQVFLHQWHPHQWH SHUVHJXLGR SDUD VH DWLQJLU HVWHV REMHWLYRV (VWH SURSyVLWR SDVVD D RULHQWDU D LQWHUYHQomR SROtWLFD FRWLGLDQD GD ´HVTXHUGD GD HVTXHUGDµDIRUPXODomRGDVLGHLDVTXHGHIHQGHHEXVFDGLIXQGLUHDVIHUUDPHQ WDVTXHEXVFDFRQVWUXLU2LQWHUHVVHJHUDOGHYHUiSUHYDOHFHUVREUHRVLQWHUHVVHV SDUWLFXODUHVDRORQJRGHXPDH[WHQVDWUDMHWyULDGHGLVSXWDVHPRGLÀFDo}HVGD FRUUHODomRGHIRUoDVDWpTXHVHSRVVDFRORFDUDTXHVWmRGDFRQTXLVWDGRSRGHU SHODPDLRULDWUDEDOKDGRUDGDSRSXODomR $ UHYROXomR p FRQWXGR XPD IRUPD VHP FRQWH~GR IRUD GD VXD FDUQH KLVWyULFD +DYLDXPDFRHUrQFLDQDIRUPDLQWHJUDGDFRPRDWUDGLomRVRFLDOLVWDUHYROXFLRQiULD DERUGDYDRVWHPDVGRSURJUDPDHVWUDWpJLDHVXMHLWRGHSRLVGH2XWXEURGHH GXUDQWHERDSDUWHGRVpFXORSDVVDGR0DVHVWDFRHUrQFLDDUWLFXODGDSHODHVWUDWp JLDVHSHUGHXTXDQGRRFDSLWDOLVPRDGHQWURXQDHWDSDGDJOREDOL]DomRQHROLEHUDO HUHDEVRUYHXDH[8QLmR6RYLpWLFDD&KLQDHVXDVSHULIHULDVGHVDUWLFXODQGRSDUWH GRVIXQGDPHQWRVDQWHULRUHVGDYLVmRKHJHP{QLFDGHVRFLDOLVPRHGHUHYROXomRH UHWLUDQGRDHVWUDWpJLDGDDWLYLGDGHSROtWLFDFRWLGLDQDGDHVTXHUGD e IXQGDPHQWDO UHFRQVWUXLU RV ODoRV HQWUH HVWHV HOHPHQWRV D SDUWLU GDV H[SH ULrQFLDV SUiWLFDV FRQWHPSRUkQHDV YROWDQGR D GDU YLGD j LGHLD GH UHYROXomR SDUDUHVWDXUDUDFUHGLELOLGDGHGDDWLYLGDGHSROtWLFDGHHVTXHUGDHUHLQWURGX]LUD LGHLDGHTXHRXWURPXQGRpSRVVtYHO3RLVDGHVDSDULomRGRKRUL]RQWHGHXPD DOWHUQDWLYD DR FDSLWDOLVPR DQWHV H[LVWHQWH OHYRX j TXDVH VXSUHVVmR GD SHUV SHFWLYDXWySLFDHGDVÀORVRÀDVSROtWLFDVDHODOLJDGDVTXHRIHUHFLDPVLJQLÀFDGR LPDQHQWHSDUDDH[LVWrQFLDGRVVHUHVKXPDQRVQDKLVWyULD²FULDQGRXPYD]LR H[LVWHQFLDOQRTXDOVHHVWDEHOHFHXRFRQVXPLVPRHTXHRVIXQGDPHQWDOLVPRV UHOLJLRVRVWHQWDPUHRFXSDU eSRUWDQWRXPJUDQGHQ~PHURGHSUREOHPDVTXHWrPTXHVHUHQIUHQWDGRVSDUDGDU PRVFRQWDGRGHVDÀRGHUHVWDEHOHFHURQH[RHQWUHSURJUDPDHVWUDWpJLDHVXMHLWR&RP RVDUWLJRVDVHJXLUEXVFDPRVGDUXPDFRQWULEXLomRDHVWHGHEDWH


estratégia, programa e sujeito

A revolução no centro da estratégia Por FERNANDO SILVA*

É

QHFHVViULRLQLFLDUHVWHDUWLJRFRPGXDVTXHVW}HV PHWRGROyJLFDVSDUDHVWHGHEDWH 3ULPHLUR DV TXHVW}HV GH HVWUDWpJLD H SURJUDPD VmREDOL]DGRUDVTXDQGRVHWUDWDGHDIHULUDVFRQ GLo}HV SDUD D XQLÀFDomR HQWUH RUJDQL]Do}HV PDU [LVWDV UHYROXFLRQiULDV $ OyJLFD HVWDEHOHFLGD QDV UHODo}HV HQWUH &62/ H (QODFH H TXH R VHPLQiULR GH IHYHUHLUR EXVFRX FRORFDU HP SUiWLFD QmR WHP DYHUFRPDFRUGRVWiWLFRVGHFRQYHQLrQFLDVSUDJ PiWLFDVRXPHVPRGHSULRUL]DURGHEDWHVREUHDV TXHUHODVKLVWyULFDVSDVVDGDVTXHPXLWDVYH]HVVmR RVXÀFLHQWHSDUDHVWDQFDURXLPSHGLUXPSURFHVVR GHDSUR[LPDomR 6HJXQGR R GHEDWH H DV WDUHIDV GH HVWUDWpJLD SURJUDPDHRVDWRUHVVRFLDLVHSROtWLFRVSUHFLVDP HVWDU DVVRFLDGRV LQWHJUDGRV H LQWHUUHODFLRQDGRV DV FRQWUDGLo}HV TXH H[LVWHP HP FDGD XP GHVWHV GHEDWHVREHGHFHPDXPDWRWDOLGDGHTXHpDEXVFD GHFRQGLo}HV QRQRVVRFDVR SDUDXPSURMHWRGH SRGHUTXHWHQKDFRPRFHQWURDLGHLDGDUHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWD H D UXSWXUD FRP R FDSLWDOLVPR 6HSDUDU GHVFRQHFWDUDVTXHVW}HVGHHVWUDWpJLDHSURJUDPD pXPPDOPDU[LVPRTXHSRGHWHUPLQDURXMXVWL ÀFDULQYDULDYHOPHQWHDEXVFDGHDWDOKRVWiWLFRVH SUDJPiWLFRV TXH MXVWLÀTXHP UHEDL[DPHQWRV GH SURJUDPDHREMHWLYRVGRVPDU[LVWDVDLQGDTXHVH FRQWLQXHDDÀUPDUDHVWUDWpJLDGDUHYROXomRHGR



* Jornalista e membro do Coletivo Socialismo e Liberdade

VRFLDOLVPRQRVGRFXPHQWRVRÀFLDLV (VHFRQVLGHUDUPRVRPRPHQWRDWXDODLQGDKHU GHLURGDVGHUURWDVDQWHULRUHVHPHVFDODLQWHUQDFLR QDOFRPDUHVWDXUDomRGRFDSLWDOLVPRQRVJLJDQWHV 8566 H &KLQD D RIHQVLYD VREUH D FODVVH RV VHXV GLUHLWRVHVXDRUJDQL]DomRVREDORQJDHUDGDVGHV UHJXODPHQWDo}HV KRMHHPFULVHPDVTXHVHLPS{V QDYLUDGDGRVDQRVSDUDRVGRVpFXORSDVVD GR VHPDWHULDOL]DHPXPSUHVHQWHGHOHQWDUHFRP SRVLomR GR PRYLPHQWR RSHUiULR e FXUWR R FDPL QKRGHVWHFHQiULRSDUDDWHQWDomRGHWUDQVIRUPDU WiWLFDVHDWDOKRVHPHVWUDWpJLDVSHUPDQHQWHVHP DFRPRGDomR EXURFUiWLFD H QD SUySULD GHVLVWrQFLD GDUHYROXomR7HPRVDVVLPXPWHUUHQRIpUWLO SDUD HVVHPDOPDU[LVPRTXHVHSDUDHPPXQGRVGLIH UHQWHVWiWLFDHVWUDWpJLDSURJUDPD0DVRVVHWRUHV TXHHVWmRSDUWLOKDQGRHVVHPRPHQWRHPEXVFDGD XQLÀFDomRHVWmRWULOKDQGRRFDPLQKRRSRVWRHP XPDHVWUDGDVHPDWDOKRV A reconstrução em tempos hostis (VVHVWHPSRVGHKHUDQoDVGHGHUURWDVGDVLGHLDVVR FLDOLVWDVHGDSHUGDGRSURWDJRQLVPRSROtWLFRUDGLFDO HFRQVFLHQWHGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDGHSHUGDGHUH IHUrQFLDHPSURMHWRVFROHWLYRVWHPSRVGHFRQVXPRH LQGLYLGXDOLVPRH[DFHUEDGRHSULQFLSDOPHQWHGHXP FDSLWDOLVPRJOREDOL]DGRLPSHULDOLVWDSUHGDGRUDJUD

YDPDFRQWUDGLomRHQWUHVRFLDOLVPRHEDUEiULHHPWHU PRVGHVHVSHUDGRUHV,VWRSRUTXHQXQFDXPPRGHOR LJXDOLWiULR UDFLRQDO H VROLGiULR GH VRFLHGDGH HVWHYH WmRQDRUGHPGRGLDHQXQFDDVFRQGLo}HVVXEMHWLYDV SDUDWDOHPSUHLWDGDHVWLYHUDPWmRIUDJLOL]DGDV 4XDQGRVHSHQVDVHIDODHVHPLOLWDHPWHUPRVGH XPSURMHWRGHUHYROXomRGHUHFRQVWUXLUXPSURMH WRVRFLDOLVWDGHIRUPDUSDUWLGRVUHYROXFLRQiULRVGH PDVVDUHRUJDQL]DUHDUHMDUDVLQVWLWXLo}HVGDSUy SULDFODVVHFRPRRVVLQGLFDWRVHVWDPRVIDODQGRGH XPDDXWrQWLFDHWDSDGHPDUDWRQD'HOXWDiUGXDH ORQJDSDUDDVXSHUDomRGDIUDJPHQWDomRHGDGH VRUJDQL]DomRGDQRVVDFODVVHHVHXVDOLDGRV$LQGD TXHRPXQGRHVWHMDFDGDYH]PDLVFRQYXOVLRQDGR SHORVHIHLWRVGDFULVHGHORQJDGXUDomRGRFDSLWD OLVPRPHVPRQRVSDtVHVRQGHDVLWXDomRSROtWLFR VRFLDOpPDLVDJXGDQmRVmRDVLGHLDVHDVIRUPDV GHRUJDQL]DomRGHUXSWXUDFRPRFDSLWDOLVPRTXH SUHYDOHFHP H D TXHVWmR GR SRGHU VRFLDOLVWD QmR VHFRORFDFRPRDOJRIDFWtYHOSDUDDVPDVVDVFRPR VDtGDSDUDUHRUGHQDUDVRFLHGDGHHDFDEDUFRPRV LQVXSRUWiYHLV DMXVWHV TXH SRU H[HPSOR HVWmR Mi FRORFDQGRSDUWHGD(XURSDRFLGHQWDOjVSRUWDVGH XPSHUtRGRGHUHJUHVVmRKLVWyULFD 0DVDLGHLDGHXPDFDPLQKDGDGHI{OHJRHQmR GHXPVSULQWGHPHWURVUDVRVSDUDDUHYROXomR QRVWHUPRVGDVFRQGLo}HVVXEMHWLYDVHRUJDQL]DWL YDVGDFODVVH QmRSRGHVHFRQIXQGLUFRPDDFRPR

GDomRHPWRUQRGHXPDHVWUDWpJLDGHDFXPXODomR OLQHDUSDVVLYDHPHVSDoRVLQVWLWXFLRQDLVFRPRÀQV HPVLPHVPR6HQmRWLYHUPRVUDFLRFtQLRGLDOpWLFR HVWHFDPLQKRVRDFRPROyJLFRMiTXHQmRHVWDPRV jVSRUWDVGRSRGHU6HIRUDVVLPQDGDPDLVWHUH PRVGRTXHXPDUHHGLomR XPWDQWRHQIHUUXMDGD  GDYHOKDVHSDUDomRHQWUHXPDHWDSDUHIRUPLVWDH XPDVHJXQGDHWDSDRQGHWHUtDPRVFRQGLo}HVSDUD D UHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWD 6DEHPRV RQGH HVWH ÀOPH WHUPLQRX H SRU LVVR SUHFLVDPRV WHU PXLWD FODUH]D VREUHDVFRQGLo}HVGRVWHPSRVDWXDLVHRTXHQmR SRGHPRVSHUGHUGHYLVWD Mas o tempo urge 3DUDFRPHoDUQmRHVWDPRVHPSHUtRGRKLVWyULFR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR ´SURJUHVVLVWDµ GR FDSLWDOLV PRVHQmRRFRQWUiULRRVVLQWRPDVGHEDUEiULHGH DPHDoD j SUySULD FLYLOL]DomR KXPDQD VmR YLVtYHLV DVSHUVSHFWLYDVGHHQRUPHVVRIULPHQWRVKXPDQRV SDUD TXH R FDSLWDO FRQWLQXH UHLQDQGR FRORFDP R SUREOHPDGDUHYROXomRVRFLDOLVWDHVHXLQHVFDSiYHO FDUiWHU LQWHUQDFLRQDOLVWD FRPR WDUHID KLVWyULFD GD RUGHPGRGLD ,VWR VLJQLÀFD TXH HVWDPRV UHFRQVWUXLQGR H EXV FDQGRVtQWHVHVSROtWLFDVHSURJUDPiWLFDVQRFDPSR GRPDU[LVPRSDUDDEULUFDPLQKRSDUDDUHYROXomR DHVWUDWpJLDpDUHYROXomRRSURJUDPDpRTXHED


OL]DDVWDUHIDVQRVWHPSRVDWXDLVSDUDDFHOHUDUHVWD UHFRQVWUXomRQDPHGLGDGRSRVVtYHO 2XVHMDQmRHVWDPRVEXVFDQGRHPWHPSRViUL GRVHGLItFHLVSDUDQRVVDVLGHLDVRUJDQL]DUJUXSRV GHSURSDJDQGDRXFtUFXORVDFDGrPLFRVSRLVRSUR EOHPDDTXLpDLQGDTXHDFDPLQKDGDVHMDORQJD HODWHUiTXHVHUIHLWDDTXHQWHEXVFDQGRDLQVHUomR VRFLDOFRWLGLDQDHPLOLWDQWHGDVLGHLDVVRFLDOLVWDVGH IRUPDPDLVDPSODSRVVtYHOQDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDH QDMXYHQWXGHHQDVVXDVOXWDVVRFLDLVGHUHVLVWrQFLD 6LPQyVGHYHPRVEXVFDURFXSDUHVSDoRVLQVWLWX FLRQDLVยฒQRSDUODPHQWRQRVVLQGLFDWRVQRVPR YLPHQWRVSRSXODUHVยฒDWXDUHPFDGDPRELOL]DomR EXVFDU IRUPDU QRYRV LQVWUXPHQWRV GH OXWD OXWDU FRQWUD DV EXURFUDFLDV GH WRGDRUGHPHRVSURMHWRV UHIRUPLVWDV QR FDPSR GD HVTXHUGD VRFLDOLVWD PDV FRP XP VHQWLGR ~QLFR H XPDFRPSUHHQVmRGHTXH pGHVWDIRUPDTXHHVWUDWp JLDSURJUDPDHRVVXMHLWRV VRFLDLV H SROtWLFRV HQFRQ WUDP XQLGDGH H VHQWLGR QHVWHVWHPSRVKRVWLVQRV TXDLV QmR GRPLQDPRV RV DFRQWHFLPHQWRVHDVLQFHU WH]DVVmRPXLWDVHLQ~PH UDV 3RUWDQWR HVWUDWpJLD H SURJUDPD VHUmR FRQVWUXt GRV QD DomR SUiWLFD GRV PDU[LVWDV UHYROXFLRQi ULRV GH IRUPD RUJDQL]DGD 3RLV HVWD UHFRQVWUXomR GH LGHLDV p SDUD H QD DomR QDVFRQGLo}HVFRQFUHWDVHPTXHYLYHPRV

QDFLRQDLVGDUHYROXomREUDVLOHLUD23'3VLWXDYDTXH DVWDUHIDVDQWLODWLIXQGLiULDVDQWLLPSHULDOLVWDVHDQWL PRQRSROLVWDVSRGHULDPVHUUHDOL]DGDVVREDKHJH PRQLDGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDHVHPTXDOTXHUDOLDQoD FRPDEXUJXHVLDQDFLRQDO&RQFHLWRFRUUHWR 0DVGRQRVVRSRQWRGHYLVWDRยดSHFDGRRULJLQDOยตQR 3'3pTXHHUDXPSURJUDPDSUHSDUDGRSDUDRSRGHU LQVWLWXFLRQDOR37VHSUHSDUDYDSDUDDSOLFDUHVVHSUR JUDPDDSDUWLUGDVYLWyULDVHOHLWRUDLV2XVHMDVDtDDEXU JXHVLDQDFLRQDOHHQWUDYDDLOXVmRGHTXHDVSURIXQGDV PXGDQoDV H WDUHIDV VXJHULGDV QR 3'3 SRGHULDP VHU UHDOL]DGDVSHODYLDLQVWLWXFLRQDOSHODPDLRULDQR(VWDGR HSHORFRQWUROHGRHVWDGREXUJXrVEUDVLOHLURSDUDHIH WLYDURVDYDQoRV(VWDFRQFHSomRQRSDVVDUGRWHPSR IRLPDLVH[SOtFLWDHQXPFHUWR VHQWLGR GHJHQHUDGD H SHOR TXH R 37 DSOLFRX QD QRVVD RSLQLmR FRPSUHHQGHUPRV XPD WRWDOLGDGH UHIRUPLVWD QR3'3SRLVOHPEUHPRVQmR HVWDPRVDTXLGHVDVVRFLDQGR HVWUDWpJLDGHSURJUDPD 7DPEpPVDEHPRVFRPR WHUPLQRXHVVHร€OPH0DV R TXH VXUSUHHQGH p TXH VHWRUHV TXH WHP KRMH D PDLRULD QR 362/ UHWR PDP R PHVPR HQUHGR UHIRUPLVWD DGYRJDQGR D WHVH GH TXH R HVWD GR PRGHUQR WHP PXLWDV FRQWUDGLo}HVQmRpPDLV R HVWDGR GRV WHPSRV H FRQFHLWRVGH0DU[HTXH SRUWDQWR VHULD SRVVtYHO GLVSXWiORSRUGHQWUR ( DVVLP FKHJDPRV DR TXH PDLV QRV LQWHUHVVD QR GHEDWHTXHQmRpGDUFHQWUDOLGDGHQREDODQoRPDV QDGLVFXVVmRGDDWXDOLGDGHGHVWHSURJUDPDHGHVVD HVWUDWpJLD1RVSDUHFHFODURTXHDVEDVHVGHXPDXQL ร€FDomRHQWUHRVDJUXSDPHQWRVPDU[LVWDVUHYROXFLR QiULRVSDUWHPGDEDVHGHTXHSDUDRVWHPSRVDWXDLV QmRHVWiFRORFDGRR3'3TXHpSUHFLVREXVFDUXPD VXSHUDomR GHVWD YHOKD YLVmR SURJUDPDHVWUDWpJLD FDSD]GHUHVSRQGHUDRVQRYRVGHVDร€RVSDUDRPDU [LVPR,VWRLQFOXLUHMHLWDUQRFDORUGDOXWDSROtWLFDGH SRVLo}HVQDHVTXHUGDVRFLDOLVWDEUDVLOHLUDDUHHGLomR GDHVWUDWpJLDLQVWLWXFLRQDOGHSRGHU 0DVpSUHFLVRUHFRQKHFHUTXHPHVPRQRQRVVR kPELWRHVWDWDUHIDQmRWHPVLGRGHIiFLOVROXomR 'DQHJDomRSDUDDVXSHUDomRGR3'3HVWDPRVQR PHLRGRFDPLQKR+iRUJDQL]Do}HVGHORQJDWUD GLomRFRPXQLVWDQRFDPSRGDHVTXHUGDVRFLDOLVWD

โ€œ

... o programa nรฃo se resolve FRPDDร€UPDomRSXUDGH um programa de bandeiras exclusivamente socialistas ou mรกximas. E nem se resolve com uma fรณrmula pronta. Os programas nรฃo sรฃo imutรกveis

โ€œ

Os dilemas na superaรงรฃo da estratรฉgia democrรกtico-popular 4XDQGRIDODPRVHPEXVFDUGDUXQLGDGHjHVWUD WpJLDHSURJUDPDGHXPSRQWRGHYLVWDVRFLDOLVWD QRVGHSDUDPRVFRPHQRUPHSHVRTXHRSURJUDPD HDHVWUDWpJLDGHPRFUiWLFRSRSXODUDLQGDWHPQD HVTXHUGDEUDVLOHLUD eSUHFLVRULJRUHFDXWHODSDUDGHEDWHUHVVDTXHVWmR UHVSHLWDQGRDWpRVLJQLร€FDGRTXHDVWHUPLQRORJLDVH WUDGLo}HVGHFDGDVHWRUSRVVDPGDUDHVVDTXHVWmR %DVWDVLWXDURLPSDFWRTXHDYHUVmRRULJLQDOGR3'3 WHYHQR9(QFRQWUR1DFLRQDOGR37HPTXDQGR HVWDEHOHFHXXPDFUtWLFDHXPDUXSWXUDFRPDYHOKD HVWUDWpJLD GR 3&% GH EXVFDU D DOLDQoD FRP D EXU JXHVLDQDFLRQDOSDUDUHDOL]DUDVWDUHIDVGHPRFUiWLFDV 

TXHWUDWDPGHUHHGLWDUDLGHLDGDGLVSXWDGRHVWD GRKiRXWUDVTXHGHIHQGHPDVXDVXSHUDomRPDV QmRVXSHUDPDSUiWLFDGDOyJLFDLQVWLWXFLRQDOFRPR SULRULGDGH ( ERD SDUWH GD QHJDomR GR 3'3 HVWi OHYDQGR DOJXQV VHWRUHV GD HVTXHUGD D Dร€UPDomR GHXPSURJUDPDPi[LPRHGRXWULQiULRSDUDDUH YROXomRDSRQWRGHFDUDFWHUL]DUFRPRUHIRUPLVWDV ERDSDUWHGRDUVHQDOGHEDQGHLUDVHGHPDQGDVQD FLRQDLVGHPRFUiWLFDVHPHVPRHFRQ{PLFDV%DQ GHLUDVTXHQDSUiWLFDTXHVWLRQDPRDWXDOPRGHOR JHULGR SHOR UHIRUPLVPR VHP UHIRUPDV GR 37 RX UHIRUPLVPR IUDFR QD KLSyWHVH RWLPLVWD GH $QGUp 6LQJHUVREUHRVLJQLร€FDGRGROXOLVPR  2XVHMDXPGRVSHULJRVGDQHJDomRGR3'3pXPD GHULYDomRVHFWiULDTXHSDVVDDQHJDUROXJDUGDVWD UHIDVDQWLLPSHULDOLVWDHGHPRFUiWLFDVSDUDXPSUR JUDPDGDUHYROXomREUDVLOHLUDHPQRPHGHXPSUR JUDPDH[FOXVLYDPHQWHVRFLDOLVWDHLVWRGHFLGLGDPHQWH QmRHVWiUHVROYLGRSRUERDSDUWHGDHVTXHUGDPDU[LV WDUHYROXFLRQiULDTXHIDODHPVXSHUDUR3'3 7HPDVSDUDXPSURJUDPDGDUHYROXomR 3RUWDQWR TXHUHPRV GL]HU TXH R SURJUDPD QmR VHUHVROYHFRPDDร€UPDomRSXUDGHXPSURJUDPD GH EDQGHLUDV H[FOXVLYDPHQWH VRFLDOLVWDV RX Pi[L PDV ( QHP VH UHVROYH FRP XPD IyUPXOD SURQWD 2VSURJUDPDVQmRVmRLPXWiYHLV7URWVN\GHร€QLDR SURJUDPD FRPR ยดXPD FRPSUHHQVmR FRPXP GRV DFRQWHFLPHQWRV H GDV WDUHIDV GR SHUtRGRยต /rQLQ ORJRDSyVFKHJDUD5~VVLDHPHVFUHYHXHP VXDVIDPRVDV7HVHVGH$EULOTXHRSDUWLGRSUHFL VDYDPXGDURVHXSURJUDPDRXVHMDTXHRVVHXV SUHVVXSRVWRV H WDUHIDV HVWDYDP GHVDWXDOL]DGDV SDUDDVFRQGLo}HVGD5~VVLDHP 'HRXWURODGRFRQVLGHUDPRVYiOLGDHDWXDODPH WRGRORJLD SURSRVWD SRU 7URWVN\ QR 3URJUDPD GH 7UDQVLomR D EXVFD GH UHLYLQGLFDo}HV TXH OHYHP D PRELOL]DomRGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVSDUDRSRGHUHLVVR QHVVDFRQFHSomRLPSOLFDYDHPSDUWLUGDVQHFHVVL GDGHVKLVWyULFDVGDFODVVHHHVWDEHOHFHUXPDSRQ WHFRPRVHXQtYHOGHFRQVFLrQFLD8PDIRUPDGH URPSHUDEDUUHLUDHQWUHSURJUDPDPtQLPRYHUVXV SURJUDPDPi[LPRQDVFRQGLo}HVKLVWyULFDVGRFD SLWDOLVPRLPSHULDOLVWD 2EYLDPHQWHQmRHVWDPRVDTXLSDUWLOKDQGRDLGHLD GHTXHRSURJUDPDGDWUDQVLomRHVFULWRHP pRSURJUDPDSDUDDUHYROXomREUDVLOHLUDQRVGLDV DWXDLV (VWDUtDPRV HP DEHUWD FRQWUDGLomR FRP R TXHIRLHVFULWRDWpDTXL2TXHVLPUHLYLQGLFDPRV pDVXDPHWRGRORJLDTXHQDGDWHPGHGRJPiWLFD SHORFRQWUiULRpXPDHTXDomRSROtWLFDEHPรH[t YHOQmRQRVHQWLGRGRUHEDL[DPHQWRPDVQRVHQWL

GRGHFRPSUHHQGHUDDVPXGDQoDVQDUHDOLGDGHQD HVWUXWXUDGRSDtVQDGLQkPLFDGRFDSLWDOLVPRQD OXWDGHFODVVHVHFRQVLGHUDURQtYHOGHFRQVFLrQFLD GHFRPSUHHQVmRGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV 3RU H[HPSOR D DWXDOL]DomR GH XP SURJUDPD GH UXSWXUDFRPRFDSLWDOLVPRHPQRVVRSDtVGHYHD  SDUWLUGRSHVRGDKHUDQoDGDVHJUHJDomRHGHVL JXDOGDGH VRFLDO KLVWyULFRV HP QRVVR SDtV MDPDLV VHTXHUPHGLDGDVSHORGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGRFDSLWD OLVPREUDVLOHLURPHVPRQRVHXDXJHGHH[SDQVmR HFUHVFLPHQWR  E FRPEDWHURPRGH OR DWXDO VXSRVWDPHQWH ยดQHRGHVHQYROYLPHQWLVWDยต GHOHQWDVUHIRUPDVRXSROtWLFDVS~EOLFDVTXHLULDP DWDFDUDGHVLJXDOGDGHVRFLDOHVWUXWXUDO SURMHWRHP YRJDKRMHVREROXORSHWLVPRQRSRGHU F HQFD UDUGHIUHQWHDSUHGDGRUDH[SDQVmRGDVIURQWHLUDV GRFDSLWDO LQWHUQDVHH[WHUQDV HTXHLPSDFWRVWHP QDTXHVWmRGDWHUUDGRPHLRDPELHQWHQDUHODomR FRPRVGHPDLVSRYRVGRFRQWLQHQWHG SURFXUDUDV SLVWDVGRTXHVHULDXPDHVWUDWpJLDGHSRGHUDXWR RUJDQL]DGRSRSXODUHPXPSDtVKRMHXOWUDXUEDQR HVREXPDGHPRFUDFLDEXUJXHVDHVWiYHO 2X GLWR GH RXWUD PDQHLUD H VXJHULQGR SDUD R GHEDWH VRE R DJURQHJyFLR LQGXVWULDO H[SRUWDGRU DTXHVWmRGDUHIRUPDDJUiULD MDPDLVUHDOL]DGDHP QRVVR SDtV  JDQKD XPD FDUDFWHUtVWLFD SURIXQGD PHQWHDQWLFDSLWDOLVWDGHH[SURSULDomRGHFRPSOH [RVLQGXVWULDVHQmRDSHQDVRODWLI~QGLRWUDGLFLRQDO VRE HVVH PRGHOR SUHGDGRU D TXHVWmR VyFLRDP ELHQWDO GH XP SRQWR GH YLVWD GRV VRFLDOLVWDV WHP FHQWUDOLGDGH HP XP SURJUDPD GH WUDQVLomR SDUD RVGLDVGHKRMHDTXHVWmRQDFLRQDOQRSDtVJDQKD XP GXSOR VHQWLGR SRLV R DQWLLPSHULDOLVPR KRMH LPSOLFD WDPEpP QD VROLGDULHGDGH H GHIHVD GRV SRYRVYL]LQKRVHH[SORUDGRVSHOR QDDXVrQFLDGH XPD GHร€QLomR PHOKRU  VXELPSHULDOLVPR EUDVLOHL URDVTXHVW}HVGHJrQHURHUDoDWUDGLFLRQDOPHQWH UHGX]LGDV SHOD SUySULD HVTXHUGD FRPR TXHVW}HV ยดVHWRULDLVยตVmRHVWUXWXUDQWHVSDUDXPSURJUDPDGD UHYROXomRYLVWRTXHTXDQGRIDODPRVGRQHJURVH PXOKHUHV IDODPRV GD PDLRULD GD FODVVH WUDEDOKD GRUDEUDVLOHLUDHGHVHXVVHWRUHVPDLVH[SORUDGRVH VXEPHWLGRVDGHVLJXDOGDGHVRFLDO &RQVLGHUDPRV TXH HVWHV VmR DSHQDV DOJXQV GRV WHPDVDRVTXDLVSUHFLVDPRVGDUXPDDERUGDJHP DWXDOL]DGDHFRPSHVRQDFRQVWLWXLomRGHXPSUR JUDPDFRODGRDXPDHVWUDWpJLDGHDXWRRUJDQL]D omRHSRGHUGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDTXHJXDUGHFR HUrQFLDHQWUHSURJUDPDHVWUDWpJLDHDEXVFDQmR DSHQDVGHXPGLVFXUVRGHFODVVHPDVGRSURWDJR QLVPRGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDHGREORFRKLVWyULFR GRVH[SORUDGRVHRSULPLGRVFHQWUDOPHQWHGDVIRU oDVGRPXQGRGRWUDEDOKR


estratégia, programa e sujeito

Século XX: da coerência estratégica à desarticulação das lutas Por josé correa*

P

DUDGDUDPHGLGDGRSUREOHPDpLPSRUWDQWHUH FXSHUDUPRVDIRUPDFRPRVHDUWLFXODUDPSURJUD PDHVWUDWpJLDHVXMHLWRVQRVpFXOR;;8PDPDQHLUD SUiWLFDGHDERUGDURWHPDpUHFXSHUDURWUDWDPHQWR GDGRjTXHVWmRSRU'DQLHO%HQVDLGRSHQVDGRUFRQ WHPSRUkQHRTXHPDLVGHEDWHXHVWHWHPD Revolução, crise revolucionária e necessidade da estratégia 0DU[HPSUHHQGHGHIRUPDPXLWRFODUDMiHP´2 0DQLIHVWR &RPXQLVWDµ   XPD GLVVROXomR GR SROtWLFR QR VRFLDO $ UHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWD ² WHQGR FRPRSDQRGHIXQGRD*UDQGH5HYROXomRGH ² HPHUJH GR IRUWDOHFLPHQWR VRFLDO GR SUROHWDULD GRSHORGHVHQYROYLPHQWRGRFDSLWDOLVPRLQGXVWULDO 1DPHGLGDHPTXHDJUDQGHLQG~VWULDFRQFHQWUD RSHUiULRV HP JUDQGHV XQLGDGHV GH SURGXomR D EXUJXHVLDHVWiFULDQGRHIRUWDOHFHQGRXPDFODVVH VRFLDODQWDJ{QLFDDHODHVWiSURGX]LQGRVHXVSUy SULRVFRYHLURV$5HYROXomRGHPRVWURXTXH HODSUHIHULDDJRUDVHDOLDUDVHXVDQWLJRVDGYHUVi ULRVGDQREUH]DDVHDUULVFDUFRPDVQRYDV´FODVVHV SHULJRVDVµ(D&RPXQDGH3DULVPRVWUDHP RSRWHQFLDOGHDXWRRUJDQL]DomRSDUDDDomRSROtWL FDDXW{QRPDGDFODVVHGRVDVVDODULDGRV (P SDUDOHOR VH HVWUXWXUDYD XPD LQVWLWXFLRQD OLGDGH EXUJXHVD H DV IRUoDV FRQVHUYDGRUDV VH DSURSULDYDP GR SULQFtSLR QDFLRQDO DEULQGR HV SDoR SDUD R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GR PRGHUQR UH

3URIHVVRULQWHJUDQWHGDFRRUGHQDomRGR(QODFH



JLPHUHSUHVHQWDWLYRHPSDUODPHQWRVHHOHLo}HV HP TXH GLIHUHQWHV SDUWLGRV GH PDVVD GLVSXWD YDPDDGHVmRGRVHOHLWRUHV([SUHVVmRRUJkQLFDH PDMRULWiULDGDFODVVHRSHUiULD H[FOXLQGRRVDQDU TXLVWDVTXHUHMHLWDYDPDDWLYLGDGHSDUODPHQWDU  D 6HJXQGD ,QWHUQDFLRQDO FRQVROLGDYDVH FRPR IHGHUDomR GHVWHV SDUWLGRV GH PDVVD GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUDTXHVHIRUPDYDPQD(XURSD 0DV(QJHOVUHWLUDGDGHUURWDGD&RPXQDHGDUHXU EDQL]DomR GH 3DULV SRU +DXVVPDQQ D FRQFOXVmR GD REVROHVFrQFLDGDHVWUDWpJLDGDLQVXUUHLomRFRPRFD PLQKRSDUDRSRGHU(IRUPXODSDUDD6HJXQGD,Q WHUQDFLRQDODHVWUDWpJLDGDFRQTXLVWDGDPDLRULDHOHL WRUDOORJRLQVHULGDSRU.DXWVN\QRKRUL]RQWHGRTXH %HQVDLGFKDPDGH´XPVRFLDOLVPRVHPWHPSRµ e D H[SHULrQFLD GD 5HYROXomR 5XVVD GH  TXH VLQDOL]D R LQtFLR GH XPD ´HUD GH JXHUUDV H UHYROXo}HVµ 5RVD /X[HPEXUJ UHFRORFD FRP D GLVFXVVmRVREUHDJUHYHGHPDVVDRWHPDGDUH YROXomR PDV QR PHVPR KRUL]RQWH HVWUDWpJLFR FRP TXH WUDEDOKDYD 0DU[ e QR PDU[LVPR UXV VRTXHXPDUHÁH[mRQRYDYDLUHHVWUXWXUDURXQL YHUVRFRQFHLWXDOGDSROtWLFDVRFLDOLVWD/HQLQHRV EROFKHYLTXHVYmRVXVWHQWDUDH[LVWrQFLDGHXPD VHSDUDomRHQWUHRVRFLDOHRSROtWLFRLQH[LVWHQWH HP0DU[HGHIHQGHUDQHFHVVLGDGHGHFRQVWUX omRGRSDUWLGRFRPRIHUUDPHQWDGHDWXDomRHP XPDHVIHUDHVSHFLÀFDPHQWHSROtWLFDFHQWUDGDQD OXWDSHORSRGHUGHHVWDGR3DVVDDID]HUVHQWLGR DJRUDIDODUGHHVWUDWpJLDUHYROXFLRQiULD

A revolução leninista na política /HQLQpRPDLVLPSRUWDQWHWHyULFRGDSROtWLFDGH SRLVGH0DTXLDYHO(OHDUWLFXODDDWLYLGDGHSUiWLFD SDUD D VXSHUDomR GD VRFLHGDGH FDSLWDOLVWD FRP XP QRYR XQLYHUVR FRQFHLWXDO XPD FRQFHSomR DEHUWDDRDSUHQGL]DGRGRSURJUDPDDDSURSULD omRGDVLGHLDVGHHVWUDWpJLDHWiWLFDGRWHUUHQR PLOLWDUDDQiOLVHGDFRUUHODomRGHIRUoDVDVSROt WLFDVGHDOLDQoDVSDUDRVGLIHUHQWHVPRPHQWRVGD OXWDDGLVWLQomRHQWUHDJLWDomRHSURSDJDQGDH HQWUHDWLYLGDGHVLQGLFDOHDWLYLGDGHSROtWLFDDDU WLFXODomRHQWUHLQGHSHQGrQFLDGHFODVVHHIUHQWH ~QLFD D LGHLD GH FULVH QDFLRQDO D GXDOLGDGH GH SRGHUHVHPXLWDVRXWUDV 2 SDUWLGR p R GLVSRVLWLYRFKDYH GD DWLYLGDGH SROtWLFDDLQVWLWXLomRTXHSHUPLWHDFXPXODUSDUD GLVSXWDU R SRGHU H SURPRYHU PRGLÀFDo}HV HV WUXWXUDLVQDVRFLHGDGHHPXPDIRUPDomRVRFLDO² R´SUtQFLSHPRGHUQRµQDFDUDFWHUL]DomRGH*UD PVFL2FRQMXQWRGRVSDUWLGRVSROtWLFRVLQFOXVLYH EXUJXHVHVWHPDRORQJRGRVpFXOR;;TXHDGR WDU FRQFHLWRV FULDGRV SRU /HQLQ H GLIXQGLGRV D SDUWLUGDYLWyULDEROFKHYLTXHQD5HYROXomR5XVVD $ DWLYLGDGH SROtWLFD FRWLGLDQD GHVHQYROYLGD HP VLWXDo}HVQmRUHYROXFLRQiULDVFRPSUHHQGHDOXWD VRFLDO D OXWD GH SDUWLGRV H D OXWD HP WRUQR GDV TXHVW}HV SROtWLFDV QDFLRQDLV TXH PDWHULDOL]DP DV GLVSXWDVGHUXPRGDVRFLHGDGHeVyHPPRPHQ

WRV H[FHSFLRQDLV TXH HPHUJH XPD VLWXDomR UHYR OXFLRQiULDIUHTXHQWHPHQWHGHIRUPDHVSRQWkQHD &DVRH[LVWDXPDDOWHUQDWLYDUHDODRVSDUWLGRVGD RUGHP SRGH FULDUVH XPD FULVH UHYROXFLRQiULD XP PRPHQWR RSRUWXQR SDUD OXWDU SHOR SRGHU HVWDEHOHFHQGRVH XPD GXDOLGDGH GH SRGHUHV ² TXHGHYHVHUUHVROYLGDHPIDYRUGDUHYROXomRRX GD FRQWUDUHYROXomR $ HVWUDWpJLD p D EXVFD GD FRQVWLWXLomRFRQVFLHQWHHSODQHMDGDGHVWHFHQi ULRSRUSDUWHGDVIRUoDVFRQWUDKHJHP{QLFDV$ H[LVWrQFLDGRSDUWLGRWHPVHQWLGRHPIXQomRGD VXDFDSDFLGDGHGHGHVHPSHQKDUHVWDWDUHIDFR ORFDUHPSUiWLFDXPDHVWUDWpJLDUHYROXFLRQiULDH QmRVHDFRPRGDUjURWLQDSDUODPHQWDUeSRULVVR TXH/XNDFVFKDPRXVXDELRJUDÀDSROtWLFDGH/H QLQGH´DDWXDOLGDGHGDUHYROXomRµ e FODUR TXH R EDODQoR GR SHUtRGR DJXGR GH OX WDVGDSULPHLUDPHWDGHGRVpFXOR;;pPXLWRPDLV FRPSOH[R HQYROYHQGR R HQWHQGLPHQWR GR OXJDU KLVWyULFRGRFDSLWDOLVPRHGRVHXOHJDGR /HQLQHUD SDUWLFXODUPHQWHFHJRDRFDUiWHUWLUkQLFRGDGLVFL SOLQDIDEULOTXHRFDSLWDOLVPRLPSXQKDjVPDVVDV WUDEDOKDGRUDV PDQWHQGR R RWLPLVPR GD DQiOLVH H[SUHVVDSRU0DU[QR´0DQLIHVWRµ HGRSUREOHPD GDEXURFUDFLDTXHKDYLDJHUDGRQmRDSHQDVjLQ WHJUDomRGDVRFLDOGHPRFUDFLDDRHVWDGREXUJXrV PDV WDPEpP D IXVmR HQWUH SDUWLGR H HVWDGR QD 8QLmR6RYLpWLFDSURGX]LQGRRHVWDOLQLVPR 0DVRSHUtRGRLQLFLDOGD,QWHUQDFLRQDO&RPXQLV


WDFRPSUHHQGHRPDLRUDF~PXORGHGHEDWHVHV 0DV XPD QRYD UHDOLGDGH FRPHoD D GHVERUGDU WUDWpJLFRVGDWUDMHWyULDGRPRYLPHQWRVRFLDOLVWD HVWH FDPSLVPR TXH VH PRVWUDYD FDGD YH] PDLV TXHWHPTXHVHUUHYLVLWDGRSRUTXDOTXHUGLVFXV FRQVHUYDGRUDSDUWLUGRVDQRVDUWLFXODQGR VmRVpULDGHSROtWLFDUHYROXFLRQiULD DV OXWDV GH OLEHUWDomR QDFLRQDO DV PRYLPHQWD o}HVGHFDUiWHUVRFLDOLVWDQRVSDtVHVLPSHULDOLVWDV Hipóteses estratégicas no século XX HDVOXWDVDQWLEXURFUiWLFDVQD(XURSD2ULHQWDO 3DUD R WURWVTXLVPR D GHOLPLWDomR IUHQWH DR 2 SHUtRGR GH WUrV GpFDGDV GH JXHUUDV H UHYR ´VRFLDOLVPR UHDOPHQWH H[LVWHµ HUD PDLV SUHFLVD OXo}HVTXHFXOPLQDQDFRQTXLVWDGRSRGHUSHOD GHJHQHUDomREXURFUiWLFDGRSURFHVVRUHYROXFLR UHYROXomRFKLQHVDGHGHVWLODWDPEpPRTXH QiULRH[LVWrQFLDGHXPHVWDGRRSHUiULREXURFUD 'DQLHO%HQVDLGYDLFKDPDUGHDVGXDVKLSyWHVHV WL]DGRDWXDomRUHYROXFLRQiULDHPVRFLHGDGHVGH HVWUDWpJLFDVGRVpFXOR;;DJUHYHJHUDOLQVXUUH WUDQVLomRHQWUHRFDSLWDOLVPRHRVRFLDOLVPRHP FLRQDO R´PRGHORµUXVVRGH HDJXHUUDSR TXH R DYDQoR GD UHYROXomR HVWDYD EORTXHDGR SXODUSURORQJDGD R´PRGHORµFKLQrVGDJXHUUD SHODEXURFUDFLDHTXHGHYHULDVHUGHUUXEDGDGR GHJXHUULOKDVHGDGXDOLGDGHWHUULWRULDOGHSRGH SRGHUSHODDXWRRUJDQL]DomRGDVPDVVDVSRSX UHV $VH[SHULrQFLDVSRVWHULRUHVSRGHPHPERD ODUHV6HLVVRGHSRLVVHUHYHORXLQVXÀFLHQWHSDUD PHGLGDVHUDQDOLVDGDVDSDUWLUGHVWHVGRLVSDUk DQDOLVDU D UiSLGD ´UHVWDXUDomR GR FDSLWDOLVPRµ PHWURV²GDVOXWDVGHJXHUULOKDGRVPRYLPHQWRV QRV DQRV  QmR HOLPLQD R IDWR GH TXH HUD GHOLEHUWDomRQDFLRQDOjVLQVXUUHLo}HVXUEDQDV XPD FKDYH LQWHUSUHWDWLYD EDVWDQWH RSHUDFLRQDO 0DV QmR Ki IRUPD SXUD H D HVWUDWpJLD p UHÁH SDUDVHPRYHUQRPXQGRHPTXHDLQGDH[LVWLDR [LYD HYROXLQGR VHPSUH GHSHQGH GR SHUtRGR TXHHUDLQFRUUHWDPHQWHFKDPDGRGH´VRFLDOLVPR GDFRUUHODomRGHIRUPDVGDVLWXDomRQDFLRQDOH UHDOPHQWHH[LVWHQWHµ(UHYHODDIRUoDGRSDUDGLJ LQWHUQDFLRQDO GR DSUHQGL]DGR SHOR LQLPLJR GDV PDLPDJLQDWLYRGH´2XWXEURµ H[SHULrQFLDV SDVVDGDV HWF ([HPSORV FRPR RV GDVUHYROXo}HVFXEDQDHQLFDUDJHQVHHP O acordo sobre o sujeito revolucionário HPRVWUDPTXHDVGXDVKLSyWHVHVSRGHP VHFRPELQDU(XPDWHUFHLUDKLSyWHVHHPHUJHGR $HVTXHUGDVRFLDOLVWDUHYROXFLRQiULDUHYLJRUDGD GHEDWH GD H[SHULrQFLD FKLOHQD FRP IRUoDV UH SHORDVFHQVRGHOXWDVGRVDQRVUHDSURSULD YROXFLRQiULDV FRQTXLVWDQGR R SRGHU DWUDYpV GH VHGRVGHEDWHVGRVWULQWDDQRVGHJXHUUDVHUH HOHLo}HVHWHQGRQDVHTrQFLDTXHVHFDSDFLWDU YROXo}HVTXHWLQKDPVLGRYLYLGRVSRUVHXVSDLV SDUD HQIUHQWDU D FRQWUDUUHYROXomR QR TXH SRU H DYyV 9ROWD D WUDEDOKDU SURMHWRV SROtWLFRV GH H[HPSOR$OOHQGHIUDFDVVDHPPDV&KiYH] ORQJR SUD]R FRPSUHHQGHQGR D QHFHVVLGDGH GH pEHPVXFHGLGRHP  HGXFDUTXDGURVFRPEDVHHPXPDFRPSUHHQVmR 0DV DV JUDQGHV OXWDV GR SHUtRGR GH JXHUUDV H FRPXPGDVH[SHULrQFLDVHGRVREMHWLYRVHVWUDWp UHYROXo}HVWDPEpPOHJDUDPRVSUHVVXSRVWRVSUR JLFRV)UHQWHDRVSDUWLGRVFRPXQLVWDVFRUURtGRV JUDPiWLFR GR VRFLDOLVPR UHYROXFLRQiULR SRVWHULRU SRU GpFDGDV GH SUDJPDWLVPR H EXURFUDWL]DomR $V FRUUHQWHV GD HVTXHUGD GLYLGLUDPVH HP WRUQR UHVJDWD XP SDQR GH IXQGR ´SURJUDPiWLFRµ FR GDV´OLo}HVGH2XWXEURµPDVWRGDVUHYHUHQFLDYDP PXPTXHLQFOXtDLQGHSHQGrQFLDGHFODVVHUHLYLQ D IRUoD H[HPSODU GD UHYROXomR UXVVD &RPSDUWL GLFDo}HVGHWUDQVLomRDVWiWLFDVGHIUHQWH~QLFD OKDYDPDFRQYLFomRGHTXHVHVDELDSHUIHLWDPHQ DUHYROXomRSHUPDQHQWHDSHUVSHFWLYDGHHVWD WHEHPRTXHVHULDRVRFLDOLVPR LQGXVWULDOL]DomR EHOHFHU XPD GXDOLGDGH GH SRGHUHV D OXWD DQWL HOHWULÀFDomR PDLV VRYLHWHV GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GDV EXURFUiWLFD 'LVSXWD WDPEpP FRP RV SDUWLGRV IRUoDVSURGXWLYDVSDUDDOpPGDDQDUTXLDGRPHU FRPXQLVWDVROHJDGRGH*UDPVFLHGHVXDDQi FDGR FDSLWDOLVWD  'LVSXWDYDP D DGHVmR GD FODV OLVH GH XP HVWDGR DPSOLDGR D GLVFXVVmR VREUH VH RSHUDULD RUJDQL]DGD HP SDUWLGRV H VLQGLFDWRV KHJHPRQLDSUHVHQWHHP/HQLQYROWDDHQWUDUQR ² QRUPDOPHQWH FRQWURODGRV SRU ´FRPXQLVWDVµ RX YRFDEXOiULRSROtWLFRGDHVTXHUGD ´VRFLDOGHPRFUDWDVµ²TXHVHULDDIRUoDVRFLDOIXQ DEUHWDPEpPSDUDDVFRUUHQWHVTXHVHUH GDPHQWDOGRDYDQoRQRVRFLDOLVPR YHODPPDLVDEHUWDVHGXUDGRXUDVXPQRYRWLSR 2´FDPSRµJHRSROtWLFRQXFOHDGRSHOD8QLmR6R GH DSUHQGL]DGR FRP D LGHLD GH XP SURJUDPD YLpWLFDHUDUHLYLQGLFDGRSUDJPDWLFDPHQWHSRUWR HP HYROXomR 1RYDV TXHVW}HV HPHUJHP R SD GDVDVIRUoDVDQWLLPSHULDOLVWDVTXHQHFHVVLWDYDP SHOGRVHVWXGDQWHVHGDMXYHQWXGHDGLVFXVVmR DSRLRPDWHULDOHSROtWLFR²LQFRQVFLHQWHVGRDOWR GD GHPRFUDFLD VRFLDOLVWD D OXWD SHOD OLEHUWDomR SUHoRTXHSDJDYDPSRULVVR GDVPXOKHUHVHRIHPLQLVPRDOXWDDQWLUDFLVWD 

DV PRELOL]Do}HV GH JD\V H OpVELFDV D FUtWLFD GR Globalização neoliberal: novo período FRQVXPLVPR R GHEDWH DPELHQWDO H GR PRYL histórico do capitalismo PHQWRHFRORJLVWD0DVRGHEDWHSHUPDQHFHQR VHQWLGRHVWUDWpJLFRHVVHQFLDOPHQWHUHIHUHQFLDGR 8PDPXGDQoDUDGLFDOGHFHQiULRHGHpSRFDKLVWyUL SHOD H[SHULrQFLD UXVVD GH  H SHODV JXHUUDV FDVHGiDRORQJRGDGpFDGDGHFRPSUHHQGHQ GHJXHUULOKD GRRSHUtRGRHQWUHRVJRYHUQRV5HDJDQH7KDWFKHU $GpFDGDGHpWDPEpPRDXJHGDLQGXVWULDOL]D TXHLPSOHPHQWDPDSDUWLUGHDVSROtWLFDVQH omRIRUGLVWD2UHJLPHGDJUDQGHLQG~VWULDHVWUXWXUDGD ROLEHUDLV HVWLPXORjÀQDQFHLUL]DomRGHVUHJXODPHQ DRUHGRUGDVOLQKDVGHSURGXomRHVSDOKDVHSHORSOD WDomRSULYDWL]DomRDEHUWXUDHFRQ{PLFD HDTXHGD QHWDFRPRVSURFHVVRVGHLQGXVWULDOL]DomRSHULIpULFD$ GR0XURGH%HUOLPHRFRODSVRGD8QLmR6RYLpWLFD ´DJrQFLDµ QRVHQWLGRVRFLROyJLFRGRWHUPR GHPXGDQ HQWUHH1D*XHUUDGR*ROIRHPMi oDKLVWyULFDRDWRUFHQWUDOFRQWLQXDVHQGRRSUROHWD HVWDPRVHPXPDVLWXDomRWRWDOPHQWHQRYD ULDGR SDUWLFXODUPHQWH GRV 'D PHVPD IRUPD TXH D WUDEDOKDGRUHV LQGXVWULDLV SDVVDJHP GR FDSLWDOLVPR PHVPR TXH HP DOLDQoD FRQFRUUHQFLDO GR VpFX FRP RXWURV H[SORUDGRV H OR ;,; SDUD R FDSLWDOLVPR Novas questões emergem: RSULPLGRV PRYLPHQWRVGH PRQRSROLVWDHLPSHULDOLVWD OLEHUWDomRQDFLRQDOFDPSR o papel dos estudantes e da GR VpFXOR ;; UHFRQÀJXUD QHVHV SHTXHQD EXUJXHVLD DV FRQGLo}HV GD OXWD VR juventude, a discussão da SURJUHVVLVWD HVWXGDQWHV H FLDOLVWDQRVpFXORSDVVDGR PRYLPHQWRVGHMXYHQWXGH democracia socialista, a luta D SDVVDJHP GR FDSLWDOLV PRYLPHQWRV GH PXOKHUHV PR NH\QHVLDQRIRUGLVWD pela libertação das mulheres HWF  (VWD SUHPLVVD SHUPD TXH HPHUJLX GD 6HJXQ QHFHLQDEDOiYHOHpPHVPR GD *XHUUD 0XQGLDO SDUD e o feminismo, a luta antiUHIRUoDGD SRU XP JUDQGH D JOREDOL]DomR QHROLEHUDO racista, as mobilizações de Q~PHURGHVLWXDo}HV&KLOH FRORFDQRVHPXPDHWDSD 3RUWXJDO3RO{QLD,Um%UDVLO KLVWyULFDEDVWDQWHGLVWLQWD gays e lésbicas, a crítica do &RUpLDGR6XOÉIULFDGR6XO ePXLWRLQWHUHVVDQWHOHU 2 SHVR VRFLDO GR SUROHWD consumismo, o debate ambiental PRVHPRWH[WRGH ULDGR ID] GHOH R FHQWUR GH e do movimento ecologista. Mas 'DQLHO%HQVDLGSXEOLFDGR JUDYLGDGHGRVPRYLPHQWRV QR%UDVLOFRPRWtWXORGH SRSXODUHVGHVWHVSURFHVVRV o debate permanece, no sentido ´8PD QRYD pSRFD KLVWy GHOXWDHGDKLSyWHVHHVWUD ULFDµ GH  HP TXH estratégico, essencialmente WpJLFDGDJUHYHJHUDOLQVXU HOH SURFXUD HVWDEHOHFHU referenciado pela experiência UHFLRQDORKRUL]RQWHSROtWLFR DPHGLGDGDSURIXQGLGD GDHVTXHUGDUHYROXFLRQiULD russa de 1917 e pelas guerras de GH GD PXGDQoD $ÀUPD $ ÀORVRÀD GD KLVWyULD TXH VH WUDWD ´GH DYDOLDU guerrilha. VXEMDFHQWH D HVWD YLVmR DV PXGDQoDV RFRUULGDV FRQWLQXD VHQGR D GH GHVGH XPD GpFDGD DR XPD WUDMHWyULD DVFHQ LQYpV GH DFRPRGDUPR GHQWHGHSURJUHVVRKX QRVQXPDLGHLDURWLQHLUD PDQR PDLV FDSLWDOLVPR GH DOWHUQkQFLD GRV FLFORV FULDPHOKRUHVFRQGLo}HV HFRQ{PLFRV H GRV FLFORV SDUDXPIXWXURSURFHVVRUHYROXFLRQiULRXPDIX GH OXWDV (VWDPRV HQYROYLGRV HP XPD WUDQVLomR WXUD HPDQFLSDomR KXPDQD (VVH RWLPLVPR KLV JOREDO HFRQ{PLFD VRFLDO LQVWLWXFLRQDO FXOWXUDO  WyULFRFXMRPHOKRUH[HPSORpDREUDGH(UQHVW $UHRUJDQL]DomRGDVIRUoDVVRFLDLVIXQGDPHQWDLVH 0DQGHO YLVXDOL]DYD XP IXWXUR FRPXQLVPR GD GHVXDUHSUHVHQWDomRSROtWLFDSDVVDSRUXPORQJR DEXQGkQFLDXPPXQGRDOWDPHQWHLQGXVWULDOL]D SURFHVVRQRFXUVRGRTXDOQRYDVIRUPDVGHOXWDV GRHPTXHDVIRUoDVSURGXWLYDVFRQVFLHQWHPHQ HGHRUJDQL]Do}HVVHGHVHQYROYHUmRHPIXQomRGH WHGRPLQDGDVSHODVRFLHGDGHGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV FRPRo}HVHVWUXWXUDLV GHXPDDPSOLWXGHFRPSD DXWRRUJDQL]DGRVSHUPLWLULDPDUHGXomRUDGLFDO UiYHOVHVHTXHUjVTXHVDFXGLUDPRPRYLPHQWR GD MRUQDGD GH WUDEDOKR H R SOHQR GHVHQYROYL RSHUiULRQRLQtFLRGRVpFXORIUHQWHDRLPSHULDOLVPR PHQWRGDVSRWHQFLDOLGDGHVKXPDQDV H D JXHUUD  H GD HYROXomR GDV IRUPDo}HV VRFLDLV


,VVRLPSOLFDQXPDUHQRYDomRGHH[SHULrQFLDVHGH JHUDo}HVµ(TXHpQHFHVViULRYHULÀFDUDH[LVWrQFLD GHXPDFRUGRIXQGDPHQWDOVREUHRVDFRQWHFLPHQ WRVHDVWDUHIDVHHPSUHHQGHUXPWUDEDOKRGHUHGH ÀQLomRSURJUDPiWLFD $ DOWHUDomR GH pSRFD UHFRQÀJXUD R FRQMXQWR GRV HOHPHQWRV 2OKDU SDUD WUiV Mi QRV SHUPLWH YHUDDOWHUQkQFLDGHFRQMXQWXUDVQRLQWHULRUGHV WDQRYDHUDDQRUPDOL]DomRQHROLEHUDOGRVDQRV RSHUtRGRGR´SHQVDPHQWR~QLFRµFRPR HVPDJDPHQWRGHERDSDUWHGDYHOKDHVTXHUGDH RVXUJLPHQWRGHQRYDVSRVLo}HVTXHDEDQGRQDP DTXHVWmRGRSRGHUGHHVWDGR VXEFRPDQGDQWH 0DUFRV +ROORZD\ 1HJUL D FULVH GDEROKDFKD PDGD ´QRYD HFRQRPLDµ HP  H R GHVHQYRO YLPHQWRGHXPQRYRDWLYLVPRGRVSURWHVWRVGH 6HDWWOH FRQWUD D 20& HP  DOWHUPXQGLDOLV PRHR)yUXP6RFLDO jVPRELOL]Do}HVGH*rQRYD HPDSRVWHULRUUHWRPDGDHFRQ{PLFDFRP EDVHHPXPDEROKDLPRELOLiULDHDPLOLWDUL]DomR GDV UHODo}HV LQWHUQDFLRQDLV VRE %XVK -U FRPR UHVSRVWDDRVDWDTXHVGHGHVHWHPEURDFULVH HVWUXWXUDOGHDPDLVJUDYHGRFDSLWDOLVPR GHVGHFXMRVHIHLWRVSHUGXUDPDLQGDKRMH $FULVHWUD]XPDQRYDJUDQGHPXGDQoDTXHUHFR ORFDDLGHLDGHUHYROXomRHPFHQDDFKDPDGD´SUL PDYHUDiUDEHµ0DVpWDPEpPXPDFULVHFDSLWDOLVWD FOiVVLFDHVWUXWXUDOHPXLWRJUDYH2GHFLVLYRpWR GDYLDTXHHODVHFRQÀJXUDPWDPEpPFRPRXPD LQpGLWDFRQYHUJrQFLDGHFULVHVXPDFULVHGHFLYLOL ]DomRTXHFRQGHQVDQRYDVGHWHUPLQDo}HVDODYDQ FDGDV SHODV PXGDQoDV RFRUULGDV QDV ~OWLPDV WUrV GpFDGDVDFULVHGHXPPRGHORGHVRFLHGDGHTXH HVWiVHUHYHODQGRLQVXVWHQWiYHOHWHQGHQFLDOPHQWH VXLFLGDSDUDERDSDUWHGDKXPDQLGDGHWRUQDQGR LQJrQXRWRGRRWLPLVPRKLVWyULFRSUpYLR $VVLVWLPRV D HPHUJrQFLD GH XPD QRYD JHUD omRSROtWLFD QR0DJUHEH0DVKUHNQRV2FFX SLHVH,QGLJQDGRVQRVPRYLPHQWRVHVWXGDQWLV TXHVXUJHPHPPXLWRVSDtVHV PDVWDPEpP XPDTXHEUDQDOLQKDGHFRQWLQXLGDGHGDH[SH ULrQFLD SROtWLFD LQFOXVLYH GD HVTXHUGD UHYROX FLRQiULDTXHWLQKDUHVLVWLGRDRVXUJLPHQWRGD JOREDOL]DomR QHROLEHUDO (OD p DJRUD GHVDÀDGD SRU QRYRV SURFHVVRV SROtWLFRV GRV PRYLPHQ WRVKRUL]RQWDLVjVLQLFLDWLYDVGHUHFRPSRVLomR SROtWLFDGHWLSR6\UL]D%ORFRGH(VTXHUGD&83 QD&DWDOXQKD RXFULVHVGHRUJDQL]Do}HVTXH UHVLVWLUDPDRSHUtRGRDQWHULRU /LJD13$6:3 LQJOrV  &KHJDU UDSLGDPHQWH D XP DFRUGR VR EUHRVDFRQWHFLPHQWRVHDVWDUHIDVHHPSUHHQ GHURWUDEDOKRGHUHGHÀQLomRSURJUDPiWLFDVH WRUQDFUXFLDOHXUJHQWH 

PARTE II As mudanças em curso e a perda da coerência com o passado 8PDIRWRJUDÀDGDJOREDOL]DomRQHROLEHUDOPHV PRTXHLPSRUWDQWHQmRpRSHUDWLYDSDUDDDomR SROtWLFD8PDYLVmRPDLVSHQHWUDQWHWRUQDVHLQGLV SHQViYHOSDUDPDSHDURWHUUHQRORFDOL]DURSRUWX QLGDGHHDUPDGLOKDV+iSHORPHQRVVHLVFDWHJR ULDV GH WUDQVIRUPDo}HV HP FXUVR TXH PXGDP DV UHJUDVGRMRJRHGHYHPRVGHVWDFDUDTXL Mudanças na morfologia do capitalismo +i XPD SURIXQGD WUDQVIRUPDomR QD GLQkPLFD GRFDSLWDOLVPRGHSRLVGDGpFDGDGH9iULRV DQDOLVWDVYmRHQIDWL]DUFRPRDGRPLQkQFLDÀQDQ FHLUD &KHVQDLV+XVVRQ'XPHQLOH/HY\ DUWLFX ODGD FRP D JOREDOL]DomR GDV DWLYLGDGHV HFRQ{ PLFDVGHVHVWUXWXUDRSDGUmRNH\QHVLDQRIRUGLVWD GRFDSLWDOLVPR$LQWHUQHWDVWHFQRORJLDVGLJLWDLV HRDSHUIHLoRDPHQWRGDORJtVWLFDGHXPDSDUWH HDDEHUWXUDGRVPHUFDGRVGHRXWURSHUPLWLUDP TXHDVFDGHLDVSURGXWLYDVVHHVWUXWXUDVVHPJOR EDOPHQWH SURSLFLDQGR D GHVORFDOL]DomR GD LQ G~VWULDHPIXQomRGRVVDOiULRVHGRVSUHoRVGRV LQVXPRVHGDVPDWpULDVSULPDV9iULDVLQWHUSUHWD o}HVYmRGHVWDFDUHVWDVQRYDVFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGR FDSLWDOLVPR FDSLWDOLVPR GRV ÁX[RV H GDV UHGHV 0DQXHO &DVWHOOV =\JPXQW %DXPDQ  DFXPXOD omRSRUHVSROLDomR 'DYLG+DUYH\ ÁH[LELOLGDGH HVWUXWXUDO /XF%RWDQVNL  2 ÁX[R OLYUH GH FDSLWDLV H PHUFDGRULDV VRE D pJLGH GR FDSLWDO ÀQDQFHLUR HP FRQGLo}HV HP TXHDIRUoDGHWUDEDOKRFRQWLQXDLPRELOL]DGDQR WHUUHQRQDFLRQDOJHUDXPDFRUUHODomRGHIRUoDV GHVIDYRUiYHO DRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV $ GHVUHJXOD PHQWDomRFRUUHVSRQGHDRDEDQGRQRYROXQWiULR GD SRVVLELOLGDGH GH FRQWUROH SROtWLFR GRV HVWD GRVVREUHRFDSLWDOHDFRQVWLWXLomRGHXPDQRYD IRUPDGHUHJXODomRHQWUHJXHDJRUDjVÀQDQoDV JOREDLV8PDSHVTXLVDJOREDOVREUHFRQWUROHFRU SRUDWLYR DEDUFDQGR  PLO HPSUHVDV PRVWURX HPTXHGRVHXYDORUHUDFRQWURODGR SRUDWRUHVDUWLFXODGRVHQWUHVLHHQWUHHVWHV XPQ~FOHRGHHPSUHVDVWUDQVQDFLRQDLVFRQ WURODPGDVFRUSRUDo}HVGRPXQGR $QRYDGLYLVmRLQWHUQDFLRQDOGRWUDEDOKRSURGX]

XPD GLVSXWD SHORV UHFXUVRV QDWXUDLV H XP IRU WHDWDTXHDWHUULWyULRVDQWHVLQWDFWRVGD$PpULFD /DWLQD RQGHDOLPHQWDXP´&RQVHQVRGDV&RP PRGLWLHVµHQWUHJRYHUQRVGHGLIHUHQWHVPDWL]HV  ÉIULFDHÉVLD²QRYDVWHUUDVSDUDDDJULFXOWXUDVX SULPHQWR GH PDWpULDV SULPDV JHUDomR GH HQHU JLD RX DLQGD SDUD REUDV GH LQIUDHVWUXWXUD ,VVR SURGX]XPJLUR´HFRWHUULWRULDOµGRVPRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLVHGHVWDFDDOXWDGRVSRYRVLQGtJHQDV$R PHVPR WHPSR Ki XP DWDTXH jV FRQGLo}HV GH YLGDGRFDPSHVLQDWRSHORJUDQGHDJURQHJyFLR $~OWLPDRQGDGHLQRYDo}HVWHFQROyJLFDVGRFD SLWDOLVPRDGRGLJLWDOFULDSDUWHGDLQIUDHVWUXWXUD SDUD D JOREDOL]DomR H JHUD XP LPSDFWR DYDVVDOD GRU VREUH D VRFLDELOLGDGH GDV QRYDV JHUDo}HV (VWD PRV QR XQLYHUVR GDV UH GHV VRFLDLV H GD JHUDomR )DFHERRN GD FXOWXUD GR FHOXODU GD FLEHUVRFLDELOL GDGHHGRQDUFLVLVPR0DV R GLJLWDO RIHUHFH WDPEpP QRYDV IHUUDPHQWDV SDUD D H[WHQVmR GDV FRQVXOWDV GHPRFUiWLFDV D PRELOL]D omR FRODERUDWLYD D GHV FHQWUDOL]DomR GRV SURFHV VRVSURGXWLYRV 2V DQRV QHROLEHUDLV H D H[SDQVmR GD HFRQRPLD FDSLWDOLVWD SURGX]HP XP FRQVXPLVPR FUHVFHQ WH 3DUD DV SRSXODo}HV DÁXHQWHVELOK}HVGRV VHWH ELOK}HV GH KDELWDQ WHV GR PXQGR R FRQVX PLVPR VH WRUQD XP LGH DO GH IHOLFLGDGH YLYHVH SDUDFRQVXPLUHQmRVHFRQVRPHSDUDYLYHUSDUD R UHVWDQWH GR PXQGR XP REMHWLYR D VHU DWLQ JLGR +i XPD FRORQL]DomR GR WHPSR OLYUH SHOR PHUFDGR0DVDPDLRULDGDSRSXODomRFRQWLQXD H[FOXtGD GR PHUFDGR GH FRQVXPR VHP DFHVVR j GHPDQGDV HOHPHQWDUHV ² LQFOXVLYH XP ELOKmR VHPJDUDQWLDGHDOLPHQWRVHPDLVGHGRLVELOK}HV VHPVDQHDPHQWR

KXPDQD VREUH D ELRVIHUD GR SODQHWD FUHVFHX D SRQWRGHGHVHVWDELOL]DURVSULQFLSDLVFLFORVELR ÀVLFRTXtPLFRV GD 7HUUD 4XDOTXHU HVIRUoR GH DSOLFDU R PDWHULDOLVPR KLVWyULFR H[LJH KRMH LQ FRUSRUDUPRVDDQiOLVHGDVFLrQFLDVGD7HUUDHGD HFRORJLDSDUDFRPSUHHQGHUPRVDVFRQGLo}HVGH H[LVWrQFLDPDWHULDLVGDKXPDQLGDGH 2 FDSLWDOLVPR LQGXVWULDO QRV OHYRX GR +RORFH QR R SHUtRGR GH UHODWLYD HVWDELOLGDGH FOLPiWLFD GRV ~OWLPRV GH] PLO DQRV SDUD XPD QRYD HUD JHROyJLFDR$QWURSRFHQRHPTXHDKXPDQLGD GHVHWRUQDDSULQFLSDOIRUoDDPROGDURSODQHWD 0DV RV FLHQWLVWDV TXH IRUPXODUDP HVWH FRQFHL WR GH $QWURSRFHQR WDPEpP ORFDOL]DUDP XPD *UDQGH $FHOHUDomR ´2 HPSUHHQGLPHQWR KXPD QR DFHOHURX VXELWDPHQWH GHSRLV GR ÀQDO GD 6H JXQGD *XHUUD 0XQGLDO $ SRSXODomR GREURX HP DSHQDV FLQTHQWD DQRV PDV D HFRQRPLD JOR EDO DXPHQWRX PDLV GH  YH]HV 2 FRQVXPR GH SHWUyOHR FUHVFHX SRU XP IDWRU GH  GHVGH  H R Q~PHUR GH YHtFXORV PRWRUL]DGRV DXPHQWRX GUDPDWLFDPHQWH GH FHU FD GH  PLOK}HV QR À QDOGD*XHUUDSDUDTXDVH PLOK}HVHP$ SUHVVmRVREUHRDPELHQ WH JOREDO GHVWH ÁRUHV FHQWH HPSUHHQGLPHQWR KXPDQRHVWiVHLQWHQVLÀ FDQGR GH IRUPD DJXGD $ 7HUUD HVWi DTXHFHQGR UDSLGDPHQWH0DLVQLWURJrQLRpDJRUDYHUWLGRGD DWPRVIHUDHPIRUPDVUHDWLYDVSHODSURGXomRGH IHUWLOL]DQWHVHDTXHLPDGHFRPEXVWtYHLVIyVVHLV GRTXHSRUWRGRVRVSURFHVVRVQDWXUDLVQRVHFRV VLVWHPDVWHUUHVWUHVMXQWRV$QRWiYHOH[SORVmRGR HPSUHHQGLPHQWR KXPDQR PDUFD R VHJXQGR HVWiJLRGR$QWURSRFHQR²D*UDQGH$FHOHUDomRµ 6WHIIHQ&UXW]HQH0F1HLOO  $SHUFHSomRGRLPSDFWRKXPDQRVREUHRVSURFHVVRV Mudanças na relação entre a sociedade e a GR6LVWHPD7HUUDJHUDDLGHLDGHIURQWHLUDVSODQHWiULDV biosfera: a crise ecológica (WUrVIURQWHLUDVMiIRUDPFUX]DGDVDSHUGDGHELRGLYHU VLGDGHSHODH[WLQomRGHHVSpFLHVDPXGDQoDFOLPiWLFD 2FRUUHX QDV ~OWLPDV GpFDGDV XPD HQRUPH SHORDTXHFLPHQWRJOREDO TXHGHYHULDVHUHVWDELOL]DGD VXEYHUVmR QDV UHODo}HV HQWUH D ´VRFLHGDGHµ H D HPSDUWHVSRUPLOKmRGH&2RXHTXLYDOHQWHPDV ´QDWXUH]Dµ R LPSDFWR FXPXODWLYR GD DWLYLGDGH MiDWLQJHSSP HRHQRUPHGHVHTXLOtEULRGRFLFOR

A impossibilidade do crescimento econômico ilimitado questiona também o imaginário socialista. Não se pode mais imaginar um futuro onde prioridades QmRWHUmRTXHVHUGHÀQLGDV e escolhas não terão que ser feitas, isto é imaginar o desaparecimento da política.


GRQLWURJrQLRSHODDJULFXOWXUDHSHFXiULDLQGXVWULDLVSUR GX]LQGRYDVWDV]RQDVPRUWDVQRVULRVHPDUHV0DVR PDQHMRGDiJXDXVRGDWHUUDHGHUUXEDGDGDVÁRUHVWDV GHVHUWLÀFDomRGHVWUXLomRGRR]{QLRHGDDFLGLÀFDomR GRVPDUHVFDPLQKDPQDPHVPDGLUHomR $LPSRVVLELOLGDGHGRFUHVFLPHQWRHFRQ{PLFRLOL PLWDGRTXHVWLRQDWDPEpPRLPDJLQiULRVRFLDOLVWD 1mRVHSRGHPDLVLPDJLQDUXPIXWXURHPTXHSULR ULGDGHVQmRWHUmRTXHVHUGHÀQLGDVHHVFROKDVQmR WHUmRTXHVHUIHLWDVLVWRpLPDJLQDURGHVDSDUHFL PHQWRGDSROtWLFD(HVFROKDVGHYHPVHUIHLWDVGHV GHKRMHeHPEOHPiWLFRTXHQR)yUXP6RFLDO0XQ GLDOGHHP%HOpPWLYpVVHPRVGHXPODGRRV LQGtJHQDVUHLYLQGLFDQGRRÀPGDVEDUUDJHQVHGH RXWURRVVLQGLFDOLVWDVGD&87FDUUHJDQGRXPDPD TXHWHGD+LGURHOpWULFDGH%HOR0RQWHDSUHVHQWDGD FRPRGHVHQYROYLPHQWR(VWDYDHPMRJRDUXSWXUD GDLGHRORJLDGRSURJUHVVRFRPRGHVHQYROYLPHQWR GDVIRUoDVSURGXWLYDVHDQHFHVVLGDGHGHDGRomR GHRXWUDUHODomRFRPDQDWXUH]DDELRGLYHUVLGDGH RVHFRVVLVWHPDVHRVWHUULWyULRV 2VXUWRH[WUDWLYLVWDRXDVPHJDREUDVGHLQIUDHV WUXWXUDQRPDLVGDVYH]HVQmRVmRSRUWDGRUDVGHSUR JUHVVRHVLPGHUHJUHVVmRVRFLDOHDPELHQWDO6HDV SRSXODo}HVGDÌQGLDRXGDÉIULFDGHPDQGDPH[SDQ VmRGDVIRUoDVSURGXWLYDVRXUHGLVWULEXLomRGDULTXH ]DHPPXLWRVFDVRVpQHFHVViULRGHFUHVFHUQRXVR GRDXWRPyYHOGRVFRPEXVWtYHLVIyVVHLVHIHUWLOL]DQWHV LQGXVWULDLVQRFRQVXPRJOREDOGHHQHUJLDQDH[SDQ VmRGDVPHJDFLGDGHVQRXVRGHPDWpULDVSULPDVQR OL[RSURGX]LGR$VRFLHGDGHGRFUHVFLPHQWRGHVHQ IUHDGRGDREVROHVFrQFLDSODQHMDGDHGDGHVFDUWDELOL GDGHGHYHVHUGHL[DGDSDUDWUiVFRPRXPPRPHQWR GHORXFXUDGDKXPDQLGDGH 0DLVFDSLWDOLVPRQmRDMXGDUiDVXSHUDURVLVWHPD YLJHQWH2FDPSHVLQDWRFRQWLQXDVHQGRXPFRP SRQHQWHFHQWUDOHPTXDOTXHUSURMHWRGHVXSHUDomR GRFDSLWDOLVPR(0DULiWHJXLWLQKDUD]mRHPQRV VRFRQWLQHQWHRVSRYRVLQGtJHQDVHDVSRSXODo}HV WUDGLFLRQDLV DFRVVDGRV SHOD H[SDQVmR GR FDSLWDO VmR FHQWUDLV SDUD D FRQVWLWXLomR GH XP EORFR DO WHUQDWLYRGHSRGHUFDUUHJDQGRXPDVHQVLELOLGDGH VyFLRDPELHQWDOPXLWRLPSRUWDQWH 2GLiORJRFRPRVSRYRVLQGtJHQDVSURGX]XP OHTXHGHFRQFHLWRVTXHHVWmRHQWUHRVPDLV~WHLV SDUD D HVTXHUGD FRQWHPSRUkQHD R EHP YLYHU ´WUDGXomRµGRTXpFKXD6XPDN.DZVD\FRPRDO WHUQDWLYD DR FRQVXPLVPR D GHIHVD GH HVWDGRV SOXULQDFLRQDLVFRPRDOWHUQDWLYDDRVHVWDGRVQD FLRQDLVHDRFKDXYLVPRQDFLRQDOLVWDDUHYDORUL]D omRGDGLVSXWDHPGHIHVDGRVFRPXQVGRV´EHQV FRPXQVµTXHQmRVmREHQVPDVUHODo}HVVRFLDLV GHFRODERUDomRHFXLGDGRHWF 

Mudanças na estrutura da classe 8P GRV PDLV LPSRUWDQWHV JDQKRV WHyULFRV GD HVTXHUGDQR~OWLPRPHLRVpFXORIRLDRSHUDFLR QDOL]DomR SRU (3 7KRPSVRQ GH XP FRQFHLWR QmRHVVHQFLDOLVWDHUHODFLRQDOGHFODVVH´DFODVVH VHIRUPDQDOXWDGHFODVVHVµ +iH[SDQVmRJOREDOGRSUROHWDULDGR LQFOXLQGR RLQGXVWULDO PDVFRPXPDJUDQGHGHVORFDOL]D omRHUHFRQFHQWUDomRGDLQGXVWULDOL]DomRQDÉVLD H XPD GHVLQGXVWULDOL]DomR GH PXLWRV SDtVHV GR PXQGR 2EVHUYDPRV DR PHVPR WHPSR D DP SOLDomRSRUTXDVHWRGDSDUWHGRSUROHWDULDGRGR VHWRUGHVHUYLoRVHGHXPSREUHWDULDGR 0LFKDHO /RZ\ RXSUHFDULDGR 5X\%UDJD EHPFRPRVXD IHPLQL]DomR ² FRP JUDQGHV LPSDFWRV VREUH DV SRVVLELOLGDGHVGHDXWRQRPLDGDVPXOKHUHVPDV WDPEpPQDJHUDomRGHGXSODMRUQDGDGHWUDED OKR ,VVR SURGX] XP JUDQGH DXPHQWR GD KHWH URJHQHLGDGH VRFLDO GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD (VWH SURFHVVRpDFRPSDQKDGRGDUiSLGDXUEDQL]DomR GD KXPDQLGDGH 2 SDSHO GRV SREUHV XUEDQRV SRGHVHUREVHUYDGRQDVUHYROWDViUDEHV $LQWHUQHWSURSLFLDDGHVORFDOL]DomRGRSURFHVVR SURGXWLYRPDQWHQGRDFHQWUDOL]DomRGRFRQWUR OHHSURYRFDQGRXPDDOWHUDomRGRVPpWRGRVGH JHVWmRGRFDSLWDOQmRpPDLVQHFHVViULRFRPR DQWHV FRQFHQWUDU RV WUDEDOKDGRUHV HP JUDQGHV XQLGDGHVGHSURGXomR$VHPSUHVDVVHGHVORFDP SDUDRQGHRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVHVWmRPHQRVRUJDQL ]DGRV$GHVORFDOL]DomRDIHWDWDPEpPRVHWRUGH VHUYLoRVHRQRYRLQIRSUROHWDULDGRFRPDSUROL IHUDomR GH outsourcings GHVWLQDGRV D SUHVWDomR GHVHUYLoRVGHWHOHPDUNHWLQJFRQWDELOLGDGHHWF 2UHVXOWDGRpDSHUGDGDLGHQWLGDGHHFRHVmRLGH ROyJLFDHVRFLDOGRSUROHWDULDGR0DVHVWHSURFHVVR pDJUDYDGRSHODVJLJDQWHVFDVGLÀFXOGDGHVGRPR YLPHQWRVLQGLFDOHPOLGDUFRPDVQRYDVUHDOLGDGHV GRPXQGRGRWUDEDOKR2VLQGLFDOLVPRVHIRUPRX HP XP SURFHVVR FRHWkQHR j LQGXVWULDOL]DomR $ LQGXVWULDOL]DomR UHSUHVHQWDYD D H[SURSULDomR GDV FDSDFLGDGHV H VDEHUHV GR RSHUiULR 2 IRUGLVPR FRPRGHVWDFD%UDYHUPDQpRDXJHGRGHVSRWLVPR GRFDSLWDOVHXDFRUUHQWDPHQWRjPiTXLQD2VLQ GLFDOLVPRDFRPSDQKRXQmRDSHQDVDH[SDQVmRGR RSHUDULDGRPDVWDPEpPGRVIXQFLRQiULRVGRVVHU YLoRV S~EOLFRV 3RUpP R PRYLPHQWR VLQGLFDO WHP HQRUPHGLÀFXOGDGHGHUHSUHVHQWDUDFODVVHWUDED OKDGRUDGHFRQMXQWRDWHQGrQFLDGDEXURFUDFLDVLQ GLFDOpDDSULVLRQDUVHDRVJUXSRVGHLQWHUHVVHGRV HVWDGRVQDFLRQDLV$ÀQDQFHLUL]DomRGRVIXQGRVGH SHQVmRDSURIXQGDDEXURFUDWL]DomRHFRUUXSomRGR PRYLPHQWRVLQGLFDOHDFHOHUDVXDLQWHJUDomR&RP

GDSRUUHGX]LUWXGRD´YDORUHVPRQHWiULRVµ $SURIXQGDVHDGHVPHGLGDGRYDORUDLUUDFLR QDOLGDGH GD RUJDQL]DomR FDSLWDOLVWD GD HFRQR PLDFUHVFHQDPHGLGDHPTXHDPHUFDQWLOL]DomR DYDQoDVREUHWRGRVRVWHUUHQRVHGXFDomRVD~ GH SUHYLGrQFLD FRQKHFLPHQWR QDWXUH]D YLGD 3RU H[HPSOR DTXLOR TXH QD QDWXUH]D SRGH VHU IRQWHLPHGLDWDGHOXFURpSULYDWL]DGRHRTXHQmR pSULYDWL]DGRWHQGHDVHUGHVWUXtGRRXVXFDWHDGR 'HRXWURODGRD´UHYROXomRGLJLWDOµSURGX]RED UDWHDPHQWRGRVFXVWRVGRVEHQVFXOWXUDLVLQIRUPD omRHHQWUHWHQLPHQWREHPFRPRGRVFXVWRVHSRV VLELOLGDGHV GD SHVTXLVD FLHQWtÀFD $V FRUSRUDo}HV GD LQG~VWULD FXOWXUDO IDUPDFrXWLFD H GH VRIWZDUH UHVLVWHP D HVWDV WHQGrQFLDV GHVPHUFDQWLOL]DGRUDV HDIHUUDPVHjGHIHVDGDSURSULHGDGHLQWHOHFWXDO 0DVHODSHUGHRVHQWLGRTXHWLQKDFRPRUHPXQH UDomRGRFULDGRUHVHWUDQVIRUPDHPXPSHGiJLR TXHDSRSXODomRWHPTXHSDJDUDRVPRQRSyOLRV GHVVDVFRUSRUDo}HV²DRFXVWRGHQmRWHUHPDFHV VROLYUHjPHGLFDPHQWRVHVVHQFLDLVSHORVVHXVDOWRV SUHoRVRXjSURGXomRFXOWXUDO $VQRUPDVGHSURSULHGDGHFDSLWDOLVWD²TXHID ]LDPVHQWLGRSDUDPHGLUDVIRUPDVGHULTXH]DLQ GXVWULDO²SHUGHPVXDIXQFLRQDOLGDGHSDUDDORFDU RVUHFXUVRVGDVRFLHGDGHHHVWLPXODUDSURGXWLYL GDGHGRWUDEDOKRTXDQGRRFRQKHFLPHQWRFLHQ WtÀFRGDVRFLHGDGH DTXLORTXH0DU[FKDPRXQRV Mudanças na racionalidade do capitalismo *UXQGULVVHGH´*HQHUDOLQWHOOHFWµ VHWUDQVIRUPD $IRUPDomRGRYDORUTXHDQWHVVHGDYDHPPDU HPXPDIRUoDSURGXWLYDIXQGDPHQWDOWRUQDQGR FRVQDFLRQDLVVHGiKRMHHPHVFDODJOREDOPDV XUJHQWHOLEHUWDUDFLrQFLDGDWXWHODGRFDSLWDO$ VXMHLWDDGHIRUPDo}HVFDGDYH]PDLRUHVMiTXH RUJDQL]DomRGDHFRQRPLDDSDUWLUGDOHLGRYDORU D IRUoD GH WUDEDOKR FRQWLQXD SUHVD HP IURQWHL VHWRUQDFDGDYH]PDLVLUUDFLRQDOHGHVWUXWLYD UDVQDFLRQDLV6mRRVSDtVHVTXHVmRSRVWRVSDUD FRQFRUUHUHPHQWUHVLSUHVVLRQDGRVSHODVFRUSR Mudanças no sistema internacional UDo}HVDUHGX]LUHPR´FXVWRSDtVµ VDOiULRVGHV SHVDVVRFLDLVWULEXWRVFXVWRGHLQIUDHVWUXWXUD  $ JOREDOL]DomR GDV FRUSRUDo}HV FULD FDGHLDV QLYHODQGRVHSHORVSUHoRVHFRQGLo}HVPDLVEDL SURGXWLYDVHVSDOKDGDVSHORPXQGR$VHVFDODVGH SURGXomRQHFHVViULDVSDUDGLVSXWDUSRVLo}HVQR [RVGRPHUFDGRPXQGLDO $TXLORTXHSRGHVHUREMHWRGHFRPHUFLDOL]DomR PHUFDGR PXQGLDO HVWLPXODP SURFHVVRV GH FHQ HJHUDomRGHOXFURVHPSUHIRLVRPHQWHXPDSDU WUDOL]DomRHFRQFHQWUDomRGHFDSLWDLVTXHOHYDP WH GR QHFHVViULR j UHSURGXomR VRFLDO $ IDPtOLD DTXHDOJXPDVSRXFDVPHJDHPSUHVDVFRQWUROHP TXHHGXFDVHXVÀOKRVRXFXLGDGHSDUHQWHVHQIHU FDGDXPGRVSULQFLSDLVUDPRVGDHFRQRPLD PRVQmRpUHPXQHUDGDSRUVXDVDWLYLGDGHVPDV 7HPRV D SDVVDJHP GH XP VLVWHPD LQWHUQDFLRQDO QHPSRULVVRGHL[DGHVHUHVVHQFLDO$OpPGLVVR XQLSRODUSDUDXPVLVWHPDPXOWLSRODUPDLVFRPSOH RHVWDGRIRLDVVXPLQGRDREULJDomRGHIRUQHFHU [RHPTXHQRYDVIRUPDVGHGLVSXWDVLQWHULPSH XPD VpULH GH VHUYLoRV TXH FRUUHVSRQGHP GLUHL ULDOLVWDVSRGHPHPHUJLU$GHFDGrQFLD UHODWLYD GRV WRVVRFLDLVVHPTXHLVVRWLYHVVHTXHSDVVDUSHOR YHOKRVSRGHUHVHXURSHXVDEUHHVSDoRSDUDRXWURV PHUFDGR $VVLP DSOLFDU DV UHJUDV H FULWpULRV GH DWRUHVHVWDWDLV$ORQJRSUD]RDFULVHDWXDOJHUDUi PHUFDGRDDWLYLGDGHVIRUDGRSURFHVVRLQGXVWULDO XPDHVFDODGDGHFRQÁLWRVHFRQ{PLFRV FDSLWDOLVWDFRPRYHPVHQGRIHLWRVRERQHROLEH $ FRQFHQWUDomR GH SRGHUHV DYDQoD QR VLVWH UDOLVPRLQWURGX]XPDLUUDFLRQDOLGDGHVXSOHPHQ PD LQWHUQDFLRQDO $V SRWrQFLDV HPHUJHQWHV VmR WDUQDDYDOLDomRHFRQ{PLFDFDSLWDOLVWDMiOLPLWD SDtVHV FRQWLQHQWDLV QRYRV H YHOKRV GRWDGRV GH

DJOREDOL]DomRXPQRYRVLQGLFDOLVPRLJXDOPHQWH LQWHUQDFLRQDOL]DGR ID]VH QHFHVViULR XP VLQGL FDOLVPRFDSD]WDPEpPGHVROGDUDOLDQoDVFRPDV OXWDV´HFRWHUULWRULDLVµGHFDPSRQHVHVHGHSRSXOD o}HVWUDGLFLRQDLVFDSD]GHURPSHUFRPDLGHRORJLD GRSURJUHVVRFDSLWDOLVWDHWHFHUODoRVGHVROLGDULH GDGHFRPRFRQMXQWRGRVH[SORUDGRVHRSULPLGRV $OWHUQDWLYDV QHVVH WHUUHQR Mi IRUDP DSUHVHQWD GDVSHORSUySULRFDSLWDOHPEXVFDGHPDLRUSUR GXWLYLGDGHDWUDYpVIRUPDVGHWUDEDOKRHPHTXLSH IRUPDVGHDXWRRUJDQL]DomRSHORVWUDEDOKDGRUHV GHVHXSURFHVVRGH´SURGXomRµ$H[SDQVmRGR WUDEDOKRLQWHOHFWXDOHGDSRVVLELOLGDGHGHWUDED OKRDGRPLFtOLRWDPEpPFRORFDQRYRVGHVDÀRVj RUJDQL]DomR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H[LJLQGR QRYDV IRUPDVGHFRQWHVWDUDDVVLPLODomRGRVLQWHUHVVHV GRFDSLWDOSHORVWUDEDOKDGRUHVFRPRVHXSUySULR XPDDWXDOL]DomRGRVGHEDWHVVREUHDOLHQDomR 8PD FRQFOXVmR SROtWLFD VH LPS}H QHVVH WHUUHQR GLÀFLOPHQWHVHSRGHFRQFHEHUDVXSHUDomRGRFD SLWDOLVPRVHPXPDPRELOL]DomRGHFODVVHGDTXHOHV TXHYLYHPGHVHXWUDEDOKR0DVRVGHVDÀRVGHRU JDQL]DomRDTXLFRORFDGRVVmRLPHQVRVHWHUmRTXH VHUVXSHUDGRVSRUQRYDVIRUPDVGHRUJDQL]DomRH SRUQRYDVFRUUHQWHVSROtWLFDVVRFLDOLVWDV


YDVWRV UHFXUVRV QDWXUDLV JUDQGHV SRSXODo}HV HVWDGRV FDSD]HV GH EDQFDU LQLFLDWLYDV SROtWLFDV HSRWHQFLDOPHQWHHVWUXWXUDUJUDQGHVPHUFDGRV 2QGHLVVRQmRH[LVWHFRPRQD(XURSDDYDQoDP SURFHVVRVGHXQLÀFDomRSROtWLFDVREDEDWXWDGR FDSLWDO2VpFXOR;;,GHOLQHLDVHFRPRXPD´HUD GHJLJDQWHVµHPTXHSRGHPVHSURSRUXPSUR WDJRQLVPR QR VLVWHPD LQWHUQDFLRQDO DSHQDV RV SDtVHVRXEORFRVGHSDtVHVTXHDSUHVHQWHPHV FDODVSDUDSHVDUVREUHRPHUFDGRPXQGLDO 1RFDVRGD$PpULFDGR6XOXPVXELPSHULDOLVPR EUDVLOHLURDYDQoRXQDDUWLFXODomRGRVLVWHPD0HU FRVXO8QDVXOXPDFRQWLQHQWDOL]DomRHFRQ{PLFDH SROtWLFDDLQGDLQLFLDOPDVIXQFLRQDOSDUDERDSDUWH GRV SDtVHV GD UHJLmR TXH EXVFDP GHVFRODUVH GD WXWHODGLUHWDQRUWHDPHULFDQD²LQLFLDWLYDDTXHVH RS}HPRVSDtVHVGD$OLDQoDGR3DFtÀFR(VWHSUR FHVVR p WRGDYLD IUHDGR SHOD GHVLQGXVWULDOL]DomR UHODWLYDGDUHJLmRHRUHWRUQRDFRQGLo}HVGHHFR QRPLDVSULPiULRH[SRUWDGRUDV²LURQLFDPHQWHED WL]DGDVGHQHRGHVHQYROYLPHQWLVWDV7UDWDVHPXLWR PDLVGDVXEVWLWXLomRGR&RQVHQVRGH:DVKLQJWRQ SHOR&RQVHQVRGDV&RPPRGLWLHVRVSDtVHVGDUH JLmRDWUHODUDPVHXGHVWLQRDRGD&KLQD $QRYDDJHQGDJOREDOGRVLVWHPDLQWHUQDFLRQDOWHP TXHOLGDUFRPWHPDVTXHXOWUDSDVVDPRTXHVHFRP SUHHQGLDFRPRVREHUDQLDQDFLRQDOUHJXODomRÀQDQ FHLUDPXQGLDOSUROLIHUDomRQXFOHDUHFRORJLDGLUHLWRV KXPDQRV$RPHVPRWHPSRDGLWDGXUDGDVÀQDQoDV VREUHDHFRQRPLDPXQGLDOFULDXPFHQiULRRQGHDSH QDVXPDDHPHUJrQFLDGHHVWUXWXUDVSROtWLFDVFRQWL QHQWDLVSRGHSHUPLWLUQRYDUHJXODomRGDHFRQRPLD YROWDGDDRVLQWHUHVVHVSRSXODUHV Mudanças nos sistemas políticos 1RV PDUFRV GR QHROLEHUDOLVPR RV SURFHVVRV HOHL WRUDLVSHUPLWHPDH[SUHVVmRQDVXUQDVGRVHOHLWRUHV PDVFRPHVFROKDVFRQGLFLRQDGDVHFRQGX]LGDVSHOR GLQKHLUR H SHOD PtGLD GR FDSLWDO ,VVR SURYRFD XPD SHUGD GH OHJLWLPLGDGH GRV SDUWLGRV H GRV VLVWHPDV SROtWLFRV$RPHVPRWHPSRDTXHVWmRGHPRFUiWLFD FRQWLQXDFHQWUDOHPERDSDUWHGRPXQGR$DVSLUD omRSRUGHPRFUDFLDFRQWLQXDJHUDQGRPRELOL]Do}HV SRSXODUHV VHMD HP PDQLIHVWDo}HV SRU GLUHLWRV GDV PXOKHUHVGHJD\VHOpVELFDVGHPLQRULDVQDFLRQDLV RXUHOLJLRVDV VHMDSRUOLEHUGDGHVFLYLVHSROtWLFDV GRV (8$j&KLQDSDVVDQGRSHOD5~VVLDH$UiELD6DXGL WD VHMDHPOXWDVFRQWUDGLWDGXUDV 3ULPDYHUDÉUDEH  VHMDQDEXVFDSRUIRUPDVGHGHPRFUDFLDSDUWLFLSDWL YDSDUDVXSHUDUVLVWHPDVSROtWLFRVFRUURPSLGRVSHOR PHUFDGR PRYLPHQWRV GH HVWXGDQWHV LQGLJQDGRV 2FFXSLHV +iDVVLPXPDSOXUDOLGDGHGHDWRUHVVR 

FLDLVHGHGHPDQGDVPRYHQGRVHHPWRUQRGHUHLYLQ GLFDo}HVGHPRFUiWLFDV 0DVDVGLVFXVV}HVVREUHDQDWXUH]DGHFODVVHGR HVWDGRSUDWLFDPHQWHGHVDSDUHFHUDPQDHVTXHU GDFRPRSRGHPRVREVHUYDUQDUHODomRFRPRV JRYHUQRV ´SURJUHVVLVWDVµ VXODPHULFDQRV RX QD GHIHVDGHGLWDGXUDVVDQJXLQiULDVTXDQGRHODVVH FRORFDPFUtWLFDVDRLPSHULDOLVPR'DPHVPDPD QHLUDDGLVFXVVmRVREUHDPDQHLUDFRPRXPSDU WLGRDQWDJ{QLFRjRUGHPOLGDFRPDVLQVWLWXLo}HV GDGHPRFUDFLDOLEHUDO²GHFLVLYDSRUH[HPSORQD HYROXomRKLVWyULFDGDVRFLDOGHPRFUDFLDRXSDUD DGHJHQHUDomRGR37FRPRSDUWLGRGHHVTXHUGD +iSRUWRGDSDUWHXPDJUDQGHIUDTXH]DGDVRU JDQL]Do}HVGHHVTXHUGDGHPRQVWUDQGRGLÀFXOGD GHGHOLGDUFRPDSHUGDGDVUHIHUrQFLDVSDVVDGDV FRP FDVRV JURWHVFRV FRPR D GHIHVD GR ´HVWDGR RSHUiULRQRUWHFRUHDQRµ HIDOWDGHDEHUWXUDSDUD DVH[SHULrQFLDVFRQWHPSRUkQHDV$IUDJPHQWDomR GD HVTXHUGD p XP IDWRU LPSRUWDQWH D GLÀFXOWDU D UHFRQVWUXomR GH DOWHUQDWLYDV VRFLDOLVWDV UHYROXFLR QiULDVGRWDGDVGHFUHGLELOLGDGHMXQWRjSRSXODomR 'DPHVPDIRUPDDUHODomRPDQLSXODWyULDFRPDV OXWDV H RV PRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLV GLÀFXOWDP TXH HOD FULH FRQWUDSHVRV jV WHQGrQFLDV GH LQWHJUDomR jV LQVWLWXLomRGDRUGHP $SHVDUGLVVRH[HPSORVFRPRRGR6\UL]DQD*UpFLD PRVWUDPTXHpSRVVtYHOFRQVWUXLUVHHPFRQGLo}HV DGYHUVDV DOWHUQDWLYDV SROtWLFDV FDSD]HV GH GLVSXWDU UXPRVHVDtGDV0RVWUDPDFHQWUDOLGDGHGDOLGHUDQoD SROtWLFDHDQHFHVVLGDGHGHIRUPDomRGHQRYDVRUJD QL]Do}HVHPRYLPHQWRVSROtWLFRVGHHVTXHUGD Uma primeira conclusão (VWDPRVIUHQWHDXPDFULVHSURIXQGDXPDFUL VHGDFLYLOL]DomRFDSLWDOLVWDHGRPXQGRPRGHU QReIDFHDHODTXHVHGHOLQHLDXPQRYRFLFORGH FRQÁLWRV VRFLDLV QR TXDO VXUJH XPD QRYD JHUD omRSROtWLFDTXHQmRFDUUHJDQHPDVUHIHUrQFLDV DQWHULRUHV H[FHWRSHODUHMHLomRGRPXQGRHVWD EHOHFLGR LQFOXVLYH SHOD HVTXHUGD HVWDEHOHFLGD  QHP R SHVR GDV GHUURWDV SDVVDGDV 1HOH HPHU JHPQRYRVDWRUHVGHVHQKDPVHQRYRVFHQiULRV HFULDPVHQRYDVRSRUWXQLGDGHVSDUDDUHFRQV WUXomRGHSURMHWRVVRFLDOLVWDV6LWXDo}HVUHYROX FLRQiULDV YROWDP D VH FRORFDU QD RUGHP GR GLD 0DVFRPTXDODJHQFLDPHQWRSURJUDPDHHVWUD WpJLDQHODVLQWHUYLUmRRVUHYROXFLRQiULRV" eDEXVFDGHVWHDFRUGRHGHVWHGHVDÀRTXHDQL PDRQRVVRHVIRUoRGHFRQWULEXLomRQHVWHGHED WHHPEXVFDGHSURGX]LUQRYDVVtQWHVHVSURJUD PiWLFDVHSROtWLFDVQDHVTXHUGDUHYROXFLRQiULD

PARTE III Reconstruindo os laços de um projeto de poder socialista $V WUDQVIRUPDo}HV RFRUULGDV QDV ~OWLPDV WUrV GpFDGDV VRODSDUDP D FRHUrQFLD HVWUDWpJLFD GD HVTXHUGDWRUQDQGRDHPStULFDQRPDLVGDVYH ]HVSRODUL]DGDSHODVWHQGrQFLDVSUDJPiWLFDVGH DGDSWDomR j FRUUHODomR GH IRUoDV 0DV LVVR UH SUHVHQWD D QHJDomR GD HVWUDWpJLD TXH p R FD PLQKR SDUD VH DOFDQoDU DV FRQGLo}HV SDUD XPD PXGDQoDUDGLFDOGRSRGHUHGDVRFLHGDGH2GH VDÀR GH UHFRQVWUXomR p HQRUPH $V WHQGrQFLDV TXHDSRQWDPRVDVHJXLUVmROLQKDVGHIRUoDFXMD FRHUrQFLD VH UHIRUoDP PXWXDPHQWH (P DOJXQV FDVRV VmR DERUGDJHQV WHQWDWLYDV DSUR[LPDo}HV TXH H[LJHP GLVFXVV}HV PXLWR PDLV GHVHQYROYL GDV 2 TXH SRQWXDPRV VmR GLUHWUL]HV SDUD D UH FRQVWLWXLomRGDFRHUrQFLD JOREDO GR SURMHWR HVWUD WpJLFR

HPHUJHQWHVFRPRR%UDVLO0DVDOJXQVVHWR UHVFDSLWDOLVWDV HPHVSHFLDODEXUJXHVLDDOH Pm  HVWmR DSOLFDQGR SROtWLFDV QHROLEHUDLV GH DXVWHULGDGHTXHFRUUHVSRQGHPDXPJUDQGH DWDTXH DRV GLUHLWRV FRQTXLVWDGRV SHORV WUD EDOKDGRUHV&RPRDFULVHFDSLWDOLVWDpJOREDO HVWUXWXUDOHGHORQJDGXUDomRDVUHVSRVWDVj FULVH FRQVWLWXHP XP WHUUHQR GH GLVSXWD GH FLVLYR ² DGHTXDGDV jV FRQGLo}HV HVSHFtILFDV GHFDGDSDLV Um programa de superação do desenvolvimentismo

VRFLDLV IRL FRPSUHHQGHU TXH D UHDOLGDGH VRFLDO p FRQWUDGLWyULD H  TXH SDUDPXGDUDVRFLHGDGH p QHFHVViULR LQFLGLU VR EUHHVWDVFRQWUDGLo}HVREMHWLYDV&RPRDÀUPD YD0DU[´RVÀOyVRIRVWHPDSHQDVLQWHUSUHWDGR R PXQGR GH PDQHLUDV GLIHUHQWHV D TXHVWmR SRUpP p WUDQVIRUPiORµ $ GLDOpWLFD KLVWyULFD WRUQDVHDVVLPSDUFLDOPHQWHFRQVFLHQWHUHÁH [LYD,VVRUHIRUoDDYDOLGDGHGHRXWUDWHVHLJXDO PHQWHFOiVVLFD´VHPWHRULDUHYROXFLRQiULDQmR H[LVWHSUiWLFDUHYROXFLRQiULDµ $ LPSRUWkQFLD GDV UHVSRVWDV j FULVH GR QH ROLEHUDOLVPR 2 FDSLWDOLVPR NH\QHVLDQRIRU GLVWDLQFRUSRURXDGHPDQGDGHFRQVXPRGD SRSXODomR H LVVR ID] KRMH ² VHP D FRUUHV SRQGHQWH WUDQVIRUPDomR QD HFRQRPLD H QDV HVWUXWXUDV GH SRGHU ² D IRUoD GH HFRQRPLDV

HFRQRPLDV UHSULPDUL]D GDV H GHSHQGHQWHV HP PXLWRVFDVRVFRPRDSrQ GLFHVGDHFRQRPLDFKLQH VD 1DV FRQGLo}HV DWXDLV GR %UDVLO FRQVWUXLU XPD FUtWLFD H DOWHUQDWLYD DR VXUWRH[WUDWLYLVWDpFRQGLomRSDUDTXDOTXHUIRUoD SROtWLFDFRPSUHWHQVmRFRQWUDKHJHP{QLFD

Um programa revolucionário 2FDSLWDOLVPRSHULIpULFR QR VpFXOR ;; é inócuo sem o respaldo FRELoRX HPSDUHOKDUVH jV SRWrQ das maiorias nacionais, FLDV FHQWUDLV DOFDQoDQGR XPGHVHQYROYLPHQWRQD embora os sujeitos sociais FLRQDO DXW{QRPR (VWDV FDGXFDUDP FRP com potencialidades anti- SROtWLFDV D JOREDOL]DomR QHROLEH Interpretar para transUDO2VSDtVHVGDSHULIHULD sistêmicas se tornam formar DEDQGRQDUDPDVYHOHLGD conservadores na ausência GHVGHDXWRQRPLDHFRQ $ JUDQGH UHYROXomR WHQWDPVH FRP WtPLGDV de um programa de TXH R PDU[LVPR HP SROtWLFDV UHGLVWULEXWLYDV SUHHQGHX QDV FLrQFLDV GDV UHQGDV DXIHULGDV SRU transformação social.

Um programa de superação do capitalismo  6XVWHQWDU SROtWLFDV DQWLFtFOLFDV UHGLVWULEXWLYDV HGHPDQXWHQomRHH[SDQVmRGDGHPDQGDQmR VLJQLÀFD UHDÀUPDU R VWDWXV TXR RX FHGHU D LQ WHUHVVHVFRUSRUDWLYRV2SURJUDPDGHVXSHUDomR GDFULVHHGRGHVHQYROYLPHQWLVPRpXPSURJUD PD GH WUDQVLomR DR VRFLDOLVPR TXH SDUWH GDV JUDQGHVTXHVW}HVGDVRFLHGDGH²GHPRFUiWLFDV SRSXODUHV DPELHQWDLV OLEHUWiULDV H FODVVLVWDV ²


SUHร€JXUDDVOLQKDVGHRXWUDVRFLHGDGHHSURMHWD 0~OWLSORV FRQรLWRV HP TXH QDVFH XPD QRYD HVWDV DOWHUQDWLYDV SDUWLQGR GR QtYHO GH SHUFHS geraรงรฃo polรญtica omRSROtWLFDYLJHQWHHPGLQkPLFDVGHFRQIURQWD $V PDLRULDV SRSXODUHV VmR SHUSDVVDGDV SRU omRFRPDOyJLFDFDSLWDOLVWD P~OWLSODV FRQWUDGLo}HV DOpP GDTXHODV GH FODV VH *rQHUR UDoD HRX HWQLD VH[XDOLGDGH MXYHQ Enraizamento social e presenรงa estratรฉgica WXGH YHOKLFH VmR FDWHJRULDV VRFLDLV JHUDGRUDV 'LVSXWDU DV UHVSRVWDV jV TXHVW}HV PDLV VHQWL GHFRQWUDGLo}HVHOXWDV$TXHVWmRDPELHQWDOp GDVGDVPDVVDVH[LJHIRUoDVRFLDOHSROtWLFDH[LJH LJXDOPHQWHXPDFRQWUDGLomRFUtWLFDSDUDRFDSL DGHVmRGHSDUFHODVVLJQLร€FDWLYDVGDSRSXODomRD WDOLVPR'LVVRHPHUJHPP~OWLSORVFRQรLWRVTXH SURMHWRVSROtWLFRVFUtWLFRVGRFDSLWDOLVPRHDH[LV FRPS}HP H UHFRPS}HP FDPSRV GHOLPLWDGRV WrQFLDGHIHUUDPHQWDVSROtWLFDVSDUDYLDELOL]iORV WDPEpPSHODIRUPDFRPRHVWHVFRQรLWRVFRQGL 8PSURJUDPDUHYROXFLRQiULRpLQyFXRVHPRUHV FLRQDPUHVSRVWDVGLIHUHQWHVjVTXHVW}HVGHVR SDOGRGDVPDLRULDVQDFLRQDLVHPERUDRVVXMHLWRV FLHGDGH XUEDQD DJUiULD HQHUJpWLFD GH PRELOL VRFLDLV FRP SRWHQFLDOLGDGHV DQWLVVLVWrPLFDV VH GDGHGRVGLUHLWRVGHUHFRQKHFLPHQWR  WRUQHPFRQVHUYDGRUHVQD Expressar a radicalidade DXVrQFLD GH XP SURJUD GDV OXWDV Dร€UPDU RV PDGHWUDQVIRUPDomRVR interesses gerais e FLDO8PDHVWUDWpJLDpHP universais SULPHLUROXJDUDGHร€QLomR GH SULRULGDGHV GH LQVHU 8PDWHQVmRSHUPDQHQWH omR JHRJUiร€FD JUDQGHV pLQHUHQWHjDWLYLGDGHSR FRQFHQWUDo}HV XUEDQDV OtWLFDTXHWHPXPSURMHWR UHJL}HV GH FRQรLWRV GH GHOLEHUWDomReDWHQVmR JUDQGHYLVLELOLGDGH HVH HQWUH RV SDUWLFXODULVPRV WRULDO JUXSRVTXHOXWDP QDFLRQDO UHJLRQDO ORFDO JUXSRVTXHSRGHPHFRDU VHWRULDO  TXH H[SUHVVDP DVSURSRVWDVVRFLDOLVWDV  FRQรLWRV H SURFHVVRV UH DLVPDVORFDOL]DGRVHRX (Re)conquistar a indeHVSHFtร€FRVHRXVHWRULDLV pendรชncia de classe H D XQLYHUVDOLGDGH GR SURMHWR UHYROXFLRQiULR 1HQKXPD WUDQVIRU TXHEXVFDXPDSURMHomRLQWHUQDFLRQDODGLVSX PDomR VRFLDO GXUDGRXUD SRGHUi RFRUUHU VHP R SURWDJRQLVPR DWLYRHFRQVFLHQWHGDPDLRULDGD WDSROtWLFDDYHUEDOL]DomRGRVLQWHUHVVHVJHUDLVH SRSXODomR FRPSRVWD SRU DVVDODULDGRV H[SORUD HVWUDWpJLFRVGDHPDQFLSDomR6XDJHVWmRUHPHWH GRV SHOR FDSLWDO 6H SHQVDUPRV HP XPD FODVVH jDXWRQRPLDGDHVIHUDSROtWLFDIUHQWHDRVRFLDOD WUDEDOKDGRUDDPSODFRPSRVWDSRUDTXHOHVTXH FDSDFLGDGHGHVHFRQVWUXtUHPIHUUDPHQWDVSROt YLYHPGRVHXWUDEDOKR HTXHLQFRUSRUDWDPEpP WLFDV~WHLVSDUDDVOXWDV RVFDPSRQHVHVDUWHVmRVFRPXQLGDGHVWUDGLFLR QDLV WUDEDOKDGRUHV LQIRUPDLV  FRP YDVWRV FRQ Algumas diretrizes organizativas WLQJHQWHVGHMRYHQVHPWRGRVRVVHXVVHJPHQ WRVSRGHPRVWHUDPHGLGDGDLPSRUWkQFLDGHVWH $ GLVWLQomR HQWUH VXMHLWRV VRFLDLV H SROtWLFRV H R FDPSRVRFLDOFRQTXLVWDUXPDLGHQWLGDGHSUySULD PpWRGR GHPRFUiWLFR 2 XQLYHUVR FRQFHLWXDO GR IUHQWH DR FDSLWDO 1RV SDtVHV FHQWUDLV FRUUHQWHV OHQLQLVPRHPLQHQWHPHQWHSROtWLFRGHYH VHU UHYL VRFLDOGHPRFUDWDVHFRPXQLVWDVKiPXLWRDEDQ VLWDGRQmRSDUDVHULPLWDGRPDVSDUDLQVSLUDUQR GRQDUDP TXDOTXHU SROtWLFD LQGHSHQGHQWH 1D YRVSURFHVVRVHIRUPDVGHRUJDQL]DomRTXH KRMH QRVVDUHJLmRRSHWLVPRHRSHURQLVPRH[SUHV WHPTXHVHGDUGHIRUPDUDGLFDOPHQWHGHPRFUiWL VDP WHQGrQFLD VLPLODU (VWDEHOHFHU XP FDPSR FDยฒXPGpร€FLWGRSHQVDPHQWRGH/HQLQHGHVHXV SROtWLFRLQGHSHQGHQWHLGHQWLร€FDGRFRPDFODVVH FRQWHPSRUkQHRV $ GHPRFUDFLD p XPD TXHVWmR WUDEDOKDGRUD H DQFRUDGR QRV OXWDGRUHV VRFLDLV IXQGDPHQWDOGHPpWRGRQDFRQVWUXomRGDVQRYDV HQDMXYHQWXGHpXPUHTXLVLWRSDUDLQWHUYLUQDV IHUUDPHQWDV D FRPHoDU SRU SDUWLGRV H RUJDQL]D o}HVGHOXWD0DVDVRUJDQL]Do}HVGHIUHQWH~QLFD JUDQGHVGLVSXWDVQDFLRQDLV

โ€œ

E a revoluรงรฃo รฉ a democratizaรงรฃo radical da polรญtica no รขmbito de toda a sociedade, o processo pelo qual as maiorias se tornam ativas na esfera polรญtica.

โ€œ



GHOXWDVmRGHQDWXUH]DGLVWLQWDGDVRUJDQL]Do}HV HSDUWLGRVSROtWLFRV&RPRDSUySULDFODVVHpXPD IRUPDomR UHODFLRQDO UHVXOWDGR GDV H[SHULrQFLDV SUiWLFDVTXHQmRVHUHVWULQJHPDRVHXkPELWRp QDHVIHUDSURSULDPHQWHSROtWLFDTXHVHVHGLPHQWD DFRQVWUXomRHDGHVmRDXPSURJUDPDHDXPDHV WUDWpJLDGHOXWDQDFLRQDOHLQWHUQDFLRQDOLVWRpOXWD SHORSRGHUHSRUVXDWUDQVIRUPDomR(DUHYROXomR p D GHPRFUDWL]DomR UDGLFDO GD SROtWLFD QR kPELWR GHWRGDDVRFLHGDGHRSURFHVVRSHORTXDODVPDLR ULDVVHWRUQDPDWLYDVQDHVIHUDSROtWLFD Redes e partidos; mas que partidos?

XPDYLVmRDOWHUQDWLYDGRPXQGRXPDIRUPDGHFR QKHFLPHQWRHXPDLGHRORJLDFDSD]GHUHVSRQGHUj QHFHVVLGDGHKXPDQDGHVHQWLGRHGHVLJQLร€FDGR &RPSHWLD FRP DV LGHRORJLDV H GRXWULQDV GD EXU JXHVLD OLEHUDOLVPR FRQVHUYDGRULVPR QDFLRQDOLV PR HFRPDVUHOLJL}HV5HLYLQGLFDYDVHXPDFLrQ FLDGDVRFLHGDGHHXPDร€ORVRร€DSROtWLFDKHUGHLUD GRKXPDQLVPRHGR,OXPLQLVPRFDSD]GHGLVSX WDUDKHJHPRQLDFXOWXUDOIUHQWHDVXDVULYDLV1mR Ki UHFRPSRVLomR YLWRULRVD GH XP PRYLPHQWR GH FRQWHVWDomRGRFDSLWDOLVPRVHPDUWLFXODUHVWDVGL PHQV}HVHPXPFRUSRGHSHQVDPHQWRVFRHUHQWH 2 IUDFDVVR GR VRFLDOLVPR GR VpFXOR ;; FRP VHX EXURFUDWLVPR VXD LQFRPSUHHQVmR GD GHPRFUDFLD HVXDLGHRORJLDGRSURJUHVVROHYRXQmRDSHQDVDR FRODSVRGD8566EXURFUDWL]DGDPDVWDPEpPDEULX RHVSDoRSRURQGHSHQHWUDUDPRVIXQGDPHQWDOLV PRVGHPHUFDGRHUHOLJLRVRV8PDSURSRVWDUHYR OXFLRQiULDH[LJHDDร€UPDomRGHXPGLVFXUVRUDGL FDOQDGHQ~QFLDGDRUGHPXWySLFRVHDPELFLRVRV FDSD]HV GH LQVSLUDU DV Do}HV FRWLGLDQDV ([LJH D Dร€UPDomRGHXPDQRYDQDUUDWLYDGRPXQGRTXH UHVJDWH HOHPHQWRV GR PRYLPHQWR VRFLDOLVWD GR SDVVDGR PDV TXH GHOH VH GHPDUTXH LQWHJUDQGR UHVSRVWDVjTXHVW}HVFDQGHQWHVGRSUHVHQWH

$PXOWLSOLFLGDGHGHUHGHVYrPVHWRUQDQGRDLQ IRUPDomRDFHVVtYHOSDUDPXLWRVHSURSLFLRXRVXU JLPHQWR GH QRYDV IRUPDV GH DomR SROtWLFD UHGHV YHPVHWRUQDGRXPDIRUPDGHSDUWLFLSDomRSROtWLFD FRPXP0DVPXGDUDUHODomRGHIRUoDVH[LJHIRU PXODUFROHWLYDPHQWHSROtWLFDVHFRQFHQWUDUYRQWDGH PLOLWDQWHSDUDOHYDUDGLDQWHLQLFLDWLYDVSUiWLFDV'Dt DPDQXWHQomRGDFHQWUDOLGDGHGDRUJDQL]DomRQD GLVSXWDSROtWLFDHGHVHDFXPXODUQRWHUUHQRGDRU JDQL]DomRSDUDGLVSXWDURSRGHU8PSDUWLGRFRPD DPELomRGHLPSXOVLRQDUXPDUHYROXomRQmRSRGH VHUXPDPiTXLQDHOHLWRUDORXSDUODPHQWDUHPERUD GHYDSDUWLFLSDUGHHOHLo}HVHSDUODPHQWRV$UHOHJL O papel central da juventude WLPDomRGDDWLYLGDGHSROtWLFDGDHVTXHUGDUHYROX FLRQiULDVRPHQWHVHGDUiFRPRSDUWHGHXPDUHD $GLVSXWDGDVQRYDVJHUDo}HVSROtWLFDVpXP SUREOHPD IXQGDPHQWDO GD UHFRPSRVLomR GR SURSULDomRGDSROtWLFDSHODVPDLRULDV PRYLPHQWRVRFLDOLVWDGDFRQVWUXomRGHIHUUD Uma recomposiรงรฃo do conjunto do movimento PHQWDVSROtWLFDVHGDFRQVWUXomRGHXPDQRYD KHJHPRQLD $ MXYHQWXGH VHPSUH HQFDEHoRX socialista WRGRV RV SURFHVVRV UHYROXFLRQiULRV LQFOXVLYH $ UHFRPSRVLomR GR PRYLPHQWR VRFLDOLVWD p XP DVUHYROXo}HVIUDQFHVDHUXVVD(ODpGHWRGDV SURFHVVR SROLPRUIR SXOVDQGR QDV PDLV GLYHUVDV DV FDPDGDV GD VRFLHGDGH D PDLV VXVFHSWtYHO HVIHUDV $ RUJDQL]DomR SROtWLFD WHP XP SDSHO GH GHDGHULUDSURMHWRVGHPXGDQoDVDSHUVSHFWL FROXQD YHUWHEUDO PDV D rQIDVH IUHTยHQWHPHQWH YDVGHIXWXURDPELFLRVDVHSURMHWRVJHQHURVRV XQLODWHUDO GDGD HOD p XPD IDOWD GH YLVmR GR SUR 8PD FRUUHQWH GH HVTXHUGD LVRODGD GD MXYHQ FHVVRGHUHRUJDQL]DomRยฒXPFRUSRQHFHVVLWDQmR WXGHpXPDFRUUHQWHPDUJLQDOL]DGDGDSROtWLFD DSHQDVFROXQDPDVFpUHEURFRUDomRWHFLGRVHWF UHYROXFLRQiULD &RPRSHQVDUSRUH[HPSORXPDDOWHUQDWLYDDR37 QR%UDVLOVHPDOWHUQDWLYDVQRPRYLPHQWRVLQGLFDO A tradiรงรฃo da conciliaรงรฃo de classes QDV OXWDV SRSXODUHV QDV TXHVW}HV DPELHQWDLV QD MXYHQWXGH"eQHFHVViULRXPOHTXHGHQRYDVIHUUD 2%UDVLOpXPSDtVFKDYHQRPXQGRXP PHQWDVGHDomRSROtWLFDRUJDQL]DomRVRFLDOHSUR ยดJLJDQWHยต LQFLGLQGR SROLWLFDPHQWH VREUH WRGD$PpULFDGR6XO8PSDtVGHGLPHQ GXomRHGLIXVmRGHLGpLDV V}HV FRQWLQHQWDLV FRP XPD YDVWD SR SXODomR H GLYHU VLGDGH UHJLRQDO p XPD Hegemonia e construรงรฃo de uma nova QDomR IRUPDGD D SDU WLU GR (VWDGR FRP narrativa comum XPD WUDGLomR GH FRQFLOLDomR HQWUH DV $SROtWLFDVRFLDOLVWDHDLQGDPDLVDUHYROXFLRQiULD HOLWHV H GH FRRSWDomR GRV QHyILWRV SHOD QmRpDSHQDVSROtWLFD(ODIRLGHVGHVXDIRUPDomR SROtWLFD HVWDWDO 0HVPR R JHWXOLVPR R


SURMHWRSROtWLFRPDLVEHPVXFHGLGRGDEXUJXHVLD DFDERXVHQGRWUDJDGRSHODGLQkPLFDFRQVHUYDGR UDGDVFODVVHVGRPLQDQWHVEUDVLOHLUDV$WpDIRUPD omRGR37QmRWLQKDFRQKHFLGRQHQKXPDLQVHUomR LQVWLWXFLRQDOEHPVXFHGLGDGHPRYLPHQWRVGHIRUD GDRUGHPPDVHOHWDPEpPIRLUDSLGDPHQWHWUDJD GRSHOR(VWDGRWUDQVIRUPDQGRVHHPXPDGLUHomR SROtWLFD GD EXUJXHVLD EUDVLOHLUD EDVWDQWH HĂ€FLHQWH SDUDRSHUDUQRPXQGRJOREDOL]DGR

FRPR ´SyVQHROLEHUDOLVPR¾ RX ´QHRGHVHQYROYLPHQWLV PR¾²WHVHUHIRUoDGDSDUDRVGHVLQIRUPDGRVSHODVSR OtWLFDVUHGLVWULEXWLYDV(PERUDRQHROLEHUDOLVPRFRQWLQXH RPDUFRGDSROtWLFDHFRQ{PLFDHDVFDGHLDVSURGXWLYDV HVWHMDP LQWHUQDFLRQDOL]DGDV SURYRFDQGR XPD GHVLQ GXVWULDOL]DomRUHODWLYDGRSDtVHVWHGLVFXUVRWHPDGHVmR HQTXDQWRRERRPFKLQrVVXVWHQWDRH[WUDWLYLVPR$FUt WLFDDLVVRWRUQDVHXPIDWRUGHGLIHUHQFLDomRHVVHQFLDO IUHQWHjHVTXHUGDUHIRUPLVWD

O espaço para uma alternativa ao lulismo

Lutas e atores estratĂŠgicos para uma alternativa revolucionĂĄria

2 SHWLVPR H VXD H[SUHVVmR PDLRU /XOD FROKH /RFDOL]DURVHVSDoRVGHFRQV UDP RV UHVXOWDGRV GH WUXomRGHXPDDOWHUQDWLYDDR GXDV GpFDGDV GH OXWDV OXOLVPRQmRGHULYDDSHQDVGDV FRQVWUXLQGR OHJLWLPLGDGH TXHVW}HV SURJUDPiWLFDV PDV MXQWRjPDLRULDGDSRSX GH XPD DYDOLDomR GRV VHWR ODomR ² PHVPR TXDQGR UHV TXH SRGHP GHVJDUUDUVH DGHULUDP D XP SURMHWR GR SHWLVPR SDUD XP SURMHWR UHIRUPLVWDGLOXtGRGHSRLV jVXDHVTXHUGD+iXPFODUR GH FRQTXLVWDU R JRYHUQR GHVWDTXH SDUD D MXYHQWXGH IHGHUDO HP  0DV GDVJUDQGHVFLGDGHV(SDUDR KiXPWHFLGRDVVRFLDWLYR SDSHOFHQWUDOGDV´YtWLPDVGR FRPSRVWR SRU FHQWHQDV SURJUHVVRÂľ H GDTXHOHV TXH GHPLOKDUHVGHRUJDQL]D OXWDPSHODDPSOLDomRGHGLUHL o}HV QR %UDVLO GD &87 H WRV +i WDPEpP VHWRUHV TXH GR067jVSHTXHQDVHQ SRGHP VH UDGLFDOL]DU D SDUWLU WLGDGHV GH EDLUUR RX DV GHFRQVLGHUDo}HVYLQFXODGDVj VRFLDWLYDV TXH FRQWLQXD FULVHJOREDOFRPRRDPELHQ UHIHUHQFLDGR QR OXOLVPR WDOLVPR 0DV p HVWUDWpJLFR D HpEHQHĂ€FLDGRSHODDomR LQVHUomRGHXPSURMHWRUHYR HVWDWDO,VVRID]FRPTXH OXFLRQiULRHPVHWRUHVGDFODVVH R WHFLGR VRFLDO QR %UDVLO WUDEDOKDGRUD&RPRHVWDGHYH HVWHMD RFXSDGR SRU XP VHU XPD GHILQLomR SROtWLFD H SURMHWR GH I{OHJR 0DV QmRVRFLROyJLFDGHYHVHURUH Ki XP SDVVLYR GH TXHV W}HVQDFLRQDLVKLVWRULFDPHQWHQmRUHVROYLGDVTXH VXOWDGRGHXPPDSHDPHQWRGDVOXWDVHGRVDWRUHVUHDLV FULDXPDFRQĂ LWLYLGDGHVRFLDOSHUPDQHQWHQRSDt TXHQHODVHPRYHP TXH VH PDQWpP VRE RV JRYHUQRV /XOD H 'LOPD +iSRLVHVSDoRSDUDXPSURMHWRUHYROXFLRQiULR A integração sul-americana como imperativo IUXWLĂ€FDUQR%UDVLO²DLQGDTXHQmRHPXPKRUL 1DPHGLGDHPTXHRFDSLWDOLVPRSURPRYHXGH ]RQWHSUHYLVtYHOFRPRSURMHWRPDMRULWiULR PDQHLUDGHVLJXDODLQWHJUDomRREMHWLYDGDVIRUPD o}HVVRFLDLVGD$PpULFDGR6XOTXDOTXHUDOWHUQDWL Repensar o desenvolvimento YDSURJUHVVLVWDGHYHVHUFDSD]GHVHSURMHWDUQHVWH $TXHVWmRFHQWUDOHPGLVSXWDQR%UDVLOGHVGHRVDQRV FHQiULR$LQWHJUDomRGRFRQWLQHQWHVHWRUQRXXP IRLDGRGHVHQYROYLPHQWR2%UDVLOFUHVFHXDR LPSHUDWLYRHVWUDWpJLFR0DVLVVRVyVHWRUQDHIHWLYR DQRHQWUHHSDVVDQGRGHXPSDtVHPLQHQ DSDUWLUGDDUWLFXODomRHQWUHGLQkPLFDVQDFLRQDLVH WHPHQWHDJUtFRODSDUDDRLWDYDHFRQRPLDLQGXVWULDOGR UHJLRQDLVFRQWLQHQWDLV$SROtWLFDSRGHHGHYHVHU PXQGR$GLVFXVVmRSHUPDQHFHXFRPRRKRUL]RQWHGR LQWHUQDFLRQDOLVWDGHPDQHLUDFRQFUHWDQDVROLGDULH PLQDQWHLQFOXVLYHQRVDQRVQHROLEHUDLV4XDQGRR&RQ GDGHQDVOXWDVQDWURFDGHH[SHULrQFLDVQDFRQV VHQVRGH:DVKLQJWRQIRLVXEVWLWXtGRSHOR&RQVHQVRGDV WLWXLomRGHSURMHWRVSROtWLFRVHLQLFLDWLYDVFRPXQV &RPPRGLWLHVDDGHVmRDRH[WUDWLYLVPRIRLDSUHVHQWDGD HQWUHVRVUHYROXFLRQiULRVGHGLIHUHQWHVSDtVHV+RMH HVWmRGDGDVDVFRQGLo}HVREMHWLYDVSDUDLVVR

“

E A política pode e deve ser internacionalista de maneira concreta, na solidariedade nas lutas, na troca de experiências, na constituição de projetos políticos e iniciativas comuns entres os revolucionårios de diferentes países.

“



Uma hipĂłtese estratĂŠgica para o Brasil As condiçþes polĂ­ticas atuais, no Brasil e na maior parte da AmĂŠrica Latina, nĂŁo permitem colocar a questĂŁo de uma mudança revolucionĂĄria do poder na ordem do dia. Os regimes polĂ­ticos estabelecidos na regiĂŁo parecem estĂĄveis (Ă exceção da Venezuela, em que a direita explora a situação criada pela morte de ChĂĄvez). AlĂŠm disso, a existĂŞncia de correntes democrĂĄticas progressistas dĂĄ ao sistema capitalista alternativas diante de cenĂĄrios de radicalização polĂ­tica. E, no Brasil, o paĂ­s-chave na regiĂŁo, a hegemonia burguesa exercida mediante o condomĂ­nio polĂ­tico FRRUGHQDGR SHOR 37 GHX j FODVVH FDSLWDOLVWD XPD legitimidade sĂłlida. Mas o marco de crise de civilização repercute tambĂŠm no continente e em nosso paĂ­s. Envolve a crise estrutural do capitalismo global, as questĂľes ambiental, energĂŠtica, alimentar etc, e a mobilização internacional da juventude. E quatro anos apĂłs a crise de 2008, o inĂ­cio da desaceleração da China prenuncia anos difĂ­ceis para as economias da AmĂŠrica Latina e do Brasil. Um partido polĂ­tico de esquerda precisa, para mover-se com FRHUrQFLDGHĂ€QLUSDUDVLXPDKLSyWHVHHVWUDWpJLFD um caminho pelo qual ambiciona conquistar o poder e impulsionar a mudança social. A AmĂŠrica Latina foi a Ăşnica regiĂŁo do mundo onde, depois de 1999, movimentos polĂ­ticos de corte progressista chegaram ao governo, tomando iniciativas democratizadoras e redistributivas. Esta tendĂŞncia retoma nĂŁo apenas as experiĂŞncias populistas, mas tambĂŠm aquela vivida pelo Chile sob Allende – interrompida pelo golpe de 1973, entĂŁo a resposta padrĂŁo dos EUA a avanços progressistas na regiĂŁo. No ciclo atual, assistimos o mesmo contra os governos ChĂĄvez e Evo, mas agora eles foram derrotados pela mobilização popular e pelo alinhamento da maioria das Forças Armadas com os governos eleitos, alĂŠm de contarem com o “guarda-chuvaâ€? ambĂ­guo do governo brasileiro. Nos casos da Argentina e do Equador, polĂ­ticos “rosasâ€? como Kirchner e Correa chegaram ao governo depois de profundas crises de governos neoliberais. Globalmente, a difusĂŁo de regimes liberais e a redução dos golpes militares pode ser associada Ă s condiçþes do neoliberalismo mundializado e Ă  ausĂŞncia de alternativas ao capitalismo dotadas de credibilidade popular; mas a institucionalidade burguesa estendeu muito sua capilaridade. As instituiçþes e processos do estado burguĂŞs nĂŁo podem simplesmente ser ignoradas; grande parte da luta por direitos passa por disputĂĄ-las.

Na Europa e EUA, por outro lado, a ausĂŞncia de alternativas reais disputando processos eleitorais retira legitimidade dos sistemas polĂ­ticos, como HYLGHQFLDPRV2FFXSLHVH,QGLJQDGRV7RGDYLDQR Ăşnico paĂ­s onde se acumula uma alternativa crĂ­vel Ă s polĂ­ticas de austeridade, a GrĂŠcia, temos um partido polĂ­tico que se projeta estrategicamente como alternativa de governo pela participação eleitoral, o Syriza. As revoluçþes democrĂĄticas no mundo ĂĄrabe, poderosas insurreiçþes populares urbanas, tambĂŠm deram lugar a regimes parlamentares, com a esquerda e os movimentos populares continuando a disputar polĂ­ticas com os governos eleitos atravĂŠs da continuidade da mobilização social. Ao que tudo isso parece apontar ĂŠ que um movimento revolucionĂĄrio que busque o poder tem que se equilibrar entre dois pĂłlos, atuando dentro do sistema polĂ­tico e fora dele, dentro das instituiçþes do Estado e contra elas, procurando ultrapassĂĄ-las, UHGHĂ€QLODVHVXSHUiODV0DVDVWHQGrQFLDVFRRStadoras sĂŁo, em nosso continente, por demais evidentes para nĂŁo se transformarem em um problema chave da estratĂŠgia revolucionĂĄria. A estratĂŠgia nĂŁo pode restringir-se a participar, mas participar do Estado para desbordĂĄ-lo pela reapropriação da atividade polĂ­tica diretamente pelas massas. Um governo popular deve estar antes de tudo na rua, se quiser ajudar a criar condiçþes de desenvolver mudanças estruturais. Neste sentido, um partido revolucionĂĄrio amplo deve ser a expressĂŁo polĂ­tica de um movimento igualmente polĂ­tico mais estendido, capaz de irradiar-se pelos diferentes setores e criar legitimidade para esta reapropriação, dialogando permanentemente com os movimentos sociais, dos mais moderados aos mais radicais, com a juventude e a intelectualidade crĂ­tica. Mas um processo polĂ­tico deste tipo sĂł pode ser constituĂ­do a quente, a partir de uma sĂŠrie de experiĂŞncias “formadorasâ€?, ancorados em movimentos fortes e independentes. O problema-chave na atual conjuntura, no caso do Brasil, ĂŠ desenvolver uma polĂ­tica consistente de construção e disputa do PSOL para que este tipo de partido seja capaz de ser a expressĂŁo dos lutadores sociais, sem abrir mĂŁo da intervenção no terrento SDUODPHQWDULQVWLWXFLRQDO8PGHVDĂ€RTXHVHWRUQD ainda maior se observarmos que a liderança majoritĂĄria do PSOL ainda nĂŁo fez um ajuste de contas com a sua experiĂŞncia petista e move-se com o PHVPRSURJUDPDTXHRGR37QRVDQRV²XP anacronismo que as condiçþes do presente e do futuro atropelarĂĄ de maneira implacĂĄvel.


estratรฉgia, programa e sujeito

em defesa do ecossocialismo Por beto banwart*

S

ocialismo 3RUTXH D ULTXH]D SURGX]LGD SHOD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD GHYH VHU DGPLQLVWUDGD H FRQWURODGDSRUTXHPDSURGX]RXVHMDDSUySULD FODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDeQHFHVViULRTXHDVSHVVRDV TXH SUHFLVDP YHQGHU VXD IRUoD GH WUDEDOKR SDUDVREUHYLYHUHTXHVmRDJUDQGHPDLRULDGD SRSXODomRWRPHPFRQVFLrQFLDGHVXDFRQGLomR GH VXEPLVVmR D XPD PLQRULD H[SORUDGRUD H XVXUSDGRUD SDUD TXH SRVVDP VH OLEHUWDU GHVWH GRPtQLR H SDVVHP D GLVSRU GH VXDV YLGDV GH PDQHLUD OLYUH H VREHUDQD (VVH PRYLPHQWR QmR RFRUUHUi GH PDQHLUD HVSRQWkQHD H SDFtร€FD PDV DWUDYpV GH PXLWD OXWD H RUJDQL]DomR 1R VLVWHPDHPTXHYLYHPRVRFDSLWDOLVPRDFODVVH GRPLQDQWH QmR PHGH HVIRUoRV SDUD VH PDQWHU QR FRPDQGR WRGDV DV DUPDV VmR XVDGDV SHOD EXUJXHVLD SDUD FRQVHUYDU R VWDWXV TXR GDt D LPSRUWkQFLD GHVWD FRPSUHHQVmR SRU SDUWH GR SUROHWDULDGR 8PD FRPELQDomR GH DomR GLUHWD DWUDYpV GH PRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLV H LQWHUYHQomR LQVWLWXFLRQDO YLD SDUWLGR SROtWLFR SRVVLELOLWD XP DF~PXOR GH IRUoDVTXHFRPWiWLFDVHVWUDWpJLDVHSURJUDPDV FRUUHWRVSRGHGHVHQFDGHDUXPDUHYROXomRTXH GHUUXEH H VXSHUH R FDSLWDOLVPR FRQVWUXLQGR R VRFLDOLVPRFRPRVLVWHPDVXSHULRU Democrรกtico3RUTXHRSRGHUGHYHVHUH[HUFLGR QD VXD SOHQLWXGH SHOR SRYR VHQGR D FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD R VHWRU PDMRULWiULR QD VRFLHGDGH HP TXH YLYHPRV IDOWDQGR DSHQDV TXH WRPH FRQVFLrQFLDGHTXHpPDLRULDHDVVXPDDVUpGHDV GR FRPDQGR 0HFDQLVPRV GH SDUWLFLSDomR H FRQWUROH GHYHP VHU DGRWDGRV SDUD TXH IUDo}HV RSRUWXQLVWDVQmRXVXUSHPHVWHSRGHUGDPDLRULD FRPRGHPRFUDWL]DomRUDGLFDOGDVFRPXQLFDo}HV UHIHUHQGRV SOHELVFLWRV HOHLo}HV HP WRGRV RV



* Membro da coordenaรงรฃo do setorial Ecossocialista do PSOL

QtYHLVHQWUHRXWURV7XGRFRPELQDGRFRPDo}HV GLUHWDVGDVPDVVDVQDGHIHVDGHVHXVLQWHUHVVHV FRP PRELOL]Do}HV FRQVWDQWHV H YLJLOkQFLD SHUPDQHQWH FRQWUD WHQWDWLYDV GH PDQLSXODomR H JROSHV GH VHWRUHV PLQRULWiULRV UHDFLRQiULRV $ PDLRULD GHYH JDUDQWLU R GLUHLWR j SDODYUD H SDUWLFLSDomRGDPLQRULDHPWRGDVDVHVIHUDVPDV MDPDLV GHYH SHUPLWLU PDQREUDV H FRQVSLUDo}HV TXHYLVHPVXEYHUWHUHVWDQRYDRUGHPFRORFDQGR VHWRUHV PLQRULWiULRV QDV GLUHo}HV HQTXDQWR VHWRUHV PDMRULWiULRV VHULDP VXEPHWLGRV H DYDVVDODGRV $FODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDRUJDQL]DGDHDWHQWDSUHFLVD ]HODUSHORSOHQRIXQFLRQDPHQWRGDVLQVWLWXLo}HVH GRVLVWHPDVRFLDOLVWDGHPRFUiWLFRSRLVDKLVWyULD QRVPRVWUDTXHDWDOKRVHYDFLODo}HVFRPUHODomR D HVWD TXHVWmR HVVHQFLDO Vy IRUWDOHFHP QRVVRV LQLPLJRV GH FODVVH H JDUDQWHP D VREUHYLGD GD EXUJXHVLDHGHVHXVLVWHPDFDSLWDOLVWD Ecolรณgico. 3RUTXH R VHU KXPDQR ID] SDUWH GD QDWXUH]D H VHP HOD QmR VREUHYLYHUi p GHOD TXH UHWLUD RV UHFXUVRV QHFHVViULRV SDUD VXD VXEVLVWrQFLD GH PDQHLUD GLUHWD RX LQGLUHWD H R HVJRWDPHQWR GDV IRQWHV GH UHFXUVRV QDWXUDLV VLJQLร€FDUi R ร€P GH QRVVD HVSpFLH KXPDQD QR 3ODQHWD 7HUUD $ FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD FRQVFLHQWH GHVWH DVSHFWR IXQGDPHQWDO SDUD D YLGD GD KXPDQLGDGH WHUi TXH GLULJLU H SODQHMDU VXDV LQWHUYHQo}HV GH PRGR D JDUDQWLU XP JUDQGH HTXLOtEULR GRV HFRVVLVWHPDV GHVHQYROYHQGR SROtWLFDV TXH VDWLVIDoDP DV QHFHVVLGDGHV GDV SHVVRDV SRU XP ODGR VHP FRQWXGR SRU RXWUR ODGR SURYRFDU R FRODSVR GDTXLOR TXH OHYRX PLOK}HV GH DQRV QR SURFHVVR HYROXWLYR SDUD VH FRQVWLWXLU SRVVLELOLWDQGR D H[LVWrQFLD GD YLGD FRPRDFRQKHFHPRVQR3ODQHWD $OJXPDV WHFQRORJLDV H SUiWLFDV SUHFLVDUmR VHU

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI

GHVHQYROYLGDV DSHUIHLoRDGDV DSURIXQGDGDV H DWp LQYHQWDGDV RXWUDV GHYHUmR VHU IUHDGDV UHGLUHFLRQDGDVGHVHVWLPXODGDVHDWpHOLPLQDGDV OHYDQGRVH HP FRQVLGHUDomR R FXVWREHQHItFLR JUDXGHSHULFXORVLGDGHLPSDFWRVVRFLRDPELHQWDLV SULQFtSLRGDSUHFDXomRTXHVW}HVpWLFDVHPRUDLV HQร€PXPDVpULHGHIDWRUHVREMHWLYRVHVXEMHWLYRV VHPSUHQRVHQWLGRGHEXVFDUDSOHQDVDWLVIDomR GDV QHFHVVLGDGHV PDWHULDLV H HVSLULWXDLV GR VHU KXPDQR FRQFDWHQDGDV FRP R UHVSHLWR jV RXWUDVHVSpFLHVYLVDQGRVHPSUHRPDLVDEVROXWR HTXLOtEULR KROtVWLFR /yJLFR TXH D QDWXUH]D WHP VHXVFLFORVGHVHTXLOtEULRVHPLVWpULRVPDVDDomR KXPDQDGHYHLUQRVHQWLGRGHVHDGDSWDUFRUULJLU HHYLWDURTXHIRUSRVVtYHOQDVFDWiVWURIHVQDWXUDLV DWUDYpV GR DSURIXQGDPHQWR GR FRQKHFLPHQWR FLHQWtร€FR SRWHQFLDOL]DGR SHOD OLEHUDomR GH HQHUJLDVSRGHURVtVVLPDVFDXVDGDSHODOLEHUWDomR GDLQWHOLJrQFLDKXPDQDGRMXJRGRVJULOK}HVGR VLVWHPD FDSLWDOLVWD GHVHQFDGHDGD SHOD HFORVmR GD UHYROXomR HFRVVRFLDOLVWD PXQGLDO SRLV VDEHPRVTXHXPPRYLPHQWRGHVWDPDJQLWXGH RXVHUiLQWHUQDFLRQDORXQmRVHUi Libertรกrio. 3RUTXH WRGDV DV RSUHVV}HV H SUHFRQFHLWRV VHMDP GH FODVVH FRU JrQHUR UHOLJLmR FXOWXUD H R TXH PDLV KRXYHU WHUmR TXH VHU VXSULPLGRV $V PXOKHUHV H KRPHQV GLVSRUmRGHVHXVFRUSRVHPHQWHVGDPDQHLUD TXHOKHVDSURXYHURVKRPHQVQmRPDLVGLWDUmR DV UHJUDV RX IDUmR DV OHLV GH PRGR XQLODWHUDO D VXEPLVVmR PLOHQDU GR JrQHUR IHPLQLQR DR PDVFXOLQR VHUi VXSODQWDGD SHOD FRODERUDomR HQWUH RV JrQHURV H R SRGHU VHUi H[HUFLGR KRUL]RQWDOPHQWHHQWUHRVVH[RV ,QGtJHQDVDVLiWLFRVQHJURVHPHVWLoRVQmRPDLV VHUmRVXEMXJDGRVSHODVXSUHPDFLDGRVEUDQFRV

XPD YHUGDGHLUD GHPRFUDFLD UDFLDO SUHYDOHFHUi SRVVLELOLWDQGRDWRGRVRSOHQRGHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH VXDV SRWHQFLDOLGDGHV LQWHOHFWXDLV FXOWXUDLV DUWtVWLFDV SURร€VVLRQDLV H WXGR PDLV $V SHVVRDV VHP UHOLJLmR GHL[DUmR GH VHU GLVFULPLQDGDV PROHVWDGDVHDVVHGLDGDVSHODGLWDGXUDGHGHXV QmR KDYHUi SHUVHJXLomR jV UHOLJL}HV PDV HVWDV GHYHUmR DFHLWDU R SULQFtSLR IXQGDPHQWDO GR (VWDGRODLFRHQTXDQWRDLQGDKRXYHU(VWDGRSRLV R REMHWLYR ร€QDO p VXSULPLOR QXPD VRFLHGDGH VHPFODVVHVHVHP(VWDGR 2V GHVHMRV H RULHQWDo}HV VH[XDLV GHYHUmR VHU UHVSHLWDGRV D KRPRVVH[XDOLGDGH DVVH[XDOLGDGH ELVVH[XDOLGDGH WUDQVVH[XDOLGDGH SROLVVH[XDOLGDGHHWRGDVDVIRUPDVGHDPRUGHVGH TXH FRQVHQWLGDV H HQWUH DGXOWRV VHUmR YLVWDV H DFHLWDVFRPQDWXUDOLGDGH$UHODomRKHWHURVVH[XDO PRQRJkPLFDQmRVHUiPDLVDUHJUDPDVDSHQDV PDLV XPD HQWUH WRGDV DV RXWUDV D QXGH] QmR VHUi PDLV FDVWLJDGD H YLVWD FRPR DWHQWDGR DR SXGRUDVSHVVRDVSRGHUmRRSWDUSRUDQGDUFRP RXVHPURXSDDRVHXEHOSUD]HU2FRQVXPRRX QmRGHGURJDVVHUiRSomRGDVSHVVRDVDGXOWDV HVFODUHFLGDV SHOR DPSOR GHEDWH QD VRFLHGDGH FDXVDGRSHODTXHEUDGRWDEXHSHODVXSHUDomR GD OHJLVODomR SURLELFLRQLVWD VREUH D TXHVWmR OHYDQGRVH HP FRQVLGHUDomR REYLDPHQWH R DSURIXQGDPHQWRGDFRPSUHHQVmRVREUHRTXHp RXQmRFRQVLGHUDGRGURJD (Qร€P DV FRQGLFLRQDQWHV LGHROyJLFDV SVLFROyJLFDV PRUDLV pWLFDV H OHJDLV GR DWXDO VLVWHPDUXLUmRDRSDVVRTXHIRUHPDYDQoDQGRD QRYDPXOKHUHRQRYRKRPHPQDFRQVWUXomRGR QRYR PXQGR VRFLDOLVWD GHPRFUiWLFR HFROyJLFR OLEHUWiULRRXVHMDGR(FRVVRFLDOLVPR (VWHDUWLJRIRLSXEOLFDGRRULJLQDOPHQWHQDUHYLVWD+DEDQHUR


estratégia, programa e sujeito

Sobre opressões e a pauta libertária Por juliana caetano*

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI

O

GLOHPD TXH R 362/ YLYH KRMH QmR VH OLPLWD j HVWUDWpJLD FRQVLGHUDQGR XPD SHUVSHFWLYD GH HVWUDWpJLD SDUD R VRFLDOLVPR (VWi WDPEpP HP SDXWD R ´DRQGH TXHUHPRV FKHJDUµ RX VHMD R VRFLDOLVPRHOHPHVPRVHpTXHSRGHPRVGL]HUTXH RTXHGHIHQGHPWRGRVRVDJUXSDPHQWRVLQWHUQRV GR362/VHMDRVRFLDOLVPR6HPTXHUHUHQWUDUQHVVD SROrPLFD DWp SRUTXH VHULD QHFHVViULR DOJR GH IXWXULVPR H GH DUURJkQFLD ÀTXHPRV FRP D LGHLD GH TXH QRVVR SDUWLGR QmR FRPXQJD GH XQLGDGH TXDQWR j VRFLHGDGH TXH TXHUHPRV FRQVWUXLU ² D SDUWLU GD WUDQVIRUPDomR GHVWD TXH WHPRV H FRP TXH HVWUDWpJLD FRPR Mi PHQFLRQDGR  2X VHMD R TXHTXHUHPRVGR362/HDTXHHOHYDLHIHWLYDPHQWH VHUYLUHVWiHPGLVSXWD 1RVVD FLVmR HQWUH GRLV SURMHWRV QmR p FODUD QHPOLQHDU1RVVDVSUiWLFDVQmRVmRH[DWDPHQWH FRHUHQWHVHUHFRQKHFHULVVRLPSRUWDVREUHWXGR GLDQWH GD SHUVSHFWLYD GH IXQGDomR GH XPD RUJDQL]DomR UHYROXFLRQiULD VREUH EDVHV VyOLGDV 'RLV DVSHFWRV QRV SDUHFHP IXQGDPHQWDLV DR VRFLDOLVPRTXHTXHUHPRVSRUXPODGRRFDUiWHU HFROyJLFR SRU RXWUR R FDUiWHU OLEHUWiULR H UDGLFDOPHQWHGHPRFUiWLFR(VWHVGRLVHOHPHQWRV SUHFLVDPVHUDJUHJDGRVHPGHÀQLWLYRjHVWUDWpJLD VRFLDOLVWD VXSHUDQGR DV DERUGDJHQV DLQGD PHUDPHQWHWiWLFDV 9DOH ID]HU XPD UHVVDOYD DQWHV TXH VXUMDP DFXVDo}HV GHVDYLVDGDV RX RSRUWXQLVWDV  HVWDPRV IDODQGR GH DJUHJDU YDORUHV H GH VXSHUDU R TXH Mi WHQWDPRV DQWHV H VH PRVWURX LQVXÀFLHQWH 6HP G~YLGD TXHVW}HV HVWUXWXUDLV



* Militante da Setorial de Política sobre Drogas do PSOL

GRHFRVVRFLDOLVPRVHFKRFDPFRPRSDGUmRGH SURGXomR GHVHQYROYLPHQWLVWD GR FDSLWDOLVPR H GRV (VWDGRV VRFLDOLVWDV TXH DWp R PRPHQWR WHQWDUDP VH FRQVROLGDU LVWR VLP (QWUHWDQWR QHPHVWDSDXWDQHPDGDVOLEHUGDGHVVXEVWLWXL D FRQWUDGLomR IXQGDPHQWDO GR FDSLWDO YHUVXV WUDEDOKR QHP D OXWD GH FODVVHV QHP TXDOTXHU SURMHWR GH FRQTXLVWD GH GLUHLWRV KXPDQRV H SUHVHUYDomR DPELHQWDO TXH QmR SDVVH SHOD UHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWD Gi FRQWD GDV QHFHVVLGDGHV GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD YLVWR TXH R FDSLWDOLVPR FDUUHJDHPVLDGHJUDGDomRDPELHQWDOHKXPDQD 2SRQWRpTXHXPVRFLDOLVPRTXHQmRVXSHUHR ´SURJUHVVRµFRPEDVHQDGHVWUXLomRHH[SORUDomR GHVFRQWURODGD GRV UHFXUVRV QDWXUDLV QHP VXSHUH DV RSUHVV}HV GH JrQHUR FRU FXOWXUD H SHQVDPHQWRQmRGDUiFRQWDGRVQRVVRVDQVHLRV VRFLDLVHKXPDQRV 1mR p QRYLGDGH TXH H[LVWH XP FLFOR GH UHSURGXomRGDRSUHVVmRHGDGRPLQDomR3RUTXH R FDSLWDOLVPR QmR VH FRQWHQWD HP H[SORUDU R WUDEDOKR KXPDQR SUHFLVD UHJXODU FRQWURODU D YLGD tQWLPD SULYDGD GDV SHVVRDV H GDV PDVVDV eSRULVVRTXHVXSHUDURPDFKLVPRRUDFLVPRD KRPRIRELDD[HQRIRELDHDLPSRVLomRGDIDPtOLD PRQRJkPLFD LQFOXVLYH p IXQGDPHQWDO QmR Vy SDUD R VRFLDOLVPR TXH TXHUHPRV PDV FRPR HVWUDWpJLD$VOXWDVOLEHUWiULDVHVWmRQDSDXWDSRU H[HPSOR GD MXYHQWXGH TXH TXHUHPRV GLVSXWDU SDUDDOXWDUHYROXFLRQiULD eLQHJiYHOTXHDOXWDFRQWUDRIXQGDPHQWDOLVPR UHOLJLRVR SRU H[HPSOR JDQKD KRMH SURSRUo}HV TXHH[SUHVVDPRFRQÁLWRSROtWLFRHQWUHHVTXHUGD

H GLUHLWD 1mR Vy QR %UDVLO FRP R FDVR )HOLFLDQR H SRGHUtDPRV IDODU GH tFRQHV FRPR 0DODIDLD H %ROVRQDUR WDPEpP  1D )UDQoD UHFHQWHPHQWH D OHJDOL]DomR GR FDVDPHQWR HQWUH SHVVRDV GR PHVPRVH[RWRPRXFRQWDGDGLVFXVVmRSROtWLFDQR SDtVOHYDQGRDGLUHLWDFRQVHUYDGRUDDYLUDS~EOLFR FRP WRGR VHX SDFRWH UHDFLRQiULR /HPEUHPRV TXH WHQWDP WDPEpP QRV YHQGHU R SHL[H GH TXH HVTXHUGDHGLUHLWDQHPH[LVWHPPDLV $VHJUHJDomRVRFLDO²TXHQD$PpULFD/DWLQDDWDFD SRSXODo}HVQHJUDVHLQGtJHQDVQD(XURSDDVVROD DIULFDQRVHiUDEHVHQRV(8$VHLPS}HVREUHWRGRV RVQmREUDQFRV²pFHQWUDOSDUDDPDQXWHQomRGD GHVLJXDOGDGH H GD GRPLQDomR &RP LVVR D OXWD DQWLFDSLWDOLVWDJDQKDHVSDoRQRPXQGRGRWUDEDOKR HIRUDGHOHGDGRTXHDVRSUHVV}HVTXHIDFLOLWDPD H[SORUDomRHVWmRHPWRGDVDVHVIHUDV Opressão e medo $V RSUHVV}HV ² HODV PHVPDV GLVWULEXtGDV GH PDQHLUD GHVLJXDO QD VRFLHGDGH FDSLWDOLVWD HP TXH TXDQWR PDLV SUHFDUL]DGR IRU R WUDEDOKDGRU PDLRUHV DV FKDQFHV GH VRIUHU RSUHVV}HV DJXGDV YLGH PLOtFLDV 833ŽV H 3$&ŽV  ² VH DOLPHQWDP GR PHGRTXHGLVVHPLQDGRSHORVJHVWRUHVGRVLVWHPD SHUPDQHQWHPHQWH VH WUDGX] HP PHGR GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUDDFODVVHSHULJRVDDPDLVLQWHUHVVDGD QD WUDQVIRUPDomR UDGLFDO GR VLVWHPD 0HGR TXH DFDED SRU OHJLWLPDU VRFLDOPHQWH D ´QHFHVVLGDGHµ GH R (VWDGR EXUJXrV DJLU FRP YLROrQFLD H[WUHPD RUJDQL]DomRSDUDDRSUHVVmRHUHH[SORUDomRGDV SDUFHODVPDLVSUHFDUL]DGDVGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUD

$V FRQWUDGLo}HV TXH VH HYLGHQFLDP D SDUWLU GDV RSUHVV}HV UHODWLYDV DR FRQWUROH VRFLDO TXH QmR VmR H[DWDPHQWH IUXWR GD FRQWUDGLomR FDSLWDO WUDEDOKR H HVWULWDPHQWH GD H[SORUDomR  PDV VmR GD RUGHP GD VXSHUHVWUXWXUD H GD UHSURGXomR GHVWHVLVWHPD VHUmRWDOYH]DVSULPHLUDVTXLoiDV ~QLFDV TXH PXLWRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV YmR LGHQWLÀFDU GDGRRDOWtVVLPRJUDXGHQDWXUDOL]DomRGRVLVWHPD SURGXWLYR H GH WUDEDOKR 6HP IDODU QD MXYHQWXGH DLQGDIRUD RXMiIRUD GRPXQGRGRWUDEDOKRRX QDGLYHUVLÀFDomRGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDHPVHWRUHV IUDFLRQDGRVRTXHPDLVGLÀFXOWDDRUJDQL]DomRGD OXWDHRDYDQoRQRSURFHVVRGHFRQVFLrQFLD 3UHFLVDPRV SRUWDQWR RSHUDU VREUH HVVDV FRQWUDGLo}HV GHQXQFLDU R FDSLWDOLVPR WDPEpP SRUDt(YLGHQWHPHQWHDVOXWDVOLEHUWiULDVHPVLQmR OHYDPjWUDQVIRUPDomRVRFLDOFRPRWDPSRXFRD OXWDVLQGLFDOSRUVDOiULRVSRUH[HPSOR0DVOXWDU SHOR GLUHLWR DR SUySULR FRUSR QR VHQWLGR GD OLEHUGDGHHGDIHOLFLGDGHGHVHUTXHPTXLVHUVHU SRGHQRVSHUPLWLUGHEDWHURGLUHLWRWDPEpPDR SURGXWRGRSUySULRWUDEDOKRHRFDSLWDOLVPRQmR QRVFRQFHGHUiQHQKXPGHOHVPHQRVDLQGDRGH SHQVDPHQWRFUtWLFRHOLYUH 2 VRFLDOLVPR TXH GHIHQGHPRV Vy H[LVWLUi FRP D OLEHUGDGH FRPR SULQFtSLR 6HX VLVWHPD GH UHSURGXomRQmRSRGHUiVHURPHVPRGRFDSLWDOLVPR HOH SUHFLVDUi VH UHLQYHQWDU FRQVWDQWHPHQWH VHP  PpWRGRV DXWRULWiULRV DOKHLRV j GHFLVmR GDV PDLRULDV RX D SHUVSHFWLYD GR FRPXQLVPR FDLUi SRU WHUUD 3RUTXH UHDOPHQWH VHU FRPSDQKHLUR FRPSDUWLOKDU XPD RUJDQL]DomR SROtWLFD FRQVWUXLU RXWUDVRFLHGDGHHYLYHUHPRXWUDVRFLHGDGH²TXH


VHMDFRPXQLVWD´UHLQRGDVOLEHUGDGHVµVHPFODVVHV ²UHTXHURXWUDRUGHPGHUHODo}HVKXPDQDV (VVDRXWUDRUGHPGHUHODo}HVpLPSUHVFLQGtYHODXP VLVWHPDVRFLDOLVWD HFROyJLFRHOLEHUWiULR 3RUTXHR FRQVXPLVPR H SRU FRQVHJXLQWH R SURGXWLYLVPR GHVHQYROYLPHQWLVWD HVWi LQWLPDPHQWH OLJDGR DR WLSRGHUHODo}HVKXPDQDVTXHRFDSLWDOLVPRSUHFLVD SURGX]LU7XGROtFLWRRXLOtFLWRYLUDPHUFDGRULDQDGD SRGHH[LVWLUVHQmRSXGHUVHUFRPSUDGRHYHQGLGR ROXFURpVHPSUHVXSHULRUjIHOLFLGDGHHjGLJQLGDGH KXPDQD $V UHODo}HV KXPDQDV QmR SRGHP VHU VHQmRDGHTXDGDVjVGHPHUFDGR3UDWLFDPHQWHQR PXQGR LQWHLUR DV PXOKHUHV VmRSURSULHGDGHSULYDGDGRV KRPHQVRXVmRPHUFDGRULD 1mR p SRVVtYHO QR FDSLWDOLVPR XPD RUGHP GH UHODo}HVKXPDQDVLJXDOLWiULD SRUTXH p SUHFLVR KLHUDUTXLD VXSHULRULGDGH GH XQV VREUH RXWURVSDUDTXHVHMXVWLÀTXH H UHSURGX]D GLD SyV GLD D H[SORUDomR

H&RSDSDUDTXHP"µ3HUJXQWHPRVDLQGD´OL[RGH TXHP"µ)LFDHYLGHQWHTXHRUHVtGXRGRVLVWHPD VREUDSDUDRVSREUHVHWRGRRUHVWREHQHÀFLDRV GRQRVGRSRGHUHGRGLQKHLUR 2OXFURGRH[FHVVRFDGDYH]PDLVWHFQROyJLFRH DJUDYDQWHGRH[pUFLWRGHUHVHUYD HGDSUHFDUL]DomR GR WUDEDOKR  DOpP GH VHJUHJDU FULPLQDOL]D RV SREUHV GR PXQGR SRU XP PRWLYR RX SRU RXWUR GHSHQGHQGR GR OXJDU 1R %UDVLO D SRSXODomR FDUFHUiULDTXHMipDWHUFHLUDPDLRUGRSODQHWD (8$ H&KLQDOtGHUHVPXQGLDLVGRPHUFDGRFRQVHJXHP SUHQGHUDLQGDPDLV pFODUDPHQWHSREUHHSUHWD $ SURSRVWD GH UHGXomR GD PDLRULGDGH SHQDO GH  SDUD  DQRV  YROWD j SDXWD DQLPDQGR UHDFLRQiULRV ,VVR Mi QmR FKRFD QLQJXpP R VHQVR FRPXP VDEH TXH Vy SREUH YDL SDUD D FDGHLD H FKHJD D GL]HU TXH p LQMXVWR 1yV SUHFLVDPRV UHVSRQGHU TXH p LQMXVWR SRUTXH GHVLJXDO *UDQGHV PDVVDV GH WUDEDOKDGRUHV YLYHP KRMH HP IDYHODV 1mR EDVWDVVH D GHVLJXDOGDGH XUEDQD H D DXVrQFLD GR (VWDGR GH GLUHLWRV GH %HP(VWDU VRFLDO QHVVHV HVSDoRV HVVDV SRSXODo}HV VmR DVVRODGDVSHORFRQWUROHGDV PLOtFLDVGRWUiÀFRH²FRPR VROXomROXFUDWLYDHFRUUXSWD ² GD JXHUUD jV GURJDV TXH VH UHVXPH HP JXHUUD DRV SREUHV 2X VHMD R (VWDGR QDYHUGDGHVHID]SUHVHQWH PDV HP DomR KRPLFLGD FRP PLOLWDUL]DomR H SROtFLD 2 FDSLWDOLVPR SUHFLVD WHU D TXHP FXOSDU SHODV PD]HODV GD VRFLHGDGH H LQYHVWH HP FRQYHQFHU D VRFLHGDGHGHTXHDJRUDRPDOpDGURJDORJRR WUiÀFRORJRRVSREUHV2WHPDPDLVXPDYH]QRV SHUPLWH XQLU D OXWD SRU OLEHUGDGH j OXWD FRQWUD R VLVWHPD$SHUVSHFWLYDGRGLUHLWRDRSUySULRFRUSR YHPJDUDQWLUTXHSRVVDPRVFRQVXPLURTXHEHP HQWHQGHUPRVHLVVRQmRpSRXFRLPSRUWDQWHSRLV UHDJH DR FRQWUROH 0DV SDUD DOpP GLVVR VRFLDO H FROHWLYDPHQWH R FRPEDWH jV GURJDV VHUYH GH MXVWLÀFDWLYD SULPHLUD SDUD R H[WHUPtQLR SDXODWLQR GHSRSXODo}HVGHMRYHQVQHJURVHPRUDGRUHVGH IDYHODV 6y QR 5LR GH -DQHLUR D JXHUUD jV GURJDV

As opressões se alimentam do medo, que, disseminado pelos gestores do sistema permanentemente, se Daquilo que não traduz em medo da podemos abrir mão classe trabalhadora, 9ROWDQGR j FRQMXQWXUD a classe perigosa, a QmR p GLItFLO FRPSURYDU TXH R FDSLWDOLVPR GD SURGXomR mais interessada na GH H[FHGHQWH IXWLOLGDGH H FRQVXPLVPR QmR FDQVD GH transformação radical do SURGX]LUWDPEpPPRQWDQWHV sistema. LQVXVWHQWiYHLV GH OL[R (VVH

OL[RpGHVFDUWDGRDRODGRGRV PDLVSREUHVTXHSRUVXDYH] VmR GHVFDUWDGRV FDGD YH] PDLV ORQJH GD ´FLGDGH GH GLUHLWRVµ1RWHVHDSROtWLFDGRVEROV}HVGHPLVpULD QRVJUDQGHVDJORPHUDGRVXUEDQRVTXHDIDVWDDV SRSXODo}HV PDLV SREUHV GR DFHVVR j HGXFDomR VD~GHKDELWDomRGLJQDOD]HUFXOWXUDHWUDQVSRUWH 1R FDPSR QHQKXPD SRSXODomR RX DPELHQWH QDWXUDOpPDLVLPSRUWDQWHTXHJUDQGHVLQYHQWRV SURGXWRUHVGHHQHUJLD SDUDDJUDQGHLQG~VWULD HSDUDH[SRUWDomRGHDoRSULQFLSDOPHQWH 4XH PDO WHP HP GHVDEULJDU H YLROHQWDU DOJXPDV FHQWHQDV GH ULEHLULQKRV PRQWHV H iUYRUHV TXDQGR HVWi HP MRJR SURGX]LU HQHUJLD SDUD FLGDGHV LQWHLUDV" 2 SUREOHPD p TXH R MRJR p RXWUR SRU LVVR KRMH VH OHYDQWDP PRYLPHQWRV TXH SHUJXQWDP ´HQHUJLD SDUD TXHP"µ ´GLUHLWR SDUDTXHP"µ´FLGDGHSDUDTXHP"µ´2OLPStDGDV 

FRQWLQXDDPDWDUPDLVGHQRYHFHQWDVSHVVRDVSRU DQRFHUFDGHWUrVSRUGLD 9rVHTXHDOJXPDVGURJDVVmROtFLWDVRXWUDVLOtFLWDVH TXHDSHULFXORVLGDGHSDUDDVD~GHSRUH[HPSORQmR pFULWpULRSDUDHVVDGLVWLQomR2PHUFDGRHRFRQWUROH VRFLDO VLP 1HP D LQG~VWULD IDUPDFRTXtPLFD HVWi VHQGRSHUVHJXLGDWDPSRXFRRVWUDÀFDQWHVGHHFVWDV\ RXRVFRQVXPLGRUHVSRGHURVRVGHFRFDtQD1mRKi 8QLGDGHV 3ROLFLDLV 3DFLÀFDGRUDV UHJXODQGR D YLGD GDVSHVVRDVQRVEDLUURVQREUHVSRUPDLVDOFRyOLFRV FDXVDGRUHV GH YLROrQFLD GRPpVWLFD DFLGHQWHV GH WUkQVLWRRXFULPHVGHyGLRTXHH[LVWDPQHOHV 1R PHVPR VHQWLGR D FULPLQDOL]DomR GR DERUWR TXH QmR WHP QHQKXPD MXVWLÀFDWLYD GHQWUR GH SDUkPHWURV ODLFRV SUHMXGLFD PDMRULWDULDPHQWH DV PXOKHUHV SREUHV H QHJUDV 6mR HVWDV TXH PHQRV DFHVVR WrP D PpWRGRV H FRQKHFLPHQWRV FRQWUDFHSWLYRVTXHPHQRV SRGHP DVVXPLU ÀOKRV GH JUDYLGH] LQGHVHMDGD H TXH PXLWR PHQRV SRGHP SDJDU DERUWRV VHJXURV $OpP GR DEVXUGR GH R (VWDGRSRGHUGHFLGLUVREUH R FRUSR GH XPD PXOKHU HYLGHQWHPHQWH HVVD SROtWLFDpGHVLJXDOGLVFULPLQDWyULDHKLSyFULWD (QÀPTXDQWRDGURJDVDERUWRWUDEDOKRKDELWDomR RX GLUHLWR j WHUUD QmR LPSRUWD R TXH R LQGLYtGXR ID]2TXHHOHÀ]HUWHUiHIHLWRGHFULPHRXQmRGH DFRUGRFRPVXDFODVVHVRFLDOHFRPRVLQWHUHVVHVGR FDSLWDO1HVWHVLVWHPDSUHFLVDVHSHQVDUTXHVRPRV QDWXUDOPHQWHGHVLJXDLVTXHXQVVmRPHOKRUHVTXH RXWURVTXHKiVXSHULRUHVHLQIHULRUHV VHPWRFDUQD MXVWLÀFDWLYDGDYRQWDGHGH'HXV  1RVVDOXWDVHUiSRUWDQWRFRQVWDQWHPHQWHFRQWUD RFDSLWDOLVPRHVHXVLQVWUXPHQWRVGHGRPLQDomR 8PDRUJDQL]DomRUHYROXFLRQiULDGHQWURGR362/ HQIUHQWDUi R GLOHPD GRV GRLV SURJUDPDV R GD WUDQVIRUPDomR VRFLDO UHYROXFLRQiULD  H DTXHOH D DSUHVHQWDU j VRFLHGDGH HP GLVSXWDV H Do}HV LQVWLWXFLRQDLV'LOHPDVDXGiYHOGRSRQWRGHYLVWD GHTXHVLJQLÀFDTXHHQWHQGHPRVTXHDGLVSXWD HOHLWRUDO WHP VXD LPSRUWkQFLD PDV QmR VHUi GH IRUPD DOJXPD QRVVD YLD FHQWUDO RX ~QLFD GH DWXDomR SRUTXH QmR VHUi UHYROXFLRQiULD SRU VL Vy1mRTXHVHMDLPSRVVtYHOXPDFRQMXQWXUDTXH FRPELQHGLVSXWDLQVWLWXFLRQDOHOHYDQWHSRSXODU

PDVDtPDLVXPDYH]DPRELOL]DomRGHPDVVDVp RTXHVHUiRGHÀQLGRUGHiJXDV 2 IDWR p TXH GH DOJXQV SRQWRV QmR SRGHPRV DEULUPmRVHTXLVHUPRVVHUXPSDUWLGRGDFODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD H D GHÀQLomR SROtWLFD GR FDUiWHU GR 362/WHPDYHUFRPLVVR$OXWDVRFLDOLVWDUHTXHU XP SDUWLGR FRQWUD D RUGHP 1mR QRV VHUYHP UHVXOWDGRV HOHLWRUDLV TXH SHUPDQHoDP QD WiWLFD GH LOXGLU RV WUDEDOKDGRUHV FRP DGPLQLVWUDo}HV ´SRVVtYHLVµ 3RGHPRV ID]rODV GHVGH TXH QmR QDVoDPGHFROLJDo}HVHÀQDQFLDPHQWRVYHQGLGRV  Vy QmR SRGHPRV GL]HU TXH LVVR UHVROYH DV FRQWUDGLo}HVGRVLVWHPDSHOR FRQWUiULR R TXH À]HUPRV Ki GHGHQXQFLDURFDSLWDOLVPR2 37HR3URJUDPD'HPRFUiWLFR 3RSXODU UHVXOWDUDP HP DGHVmR j RUGHP FDPLQKRV IiFHLV jV YH]HV VH PRVWUDP QmRFDPLQKRVSRLVQDGDPDLV ´IiFLOµTXHDFRPRGDUVH

O capitalismo precisa ter a quem culpar pelas mazelas da sociedade e investe em convencer a sociedade de que agora o mal é a droga, logo o WUiÀFRORJRRVSREUHV

Um convite à Revolução

'LVSXWHPRV HOHLo}HV FRPEDWHQGR GH IRUPD LQWUDQVLJHQWH D GHVLJXDOGDGH VRFLDO VHP DEULU PmR GR VRFLDOLVPR GD WUDQVIRUPDomR VRFLDO H GD UHIHUrQFLD DQWLFDSLWDOLVWD RX R QRVVR FRPEDWH j GHVLJXDOGDGH VHUi YD]LR H LQyFXR )RUD GDV HOHLo}HV GLVSXWHPRV D VRFLHGDGH SDUD D OXWD HFRVVRFLDOLVWD H OLEHUWiULD LQLQWHUUXSWDPHQWHRXVHPRVHPFRQVROLGDUXPD RUJDQL]DomRUHYROXFLRQiULDHPWHPSRVGHFULVH H XP SDUWLGR FRQWUD D RUGHP HP WHPSRV GH GHVLOXVmR 5HFDL VREUH QyV XPD TXHVWmR TXH QmR TXHU FDODU $FUHGLWDPRV TXH D UHYROXomR VRFLDOLVWD p RX QmR p SRVVtYHO" $FUHGLWDPRV TXH D HVWUDWpJLD UHYROXFLRQiULDpYLiYHO"3RUTXHVHWLYHUPRVFHUWH]D GH TXH D KXPDQLGDGH QmR YLYHUi R VRFLDOLVPR UHYROXFLRQiULR QDVFHPRV PRUWRV 3RU LVVR FRPR RUJDQL]DomR p SUHFLVR GHÀQLU R FRQYLWH TXH YDPRV ID]HU H TXH HOH VHMD D QDGD PHQRV TXH D UHYROXomR6HMDPRVKRPHQVHPXOKHUHVGHWRGRV RVJrQHURVGLIHUHQWHVHQRYRVFDSD]HVGRVRQKRH GDFRQVWUXomRGRVRFLDOLVPRSRVVtYHOHQHFHVViULR 3HUVLJDPRV FDPDUDGDV D GLJQLGDGH GH TXHP RXVD QmR VHU VXSHULRU QHP LQIHULRU D QLQJXpP $ GLJQLGDGH GH VHU LJXDO H D OLEHUGDGH GH VHU VXMHLWRGDSUySULDKLVWyULD


estratégia, programa e sujeito

reorganização da classe e seus instrumentos Por jorge luis martins*

N

RVVDV FRUUHQWHV SROLWLFDV SDVVDP ULFR PRPHQWR GH UHÁH[mR DFHUFD GRV GHVDÀRV GDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDHRVPRYLPHQWRVVRFLDLV HP HVSHFLDO VLQGLFDO HVWXGDQWLO H SRSXODU RQGH WUDYDPRV R GHEDWH VREUH GLYHUVRV SRQWRV HP TXH DSHVDU GDV GLVWLQWDV RULJHQV SROtWLFDV H RUJDQL]DFLRQDLV GRV GLYHUVRV VHWRUHV HVWDPRV FRQÁXLQGR 3HQVDUQDTXHVWmRGROXJDUGRVXMHLWRVRFLDOHP XP SURFHVVR GH UHFRQVWUXomR GD HVWUDWpJLD GD UHYROXomR p FRORFDU DOJXQV EDOL]DGRUHV SDUD D QRVVDUHÁH[mRjOX]HVSHFLDOPHQWHGRSURFHVVR TXH WHP VH GHVHQYROYLGR HP QRVVR SDtV QRV ~OWLPRVDQRV ( DTXL YRX FRQFHQWUDU PLQKD UHIOH[mR QD TXHVWmR GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD H VHXV LQVWUXPHQWRV GH IUHQWH ~QLFD QR PRYLPHQWR VLQGLFDO $ UHDOLGDGH YLYLGD SHOD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD KRMH FRORFD D QHFHVVLGDGH GH DYDQoDUPRV HP UHODomR jV H[SHULrQFLDV GH RUJDQL]DomR VLQGLFDO 'HIHQGHPRV D FRQVWUXomR GH XP QRYR LQVWUXPHQWR GH RUJDQL]DomR XPD FHQWUDO GR PXQGR GR WUDEDOKR TXH WHYH XP HQVDLR LPSRUWDQWH QR &21&/$7 PDV TXH DFDERX GLYLGLGD QR DQR GH   SDUD DVVLP URPSHU FRPDIUDJPHQWDomRUHWRPDQGRDo}HVXQLWiULDV HRGLiORJRHQWUHRVVHWRUHVFRPEDWLYRVGDFODVVH 'HIHQGHPRV XP LQVWUXPHQWR TXH LQFRUSRUH RV VHWRUHV IRUPDLV H LQIRUPDLV GD HFRQRPLD



* Advogado e membro do Coletivo Socialismo e Liberdade

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI

R FRQMXQWR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHVWUDEDOKDGRUDV GH XP UDPR SUHIHUHQFLDOPHQWH RX GH XPD FDWHJRULD HFRQ{PLFD LQGHSHQGHQWHPHQWH GH IXQomRRXFDUJRIRUPDGHUHPXQHUDomRÀOLDomR SDUWLGiULD FRQÀVVmR UHOLJLRVD JrQHUR UDoD RULHQWDomR VH[XDO QDFLRQDOLGDGH GR FDUiWHU GRYtQFXORHPSUHJDWtFLRGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV VH WrPRXQmRFDUWHLUDDVVLQDGDVHWUDEDOKDPHP WHPSRLQWHJUDORXSDUFLDOHWF GHHVWDUHPRX QmRHPSUHJDGRVGHHVWDUHPRXQmRQDDWLYD 'HIHQGHPRV XPD FHQWUDO DPSOD H SOXUDO FODVVLVWDLQGHSHQGHQWHDXW{QRPDGHPRFUiWLFD LQWHUQDFLRQDOLVWD TXH WHQKD D XQLGDGH H D VROLGDULHGDGHGHFODVVHFRPRYDORUHVHVWUDWpJLFRV H HVWHMD HIHWLYDPHQWH D VHUYLoR GD OXWD SHOR VRFLDOLVPR 1mR DFUHGLWDPRV QD FRQVWUXomR GH XPDFHQWUDOTXHH[FOXDGDRUJDQL]DomRDDPSOD PDLRULDGDFODVVHWUDEDOKDGRUDEUDVLOHLUDLVWRp XPDFHQWUDOGHWUDEDOKDGRUHVVLQGLFDOL]DGRV 0DVGHVWDWDUHIDSUiWLFDHQHFHVViULDGHSHUtRGR SDUD WRGD D FODVVH GRV H[SORUDGRV WRUQDVH QHFHVViULD XPD UHÁH[mR VREUH DOJXQV DVSHFWRV GDVLWXDomRGDFODVVHHGDVXDFRQÀJXUDomRSDUD HQWHQGHUTXHWLSRGHUHQRYDomRGRVLQGLFDOLVPR GHYHPRV GHIHQGHU PHVPR QR kPELWR GR FKDPDGRVLQGLFDOLVPRFRPEDWLYR Relação da luta política com a luta econômica 2V WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV FRQVWLWXHP VH H UHFRQKHFHPVH FRPR FODVVH QD OXWD /XWD

HFRQ{PLFD SRUH[HPSORFRQWUDRSDWURQDWRSRU PHOKRUHVFRQGLo}HVGHYLGDHGHWUDEDOKR OXWD SROtWLFD DH[HPSORGDTXHODFRQWUDRJRYHUQRRX SDUD SUHVVLRQDU R SDUODPHQWR RX MXGLFLiULR QD GHIHVDGHGLUHLWRVRXQDEXVFDGHDPSOLiORV OXWD LGHROyJLFD H FXOWXUDO DVVXPLQGR H SURSDJDQGR RVREMHWLYRVHRSRQWRGHYLVWDGRVWUDEDOKDGRUHV HWUDEDOKDGRUDVHGRSRYRHPJHUDO HWF e QHVVHV HPEDWHV ³ PDQLIHVWDo}HV SDUWLFXODUHV GD OXWD GH FODVVHV ³ TXH HOHV HODV GHVHQYROYHP H IRUWDOHFHP D FRQVFLrQFLD GH TXH QD DomR FROHWLYD SRGHP FRQTXLVWDU YLWyULDV SHTXHQDV H JUDQGHV SRGHP PXGDU D YLGD H R PXQGR e QD OXWD TXH HOHVHODV VH HGXFDPHVHFRQÀJXUDPFRPRFODVVH 3RUWDQWR R WUDEDOKR SDUD FRQÀJXUDU SROLWLFDPHQWH H GHVHQYROYHU D LGHQWLGDGH GD FODVVH GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV p LPSUHVFLQGtYHOSDUDRGHVWLQRGDOXWDVRFLDOLVWD H GHYH SDUWLU GH DOJXQV SUHVVXSRVWRV 'HQWUH HOHV D DomR VLQGLFDO p XPD DUHQD GHFLVLYD SDUD D OXWD SHOR VRFLDOLVPR TXH SDUD LVVR HQWUH RXWUDV FRLVDV HOD SUHFLVD VHU DPSOD XQLWiULD GHPRFUiWLFD UHFROKHU H LPSXOVLRQDU FRP ÀGHOLGDGH H GHGLFDomR DV GHPDQGDV HFRQ{PLFDVHDVUHLYLQGLFDo}HVLPHGLDWDVGRV WUDEDOKDGRUHVHWUDEDOKDGRUDV DGLPHQVmRGH FRUUHomRGRYDORUGDIRUoDGHWUDEDOKR PDVGH PRGRQHQKXPDLVVRGHYHOLPLWDUVHTXHDVVLP D OXWD VLQGLFDO p XPD OXWD SROtWLFD HVWD OXWD

VH WRPDGD QXPD SHUVSHFWLYD WUDQVIRUPDGRUD UHTXHU R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH XPD WHRULD H GH XPD FRQVFLrQFLD UHYROXFLRQiULDV ³ GHVHQYROYLPHQWRSOHQRVySRVVtYHOQRTXDGUR GRV FRQÁLWRV PDLV JHUDLV TXH HQYROYHP R FRQMXQWR GDV FODVVHV VRFLDLV H SRUWDQWR QmR FRQÀQDGR DR HPEDWH JUHPLDO ´SDWUmRµ [ ´HPSUHJDGRµ $OXWDVLQGLFDOpSRUDVVLPGL]HUXPDHVFROD GH IRUPDomR GR SUROHWDULDGR e HP JHUDO R WHUUHQR RQGH VH GmR RV SULPHLURV FRQWDWRV GRVWUDEDOKDGRUHVHWUDEDOKDGRUDVFRPDOXWD SROtWLFDYLDFRPEDWHSRUVXDVUHLYLQGLFDo}HV LPHGLDWDV e OHYDQGR DGLDQWH FRP WRGD D ILGHOLGDGH H GHGLFDomR WDLV GHPDQGDV TXH RVDV VRFLDOLVWDV SRGHP FRQWULEXLU SDUD HOHYDU D FRPSUHHQVmR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV VREUH R FDUiWHU LUUHFRQFLOLiYHO GR FRQIOLWR GRV VHXV LQWHUHVVHV FRP RV GRV SDWU}HV e WDPEpP QHVVH SURFHVVR TXH R SUROHWDULDGR SRGH FKHJDU D SDWDPDUHV PDLV FRPSOH[RVGHFRQVFLrQFLDSROtWLFD 7UDEDOKRVLQGLFDOpHVSDoRGHPLOLWkQFLDHQmR “carreira” 1R HVWiJLR DWXDO GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GR FDSLWDOLVPR HVVH WUDEDOKR GH FRQÀJXUDomR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV HQTXDQWR FODVVH GR GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH VXD FRQVFLrQFLD


GH SHUWHQFLPHQWR D XPD FODVVH  XPD FODVVH FRP FRQGLo}HV SRWHQFLDLV SDUD SURWDJRQL]DU D UHYROXomRVRFLDOLVWDJDQKDHQRUPHDWXDOLGDGH $WXDOLGDGH H GHVDÀRV GDGRV MXVWDPHQWH SHOD VLWXDomR GD GLYLVmR GR WUDEDOKR QR SUHVHQWH GD RUJDQL]DomRGDSURGXomRHGDGHIHQVLYDSROtWLFDH LGHROyJLFDHPTXHDLQGDVHHQFRQWUDRPRYLPHQWR GRVH[SORUDGRVHRSULPLGRV 1HVVDV FRQGLo}HV p SUHFLVR HQWmR WHU QtWLGR TXH GR SRQWR GH YLVWD GD FRQFHSomR TXH GHIHQGHPRV  R WUDEDOKR VLQGLFDO QmR p XPD ´FDUUHLUDµ HVSHFtÀFD D GH ´VLQGLFDOLVWDµ  'R QRVVR SRQWR GH YLVWD R WUDEDOKR VLQGLFDO p XP HVSDoR GH PLOLWkQFLD ,VWR p XPXPD PLOLWDQWH VRFLDOLVWDTXHDWXDQR PRYLPHQWR VLQGLFDO LQWHUYpPFRPÀUPH]D HGHGLFDomRHPWRGDV DV HVIHUDV LQVWkQFLDV H HQWLGDGHV GD YLGD VLQGLFDO PDV SDUD HVWHHVWD WDO ODEXWD QmR GHYH VHU YLVWD FRPR XP ´FDPLQKR SDUDVHID]HUQDYLGDµ 7UDWDVHGHXPDWDUHID ³ GH XPD PLVVmR ³ GH PLOLWDQWHV SROtWLFRV (P VHQWLGR FRQWUiULR GD yWLFD GH TXHP HQFDUDU R VLQGLFDOLVPR FRPR XPD FDUUHLUD DV GLYHUVDV LQVWkQFLDV VLQGLFDWR IHGHUDomR FRQIHGHUDomR FHQWUDO QDFLRQDO HWF  GR PRYLPHQWR QmR VmR SULPRUGLDOPHQWH HVSDoRV GH PLOLWkQFLD D VHUHP RFXSDGRV HP IXQomR GDV QHFHVVLGDGHV GD OXWD PDV DQWHV GH WXGR VmR GHJUDXV D VHUHP JDOJDGRV SRU H[LJrQFLD GH DVFHQVmR QD FDUUHLUD $ SRVLomR TXH D FHQWUDO H RVVLQGLFDWRVGHYHPEXVFDUS{UHPSUiWLFDpDGH TXHRDPLOLWDQWHVRFLDOLVWDQRWUDEDOKRVLQGLFDO GHYH DVVXPLU FRP D PDLV SURIXQGD GHGLFDomR ÀGHOLGDGH H FRPEDWLYLGDGH WRGDV DV GHPDQGDV FRQFUHWDV GH FDGD FDWHJRULD PDV R ID] VHPSUH EXVFDQGR XQLÀFDU WDLV UHLYLQGLFDo}HV jTXHODV GR FRQMXQWR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV

HVIRUoDQGRVHDGHPDLVSDUDHOHYiODVHDUWLFXOi ODV DR SDWDPDU SROtWLFR HQWUHODoDQGRDV D XP SURJUDPD UHYROXFLRQiULR ,VWR p D OXWD VLQGLFDO TXHVHPG~YLGDHQYROYHPRELOL]DomRDomRGLUHWD GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV FRPELQDGD FRP LQWHUYHQomR LQVWLWXFLRQDOQHJRFLDomRFRPRSDWURQDWRHFRP RV JRYHUQRV HWF ³ p XP PHLR SDUD LQVHUomR GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV QR OHLWR QR HPEDWHJHUDOSHODHPDQFLSDomRGRWUDEDOKRHGD KXPDQLGDGH 'HVVH SRQWR GH YLVWD WDOPLOLWDQWHQmRpRXQmR GHYH SUHWHQGHU UHGX]LU VH D VHU ´R VLQGLFDOLVWDµ IXODQR RX EHOWUDQR $R FRQWUiULRGHYHVHH[HUFHU FRPR XP VHU SROtWLFR TXH DVVXPH D PLOLWkQFLD QXPDiUHDHVSHFtÀFDGD OXWDRVLQGLFDOLVPR 7RGD LGHLD GHFRUUH GH XPD SUiWLFD PDV WDPEpP DQWHFLSD D SUySULDSUiWLFD3RUWDQWR XPVLQGLFDOLVPRDVHUYLoR GD OXWD SHOR VRFLDOLVPR GHYHP WHU DV VHJXLQWHV DV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV FHQWUDLV XPD DomR VLQGLFDO RULHQWDGD QXPD OHLWXUD UHDOLVWD GD UHDOLGDGH H DUWLFXODGD D XPDHVWUDWpJLDFRHUHQWH FRP HVWH REMHWLYR XPD SUiWLFD FRWLGLDQD TXH IDoD GR VLQGLFDWR XPD YHUGDGHLUD HVFROD YROWDGDSDUDDHGXFDomR VLQGLFDO H SROtWLFD GRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H WUDEDOKDGRUDV

A posição que a central e os sindicatos devem buscar pôr em prática é a de que o/a militante socialista, no trabalho sindical, deve assumir com a mais profunda dedicação, ÀGHOLGDGHHFRPEDWLYLGDGH todas as demandas concretas de cada categoria, mas o faz VHPSUHEXVFDQGRXQLÀFDU tais reivindicações àquelas do conjunto dos trabalhadores e trabalhadoras



Independência dos partidos e politização da classe (P UHODomR j SROLWL]DomR GD DomR VLQGLFDO H j UHODomR FRP RV SDUWLGRV SROtWLFRV HQWHQGHPRV TXH SDUD DYDQoDU QR WUDEDOKR VLQGLFDO QXPD SHUVSHFWLYD UHYROXFLRQiULD Ki TXH VXSHUDU GXDV FRQFHSo}HV 3ULPHLUD D TXH SDUWH GR FRUUHWR SUHVVXSRVWR GH TXH DV HQWLGDGHV VLQGLFDLV VmR HP SULPHLUD LQVWkQFLD´FRUUHWRUDVGRSUHoRGDIRUoDGHWUDEDOKRµ

GRV VHJPHQWRV TXH UHSUHVHQWDP PDV SHFD SRU QmR SHUFHEHU TXH R KRUL]RQWH GRV VLQGLFDWRV HVWi ORQJH GH VH VLWXDU GHQWUR GH OLPLWHV WmR HVWUHLWRV e IDOVD D FRQFHSomR GH TXH D OXWD SROtWLFD OHYD QHFHVVDULDPHQWH j SDUWLGDUL]DomR GDV HQWLGDGHV $OLiVVmRDVFODVVHVGRPLQDQWHVHVHXVDOLDGRVQR PRYLPHQWRVLQGLFDOTXHVHHVIRUoDPSDUDGLIXQGLU DWHVH´VLQGLFDOLVPRVHID]QRVVLQGLFDWRVHSROtWLFD QR SDUODPHQWRµ FRPR GHVFXOSD SDUD MXVWLÀFDU D UHSUHVVmRTXHH[HUFHPVREUHRPRYLPHQWRVLQGLFDO 6HJXQGD DTXHOD TXH HP QRPH GH XPD UHWyULFD UHYROXFLRQiULD LQGHSHQGHQWHPHQWH GR GLVFXUVR H GDVLQWHQo}HVGRVGDVVLQGLFDOLVWDVSRUWDGRUHVGHVWD FRQFHSomRDFDEDWUDEDOKDQGRSHOD´SDUWLGDUL]DomR GRV VLQGLFDWRVµ 3DUWLGDUL]DomR HVWD HQWHQGLGD FRPR XP SURFHVVR HP TXH DWUDYpV GD YLRODomR GR IXQFLRQDPHQWR GDV LQVWkQFLDV H GDV QRUPDV GHPRFUiWLFDVDVHQWLGDGHVVLQGLFDLVVmRUHGX]LGDV D VLPSOHV FRUUHLD GH WUDQVPLVVmR GRV LQWHUHVVHV GH XP SDUWLGR RX GH XP JUXSR SROtWLFR e XPD PDQLIHVWDomR TXH REVWDFXOL]D D TXH RV VLQGLFDWRV VHMDP FDQDLV GH H[SUHVVmR GRV LQWHUHVVHV H GD SOXUDOLGDGHGHGHVHMRVHGHRSLQL}HVH[LVWHQWHVHQWUH RV WUDEDOKDGRUHV H DV WUDEDOKDGRUDV 1mR UDUR R UHVXOWDGRGLVVRpDWUDQVIRUPDomRGDVHQWLGDGHVHP YHtFXORH[FOXVLYRGDVSRVLo}HVGHXPDJUXSDPHQWR SROtWLFRH[SOLFLWDPHQWHSDUWLGiULRRXQmR 6HP SUHMXt]R GD IXQomR HVVHQFLDO GH GHIHVD GRV LQWHUHVVHV LPHGLDWRV GRVGDV WUDEDOKDGRUHV WUDEDOKDGRUDVGDVXDGLPHQVmRGHFRUUHWRUDVGRYDORU GDIRUoDGHWUDEDOKRGRVHXFDUiWHUDEHUWRDSDUWLGiULR H GH PDVVDV DV HQWLGDGHV VLQGLFDLV VmR RUJDQLVPRV LQHJDYHOPHQWH SROtWLFRV 6mR HVSDoRV GH XQLmR GDV FODVVHVWUDEDOKDGRUDVHLQVWUXPHQWRVGHGHIHVDHGH OXWDSHORVLQWHUHVVHVGRVGDVDVVDODULDGRVDVVDODULDGDV FRQWUDRVLQWHUHVVHVGRFDSLWDO 6RPHQWH D SDUWLU GH PpWRGRV GH DWXDomR UDGLFDOPHQWH GHPRFUiWLFRV H GH IRUPDV GH OXWD FRPEDWLYDV VHUi SRVVtYHO FRQWULEXLU GH IRUPD HIHWLYDSDUDIRUMDUXPDFRQVFLrQFLDGHFODVVHGRV WUDEDOKDGRUHVHWUDEDOKDGRUDV 3RULVVRXPDGDVGLPHQV}HVFHQWUDLVGRWUDEDOKR VLQGLFDOTXHGHYHPVHUHYLGHQFLDGDVRPDLVDPSOD HQLWLGDPHQWHSRVVtYHOpRFRQÁLWRDQWDJ{QLFRTXH RS}HRVLQWHUHVVHVGHSDWU}HVHGHHPSUHJDGRV RV SURSyVLWRV GR FDSLWDO H RV DQVHLRV GR SUROHWDULDGReGHVWHPRGRHVREUHWXGRQDOXWD TXH DV HQWLGDGHV VLQGLFDLV SRGHUmR FRQWULEXLU FRP D DPSOLDomR H D FRPSUHHQVmR GRVGDV WUDEDOKDGRUHVWUDEDOKDGRUDV H GR SRYR VREUH D QHFHVVLGDGHGHVXSHUDUPRVRFDSLWDOLVPRHVREUH DQHFHVVLGDGHGDFRQVWUXomRGRVRFLDOLVPR

)RWR5DtVVD9HORVR


organização

)RWR)iELR1DVVLI


organizaรงรฃo

0s bons fundamentos de uma organizaรงรฃo revolucionรกria Por bid teixeira*

)RWR+HOHQD0DUWLQV

E

P WHPSRV GH 37 VRFLDO OLEHUDO UHOHPEUDU D REUDGH/rQLQWRUQRXVHDOJRGHJRVWRGXYL GRVRSDUDPXLWRV$LGHLDGHTXHR/HQLQDXWR ULWiULRHVWDULDQDUDL]GRVFULPHVGRHVWDOLQLVPR p PXLWR SRSXODU 0HVPR QRVVR FRPSDQKHLUR 'DQLHO %HQVDLG TXH QD FRQWUDPmR GR YHQWR UHLQDQWHHVFUHYHXHDWXDOL]RXFRLVDVLPSRUWDQ WHV VREUH R UHYROXFLRQiULR UXVVR SULRUL]RX R /rQLQPDJRGDHVWUDWpJLDUHYROXFLRQiULDPDLV GRTXHRSRUWDGRUGHXPDFRQFHSomRGHRUJD QL]DomRGHQVDHSROrPLFD $FUHGLWDPRV HQWUHWDQWR TXH SHUPDQH FHP DWXDLV LGHLDV VLVWHPDWL]DGDV SRU /H QLQDSDU WLUGHH[SHULrQFLDVIXQGDPHQWDLV GDOXWDUHYROXFLRQiULDTXHFRPSXVHUDPR TXHILFRXQDKLVWyULDFRPRXPDWHRULDOH QLQLVWD GH RUJDQL]DomR DQWHULRU H DSDU WDGD GDV GHIRUPDo}HV HVWDOLQLVWDV ,GHLDV ~WHLV DFUHGLWDPRV SDUD XPD HVTXHUGD UDGLFDOEUDVLOHLUDTXHPDOVDtGDGDWRQWX UD SURGX]LGD SHOD FDSLWXODomR SHWLVWD VH Yr jV YROWDV FRP RV GHVDILRV HVWUDWpJLFRV GHXP362/TXHGHVSHU WDPXLWDHVSHUDQ oDPDVTXHDRPHVPRWHPSRWHPQRVHX FDPLQKRPXLWRVSHULJRV



* Professor e membro da coordenaรงรฃo nacional do Enlace

Um diรกlogo com o espontaneรญsmo e o sentimento anti-partido eSRVVtYHOGHUURWDURFDSLWDOLVPRVHPFRQVWUXLU SDUWLGRVSROtWLFRVGDFODVVH"eSUHFLVRUHVSRQGHU QHJDWLYDPHQWH D HVWD SHUJXQWD H GHL[DU FODUR TXH HVWDPRV WUDWDQGR IXQGDPHQWDOPHQWH GR FDPLQKR QHFHVViULR SDUD FRQVWUXLU XPD FRQVFL rQFLD GH FODVVH VRFLDOLVWD VDtGD GR LQWHULRU GD VRFLHGDGHFDSLWDOLVWD)DoDPRVXPSDUDOHORKLV WyULFRSDUDREVHUYDUFRPRVHGHXDDVFHQVmRGD EXUJXHVLDFRPRFODVVHUHYROXFLRQiULDHFRPRHOD IRUMRXDVXDSUySULDFRQVFLrQFLDFRPRFODVVH $ EXUJXHVLD VXUJH GR LQWHULRU GH XPD VRFLH GDGHIHXGDOHPOHQWDGHFRPSRVLomR2VPHU FDGRV R FRPpUFLR D DFXPXODomR GH ULTXH]D D XUEDQL]DomR VmR WRGRV IHQ{PHQRV TXH SX GHUDPVHGHVHQYROYHUDQWHVHQmRGHSRLVGR DVVDOWREXUJXrVDR3RGHUGH(VWDGR$*UDQGH 5HYROXomR)UDQFHVDGRVpFXOR;9,,,DWpSURGX ]LX ยดSDUWLGRVยต FOXEHV  GD EXUJXHVLD QmR IRL PXLWR R FDVR LQJOrV QR VpFXOR DQWHULRU  PDV HVWHVFOXEHVRUJDQL]DPVHWRUHVGHXPDFODVVH TXHMiDFXPXODUDPDWHULDOPHQWHVRFLDOPHQWH HSURGX]LDLGHLDVHLQWHOHFWXDLV 1DVRFLHGDGHFDSLWDOLVWDPRGHUQDDRFRQWUiULR QmRKiFRPRDFXPXODUHH[SDQGLUXPยดPRGRVR FLDOLVWDGHSURGX]LUHYLYHUยต2FUHVFLPHQWRGDLQ G~VWULDHGRHPSUHJRDVVDODULDGRQmRpLVVRSRLV

D SUROHWDUL]DomR VLJQLร€FD R PRGR GH SURGXomR GRFDSLWDOLVPRHVXDVIRUPDVGHVRFLDELOLGDGHH QmRRPRGRGHSURGXomRGRVRFLDOLVPR$WHQ WDWLYDGHDFXPXODUXPPRGRGHSURGXomRDOWHU QDWLYRPDWHULDOL]RXVHQRVLQ~PHURVSURMHWRVGR VRFLDOLVPR XWySLFR TXH รRUHVFHUDP ยฒ PDMRULWD ULDPHQWHQRQRYRPXQGRHPDMRULWDULDPHQWHQD VHJXQGDPHWDGHGRVpFXOR;,;ยฒSRUSRXFRWHP SR H IRUDP VHPSUH DR ร€QDO UHDEVRUYLGRV SHOD GLQkPLFDGRPHUFDGRFDSLWDOLVWD )UHQWH D HVWD GLIHUHQoD KLVWyULFD R SUROHWDULD GRQHFHVVLWDULDGDยดIRUoDSURWHWRUDยตGHXPSDU WLGR SROtWLFR RX SDUWLGRV SROtWLFRV  SDUD IRUPDU VXDFRQVFLrQFLDDQWLFDSLWDOLVWDFRPRDEXUJXHVLD QXQFDQHFHVVLWRXTXDQGRKLVWRULFDPHQWHDVFHQ GHQWH VH IRUPDYD FRPR FODVVH SDUD VL QD OXWD FRQWUD R YHOKR UHJLPH 3DVVDGRV PDLV GH FHP DQRVGDSULPHLUDIRUPXODomRGHVWDLGHLDQmRKi UD]mRSDUDLPDJLQDUTXHHVWHMDVXSHUDGDHVWDQH FHVVLGDGHTXDQGRSHQVDPRVQRERPEDUGHLRGD PtGLDPRGHUQDQDIUDJPHQWDomRGDYLGDVRFLDO GD FRPSHWLomR SHUPDQHQWH TXH WXGR PHUFDQ WLOL]D H TXH LQFLWD PDLV H PDLV R LQGLYLGXDOLVPR HJRtVWD 6H R SDUWLGR SROtWLFR VRFLDOLVWD QmR IRU XPDHVFRODHPTXHVHUHVSLUHHSUDWLTXHDVROL GDULHGDGHHDDomRFROHWLYDยฒDOpPGRDFHVVRDR FRQKHFLPHQWR KLVWyULFR H FLHQWtร€FR DFXPXODGR SHOD KXPDQLGDGH ยฒ D IRUPDomR GD FRQVFLrQFLD SROtWLFD HVWDUi EORTXHDGD SRVWR TXH R PXQGR

GRV VLQGLFDWRV DLQGD TXH HGXTXH QD OXWD FROH WLYD VRIUH SRU GHPDLV D SUHVVmR GD OyJLFD HP TXHHVWDOXWDFROHWLYDVHPSUHWUDQVERUGD VDOYR HPVLWXDo}HVFODUDPHQWHUHYROXFLRQiULDV SDUDR GHVHQODFHGDQHJRFLDomRHPFRQGLo}HVPDLVID YRUiYHLVGDYHQGDGDIRUoDGHWUDEDOKRPDLVGR TXHGHVXDHPDQFLSDomR A construรงรฃo do partido รฉ tarefa permanente 3RUTXH p SHUPDQHQWH R HVIRUoR GH DPSOLDU D FRQVFLrQFLDSROtWLFDQRLQWHULRUGDFODVVHGDTXH OHVTXHYLYHPGRVHXWUDEDOKR([LVWHXPDUHODomR GLDOpWLFDHQWUHDVOXWDVHRDYDQoRGHFRQVFLrQFLD DH[SHULrQFLDGDOXWDVRFLDOUHWLUDFRQWLQJHQWHVGD YLGDSULYDGDHDVHOHYDDWpXPDFRQVFLHQWL]DomR SROtWLFDGHVXDH[SORUDomRSHORFDSLWDOLVPR(VWH FRQWLQJHQWHSRUVXDYH]TXDQGRWHPHVVDFRQV FLrQFLD HDEUDoDXPDQRYDDWLWXGHPLOLWDQWH HV WDELOL]DGDWHQGHDUHIRUoDUDOXWDVRFLDOVHJXLQWH 2SDUWLGRpRDJHQWHGDRUJDQL]DomRHHVWDELOL ]DomRGHVVDFRQVFLrQFLDHGHVVDPLOLWkQFLD $ PHWiIRUD p D GD RUJDQL]DomR SROtWLFD IXQFLR QDQGRFRPRXPJDQFKRTXHSRVWDGRQRiSLFHGD RQGDGRVDVFHQVRVGDOXWDDJDUUDDPLOLWkQFLDTXH GHVSHUWDSDUDDDomRHDWUDYpVGDIRUPDomRHRU JDQL]DomR SROtWLFDV LPSHGH TXH HVWH VHWRU UHรXD QRPRPHQWRHPTXHDRQGDGHOXWDVUHรXLU $VVLPVHDRVFLODomRLQWHUPLQiYHOGHDVFHQ


VRVHUHFXRVGDVOXWDVVRFLDLVpPDLVRXPH QRVLQHYLWiYHORSDUWLGRLQWHUYpPGHPDQHL UDFRQVFLHQWHSDUDTXHRPHVPRQmRRFRUUD FRPRDF~PXOR HGHVDFXPXOR GDFRQVFLrQ FLD H PLOLWkQFLD $R VDOYDU R TXH p SRVVtYHO VDOYDU PHOKRUD DV FRQGLo}HV SDUD TXH QR SUy[LPRFLFORDVFHQGHQWHDRUJDQL]DomRPL OLWDQWH DFXPXODGD SRVVD OHYDU PDLV ORQJH H PDLVDOWRDRQGDGHOXWDVGDFODVVH$RUJD QL]DomRSROtWLFDGHYDQJXDUGDDSHQDVQHVWH VHQWLGRLPSHGHTXHRDF~PXORVHMDUHWRPD GRGRPHVPRSRQWRGHSDUWLGD A organização e a parcela ativa da classe 1DGDPDLVyEYLRGRTXHDÀUPDUTXHHPWHP SRVQmRUHYROXFLRQiULRVDLGHRORJLDGDFODVVH GRPLQDQWH p D LGHRORJLD DPSODPHQWH GRPL QDQWHQDVRFLHGDGHSRUWDQWRPDMRULWiULDWDP EpP QR LQWHULRU GDV YtWLPDV GHVVD VRFLHGDGH 'HVWH SRQWR GH YLVWD ÀFD FODUR FRPR p YD]LD HVHQVRFRPXPDYHOKDODP~ULDGDVYLV}HVGH PXQGR ´SHTXHQREXUJXHVDV H FRQVXPLVWDVµ SUHVHQWHV QD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD QR %UDVLO H IRUD GR %UDVLO (VWD p D RULJHP GD SROrPLFD WmR DQWLJD WmR IDPRVD H PXLWDV YH]HV SRXFR FRPSUHHQGLGD HQWUH /rQLQ H 0DUWRY VREUH RV HVWDWXWRVGRSDUWLGRUXVVRQRVSULPHLURVDQRV GRVpFXOR;;/RJRRTXHpGHVHMiYHOQRVVLQ GLFDWRV H GHPDLV RUJDQL]Do}HV GH PDVVD QmR RpQHFHVVDULDPHQWHQDRUJDQL]DomRSROtWLFD2 VLQGLFDWROXWDSHODSUHVHQoDGHWRGDDFODVVHH DGHPRFUDFLDGHEDVHLPSOLFDRSRGHUGHYRWR SDUDWRGRV 1R SDUWLGR p IXQGDPHQWDO TXH R SRGHU GH GHFLVmRQmRVHMDHVWHQGLGRDRVHWRUGDFODVVH TXHSRVVXLXPDUHODomRGHVLPSDWLDGHDSRLR HOHLWRUDO PDV FXMD SDVVLYLGDGH SROtWLFD GHYH VHU DLQGD YLVWD FRPR LQGtFLR GH FRQVFLrQFLD LQFRPSOHWD H WHQGHQWH D VXVWHQWDU GLUHo}HV RSRUWXQLVWDV1DKLVWyULDGR37RVVHWRUHVQmR UHYROXFLRQiULRVWLYHUDPSOHQDFRQVFLrQFLDGLV VR TXDQGR LPSXVHUDP SDUD WRGR R SDUWLGR R VLVWHPD GH XUQDV DEHUWDV QDV FRQYHQo}HV GH EDVHTXHSDVVDUDPDSHUPLWLUDVYRWDo}HVDQ WHVPHVPRTXHDGLVFXVVmRSROtWLFDVHLQLFLDVVH 2ÀOLDGRGR37QmRPDLVSUHFLVDYDVHPRELOL]DU SRUVXDSUySULDLQLFLDWLYDHSDUWLFLSDUGHGHED WHVSROtWLFRV SDUDHOHJHUVXDVGLUHo}HVDJRUD PRELOL]DGRVDUWLÀFLDOPHQWHSRUDSDUDWRVVLQGL FDLVRXOLGHUDQoDVS~EOLFDV SDUODPHQWDUHV RX OLGHUDQoDV GR (VWDGR SUHIHLWRV  FRQGX]LGRV DRV ORFDLV GH YRWDomR SRU FDUDYDQDV GH YDQV 

H {QLEXV EDVWDYD GHSRVLWDU QD XUQD XP YRWR GHJUDWLGmR8PSDUWLGRGHÀOLDGRVQmRPDLV XPSDUWLGRGHPLOLWkQFLDVRFLDOXPSDUWLGRGH PDQLSXODomRGHPDVVDV 1RUHFHQWHGLUHWyULRQDFLRQDOGR362/REOR FRjGLUHLWDQRSDUWLGRLPS{VXPDH[LJrQFLDGH DSHQDVPLQXWRVGHDVVLVWrQFLDDRVGHEDWHV DQWHVGRLQtFLRGDVYRWDo}HV3HUPDQHFHSRU WDQWRDEDWDOKDGHVHPSUHRSDUWLGRGHPDV VDVGHTXHDFODVVHQHFHVVLWDpXPSDUWLGRGH PDVVDVRUJDQL]DGDVSROLWL]DGDVHFRQVFLHQWHV 1XQFD XP SDUWLGR FRP PDVVDV GH PDQREUD DUUHJLPHQWDGDV DUWLÀFLDOPHQWH SHOR (VWDGR H DWUDtGDV SRU IHVWDV H EULQGHV 3DUD XPD RUJD QL]DomRFDSD]GHLQWHUYLUQDOXWDSRUXP362/ PLOLWDQWH D SRVWXUD DWLYD VH FRPELQD FRP R FRPSURPLVVRGHVXDVXVWHQWDomRPDWHULDO'H PDQHLUDLQGLUHWDHDSHQDVSDUFLDOSRUpPPHV PRDVVLPVLJQLÀFDWLYDRVXFHVVRGHXPDFXOWX UDGHFRQWULEXLomRÀQDQFHLUDPHQVDOGDVHGRV PLOLWDQWHVGHXPDFRUUHQWHSROtWLFDpXPVLQDO GH TXH HVWH FROHWLYR FRQVHJXLX FRQWUDUUHVWDU R LQGLYLGXDOLVPR R FLQLVPR H R PDWHULDOLVPR GDVRFLHGDGHEXUJXHVDHUHDÀUPDQRVJUDQGHV H SHTXHQRV JHVWRV GH VXD PLOLWkQFLD R FRP SURPLVVRFRPDFRQVWUXomRGHXPDVRFLHGDGH QRYDFRPVHUHVKXPDQRVQRYRV De volta ao centralismo e uma cultura de FRQÀDQoDP~WXD 0XLWRVHPXLWDVGHQyVFRQKHFHPRVRDUJX PHQWR FOiVVLFR SDUD GHUURWDU XP LQLPLJR WmR FHQWUDOL]DGR FRPR R Q~FOHR GXUR GR (VWDGR EXUJXrV DSHQDV XPD IHUUDPHQWD LJXDOPHQWH FHQWUDOL]DGD H iJLO QD LQLFLDWLYD SROtWLFD $SyV WDQWDV UHYROXo}HV H FRQWUDUHYROXo}HV DFX PXODGDV QD KLVWyULD PXQGLDO GDV OXWDV FRQWUD R FDSLWDO H VHX UHLQDGR HVVH DUJXPHQWR SD UHFH PDQWHUVH UHDOLVWD VHQVDWR FRUUHWR 0DV WDOYH] VRH PXLWR JHUDO SDUD R FRQYHQFLPHQWR FRWLGLDQR 1DV H[SHULrQFLDV GH FRQVWUXomR GH FROHWLYRV DQWLFDSLWDOLVWDV R GHVHQYROYLPHQWR GH XPD FXOWXUD GH FHQWUDOLVPR GHPRFUiWLFR WUD]DYDQWDJHPGHPDQWHUDSRVVLELOLGDGHGH UHDOL]DomR GH EDODQoRV FRPXQV GD DSOLFDomR GH KLSyWHVHV GH WUDEDOKR FRPXQV GHFLGLGDV GHPRFUDWLFDPHQWH 1R LQWHULRU GH XPD FRUUHQWH SROtWLFD GHPR FUiWLFD DV GLYHUJrQFLDV TXH DSDUHFHP VmR GL YHUJrQFLDVWiWLFDVDSDUWLUGHXPREMHWLYRHV WUDWpJLFR FRPXP TXDO p R PHOKRU FDPLQKR SDUDDOFDQoiOR"$VFRLVDVWHQGHPDVHUDVVLP

SRUTXH D SHUPDQrQFLD GH ODUJDV GLYHUJrQFLDV HVWUDWpJLFDV GHORQJRI{OHJR WHQGHDLQGLFDU TXH QmR Ki PDLV EDVH FRPXP TXH MXVWLÀTXH XPD~QLFDFRUUHQWHXP~QLFRSURMHWR'LIHUHQ WHVFDPLQKRVDVHJXLUSDUDDOFDQoDUXPDPHV PDPHWDpRPHVPRTXHGL]HUTXHRFROHWLYR HVWiIUHQWHDGXDVKLSyWHVHVGHWUDEDOKR 2TXHDFRQWHFHTXDQGRDSyVRGHEDWHGH PRFUiWLFR VHP R TXDO VH SHUGH TXDOTXHU FRQYHQFLPHQWR SDUD XPD DomR XQLILFDGD  TXH HVWDEHOHFH XPD PDLRULD H XPD PLQRULD FDGDXP D DSOLFDVXDKLSyWHVHGHWUDEDOKR" $UHVSRVWDGDYLGDWHQGHDVHUDSyVXPDQR RX XP VHPHVWUH RX PHVPR DSyV XP JUDQ GH DFRQWHFLPHQWR R EDODQoRQHFHVViULRTXH D RUJDQL]DomR SUHFLVD ID]HU ² SRUTXH KLSyWH VHV IRUDP DSOLFDGDV H p SUHFLVR UHDILUPDU RX FRUULJLU UXPRV ² WHQGH D WRUQDUVH XP GHEDWH FRQIXVR HQYHQHQDGR VHP UHIHUrQFLDV IDFWX DLVFRPXQVHPVtQWHVH R GHEDWH QR SkQWDQR $ KLSyWHVH GD PDLR ULD PRVWURXVH DSHQDV SDUFLDOPHQWH EHP VX FHGLGD SRUTXH HVWDYD HUUDGD RX SRUTXH DV IRUoDVGDFRUUHQWHSDUD DSOLFiOD HVWDYDP GLV SHUVDV" $ PHVPD G~YL GD VHUi FRORFDGD SDUD DYDOLDUDKLSyWHVHDSOLFDGDSHODPLQRULDFRP RDJUDYDQWHGRIDUGRTXHD´LQGLVFLSOLQDµGD PLQRULD FDUUHJDUi 3LRU GR TXH LVVR FRPR D PLOLWkQFLDDJLXVHSDUDGDPHQWHHODDWXRXHP HVSDoRVGLIHUHQWHVYLYHXDFRQWHFLPHQWRVGL IHUHQWHVQmRYLYLGRVSHODRXWUDSDUWH&RPR FRQILDU SOHQDPHQWH QRV UHODWRV GH XP VHWRU HGRRXWURVHWRU" 3DUD HQFHUUDU HVWH SHTXHQR WH[WR SDUHFH MXVWR UHFXSHUDU R VHQWLGR GR FHQWUDOLVPR RX FHQWUDOL]DomR  QXP RXWUR DVSHFWR TXH QDGD WHP D YHU FRP D QHFHVViULD XQLGDGH QD DomR FRPHQWDGD DFLPD 8PD RUJDQL]DomR SROtWL FDTXHUDWXDUQDOXWDVRFLDOUHDO4XHUFUHVFHU FRQTXLVWDUDGHSWRVUHFUXWDUDVHRVPHOKRUHV OXWDGRUHV GD FODVVH HP WRGRV RV VHWRUHV HP TXH D OXWD VH GHVHQYROYH $ RUJDQL]DomR TXHU WRUQDUVH XPD RUJDQL]DomR GH PLOKDUHV H PL

OKDUHVGHPLOLWDQWHVFUtWLFRVFDSD]HVGHSHQVDU FRPDVXDFDEHoD&RPRVLQWHWL]DUQXPFRUSR FRHUHQWH WDQWDV H[SHULrQFLDV TXH VmR YLYLGDV WRGRRWHPSRPDVSRUSHVVRDVGLIHUHQWHVHP JHRJUDÀDVHWHPSRVGLIHUHQWHV"6LPSRUTXHD VtQWHVHpQHFHVViULDSDUDTXHDVDQiOLVHVVHMDP PDLVULFDVVHQWLQGRRSXOVRSUHFLVRGDUHDOLGD GH 6HP LVVR QmR Ki FRPR HODERUDU SROtWLFDV GHDomRDGHTXDGDV $VYDULDGDVHTXLSHVGHGLUHomRTXHDRUJD QL]DomR FRQVWUyL SRGHP VH LPDJLQDU FRPR ´FHQWURVµ GR FROHWLYR GHVGH TXH QmR LQWHU SUHWHP R VHQWLGR GHVWD SDODYUD FRPR FRQ FHQWUDomR GH SRGHU H LQIRUPDo}HV 'HYHP SHUVHJXLU DWp D RE VHVVmR DR FRQWUiULR D LGHLD GH TXH DWXDU FRPRXP´FHQWURµVLJ QLILFD XQLILFDU H UHGLV WULEXLU LQIRUPDo}HV UHFROKHU DV H[SHULrQ FLDVGLVSHUVDVHGHYRO YrODVQXPWRGRPDLV FRHUHQWH H DWXDOL]DGR &HQWUDOL]DU DTXL Vy WHP VHUYHQWLD VH VHX FRQWH~GR IRU R GH GHVIUDJPHQWDU 'HV IUDJPHQWDU D H[SHUL rQFLD GHVIUDJPHQWDU DDomR 3RU ILP XPD MRYHP RUJDQL]DomR SROtWLFD IUDFDVVDUi VH QmR SHU VHJXLUKiELWRVRUJDQL ]DWLYRVHILFD]HVQDIRUPDomRGHHTXLSHVGLUL JHQWHVQRVSODQRVORFDLVHQDFLRQDO$YLGDGH XPDHTXLSHGHGLUHomRWHPTXHVHURHVSDoR IRUPDGRU GH QRYDV H QRYRV GLULJHQWHV (VWH HVSDoRSUHFLVDDSUHQGHUDID]HUGHEDWHVTXH DFDORUDGRV SRUTXH D FDXVD p JUDQGLRVD H D KLSyWHVHGRHUURLPSOLFDSUHMXt]RVGHPRQWD QmRWRUQHDSROrPLFDXPDIRQWHGHLQLELomR H LQWLPLGDomR DRV PDLV MRYHQV DVVLP FRPR QmRVHWRUQHRYtFLRDWUDHQWHSRUpPGHVWUX WLYR GRV YHOKRV QHP IRQWH GH EORFDPHQWRV SUHFLSLWDGRV H SHUVRQDOL]DGRV $ FXOWXUD GR GHEDWH SHUPDQHQWH GHYH QRV OHPEUDU SHU PDQHQWHPHQWHTXHGLVFXWLPRVKLSyWHVHVGH WUDEDOKRQmRGLVFXWLPRVSHVVRDV$LQGDTXH DV YH]HV SRVVD VH WRUQDU LQHYLWiYHO FREUDU D DomRRXDSRVWXUDGHSHVVRDV

No interior de uma corrente política democrática, as divergências que aparecem são divergências táticas: a partir de um objetivo estratégico comum, qual é o melhor caminho para alcançá-lo?


organizaรงรฃo

os desafios de uma Organizaรงรฃo militante nos dias atuais Por FERNANDO SILVA*

)RWR5DtVVD9HORVR

A

SHUVSHFWLYDGHXQLร€FDomRHQWUHPDU[LVWDVUH YROXFLRQiULRVFRORFDRGHEDWHGHFRQFHSomR GHRUJDQL]DomRHSROtWLFDยฒFULWpULRVGHPLOLWkQFLD SUiWLFD PLOLWDQWH ยฒ HQWUH RV PDLV GHFLVLYRV SDUD RVGLDVGHKRMH1HVWHDUWLJREXVFDPRVDOLQKD YDU WHPDV QHFHVViULRV SDUD VHUHP GHVHQYROYL GRVHGHEDWLGRVQHVVHSURFHVVR&RPRPtQLPR QRVWHPSRVDWXDLVDOJXPDVSHUJXQWDVSUHFLVDP GH ERDV UHVSRVWDVTXDQGRVHIDODHPYHUWHEUDU XPDRUJDQL]DomRPDU[LVWDUHYROXFLRQiULDRTXH pFRQVWUXLUXPDRUJDQL]DomRSROtWLFDPDU[LVWDH UHYROXFLRQiULDQRVGLDVGHKRMHHQHVVDHWDSDGH XPDUHRUJDQL]DomRDLQGDLQLFLDOGHIRUoDVQDHV TXHUGD DQWLFDSLWDOLVWD" &RPR DWUDLU QRYRV PLOL WDQWHVHPSROJDUDMXYHQWXGHDSDUWLFLSDUGHUHX QL}HV UHJXODUHV" 2 TXH RIHUHFHU HP WHUPRV GH IXQFLRQDPHQWRHRUJDQL]DomRSDUDQmRVHWRUQDU XPPDLVGRPHVPRHPWHUPRVGRTXHpFRPXP HURWLQHLURQRIXQFLRQDPHQWRGDVRUJDQL]Do}HV" 4XHUHPRVDTXLSDUWLUGHXPERPSULQFtSLRJH UDO DSUHVHQWDGR SHOR FDPDUDGD 5HQDWR 5RVHQR GXUDQWH RV GHEDWHV GR VHPLQiULR GH IHYHUHLUR SURPRYLGR SHODV FRRUGHQDo}HV GR (QODFH H GR &62/ ยด2 REMHWLYR GHVWH SURFHVVR p H[SUHVVDU XPDVtQWHVHHQWUHFRQWH~GRSURJUDPiWLFRHFRQ GXWDGDRUJDQL]DomRยต



* Jornalista e membro do Coletivo Socialismo e Liberdade

Conceitos iniciais para o debate 6HULD LPSRUWDQWH WHQWDU HVWDEHOHFHU DOJXQV SD UkPHWURV RX FRQFHLWRV FRQVWLWXWLYRV QXP GHEDWH GH FRQFHSomR GH RUJDQL]DomR 3ULPHLUR HVWDPRV WUDEDOKDQGRDTXLRFRQFHLWRGHSDUWLGR2XVHMDQR VHQWLGR GD YLVmR FOiVVLFD GH TXH SDUWLGR p SDUWH p SURGXWR GH XP DFRUGR YROXQWiULR HQWUH GLUHo}HV H TXDGURVHPWRUQRGHXPSURMHWRFRPXPGHSRGHU GHHVWUDWpJLDHGHSURJUDPD1mRGHSHQGHGRVKX PRUHVGDOXWDGHFODVVHVHGRVDVFHQVRVHGHVFHQVRV SDUDH[LVWLUSRUTXHUHSUHVHQWDXPDJUXSDPHQWRFRP DFRQVFLrQFLDGHXPDSHUPDQHQWHRUJDQL]DomRSDUD FRQVSLUDUFRQWUDRFDSLWDOLVPRGLVSXWDUKHJHPRQLD GHLGHLDVUXPRVGRPRYLPHQWRGHPDVVDVIRUPDU QRYRVTXDGURVGLYXOJDUDVLGHLDVGDUHYROXomR 6HJXQGRDFRQFHSomRGHRUJDQL]DomRpSROtWLFD HQmRDGPLQLVWUDWLYD4XDQGRIDODPRVGHRUJDQL]D omRQRUPDOPHQWHUHPHWHVHDHVWUXWXUDVIXQFLR QDPHQWRDWpQ~PHURVTXHVmRVLVWHPDWL]DGRVHP XPHVWDWXWRHHPREMHWLYRVGHFRQVWUXomR0DVR HVWDWXWRpDVLVWHPDWL]DomRGHQRUPDVGHXPSUR MHWRSROtWLFRRUJDQL]DFLRQDO,VVRSRUTXHDDUHQDGD FRQVWUXomR H GD DWLYLGDGH GH XPD RUJDQL]DomR p DGDSROtWLFDpDGDDWXDomRQDYLGDVRFLDOHSRU WDQWRDRUJDQL]DomRH[LVWHSDUDHODERUDUHDSOLFDU SROtWLFDVSDUDFRQVWUXLUXPSURMHWRGHSRGHU GR QRVVRSRQWRGHYLVWD XPSURMHWRGHSRGHUVRFLD

OLVWD$HVVrQFLDGHXPDRUJDQL]DomRpWHUHVSDoRV PLOLWDQWHVUHJXODUHVGHIRUPXODomRGHSROtWLFDGH SURMHWRSDUDDLQWHUYHQomRQDYLGDUHDOQRQRVVR FDVRQRVHVSDoRVGRSDUWLGRHQDVIUHQWHVGHLQ WHUYHQomRQRPRYLPHQWR'HRXWURODGRHVWDFRQ FHSomRSROtWLFDGHRUJDQL]DomRSUHFLVDGHUHJUDV IURQWHLUDV FULWpULRV GLUHLWRV H GHYHUHV LJXDLV SDUD WRGRVRVPLOLWDQWHVHTXHVHMDPFRHUHQWHVFRPXP SURMHWRHVWUDWpJLFRTXHpDUHYROXomRVRFLDOLVWDHD SHUPDQHQWHOXWDFRQWUDRFDSLWDOLVPRHVHXVLQVWUX PHQWRVGHGRPLQDomR O marxismo revolucionรกrio รฉ para a aรงรฃo

(QWUH RXWUDV FRQVHTXrQFLDV GHVWD QDWXUH]D YDOH GHVWDFDUTXHWDOYLVmRVLJQLร€FDSHQVDUHPEXVFDSHU PDQHQWHGDLQVHUomRVRFLDOGDRUJDQL]DomRGRVVHXV PLOLWDQWHV QDV FDPDGDV PDLV GLQkPLFDV GRV H[SOR UDGRV SDUD RUJDQL]iORV GLVSXWDU D FRQVFLrQFLD GD FODVVHWUD]HORVjRUJDQL]DomR5LJRURVDPHQWHQmR HVWDPRVLQYHQWDQGRQDGDQDKLVWyULDGRPDU[LVPRH GRPRYLPHQWRRSHUiULRDSHQDVEXVFDQGRUHFXSHUDU DTXLORTXHDOJXPDVGpFDGDVGHUHรX[RVGHUURWDVH UHWURFHVVRVEXURFUDWL]Do}HVHDFRPRGDo}HVWLUDUDP GRKRUL]RQWH RXGHIRUPDUDP PHVPRHPXPXQL YHUVRGHXPPDU[LVPRPLOLWDQWH (LQVHUomRVRFLDOWDPEpPWHPDYHUFRPID]HUD JUDQGH SROtWLFD MXQWR DRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV D RUJD QL]DomR SUHFLVD WHU FDPSDQKDV SROtWLFDV DR UHGRU GRVJUDQGHVWHPDVQDFLRQDLVTXHGHHPXQLGDGH QDFLRQDODRQRVVRGLVFXUVRHVHMDPVHPSUHXPID WRUGHSUHVVmRSDUDHYLWDUTXHDPLOLWkQFLDVRFLDOVH OLPLWHDRHFRQRPLFLVPRRXDRFRUSRUDWLYLVPR3RLV HP WHUPRV HVWUDWpJLFRV HVWDPRV QR PRYLPHQWR SDUDFRQYHQFHURVHDVWUDEDOKDGRUHVGHXPSURMH WRGHSRGHUTXHpSUHFLVRPXGDURPXQGRHQmR DSHQDVOXWDUSHORVVHXVLQWHUHVVHVLPHGLDWRV

'HVWHVGRLVFRQFHLWRVLQLFLDLVTXHGHYHPHVWDUDVHU YLoRGHSROLWL]DURGHEDWHHPVLGHFRQFHSomRHHP VHWUDWDQGRGHXPSURFHVVRSUiWLFRHPTXHHVWDPRV HQYROYLGRVGHEXVFDUXPDQRYDVtQWHVHSURJUDPiWLFD HRUJDQL]DWLYDQRFDPSRGRPDU[LVPRUHYROXFLRQiULR HPQRVVRSDtVMXOJDPRVQHFHVViULRDYDQoDUQRVRE MHWLYRVRXQDUD]mRGHVHUGDRUJDQL]DomR 1RVSUHSDUDPRVSDUDLQWHUYLUQRVDFRQWHFLPHQ WRV GLVSXWDU RV VHXV UXPRV QD OXWD GH FODVVHV 3DUHFHyEYLRPDVQmRH[LVWHXPPDU[LVPRUHYR OXFLRQiULRTXHVHMDGLJQRGHVVHQRPHVHHOHQmR Ganhar a juventude para a ideia de organizaรงรฃo WLYHUDIRUPDGHXPDRUJDQL]DomRPLOLWDQWHTXH HVWHMDHPFRQVWDQWHIXQFLRQDPHQWRSDUDSUHSD 0DVHVWDEUHYHHUHVXPLGtVVLPDUHFXSHUDomRGH DOJXPDVLGHLDVFKDYHVGDWHRULDOHQLQLVWDGHRUJD UDUDDomRPLOLWDQWHHPTXDOTXHUFRQMXQWXUD


QL]DomR YHUWHEUDGDV QR LQtFLR GR VpFXOR  VmR LPSRUWDQWHVFRPRJXLDPDVQmRSRGHPQRVID]HU HVTXHFHUDVFRQGLo}HVFRQFUHWDVHPTXHDWXDPRV HRVGHVDÀRVFRORFDGRVSDUDVHFRQVWUXLURUJDQL]D o}HVMiSRUHVWDVHJXQGDGpFDGDGRVpFXOR 3RUH[HPSORDVQRYDVJHUDo}HVGHPLOLWDQWHVQDMX YHQWXGHTXHWrPFXPSULGRSURWDJRQLVPRLQGLVFXWtYHO QDSULPDYHUDiUDEHRUJDQL]DQGRPRYLPHQWRVFRPR LQGLJQDGRVQD(VSDQKDRV2FXSS\QRV(8$RXQDV PDVVLYDV PRELOL]Do}HV H JUHYHV FKLOHQDV FDUUHJDP HQRUPHGHVFUpGLWRGDLGHLDGHSDUWLGRHWDPEpPXP UHODWLYRGHVFUpGLWRFRPRTXHH[DWDPHQWHVLJQLÀFDD LGHLDGHVRFLDOLVPR,VWRWHPVLGRXPGHVDÀRHWDQWR SDUDDUHQRYDomRGHXPDHVTXHUGDUHYROXFLRQiULD (PSROJDUFHQWHQDVGHPLOKDUHVGHMRYHQVQRPXQ GRHHPQRVVRSDtVFRP LGHLDVFRPRSDUWLGRRU JDQL]DomR VRFLDOLVPR WHP TXH OHYDU HP FRQ VLGHUDomR TXH HVWDPRV GLDQWH GH XPD GHVFRQ ÀDQoDSURJUHVVLYDMXVWD $ÀQDODSROtWLFDRVSDU WLGRV H D LQVWLWXFLRQDOL GDGHWUDGLFLRQDLVQmRRV UHSUHVHQWD$SHUFHSomR GHTXHSROtWLFDpFDUUHLUD HSDUWLGRpQHJyFLRWHP XPD EDVH REMHWLYD SRLV p H[DWDPHQWH R TXH ID ]HP RV SUySULRV GLWRV SDUWLGRV VRFLDOLVWDV QR FDVRGD(XURSD RXGRV WUDEDOKDGRUHV FDVR GR 37EUDVLOHLUR  ( GH RXWUR ODGR D KH UDQoDGRGHVDVWUHVWDOLQLVWDHDFRQVHTXHQWHDVVR FLDomRGHVRFLDOLVPRRXFRPXQLVPRFRPHVWDGRV WRWDOLWiULRVUHJLPHVSROLFLDLVTXDQGRQmRUHJLPHV DWp XP WDQWR EL]DUURV DRV ROKRV GD MXYHQWXGH FRPRRQRUWHFRUHDQRTXHSURtEHPGHWXGRDWp DFHVVRjVUHGHVVRFLDLVQmRHQWXVLDVPDQLQJXpP (YLGHQWHTXHQRPDUFRGHOXWDUSDUDTXHR362/ SDVVHORQJHGHWDLVFRQFHSo}HVRROKDUGHXPDQRYD RUJDQL]DomRGRPDU[LVPRUHYROXFLRQiULRWHPTXHVHU SULRULWiULRVREUHDMXYHQWXGH%DVLFDPHQWHLVWRVLJQL ÀFDHVWUDWpJLDQDPRELOL]DomRHDXWRRUJDQL]DomRGR PRYLPHQWRHQmRQRMRJRLQVWLWXFLRQDOSHUPDQHQWH OXWDFRQWUDDVIRUPDVGHEXURFUDWL]DomRQRPRYLPHQ WRHXPDRUJDQL]DomRFRPPXLWDGHPRFUDFLDLQWHUQD 7DOVtQWHVHpTXHSRGHFRQYHQFHUDVQRYDVJHUDo}HV TXHRVPDU[LVWDVID]HPDSROtWLFDSDUDDUXSWXUDVLVWr PLFDHVHRUJDQL]DPSDUDWDOREMHWLYR

A busca por uma relação correta entre partido e movimento $UHODomRGDRUJDQL]DomRFRPRVVLQGLFDWRVPR YLPHQWRV VRFLDLV HQÀP FRP RV LQVWUXPHQWRV GH IUHQWH~QLFDGDFODVVHpGRVWHPDVPDLVFRPSOH [RVHLPSRUWDQWHVGHGHEDWHHPXPDFRQFHSomR GH RUJDQL]DomR 4XDLV VmR RV OLPLWHV GD DXWRQR PLD GDV IUHQWHV GH LQWHUYHQomR H VHWRULDLV GLDQWH GDRUJDQL]DomR"$WpRQGHRVWHPDVGHGHÀQLomR SROtWLFDGDRUJDQL]DomRSDUDDDWXDomRQRVVLQGLFD WRVIUHQWHVHVWXGDQWLVPRYLPHQWRVSRSXODUHVGL] UHVSHLWR DRV PLOLWDQWHV TXH DWXDP QHVVDV IUHQWHV HDWpRQGHRVWHPDVWrPTXHVHUSURGXWRGHGH EDWHHGHFLVmRFROHWLYDGHWRGDDRUJDQL]DomR"2 TXHVmRDVGLUHWUL]HVJHUDLV GHXPDSROtWLFDTXHSUHFL VDVHUDSURYDGDSHORFRQ MXQWRGDRUJDQL]DomR SRU XPD FRQIHUrQFLD RX GLUH omRQDFLRQDO HRTXHVmR WHPDV WiWLFRV RX FRQMXQ WXUDLV TXH GL]HP UHVSHLWR jDXWRQRPLDGDVIUHQWHV" 8PDYLVmRPDLVJHUDOTXH VHDSUHVHQWDQHVWHDUWLJRp TXH RV WHPDV PDLV JHUDLV GH GHÀQLomR GH SROtWLFD GH SHUtRGR GH GLUHWUL]HV JHUDLV QR PRYLPHQWR GH PDVVDV VmR GH UHVSRQVD ELOLGDGH GR FRQMXQWR GD RUJDQL]DomR GLIHUHQWH GH TXHVW}HVWiWLFDV FRPRWi WLFDVGHJUHYHHRFXSDo}HV GH WHUUHQR HOHLo}HV VLQGL FDLVSDXWDVVHWRULDLVGHUHLYLQGLFDo}HV GHVGHTXH JXDUGHPFRHUrQFLDFRPRVSULQFtSLRVJHUDLVHSUR JUDPDGDRUJDQL]DomR 0DV QDV TXHVW}HV HVSHFtÀFDV GR PRYLPHQWR RUHVSHLWRDRVIyUXQVGRPRYLPHQWRFRPRDV VHPEOHLDVGHEDVHGDSDUWHGDRUJDQL]DomRHR UHVSHLWRjDXWRQRPLDGDVGHÀQLo}HVGDVLQVWkQ FLDVGHEDVHGDRUJDQL]DomRQDLQWHUYHQomRFRQ FUHWD QD GLVSXWD GR PRYLPHQWR VmR FRQGLo}HV LQGLVSHQViYHLV SDUDXPD VDXGiYHO H GHPRFUiWL FDFRQFHSomRGHRUJDQL]DomRTXHWHPQRVVHXV REMHWLYRVHVWUDWpJLFRVHGHSULQFtSLRVDEXVFDGD DXWRRUJDQL]DomRLQGHSHQGHQWHGDFODVVHWUDED OKDGRUDSDUDDVXDHPDQFLSDomRSROtWLFDHVRFLDO ( GH RXWUR ODGR HVWD FRQFHSomR SHUPLWH FRP EDWHU GHVGH D SUySULD RUJDQL]DomR D FXOWXUD GR DSDUHOKLVPRTXHYLJRUDQRPRYLPHQWRRSHUiULRH

... o respeito à autonomia GDVGHÀQLo}HVGDVLQVWkQFLDV de base da organização na intervenção concreta na disputa do movimento são condições indispensáveis para uma saudável e democrática concepção de organização



SRSXODUGHVGHRVpFXORFRPDVGHJHQHUDo}HV EXURFUiWLFDVGDVRFLDOGHPRFUDFLDHGRVWDOLQLVPR TXHHVWiHQUDL]DGRDWpQDFXOWXUDSROtWLFDGHVHWR UHVGDHVTXHUGDUHYROXFLRQiULDHSRUÀPTXHWDP EpPDMXGDDH[SOLFDURDIDVWDPHQWRGHDWLYLVWDVGD QRYDJHUDomRGRVSDUWLGRVHGRVVLQGLFDWRV 0DVGHRXWURODGRQmRVHSRGHLJQRUDURVXSHU DXWRQRPLVPRGRVPRYLPHQWRVTXHHPDOJXQVFD VRVHVWiOLJDGRQmRDSHQDVDXPDFRQFHSomRPDV DRIHQ{PHQRGDEXURFUDWL]DomRGRPRYLPHQWR HQ WHQGLGDEXURFUDWL]DomRFRPRIHQ{PHQRVRFLDOHSR OtWLFRWDPEpPGHPXGDQoDGHUHODomRFRPDFODVVH GLVWDQFLDPHQWRVHSDUDomR TXHJHUDUHVLVWrQFLDVGH PLOLWDQWHVDDFHLWDUDFHQWUDOL]DomRSHODSROtWLFDJHUDO GDRUJDQL]DomRTXDQGRVHXVLQWHUHVVHVRXDPELo}HV RXDFRPRGDo}HV VmRFRQWUDULDGRV 'LVVRUHVXOWDDQHFHVVLGDGHGHVHGHEDWHUPHFD QLVPRVGHSURWHomRHFRPEDWHjEXURFUDWL]DomRH DRVSHUVRQDOLVPRV2HQWHQGLPHQWRGHXPDFRQ FHSomRLGHROyJLFDHPLOLWDQWHGHSDUWLGRRUJDQL]D omR GHYH VH SDXWDU SHOD YLVmR GH TXHP HVWi HP XPD WDUHID GR PRYLPHQWR FDUJR GLULJHQWH QXP VLQGLFDWRQXPDHQWLGDGHHVWXGDQWLOHRXWUDVWDP EpPHVWiUHSUHVHQWDQGRDRUJDQL]DomRQRVHQWLGR GHUHSUHVHQWDURSURMHWRGHGLYXOJDUDVLGHLDVGR VRFLDOLVPRHGDUHYROXomRGHOXWDUSHODGHPRFUDFLD QRPRYLPHQWRGHEXVFDUJDQKDUQRYRVPLOLWDQWHV QHVVDIUHQWHGHDWXDomRSDUDDRUJDQL]DomR4XH RV FDUJRV GHYHP VHU URGL]LDGRV HVSHFLDOPHQWH TXDQGR HQYROYHUHP OLEHUDo}HV TXH DV HQWLGDGHV GLULJLGDV SRU PLOLWDQWHV PDU[LVWDV UHYROXFLRQiULDV GHYHPVHUDVSULPHLUDVHPWHUPRVGHGHPRFUDFLD QR PRYLPHQWR SOXUDOLGDGH SUHVWDomR GH FRQWDV GDVHQWLGDGHVHWF Mandatos subordinados à organização e não acima dela )DODQGR DSHQDV HP WHUPRV GH %UDVLO 8PD GDV FDXVDV FHQWUDLV GD GHJHQHUDomR GR 37 j LQVWLWX FLRQDOLGDGHIRLDLQGHSHQGrQFLDGRVPDQGDWRVGR SDUWLGR H GHSRLV D VXD WUDQVIRUPDomR HP YHUGD GHLURVFHQWURVGHSRGHUSDUDOHORDFLPDGRSDUWLGR FKHJDQGRHPDOJXQVFDVRVDTXHRVPDQGDWRV H D VXD PDQXWHQomR  WDPEpP DFDEDP RUGHQDQGR WRGDDDWLYLGDGHUHJXODUHREMHWLYRVGDFRUUHQWH 2362/KHUGRXHPSDUWHHVWDGHIRUPDomRQmR pDWpDTXLXPDVXSHUDomRGR37QHVVHWHUUHQR ( LVVR REULJD D TXH DV RUJDQL]Do}HV PDU[LVWDV TXHSOHLWHLDPXPDXQLÀFDomRHDWXDPQR362/ IDoDP HVVH GHEDWH $ LGHLD FHQWUDO DTXL SDUD R GHEDWHRVPDQGDWRVVmRVXERUGLQDGRVjRUJD QL]DomR HP SULPHLUR OXJDU H SHOD VXD GLUHomR

HPSDUWLFXODU8PDYHOKDHFOiVVLFDGHÀQLomRGRV SULPHLURV FRQJUHVVRV GD ,,, ,QWHUQDFLRQDO" 6HP G~YLGD(ODPHQWDPRVTXHHVWDVGHÀQLo}HVTXH HPHUJLUDPDSyVRGHVDVWUHGDFDSLWXODomRSDUOD PHQWDUGDVRFLDOGHPRFUDFLDHXURSHLDQD,*XHU UD0XQGLDOHVWHMDPDLQGDWmRDWXDLV 2V FDPDUDGDV TXH FXPSUHP HVWD WDUHID HVWmR UHSUHVHQWDQGRQRWHUUHQRGDSROtWLFDLQVWLWXFLR QDO QmR DSHQDV VHXV HOHLWRUHV PDV D VXD RUJD QL]DomR QR VHQWLGR GH UHSUHVHQWDU XP SURJUD PD XPD HVWUDWpJLD ,VWR GHYH VH H[SUHVVDU HP VXEPHWHUjRUJDQL]DomRDVSROtWLFDVHLQLFLDWLYDV FHQWUDLVDVHUHPWRPDGDVVXEPHWHUDRVIyUXQV GDRUJDQL]DomRDDSURYDomRGRVFDPDUDGDVTXH WHUmRFDUJRVHWDUHIDVGHDVVHVVRULDSDUODPHQWDU (VWDEHOHFHUOLPLWHGHPDQGDWRVHOLPLWHGHWHPSR SDUDFDUJRVGHDVVHVVRULDFRPSURPLVVRVÀQDQ FHLURV UHOLJLRVDPHQWH HVWDEHOHFLGRV SDUD FRP D RUJDQL]DomRSHORSDUODPHQWDUHDVVHVVRULDHFRP SUHVWDomRGHFRQWDVWDPEpPjRUJDQL]DomReR PtQLPR TXH VH SURS}H SRLV TXDQGR PDQGDWRV SDUODPHQWDUHVRXDDWXDomRLQVWLWXFLRQDOVHFROR FDPDFLPDGDRUJDQL]DomRRXDVXERUGLQD RXDV GXDVFRLVDV DRUJDQL]DomRSDUDDHVWUDWpJLDGD UHYROXomRHVWDUiFRQGHQDGD O critério da generosidade 1HVWHEUHYHDUWLJRWHQWDPRVVLVWHPDWL]DUDOJXQV SLODUHVSDUDRGHEDWHGDFRQFHSomRGHRUJDQL]D omRTXHYHPVHQGRGHEDWLGRVQDPLOLWkQFLDGRV VHWRUHVHQYROYLGRVQRSURFHVVRGHXQLÀFDomR 0DVYDOHDSHQDHQFHUUDUFRPXPDFRQVLGHUDomRGH RUGHPPDLVVXEMHWLYD2HVIRUoRSDUDEXVFDUDXQLÀFD omRGHVHWRUHVGRPDU[LVPRUHYROXFLRQiULRSDUWHGD FRPSUHHQVmRGRFDUiWHUHVWUDWpJLFRGHVWDWDUHIDQRV WHPSRVDWXDLVSDUWHWDPEpPGHVHSDXWDUSRUDFRU GRVHVWUDWpJLFRVHQWUHRVVHWRUHVPDVGHYHWDPEpP FRQVLGHUDUDQHFHVViULDSDFLrQFLDDJHQHURVLGDGHH FRQÀDQoDTXHGLULJHQWHVHPLOLWDQWHVHQYROYLGRVQHV WDHPSUHLWDGDGHYHPWHUSDUDFRQVHJXLUHVVDVtQWHVH HQWUHWUDGLo}HVKLVWyULFDVHFXOWXUDVSROtWLFDVGLIHUHQ WHVFRPGLIHUHQWHVDWXDo}HVHPHVWDGRVHVHWRUHVGR PRYLPHQWRFRQVWUXtGDVVHSDUDGDPHQWHQRV~OWLPRV DQRV2XVHMDXPSURIXQGRUHVSHLWRSDUDFRPHVVD QRVVD SOXUDOLGDGH UHYROXFLRQiULD H D GLVSRVLomR GH SURFXUDUVtQWHVHVHVROXo}HVSDUDRVSUREOHPDVFROR FDGRVQRSURFHVVR $ JHQHURVLGDGH H R GHVDSHJR TXH WRGD H WRGR PLOLWDQWH GHYHP WHU SDUD FRQVWUXLU DV FRQGLo}HV SDUDDUHYROXomRSDUDFRPXPSURMHWRGHIXWXUR GHYHPQRVSDXWDUSDUDDFRQTXLVWDGHVWDQRYDRU JDQL]DomRTXHDOPHMDPRVSDUDRWHPSRSUHVHQWH


Algumas propostas para a unificação 1DFRPLVVmRXQLWiULD(QODFH&62/IRUDPGHEDWLGDVDOJXQVFULWpULRVHTXHVW}HVTXHIRUDPH[SRVWRV QRVHPLQiULRGHIHYHUHLURHFRQWLQXDPVHQGRGHEDWLGDVQDVFRUUHQWHVHQYROYLGRVQHVWHSURFHVVR2 H[SRVWRDTXLpSRUWDQWRRDFXPXORFRQVWUXtGRDWpDJRUD



A relação da organização com a Internacional

,QVWkQFLDVHHVSDoRV deliberativos

A concepção geral que rege o processo de aproximação e busca de formação de uma nova organização marxista revolucionĂĄria ĂŠ o internacionalismo militante. É a compreensĂŁo de que a luta anticapitalista e pela revolução ĂŠ internacional, que a construção de outro modelo de sociedade e civilização nĂŁo ĂŠ compatĂ­vel com a manutenção do capitalismo como sistema dominante no planeta. $ FRQFHSomR GH UHYROXomR TXH QRV XQLĂ€FD p R carĂĄter internacional da revolução socialista, de que a classe trabalhadora e os oprimidos nĂŁo tĂŞm fronteiras, nossa luta ĂŠ para que a consciĂŞncia de classe nĂŁo se resuma a uma consciĂŞncia de “classe nacionalâ€?. E isto se materializa naturalmente na busca de uma organização internacional dos trabalhadores e do engajamento dos marxistas nesta tarefa. Neste marco se coloca o debate sobre qual seria o estatuto correto na relação com a IV Internacional no caso de que a atual aproximação entre CSOL e Enlace resulte em uma nova organização. Estrategicamente a busca ĂŠ para que a nova orJDQL]DomR SRVVD FDPLQKDU SDUD XPD Ă€OLDomR LQtegral. Mas embora as duas correntes tenham relaçþes com a IV na condição de observadores o SURFHVVRGHXQLĂ€FDomRDWXDODSUR[LPDGHIRUPD mais concreta no terreno nacional, e com ritmos de conhecimento e entendimento mais lentos em relação ao que seria a evolução no atual status de observador, atĂŠ porque hĂĄ outros agrupamentos HQYROYLGRVQRSURFHVVRGHFRQVWUXomRGDXQLĂ€FDção que nĂŁo tem relaçþes com a IV Internacional. HipĂłtese para o debate: um estĂĄgio, uma transição de nova organização ainda como observadora FRPĂ€OLDomRLQGLYLGXDOGRVVHXVPHPEURVD,9FRP GHĂ€QLomR GH TXH WRGRV RV GHEDWHV LQWHUQDFLRQDLV VmRIHLWRVQDRUJDQL]DomRHXPDGHĂ€QLomRPDLVFODUDGHTXDLVHVSDoRVHPRPHQWRVRVĂ€OLDGRVj,9XWLlizam para se reunir. Este cenĂĄrio, para o caso desta KLSyWHVHSUHYDOHFHUQmRGLPLQXLDLPSRUWkQFLDGH buscar vencer o debate para que a nova organizaomRVHFRORTXHFRPRĂ€OLDGDj,9QR%UDVLO

Uma organização democråtica SUHVVXS}H LQVWkQFLDV UHJXODUHV GH discussão, elaboração e deliberação, pressupþe elegibilidade de todos os responsåveis para cargos dirigentes, tarefas. Pressupþe cÊlulas de base, direçþes regionais, setoriais, e direção nacional. Pressupþe a busca de recuperar espaços regulares de debate, instrumentos de comunicação externa e interna. Pressupþe uma política permanente, militante e obrigatória de formação. Pressupþe que todas as decisþes são coletivas e democråticas – por consenso ou por maioria. Pressupþe a construção de uma cultura de que nenhum ou nenhuma militante fala por si só, fala pela organização, pois ele expressa posiçþes coletivas. 7UDWDVH GH XP FRPEDWH D FXOWXUD de chefes, cúpulas e personalidades que pairam acima das suas próprias RUJDQL]Do}HVHGDVVXDVLQVWkQFLDV Sem espaços deliberativos reais e espaços de debates e formulação reguODUHVÀFDTXDVHLPSRVVtYHOQRVGLDVGH hoje convencer muitos companheiros e companheiras a se organizar. Fica quase impossível concorrer com as redes sociais, onde Ê mais fåcil obter informaçþes, postar posiçþes, articular iniciativas e dar a falsa sensação de que não Ê tão necessårio assim reunir-se, organizar-se. Para alÊm das reuniþes regulares GDV LQVWkQFLDV HVWDEHOHFHU HVSDoRV regulares (reuniþes, plenårias, seminårios) na organização (mensais ou bimensais) de debates temåticos e/ ou a formação.

Funcionamento, critÊrios e mecanismos democråticos Estabelecer que só podem se reconhecidos como militantes da organização os que se reúnem regularmente em alguma LQVWkQFLD GD RUJDQL]DomR WHQKDP XPD frente de massa ou frente concreta de atuação, cotizem regularmente, participe dos espaços regulares e obrigatórios de debate e formação da organização, divulgue as posiçþes da organização atravÊs dos seus instrumentos regulares. Uma organização marxista revolucionåria garante o direito de opinião e tendência na vida interna regular da organização, como expressão de posiçþes militantes e não como posiçþes que de antemão devem ser encaradas como inimigas da organização. Outros mecanismos pråticos a serem adotados são a lista nacional para socializar informaçþes e posiçþes, boletins internos reguODUHV LQVWkQFLDV UHJXODUHV GDV GH EDVH atÊ a conferência nacional regular).

Instrumentos de formação e comunicação Estabelecer instrumentos de comunicação regular – site, revista mais teórica, jornal mais conjuntural; tabelecer um tipo de Instituto ou centro de estudos e escola de formação da organização. No caso da Internet e redes sociais. EsWDEHOHFHU XPD SROtWLFD HVSHFtÀFD 6LWH regular de divulgação das posiçþes da organização, debates, artigos, notícias. Estabelecer uma equipe de militantes responsåvel pela atuação e divulgação das posiçþes e iniciativas nas redes sociais (facebook, twiiter etc).

A busca da centralização Ê externa Esta visão sempre foi muito polêmica na esquerda. Mas a centralização no nosso entender tem a ver com a coerência da organização expressar posiçþes unitårias seja nas suas campanhas nacionais, nas posiçþes conjunturais, nas posiçþes no partido e disputas eleitorais, nas frentes de intervenção e setoriais. Mas desde que GHEDWLGDVHGHOLEHUDVSHODVLQVWkQFLDVGD organização. Nem se pode exigir centralização de posiçþes não debatidas e nem se deve aceitar que militantes defendam políticas em nome da organização, sem VXEPHWrODVjVLQVWkQFLDV

3DULGDGHGHJrQHURQDVLQVWkQFLDV A relação com o espaço para as representaçþes de gênero e opressþes na organização não tem nada ver com qualquer tipo de populismo ou mesmo uma visão de incorporar sensibilidades diferentes. A questão central Ê que uma organização revolucionåria e de trabalhadores e trabalhadores garante no seu interior a representação dos setores mais explorados e oprimidos da classe. A ideia e concepção JHUDOSDUWHGLVVR1DVFLUFXQVWkQFLDVDWXais dos acúmulos de lutas das opressþes e composição de classe no país coloca-se em termos pråticos o debate da paridade GHJrQHURQDVLQVWkQFLDVGDRUJDQL]DomR (tema que foi consensual na reunião da comissão), avançar no debate de garantia de representação das demais opressþes QDV LQVWkQFLDV WHPD QmR GHVHQYROYLGR QDFRPLVVmR 7DPEpPIRLGHEDWLGRPDV não de forma desenvolvida na comissão, a questão de estender a paridade nas delegaçþes que representam a organização, como por exemplo, nas eleiçþes de delegados/as para conferências internas.


partido socialismo e liberdade (PSOL)

)RWR6LODVGH3DXOD


pSOL

partido na encruzilhada: É PRECISO DEFENDER O PROJETO ORIGINAL Por Alvaro neiva*

)RWR$UTXLYR362/

(PERUD PXLWR QRYR R 3DUWLGR 6RFLDOLVPR H /LEHUGDGH 362/  Mi YLYHX DOJXPDV FULVHV LPSRUWDQWHV(PHVWLYHPRVSUy[LPRVGHYHU XP &RQJUHVVR QmRVHUFRQFOXtGRHQRLQtFLRGH YLPRVTXDVHPHWDGHGDVIRUoDVGRSDUWLGR ERLFRWDU D &RQIHUrQFLD (OHLWRUDO TXH GHÀQLX D FDQGLGDWXUDGH3OtQLRj3UHVLGrQFLDGD5HS~EOLFD 3RUpP D FULVH TXH YLYHPRV QHVWH PRPHQWR p DSDUHQWHPHQWHDPDLVVLJQLÀFDWLYDGHWRGDVSRLV Ki GRLV SURMHWRV FODUDPHQWH DQWDJ{QLFRV H XP GHOHVVLJQLÀFDDSRVVLELOLGDGHGHR362/VHDIDVWDU GHPDQHLUDSHULJRVDGRVHXSURMHWRRULJLQDO 2 362/ VXUJH QR kPELWR GH XP SURFHVVR LQWHUQDFLRQDO GH UHRUJDQL]DomR GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD H GD HVTXHUGD UHYROXFLRQiULD DSyV DQRV GH IRUWH KHJHPRQLD SROtWLFRLGHROyJLFD GR QHROLEHUDOLVPR 1R %UDVLO R 362/ QDVFH FRPR RSRVLomRFODUDDRJRYHUQRSHWLVWDGH/XODGD6LOYD TXHHPERUDUHSUHVHQWDQGRRVDQVHLRVGDFODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD PDQWHYH D PHVPD OLQKD SROtWLFD GH VHX DQWHFHVVRU )HUQDQGR +HQULTXH &DUGRVR 1HVWD SHUVSHFWLYD GH UHRUJDQL]DomR R 3DUWLGR 6RFLDOLVPR H /LEHUGDGH SUHWHQGLD UHDJOXWLQDU VHWRUHV DWUDYpV GH XP SURJUDPD FODUDPHQWH DQWLFDSLWDOLVWDHGHXPDSRVLomRÀUPHGHRSRVLomR GHHVTXHUGDDROXORSHWLVPR * Jornalista e membro da Coordenação do Coletivo Socialismo e Liberdade



'LDQWHGHXPDFRQMXQWXUDGHVIDYRUiYHOR362/ DLQGD QmR FRQVHJXLX VH FRQVROLGDU FRPR XP SDUWLGRHDLQGDWHPFDUDFWHUtVWLFDVGHXPDIUHQWH (VVDVFULVHVVmRHPSDUWHUHÁH[RGLVVR3RUpPR DQWDJRQLVPRHQWUHGRLVSURMHWRVGHSDUWLGRJDQKD QLWLGH]jPHGLGDTXHDSHUVSHFWLYDGHGHUURFDGD GRSURMHWRRULJLQDOVHWRUQDFDGDYH]PDLVFODUD (PTXHSHVHDFDPSDQKDGH3OtQLRHPWHU DÀUPDGRR362/FRPRDOWHUQDWLYDSURJUDPiWLFD GHRSRVLomRGHHVTXHUGDXPSHUÀOGHSDUWLGRQD OXWDFRQWUDDGHVLJXDOGDGHVRFLDOHVWUXWXUDOGR SDtVHUHFRORFDGRRSDUWLGRFRPXPLQWHUORFXWRU GDV GHPDQGDV H PRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLV Mi QDTXHOD RFDVLmR KRXYH SpVVLPRV H[HPSORV TXHJUDGXDOPHQWHIRUDPJDQKDQGRHVSDoRQR SDUWLGR3RUH[HPSORQDHOHLomRSDUDRJRYHUQR GR HVWDGR GR $PDSi KRXYH XPD DOLDQoD FRP R 37% FRQWUDULDQGR D SROtWLFD GH DOLDQoDV GHÀQLGD$LQGDTXHRIDWRWHQKDPHUHFLGRXPD LQWHUYHQomR GR 'LUHWyULR 1DFLRQDO TXH EDUURX MXGLFLDOPHQWH D DOLDQoD H[SOtFLWD FRP D GLUHLWD QRkPELWRORFDORSDUWLGRVHJXLXHVWDEHOHFHQGR DOLDQoDVHDSRLRVIRUPDLVDSRQWRGHRVHQDGRU 5DQGROIH 5RGULJXHV WHU VLGR FRRUGHQDGRU GD FDPSDQKDGH/XFDV%DUUHWRGR37%DRJRYHUQR GR (VWDGR QR VHJXQGR WXUQR GDV HOHLo}HV DPDSDHQVHV(R'1QXQFDIRLDOpPGHDSURYDU XPDDGYHUWrQFLDDRVHQDGRU

2,,,&RQJUHVVRGR362/UHDOL]DGRQRÀQDOGH DSURYRXXPDSROtWLFDGHDOLDQoDVSDUDDV HOHLo}HV PXQLFLSDLV GH  EHP PDLV DPSOD GR TXH RV SDUWLGRV TXH FRPS}HP D RSRVLomR GH HVTXHUGD MXQWR FRP R 362/ 3&% H 3678  ² LQFOXLQGR RV SDUWLGRV GD EDVH GR JRYHUQR IHGHUDO 0DV DLQGD WUD]LD FHUWRV FXLGDGRV SRLV HQWHQGLD TXH VHULDP H[FHSFLRQDOLGDGHV H GHYHULDP VHU DYDOLDGDV ² H DSURYDGDV RX QmR ² FDVR D FDVR 'HSRLV D UHXQLmR GR 'LUHWyULR 1DFLRQDO GH MXQKR GH  DSURYRX HP EORFR DOLDQoDV HP FHUFD GH  PXQLFtSLRV TXH H[WUDSRODYDPDVIURQWHLUDVGDFKDPDGD´)UHQWH GH (VTXHUGDµ (QWUH RV PXLWRV FDVRV GLYHUVDV DOLDQoDV FRP SDUWLGRV LPSRUWDQWHV GR EORFR JRYHUQLVWD 37H3&GR% HSDUWLGRVÀVLROyJLFRV TXH VH UHODFLRQDP WDQWR FRP D RSRVLomR GH GLUHLWD TXDQWR FRP R EORFR JRYHUQLVWD GH DFRUGR FRP LQWHUHVVHV FRPR 39 H 336 &KDPD DLQGD PDLV DWHQomR R JUDQGH Q~PHUR GH FROLJDo}HV DSURYDGDV FRP RV FKDPDGRV SDUWLGRV QDQLFRV FRQKHFLGRV SRU VHUYLUHP GH OHJHQGDV GH DOXJXHO (VVD SROtWLFD GH DOLDQoDV LUUHVSRQViYHO OHYRX R 362/ D HVWDU MXQWR FRP R36&HP0DFDSiTXHYHPVHQGRLGHQWLÀFDGR FRPR SULQFLSDO tFRQH GR IXQGDPHQWDOLVPR UHOLJLRVR UHFHQWHPHQWH VLPEROL]DGR SHOD SRVVH GR SDVWRU 0DUFR )HOLFLDQR 36&63  QD

SUHVLGrQFLDGD&RPLVVmRGH'LUHLWRV+XPDQRV GD&kPDUDGRV'HSXWDGRV (P GRLV GRV PXQLFtSLRV DSRQWDGRV FRPR SULRULWiULRVQDVHOHLo}HVGHR362/FKHJRX DRVHJXQGRWXUQR%HOpPH0DFDSi,QIHOL]PHQWH QmR SRGHPRV FHOHEUDU $ GLVSXWD GR VHJXQGR WXUQRQHVVDVGXDVFDSLWDLVOHYRXDXPJUDXDLQGD PDLV DVVXVWDGRU GH FRQFHVV}HV (P %HOpP D FDQGLGDWXUD GH (GPLOVRQ 5RGULJXHV OHYRX DR SURJUDPDHOHLWRUDOGHWHOHYLVmRDVÀJXUDVGH/XOD 'LOPD H RXWURV PLQLVWURV EXVFDQGR FULDU XPD DVVRFLDomRFRPRJRYHUQRIHGHUDO(P0DFDSiR 362/FRQWRXFRPDSRLRHQWUHRXWURVGRFDQGLGDWR DSUHIHLWRGR'(01DFHULP{QLDGHDQ~QFLRGD DOLDQoD R VHQDGRU 5DQGROIH 5RGULJXHV GHFODURX TXH QmR HUD ´DSHQDV XPD DOLDQoD SROtWLFD H VLP XPFDPLQKRQRYRSDUDDSROtWLFDQR$PDSipXPD DOLDQoD SDUD JDQKDU D 3UHIHLWXUD PDV p WDPEpP SDUD JRYHUQDU HP FRQMXQWR XQLQGR LGHLDV H SURSRVWDVGH&OpFLRHGHPDLVOLGHUHVSDUD0DFDSi GDUDYROWDSRUFLPDµ࢘eDVVXVWDGRULPDJLQDUTXH LGHLDVHSURSRVWDVXPSDUWLGRVRFLDOLVWDSRGHWHU HP FRPXP FRP R PDLV UHDFLRQiULR SDUWLGR GR TXDGURSROtWLFREUDVLOHLUR(P%HOpP(GPLOVRQIRL GHUURWDGR(P0DFDSiFRPRDPSOtVVLPROHTXH GH DOLDQoDV R 362/ HOHJHX &OpFLR SUHIHLWR $TXL FDEH GHVWDFDU TXH GLYHUVRV PXQLFtSLRV RQGH R 362/ WHYH LPSRUWDQWHV YLWyULDV SROtWLFDV FRPR


)RUWDOH]D 1LWHUyL ,WDRFDUD H 5LR GH -DQHLUR D FDPSDQKD HOHLWRUDO WHYH RXWUDV FDUDFWHUtVWLFDV D JDUUD GD PLOLWkQFLD YLQFXODGD D XP SURJUDPD FODUR GH RSRVLomR WDQWR DR EORFR JRYHUQLVWD TXDQWRjRSRVLomRGHGLUHLWD 1RV SULPHLURV PHVHV GH  D SRVWXUD GR VHQDGRU5DQGROIH5RGULJXHVYROWRXDTXHVWLRQDU DSRVLomRGR362/FRPRRSRVLomRGHHVTXHUGD DR JRYHUQR 1D FRQIRUPDomR GH EORFRV QR 6HQDGR5DQGROIHRSWRXSRULQJUHVVDUQREORFR GR JRYHUQR MXVWLÀFDQGR TXH GH RXWUD IRUPD ÀFDULDVHPHVSDoRQDVFRPLVV}HV (VVD GHFLVmR UHFHEHX DPSOR UHFKDoR GD PLOLWkQFLDHFDXVRXJUDQGHSROrPLFDQDUHXQLmR GR'LUHWyULR1DFLRQDOUHDOL]DGDHPDEULOGH PDVÀQDOPHQWHDUHVROXomRTXHSURSXQKDDVDtGD GH5DQGROIHGREORFRGRJRYHUQRIRLGHUURWDGD Necessidade de superar a experiência petista (VVH KLVWyULFR UHVXPLGR DMXGD D YLVOXPEUDU RV SDVVRV ² XQV PHQRUHV RXWURV PDLRUHV ² TXH SRGHP FRORFDU R 362/ FRPR XP SDUWLGR DGHTXDGR j RUGHP EXUJXHVD 1HVWH VHQWLGR VH SUHWHQGHPRV VHJXLU QD FRQVWUXomR GH XP SDUWLGR TXH WHQKD DR PHVPR WHPSR LQVHUomR VRFLDOHDSHUVSHFWLYDGHVXSHUDomRGRVLVWHPD FDSLWDOLVWDpLPSUHVFLQGtYHODQDOLVDURVFDPLQKRV SHUFRUULGRV SHOR 3DUWLGR GRV 7UDEDOKDGRUHV DR ORQJRGHVXDKLVWyULD 237VXUJLXQXPPRPHQWRGHJUDQGHDVFHQVR GRV PRYLPHQWRV GH PDVVD FRP R REMHWLYR GH VHU XPD IHUUDPHQWD GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD $R PHVPR WHPSR HP TXH LD VH WRUQDQGR R PDLRU SDUWLGRGHHVTXHUGDGD$PpULFD/DWLQDHXPGRV PDLRUHVGRPXQGRID]LDRSo}HVSROtWLFDVTXHR OHYDYDPjGHJHQHUDomRDGDSWDQGRVHjRUGHP $PDLVLPSRUWDQWHGHODV²TXHVHPDQLIHVWDYDGH GLYHUVDVPDQHLUDV²IRLDIRUPDGHVHUHODFLRQDU FRPDLQVWLWXFLRQDOLGDGHEXUJXHVD &RPR WLQKD IRUPXODomR EDVWDQWH LQVXÀFLHQWH VREUHHVWUDWpJLDSDUDDFRQVWUXomRGRVRFLDOLVPR R 37 DGRWRX D WiWLFD GH RFXSDU HVSDoRV QD LQVWLWXFLRQDOLGDGH TXH WHRULFDPHQWH SRGHULDP FRQWULEXLU SDUD R DF~PXOR GH IRUoDV SDUD XPD SRVVtYHO UXSWXUD 3RUpP IDOWRX FRPSUHHQVmR GD IRUWH FDSDFLGDGH GH FRRSWDomR LQHUHQWH DR (VWDGR EXUJXrV &DGD YH] PDLV RV ´PHLRVµ ² RFXSDU HVSDoRV QD LQVWLWXFLRQDOLGDGH ² IRUDP VHWUDQVIRUPDQGRHP´ÀPµHHPFRQVHTXrQFLD GLVVR WRGDV DV FRQFHVV}HV HUDP WROHUiYHLV H PXLWDVYH]HVGHVHMiYHLV (VVD WiWLFD MXVWLÀFDYD SRU H[HPSOR XPD 

´ÁH[LELOL]DomRµ HP UHODomR DR ÀQDQFLDPHQWR GR SDUWLGRHGHVXDVFDPSDQKDVHOHLWRUDLVVLJQLÀFDQGR XP HVPDHFLPHQWR GD OXWD GH FODVVHV GLÀFLOPHQWH FRQWRUQiYHO$OpPGLVVRPDQGDWRVSDUODPHQWDUHVH FDUJRVH[HFXWLYRVJDQKDYDPDXWRQRPLDHPUHODomR jEDVHHPHVPRjVLQVWkQFLDVGHGLUHomRSDUWLGiULD( IXQFLRQDYDPSULRULWDULDPHQWHQRVHQWLGRGHJDUDQWLU VXDUHSURGXomR $RVSRXFRVDPLOLWkQFLDTXHFRQVWUXLXR3DUWLGR GRV 7UDEDOKDGRUHV FRPHoDYD D HQWUDU HP FULVH FRPWRGDVDTXHODVSUiWLFDVTXHDDIDVWDYDPGD SHUVSHFWLYD GH FRQVWUXomR GR VRFLDOLVPR H  D FULWLFiODV$tHQWUDRXWURHOHPHQWRLPSRUWDQWH R LQFKDoR GR SDUWLGR HVYD]LDPHQWR GR GHEDWH SROtWLFR H R FRQVHTXHQWH VXIRFDPHQWR GD GHPRFUDFLD SDUWLGiULD ­ PHGLGD HP TXH XPD SDUFHODVLJQLÀFDWLYDGRSDUWLGRDLQGDTXHVWLRQDYD RV UXPRV WRPDGRV SRU VXD GLUHomR D VROXomR HQFRQWUDGD IRL VLOHQFLDU DV YR]HV GLVVRQDQWHV (QWmR R 37 FRPHoRX D DGRWDU D OyJLFD GDV ÀOLDo}HV HP PDVVD VHP FULWpULRV 2V GHEDWHV SROtWLFRV²LQFOXVLYHQRVPRPHQWRVFRQJUHVVXDLV ²IRUDPHVYD]LDGRV &RPR R 362/ QDVFH GH GHQWUR GR 37 ² SRU YiULRV PRWLYRV PDV WHQGR FRPR SULQFLSDO LPSXOVLRQDGRU D 5HIRUPD GD 3UHYLGrQFLD HP WHQGHDKHUGDUPXLWRVGHVHXVSUREOHPDV 'Dt D QHFHVVLGDGH GH ID]HUPRV XPD DXWRFUtWLFD SURIXQGDQRVHQWLGRGHHYLWDUUHSHWLUDWUDMHWyULD 9HPRV QD EUHYH KLVWyULD GR 362/ H[FHVVR GH HOHLWRUDOLVPR H GH XP SHVR SDUODPHQWDU GHVSURSRUFLRQDO HP UHODomR j PLOLWkQFLD SDUWLGiULD 9HPRV WDPEpP XPD WHQGrQFLD DR SHUVRQDOLVPR H D GHVSROLWL]DomR FRP GLVFXUVRV PRUDOLVWDV GH IiFLO DFHLWDomR SHODV PDVVDV ( DLQGD XPD VLPLODU H FUHVFHQWH WHQGrQFLD DR VXIRFDPHQWR GD GHPRFUDFLD SDUWLGiULD 1HVWH VHQWLGRODPHQWDPRVPXLWRDUHJXODPHQWDomRDR ,9 &RQJUHVVR GR 362/ GHFLGLGD QD UHXQLmR GR 'LUHWyULR1DFLRQDOHPDEULO(VVDUHJXODPHQWDomR UHÁHWHXPDGLPLQXLomRGRSHVRGDEDVHSDUWLGiULD DWUDYpV GH FULWpULRV TXH VXIRFDP SRVLo}HV PLQRULWiULDV H DR PHVPR WHPSR LQFHQWLYD D GHVSROLWL]DomRGDSULQFLSDOLQVWkQFLDGR3DUWLGR ([HPSORV GLVVR VmR D JDUDQWLD GD SRVVLELOLGDGH GHHOHLomRGHGHOHJDGRVHPFKXUUDVFRVHIHVWDV GD SRVVLELOLGDGH GH WUDQVSRUWH FROHWLYR SDUD RV ÀOLDGRV H DLQGD XP SUD]R GH FUHGHQFLDPHQWR QDVSOHQiULDVDWpPLQXWRVDQWHVGDYRWDomR $LQGD TXH WHQKDPRV OLVWDGR XPD VpULH GH SUREOHPDVQRVUXPRVGRSDUWLGRDFUHGLWDPRVTXH HVVH FDPLQKR DLQGD QmR HVWi FRQVROLGDGR 3HOR FRQWUiULR$RORQJRGR~OWLPRSHUtRGRKRXYHD

FRQIRUPDomRGHXPEORFRGHRSRVLomRjGLUHomR PDMRULWiULDGR3DUWLGRTXHWHPFRQVHJXLGRDWXDU GHPDQHLUDFRQMXQWDQRVHVSDoRVSDUWLGiULRVHP RSRVLomRDHVVDVSROtWLFDVOLTXLGDFLRQLVWDV Momento decisivo 9LYHPRVXPSHUtRGRGHGHÀQLo}HVLPSRUWDQWHV 2 ,9 &RQJUHVVR GR 362/ D VHU UHDOL]DGR QR ÀQDO GH  H DV HOHLo}HV SUHVLGHQFLDLV GH  FHUWDPHQWH WHUmR XP JUDQGH LPSDFWR QD GHÀQLomRGRVUXPRVDVHUHPWULOKDGRVSHOR362/ 1HVWH VHQWLGR WRUQDVH IXQGDPHQWDO EDWDOKDU SDUD PDQWHU D XQLGDGH HQWUH RV GLYHUVRV VHWRUHV TXHFRPS}HPRFKDPDGR ´EORFR GH HVTXHUGDµ GR 3DUWLGR 6DEHPRV TXH QmR Ki HQWUH HVVHV VHWRUHV DFRUGRV SURJUDPiWLFRV PDLV SURIXQGRV 3RUpP WHPRV TXH WUDEDOKDU SDUD YDORUL]DU R TXH WHP QRV XQLÀFDGR D UHVLVWrQFLD D XP SURFHVVR GH DGDSWDomR GR 362/ j RUGHP WUDQVIRUPDQGRR QXPD RSomR j HVTXHUGD GR EORFR JRYHUQLVWD FRP R HVIXPDoDPHQWR GDV GLIHUHQoDVSURJUDPiWLFDV 1HVWH VHQWLGR DFUHGLWDPRV TXHpSRVVtYHO²HQHFHVViULR ² TXH HVVH EORFR WHQKD D DWXDomR PDLV XQLÀFDGD SRVVtYHODRORQJRGHWRGRRSURFHVVRFRQJUHVVXDO 1DPHGLGDGRSRVVtYHOFDEHWHQWDUID]HUGLVFXVV}HV TXHDMXGHPDDSURIXQGDUQRVVRVDFRUGRVSROtWLFRV 3RGHPRV DSRQWDU FRPR DOJXQV HL[RV LPSRUWDQWHV D QRV FRHVLRQDU RSRVLomR GH HVTXHUGD SROtWLFD H SURJUDPiWLFD VHP QHQKXP DFRUGR RX FRQFHVVmR DRJRYHUQLVPRXPDSROtWLFDGHDOLDQoDVUHVWULWDDRV SDUWLGRV TXH FRQIRUPDUDP UHFHQWHPHQWH D )UHQWH GH (VTXHUGD 3&% H 3678  VHP DOLDQoDV QHP FRP D EDVH GR JRYHUQR QHP FRP OHJHQGDV GH DOXJXHO ² H PXLWR PHQRV FRP SDUWLGRV GD RSRVLomR GH GLUHLWDFRPRR'(0²DFRQVWUXomRGHXPSDUWLGR DOLFHUoDGR QDV OXWDV VRFLDLV GHIHVD GDV EDQGHLUDV KLVWyULFDVGRVPRYLPHQWRVVRFLDLVHGRFRQMXQWRGD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD IRUWDOHFLPHQWR GD GHPRFUDFLD SDUWLGiULDGHVGHDVLQVWkQFLDVGHEDVHjVGHGLUHomR $OpP GLVVR DFUHGLWDPRV TXH XPD SRVVtYHO

FDQGLGDWXUD GH 5DQGROIH 5RGULJXHV j 3UHVLGrQFLD WHPXPJUDQGHSHVRVLPEyOLFRQDDÀUPDomRGDTXHOH SURMHWRGHSDUWLGRDGHTXDGRjRUGHP6HHOHQmRp REYLDPHQWH R ~QLFR SDUODPHQWDU TXH UHSUHVHQWD LVVR SHODV SRVWXUDV SROtWLFDV TXH WHP DGRWDGR ² WDQWRQR$PDSiTXDQWRQR6HQDGR)HGHUDOWRUQD VHXPtFRQHGDDGDSWDomRGR3DUWLGR1HVVHVHQWLGR DFUHGLWDPRV TXH XPD SRVVtYHO FDQGLGDWXUD GR VHQDGRUj3UHVLGrQFLDJHUDULDXPDFULVHHPDPSORV VHWRUHVGDPLOLWkQFLDSDUWLGiULD (PERUD DSRQWHPRV FRPR IXQGDPHQWDO D GLVSXWD GRV HVSDoRV SDUWLGiULRV ² HP HVSHFLDO GR ,9 &RQJUHVVR ² DFUHGLWDPRV TXH D GLVSXWD SHOR SHUÀO GR 3DUWLGR QmR DFRQWHFH DSHQDV LQWHUQDPHQWH eQHFHVViULRWDPEpP DÀUPDU R SURMHWR TXH GHIHQGHPRV SDUD R 362/ QDV UXDV QRV PRYLPHQWRV QR FRQMXQWR GDV OXWDV VRFLDLV $FUHGLWDPRV TXH R SURFHVVRGHXQLÀFDomR HQWUH &62/ H (QODFH ² HDLQGDDJUXSDPHQWRV UHJLRQDLV H PLOLWDQWHV KRMH LQGHSHQGHQWHV ² UHSUHVHQWD XP SDVVR PXLWR LPSRUWDQWH QD UHRUJDQL]DomR GD HVTXHUGD UHYROXFLRQiULD FRP LPSDFWR VLJQLÀFDWLYR QD GLVSXWD GH UXPRV GR 362/ 5HVSHLWDQGR SRVVtYHLVGLIHUHQoDVHEXVFDQGRFRQVWUXLUVtQWHVHV FRP RXWURV VHWRUHV TXH FRPS}HP R EORFR SUHWHQGHPRV FRQWULEXLU SDUD D DÀUPDomR GR SURMHWRTXHLPSXOVLRQRXDFULDomRGR362/ (VSHUDPRVDVVLPJDUDQWLUDVREUHYLYrQFLDGR362/ FRPRSDUWHLPSRUWDQWHGRSURMHWRGHRUJDQL]DomR GD HVTXHUGD H LU DOpP GLVVR FRQVWUXLQGR XP SDUWLGR GHPRFUiWLFR PLOLWDQWH IRUPDGRU GHQWUR GDPHOKRUWUDGLomRGRPDU[LVPRUHYROXFLRQiULRH DWHQWRjUHDOLGDGHGRFDSLWDOLVPRFRQWHPSRUkQHR SRUWDQWR LQWHUQDFLRQDOLVWD HFRORJLVWD IHPLQLVWD DQWLUUDFLVWDHDQWLKRPRIyELFR 2 GHVDÀR p JUDQGH GR WDPDQKR GDV QHFHVVLGDGHV GD FODVVH WUDEDOKDGRUD ( YDPRV HQIUHQWiORVHPPHGR

Temos que trabalhar para valorizar o que tem nos XQLÀFDGRDUHVLVWrQFLDD um processo de adaptação do PSOL à ordem, transformando-o numa opção à esquerda do bloco governista

'HFODUDomRGLVSRQtYHOHPKWWSZZZMGLDFRPEUH[LELUBQRWSKS"LGQRWLFLD  RS LPSULPLU


pSOL

psol: ou vai ou racha Por eduardo d’albergaria*

E

GHUHSHQWHFHQWHQDVGHMRYHQVVXUJHPHPWRGDV DVSRUWDULDVGR&RQJUHVVR1DFLRQDO²SURWHVWDP FRQWUD D WRPDGD GH DVVDOWR GD &RPLVVmR GH 'LUHLWRV+XPDQRVSHORIXQGDPHQWDOLVPRUHOLJLRVR 1R SOHQiULR OLGHUDQoDV LQGtJHQDV GH WRGR R SDtV FRORFDP RV ´FDFLTXHVµ SDUD FRUUHU H GDQoDP FHOHEUDQGR D YLGDDQDWXUH]DHSLVDPFRPVHXV SpVÀUPHVD3(&²TXHTXHUIUHDUDGHPDUFDomR GH WHUUDV LQGtJHQDV /i IRUD  PLO VLQGLFDOLVWDV FRPEDWLYRV PRVWUDP TXH QR PHLR GD GLVSHUVmR H GD EXURFUDWL]DomR VLQGLFDO DLQGD SXOVD YLGD TXH UHVLVWHjVDPHDoDVGHUHWURFHVVRVGHGLUHLWRV &RLVDV HVWmR DFRQWHFHQGR $V ÀVVXUDV HVWmR VH DPSOLDQGRQRPXURJRYHUQLVWDTXHWHLPDYDDÀUPDU TXH R FDPLQKR GD WUDQVIRUPDomR VRFLDO VHULD DV DOLDQoDV FRP RV FRQVHUYDGRUHV GH WRGRV RV WLSRV PDQWHQGRR´DQGDUGHFLPDµRQGHHVWiHDMXGDQGR FRPRTXHVREUDRVVREUDQWHV  DQRV VH SDVVDUDP 1mR Gi PDLV SDUD HQJDQDU QLQJXpPGHTXHVHWUDWDULDGHXPDSROtWLFDSDVVDJHLUD HPGLVSXWDXPSURMHWRHPDEHUWR-iHVWmRFODURV WDPEpPRVUHYHVHVTXHVmRJHVWDGRVGHQWURGHVVD PHVPD ´JRYHUQDELOLGDGH FRQVHUYDGRUDµ TXH VH DQXQFLDYD FRPR XPD WUDQVLomR SDUD XP FHQiULR PDLVIDYRUiYHO 5HGXomR GD SREUH]D GH IDWR DFRQWHFHX PDV GH WmR IUiJLO SRGH VHU FDUUHJDGD SHOR SULPHLUR YHQWR GH FULVH 5HGXomR ODVWUHDGD QXP PRGHOR GH GHVHQYROYLPHQWR UHJUHVVLYR TXH DSRVWD QR DJURQHJyFLR DWLQJLQGR LQGtJHQDV TXLORPERODV VHPWHUUDV VHPWHWRV 4XDQGR QmR p VRMD p PLQpULRTXDQGRQmRpPLQpULRpKLGURHOpWULFD(D ELRGLYHUVLGDGHEUDVLOHLUDVHHVYDL 2V DOLDGRV IXQGDPHQWDOLVWDV PRVWUDUDP TXH VHPXPFRQWUDSRQWRHOHVYmRTXHUHUPDLVSRGHU FRQVWUXLQGR XPD FDPSDQKD GH yGLR FRQWUD



* Cientista Social, Especialista em Políticas Públicas, militante do Enlace e da Cia Revolucionária Triângulo Rosa

KRPRVVH[XDLV UHOLJL}HV GH PDWUL] DIULFDQD H FRQWUD WRGRV RV TXH DÀUPDUHP DV OLEHUGDGHV LQGLYLGXDLV(QTXDQWRYHQGHPDFXUDGDFXOSDTXH HOHV PHVPRV SURGX]HP FREUDP SRU HVSDoR QR /HJLVODWLYRHQR([HFXWLYRMiGHROKRQRMXGLFLiULR 2(VWDGR/DLFREDODQoD e SRU LVVR TXH R SDUODPHQWR VtPEROR PDLRU GD JRYHUQDELOLGDGHFRQVHUYDGRUDHVWiIHUYLOKDQGR $R VH GDU FRQWD GD ´IDOrQFLDµ SHWLVWD H GD RQGD FRQVHUYDGRUD TXH VH IRUPD QDV DUUHEHQWDo}HV JRYHUQLVWDV PDLV H PDLV OXWDGRUDV H OXWDGRUHV FRPHoDPDVHQWLUDQHFHVVLGDGHGHFRQVWUXLUXPD DOWHUQDWLYD )LFD FODUR TXH TXDOTXHU SURFHVVR GH WUDQVIRUPDomRUDGLFDOSXOVDQDVUXDVPDVWHPTXH SDXWDUR(VWDGR 2OKDPSDUDRVODGRVHDYLVWDPR362/2SDUWLGR TXHQD&kPDUDGRV'HSXWDGRVMRJDQDVSRVLo}HV FRPVHXSHTXHQRWLPHGHGHSXWDGRV$FDGDSRQWR XP FRQWUDSRQWR &yGLJR )ORUHVWDO SULYDWL]Do}HV OLEHUGDGHV LQGLYLGXDLV  GD (GXFDomR SROtWLFD GHGURJDVWUDEDOKRHVFUDYRFRPEDWHjFRUUXSomR UHIRUPDDJUiULD (VVHV OXWDGRUHV VH HPSROJDUDP YHQGR SHOD 79 H SHODV UHGHV VRFLDLV HP WRGR R %UDVLO D FDPSDQKD GH)UHL[RTXHGHWmRERQLWDIH]FRPTXHWDQWR D

V EUDVLOHLURV DWp SDXOLVWDV  TXLVHVVHP VHU FDULRFDV SRUDOJXQVGLDV'HXJRVWRYHUDHVTXHUGDSRODUL]DU R GHEDWH GH FLGDGH FRP R EORFR JRYHUQLVWD DÀUPDQGRRGLUHLWRDRHVSDoRS~EOLFRDVHUYLoRVGH TXDOLGDGHDRWUDQVSRUWHSXEOLFRjOLEHUGDGHVH[XDO jVHJXUDQoDS~EOLFD(TXHQmRKiFRPRID]HULVVR VHPTXHVWLRQDURSRGHUGDVFRUSRUDo}HV LQFOXVLYH GD),)$ HGDVPLOtFLDV 9LUDP TXH HVWH p R SDUWLGR GR 0DUFHOR )UHL[R PDV WDPEpP R SDUWLGR GR 5HQDWR 5RVHQR FRP VXDIRUWDOH]DLQVXUJHQWHGDSULPDYHUDFDULRFDTXH WRPRX D EDUFD DWUDYHVVRX D %DtD GH *XDQDEDUD H IH]  GH YRWRV FRP )OiYLR 6HUDÀQL 2X GR IHQ{PHQRHP)ORULDQySROLV6RURFDED3HORWDVHIH]

)RWR+HOHQD0DUWLQV

ERQLWRHP%HOR+RUL]RQWH3RUWR$OHJUHHHPWDQWDV FDSLWDLV $V HOHLo}HV GH  DÀUPDUDP R 362/ FRPRXPSDUWLGRTXHDSRSXODomRUHFRQKHFHFRPR QHFHVViULR 1XQFD DQWHV QD KLVWyULD UHFHQWH GHVWH SDtV IRL WmR IiFLO FRQVWUXLU XP SDUWLGR DPSOR FRPEDWLYRHFULDWLYR A burocracia partidária no caminho 0DV QR PHLR FDPLQKR KDYLD 0DFDSi KDYLD R $PDSi QR PHLR GR FDPLQKR 3DUD QmR SHUGHU XP PDQGDWR GH VHQDGRU GD UHS~EOLFD ² FRQTXLVWDGR FRPRDSRLRGR37%²XPDPDLRULDQDEXURFUDFLD SDUWLGiULD WHP GDGR PRVWUDV GH TXH p FDSD] GH ´SHUGRDUµWRGDVDVDOLDQoDVLQMXVWLÀFiYHLVIHLWDVHP FLPDGDOLQKDGR(TXDGRU 2 SDUWLGR VH GLYLGLX 1mR TXH WHQKD VLGR D SULPHLUD GLVSXWD IHUUHQKD GH UXPRV SDUWLGiULRV RX D SULPHLUD GLYLVmR TXH VH DQXQFLRX 0DV Ki GHVVD YH] XPD SHULJRVD GLIHUHQoD GH XP ODGR HVWmR D LPHQVDPDLRULDGRVPLOLWDQWHVHFRUUHQWHVLQWHUQDV TXH HVWmR LQVHULGRV QDV OXWDV UHDLV 'H RXWUR XPD SHTXHQD EXURFUDFLD TXH SRU VHX FRQWUROH GD PiTXLQD SDUWLGiULD PDQGDWRV H SUHIHLWXUDV UHFUXWDPFHQWHQDVGHYRWDQWHVSDUDYRWDU²HQmR PDLVGRTXHYRWDU²QRV&RQJUHVVRV,QWHUQRV ,VVRLQYLDELOL]DTXDOTXHUYLGDLQWHUQDGHXPSDUWLGR FDSD] GH SURGX]LU GLVSXWDV GH SURMHWRV H VtQWHVHV GHSRVLo}HV1mRKiDUJXPHQWRTXHVHMDFDSD]GH FRQYHQFHU DOJXpP TXH p WUD]LGR SDUD YRWDU QXP FRQJUHVVRSDUWLGiULRSRUPHUDUHIHUrQFLDHOHLWRUDOH TXHVyYROWDUiDSDUWLFLSDUGDYLGDLQWHUQDQRSUy[LPR FRQJUHVVR SDUWLGiULR 6HP IRUPDomR SROtWLFD GDV OXWDV RX GRV OLYURV HVVHV ´PLOLWDQWHVµ YRWDUmR QD ÀJXUDTXHOKHSDUHFHPDLVVLPSiWLFDRXTXHVLQDOL]H FRPDOJXPJDQKRHOHLWRUDO 2V SRXFRV PLOLWDQWHV H RUJDQL]Do}HV TXH DLQGD

ID]HP SDUWH GD DWXDO IUiJLO PDLRULD H WrP DomR QRV PRYLPHQWRV VRFLDLV PRVWUDPVH FODUDPHQWH FRQVWUDQJLGRVHPYHUR'LUHWyULR1DFLRQDOVH´RPLWLUµ VREUH WUDQVSRUWH GH ÀOLDGRV H IHVWDV GXUDQWH DV SOHQiULDVHQTXDQWRGHFLGHTXHSDUDYRWDURÀOLDGR VySUHFLVDFKHJDUjVSOHQiULDVFRPPLQXWRVGH DQWHFHGrQFLDGDYRWDomRQmRVHQGRQHFHVViULRWHU DFRPSDQKDGRRGHEDWHGHSRVLo}HV $ÀUPDUR362/SDVVRXDVHUXPPRYLPHQWRGXSOR SDUD ´GHQWURµ H SDUD ´IRUDµ UHMHLWDU DV DOLDQoDV LQMXVWLÀFiYHLV RV ´HVIXPDoDPHQWRV GDV IURQWHLUDV HQWUHR362/HREORFRJRYHUQLVWDµDVÀOLDo}HVVHP FULWpULR D IDOWD GH YLGD SDUWLGiULD R DXWRULWDULVPR QDV LQVWkQFLDV H R YHUJRQKRVR GHVFXPSULPHQWR GD FRWD GH PXOKHUHV QRV HVSDoRV GH GLUHomR 2 ,9 &RQJUHVVR 1DFLRQDO GR SDUWLGR VHUi PRPHQWR SURStFLRSDUDLVVR 0DVDGLVSXWDGR362/WDPEpPVHUiGHDÀUPDomR GHXPSDUWLGRTXHHVWiQDVOXWDVGHXPSDUWLGRTXH ID] RV HQIUHQWDPHQWR QR SDUODPHQWR GR SDUWLGR TXH VH DSUHVHQWRX FRP SHUÀO GH HVTXHUGD QD PDLRULDGDVFLGDGHVHPPRVWUDQGRTXHpVLP SRVVtYHOVHUSURJUDPiWLFRPLOLWDQWHHFULDWLYR $ DÀUPDomR GH XPD DOWHUQDWLYD GH HVTXHUGD Vy VHUiSRVVtYHOVHWRGR D VHVVHVOXWDGRUHVVRFLDLVTXH KRMH ÁHUWDP FRP R 362/ UHVROYHUHP HQWUDU SDUD FRQVWUXLU HVVD IHUUDPHQWD SDUWLGiULD $ DÀUPDomR GHXPDDOWHUQDWLYDGHHVTXHUGDVyVHUiSRVVtYHOVH IRUPRV FDSD]HV GH GDU XP QRYR LPSXOVR jV OXWDV VRFLDLV QR SDtV GDU YLGD DRV VHWRULDLV H HVSDoRV SDUWLGiULRV H FRQYHQFHUPRV R D V OXWDGRUHV VRFLDLV DWRPDUHPSDUWLGR (P  SUHFLVDPRV H[SUHVVDU HVVD YR] QDV HOHLo}HV SUHVLGHQFLDLV R JULWR GDV OXWDV GRV PRYLPHQWRV GDV UHVLVWrQFLDV H GDV SURSRVLo}HV 0DLV GR TXH XPD FDQGLGDWXUD SUHFLVDPRV DSUHVHQWDUXPSURMHWRGHSDtV 9DPRVMXQWRV"


Por que cantamos Mario Benedetti 6HFDGDKRUDYHPFRPVXDPRUWH 6HRWHPSRpXPEDQGRGHODGU}HV 2VDUHVMiQmRVmRDUHVWmRVERQV (DYLGDpQDGDPDLVTXHXPDOYRPyYHO 9RFrSHUJXQWDUiSRUTXHFDQWDPRV 6HQRVVRVEUDYRVILFDPVHPDEUDoRV $SiWULDDKHVVDPRUUHGHWULVWH]D 2FRUDomRGRKRPHPVHID]WUDoDV $QWHVPHVPRTXHH[SORGDDYHUJRQKD 9RFrSHUJXQWDUiSRUTXHFDQWDPRV 6HHVWDPRVORQJHFRPRXPKRUL]RQWH 6HOiILFDUDPDViUYRUHVHRFpX 6HFDGDQRLWHpVHPSUHDOJXPDDXVrQFLD (FDGDGHVSHUWDUXPGHVHQFRQWUR 9RFrSHUJXQWDUiSRUTXHFDQWDPRV &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRULRHVWiVRDQGR (TXDQGRRULRVRDRULRVRD &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRPDOQmRXVDQRPH 0DVDRFRQWUiULRXVDEHPRVHXGHVWLQR &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRJXULHSRUTXHWXGR (SRUTXHDOJXPIXWXURHSRUTXHRSRYR &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRVVREUHYLYHQWHV (QRVVRVPRUWRVTXHUHPTXHFDQWHPRV &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRJULWRQmRpEDVWDQWH (QmRpEDVWDQWHRSUDQWRQHPDUDLYD &DQWDPRVSRUWRGDQRVVDJHQWH (SRUTXHYHQFHUHPRVDGHUURWD &DQWDPRVSRUTXHRVROQRVUHFRQKHFH (SRUTXHRFDPSRFKHLUDDSULPDYHUD (SRUTXHDTXHOHFDXOHHDTXHOHIUXWR ,QGLFDFDGDSHUJXQWDWHPVXDUHVSRVWD &DQWDPRVSRUTXHFKRYHVREUHRVXOFR (VRPRVPLOLWDQWHVGHVWDYLGD (SRUTXHQmRSRGHPRVQHPTXHUHPRV 'HL[DUTXHHVWDFDQomRVHIDoDFLQ]DV 


Revista À Esquerda  

Com o lançamento da revista – antes mesmo de seu surgimento como organização – , os agrupamentos políticos que formaram a Insurgência buscav...