Common tests for metals and metallic alloys are tensile, shear, bend, impact, torsion, fatigue, as well as fracture properties. Metals testing is one of the most commonly testing materials for both electromechanical and servohydraulic systems, with materials as diverse as fine gold wire for microelectronics to steel reinforcing bar for the construction industry. Tensile tests are performed on a huge variety of metallic materials including wire, foil, sheet, plate, bar, tube, and fasteners.
Typical tensile properties that need to be determined include modulus, yield strength, elastic and plastic strain, tensile strength, and break elongation. The strain-hardening behavior of metal sheet is of major importance to manufacturers of material used for deep drawing or pressing components, such as car bodies, where strain hardening exponent (n-value) are an indicator to materials performance in these end applications. Similarly the plastic strain ratio (r-value) is an important indicator for how much reduction in the materials area when subjected to a tensile load, which requires axial and transverse extensometers.
To make metal production cost effective, it is optimal during high production, which in turn requires a large volume of testing to be performed in order to ship material. Efficiency of completing the required tests is therefore paramount for metals producers. Instron®’s advanced software, as well as automated accessories can help to provide significant throughput gains. Alternatively to fully optimize testing lab output, Instron offers fully robotic testing systems which can allow unattended operation over extended periods.
The crucial importance of fatigue and fracture behavior in applications, such as rotating shafts, axles and aircraft components, has resulted in the widespread use of dynamic tests in which forces are cycled many times to evaluate the performance of materials and components over long periods. High cycle fatigue, fracture toughness, Low Cycle Fatigue (LCF) and specialist tests, such as Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue (TMF), are frequently performed. In many cases these tests are also required to be under non-ambient temperatures with furnaces, environmental chambers and cryostats integrated into the testing system.
Instron metals testing solutions comply with the requirements for all major testing standards (ASTM, ISO, GB, JIS, BS, etc.). In addition, Instron actively participate in standards committees and are continually trying to improve the development of those standards.