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five minute city The concept arises from a concern that both planning and urban design have become overly concerned with ‘place-making’ at the expense of animating the fabric of the whole city.

ambition for the whole city that we have for the special places? Why can’t everyone expect to have animation, convenience and amenities within a short walk from their homes?

This is problem all over Europe. We visit city centre showcase set pieces after journeys from the airport through places that are formless and dull at best or traffic-blighted and bleak at worst.

There is strong evidence that people will rarely walk for more than five minutes to reach public transport, shops or other urban facilities – in new and existing settlements. Increasing the walkability of the city has the potential to significantly improve the performance of

Why can’t we allow ourselves to have the same

An Introduction urban areas in terms of energy, pollution, noise, accidents, health and social cohesion. The five minute city concept aims to maximise pedestrian and cycle access to urban facilities to make practical contributions to meeting targets for the sustainability of the urban environment. This documents describes the Urban Initiatives, Indicators and Agendas that will achieve this.

Measuring ‘Walkability’ - the Pedestrian Service Level 1

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five minute city

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Areas and neighbourhoods can be assessed and ‘rated’ for their walkability—like the energy rating of appliances. This would define the pedestrian Service Level of an area

Mapping the Pedestrian Service Levels of an area is the fundamental instrument of the five minute city. Using methods developed by Siobhan O’ Dea, this allows a graphic assessment to be made of how well—or poorly—the residents of an area are connected to the urban facilities and amenities in their area. The Charter of Civic Rights [see p 4] establishes the basic criteria that are measured to determine the level of service. These range from levels of service that are only fit for Subsistence, through Utilitarian to those that facilitate Expression. The development of Urban Initiatives and Urban Indicators that are necessary to support this concept are described in the following pages.

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Pedestrian Service Level

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Pedestrian access to all levels of urban amenities within five to ten minutes of home

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Pedestrian access to all levels of urban amenities within five minutes of home

Pedestrian access to urban subsistence and utilities within a five minutes of home Pedestrian access to urban subsistence and utilities within a five to ten minutes of home

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Pedestrian access to subsistence levels of public transport, shops, education or amenities within five minutes or less of home

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Pedestrian access to subsistence levels of public transport, shops, education or amenities within five to ten minutes of home

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No pedestrian access to public transport, shops, education or amenities within ten minutes of home


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FIVE MINUTE CITY

Urban Initiatives An introduction The concept is to increase the awareness among different types of stakeholders about the degree of pedestrian accessability within their functional area. Thus neighbourhoods, retailers, educators, transport providers and parks managers, for instance, can all be

empowered to identify and ameliorate barriers to ‘walkability’ in their area. The basis for these ratings arises from the Charter of Civic Rights described at the end of this document. A series of initiatives are proposed to provide a basis for the evi-

Initiative 1

Neighbourhoods Establish an initiative to raise awareness of neighbourhood and residents groups about the ‘walkability’ of their area by providing access to a product that would;-

maximise the extent of that catchment

Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchment around each neighbourhood or area

Identify and assess the existence [or absence] of adequate and appropriate urban facilities [ for subsistence, utility and expression –in accordance with the Civic Charter – for instance]

Identify and assess the extent of the five minute cycle catchment around each neighbourhood or area Identify interventions that would

This map show streets that have acees within a five minute walk to a bus stop [blue]

Initiative 2 In partnership with transportation authorities and providers – establish an initiative to;Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchment around each transportation stop/station/node

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Raise awareness of the inhabitants of that catchment of the ‘walkability’ of that neighbourhood or area

Identify initiatives that would increase and/or improve the access to urban facilities to target

Transport Identify and assess the extent of the five minute cycle catchment around each transportation stop/ station/node

Raise awareness of the inhabitants of that catchment of the ‘walkability’ of that transportation stop/station/node

Identify interventions that would maximise the extent of that catchment

Prepare mobility management plans for areas and neighbourhoods

Initiative 3

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dence-based planning and reclamation of pedestrian capacity in non-central urban areas.. This section provides outlines of these potential initiatives in six fields, namely;- Neighbourhoods, Transport, Shopping, Education, Amenities and Health

Shopping

In partnership with retail franchisers for neighbourhood shops establish an initative to;Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchment around each store Identify and assess the extent of the five minute cycle catchment around each store Identify nterventions that would maximise the extent of that catchment Raise awareness of the inhabitants of that catchment of the ‘walkability’ of that store.

Initiative 4

Education

In partnership with crèches, national and secondary schools and third-level colleges – establish an initiative to;Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchment around each educational premises Identify and assess the extent of the five minute cycle catchment around each educational premises Identify interventions that would maximise the extent of that catchment Raise awareness of the inhabitants of that catchment of the ‘walkability’ of that educational premises


SCHOOL OF SPATIAL PLANNING, DIT

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Initiative 5

Amenities

In partnership with parks departments, gyms, sports clubs and providers, – establish an initiative to Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchment around each amenity Identify and assess the extent of the five minute cycle catchment around each amenity Identify interventions that would maximise the extent of that catchment Raise awareness of the inhabitants of that catchment of the ‘walkability’ of that amenity

Initiative 6

Health

In partnership with agencies with a remit in the areas of aging, disability and other mobility impaired groups– establish an initiative to Identify and assess the extent of the five minute pedestrian catchments around existing nodes that contain high concentrations of urban facilities and amenities Identify and assess the extent of the five minute assisted-mobility catchment around each node Identify interventions that would maximise the extent of that catchment Raise awareness of potential inhabitants of the existence, location and extent of such catchments and their ‘walkability’

Urban Indicators Measuring progress Urban indicators can designate Pedestrian Service Levels. Areas with a rating of 2 or less need remedial treatment to increase the ‘walkability’ and hence the sustainability of the area. The indicator has potential application in the following fields SEA*

Mobility management

Retail Planning

Open space planning

Awareness raising

Local Area Planning

*Strategic Environmental Assessment

Agendas for Ambition Changing expectations

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Creating the conditions in which there will be acceptance and support for the interventions that will be necessary to create and sustain the five minute city will require an investment of resources and time in raising awareness of issues and potential benefits of developing more ‘walkable cities’. Creating a broadly supported ambition will require actions such as these;Resource campaigns for civic empowerment, awareness and assessment Prospect, secure ad prepare landbanks for future intensification and growth Establish Rolling Funds to establish Connectivity Corridors Define and determine urban boundaries and rural transition zones Develop a plan-led public transport connectivity network of radial and orbital routes as an agenda for procuring services Regulation of scale divergence

Development and application of Urban Indicator including; Development of diagnostic tools for scale conformity Development of design models for layered living and vertical zoning Innovative regulatory conformance for heath and safety without separation Development indicators

of

connectivity

Development of commodity indicators

for urban areas Development of area and economic scenario-systems for urban area temporal transitions Identification of types of temporary urban lansuses Development of Guidelines for temporary and transitional urban landuses Quantification banks

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Latent

Land-

Development of Intensification criteria, methods and models

Development of criteria for community mobility and accessibility

Development of use and management criteria for public space networks

Linking connectivity/accessibility/ commodity models to energy & sustainability as an indicator for urban SEA

Development of criteria for evaluation of optimum size of sustainable units of development, use and management

Development of a sustainability rating system for existing and proposed urban areas [Mapping]

Development of indicators for integration and diversity of use, management and development of lands in urban areas.

Development of a sustainability rating system for new developments Development of an area-based age and viability-mapping system

Development of Guidelines, models and practices for the control management of use monopolies in urban areas


S CH OOL OF SP ATIAL P LANNI N G

Conor Skehan, Head, Department of Environment and Planning School of Spatial Planning DIT, Bolton Street, Dublin 1 Phone: + 353 1 402 3652 E-mail: conor.skehan@dit.ie

Agendas for Learning Evidence for change Evidence to support the introduction of the five minute city will need to be gathered by inter-agency collaboration, innovation in practice as well as by traditional academic research.

Learning by collaboration This work should be carried out in collaboration with agencies and departments with responsibility for transportation, energy, health, economic development and finance.

RIGHTS Assessment of the ‘walkability’ of urban area needs to refer to criteria. A Charter of Civic Right is proposed that identifies the right to three basic tiers of access to urban facilities, as follows;Tier 1 Urban Subsistence FUNDAMENTAL: to guarantee access to the basic conditions necessary to live, work and rest.

Its objective should be to prepare the basis for agreed Cost/ Benefit standards for use in devising and implementing policies, strategies and actions associated with Urban Reclamation Initiatives .This work should also quantify earnings and savings of benefits arising from the application of the Five Minute City Charter in terms of;Avoided direct expenditure on energy, construction and operation of transportation projects and indirect expenditure on health arising from avoided pollution and accidents and

increased health arising from exercise and social cohesion. Increased direct and indirect earnings due to improved efficiency arising from better mobility, reduced congestion losses and improved efficiency of the utilisation of infrastructure with associated costs of deferred or avoided expenditure. Optimal ratios of local taxation to expenditure due to concentration and multiple use of installed infrastructure and utilities.

Learning by doing Establish structures, circumstances and places for urban innovation and experimentation Devise temporary and transitional landuse zoning Acknowledge, anticipate and accommodate ‘urban overwriting’ of land-uses Establish mechanism for areabased and targeted delivery of collaborative multi-agency agendas Establish and achieve devel-

opment land price targets through market interventions using strategic landbanks of zoned and serviced public lands.

Learning by research Develop methodology for predictive mapping of future patterns of urban land availability Establish spatial and quantitative carrying capacity of Urban Sustaining Facilities – including public transportation capacity catchments and microretail catchments Define minimum and desirable types and scales of urban Sustaining Facilities and Functions Define minimum and desirable ranges of facilities required to develop and sustain local identity through self-development & eself-expression Survey, assess and prioritize concerns and aspirations on an area basis in connection with measures to intensify and improve existing urban facilities.

Charter of Civic Rights Every citizen of every settlement in excess of 5,000 persons has the right to expect;

Tier 2Urban Utilities FUNCTIONAL: to guarantee access to the facilities that maintain life with efficiency, convenience and amenity Tier 3Urban Expression DESIRABLE ; to guarantee reasonable access to opportunities for self-development and self-expression

Urban Subsistence

Urban Utilities

Within a five minute walk from

Every citizen should have the

Within 2km [20 minute walk or

home very citizen has the right

opportunity to choose, by a ten

A 10 minute cycle] every

to have direct access to public

minute walk, a five minute

citizen has the right to have;-

Transport and direct access to

cycle or a minimum public

Opportunities for self

Urban subsistence facilities

transport fare to reach;-

development and self

Urban Subsistence Facilities

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expression through local a Functional facilities that

access to Intermediate-level

maintain life with efficiency,

Community facilities and

convenience and amenity

service providers for

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Alternative Urban Subsistence Facilities

education, health, welfare and

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Alternative public transport

religion

routes

Areas of natural and cultural

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consist of;a place to-

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Urban Expression

-shop for basic supplies

-exercise and play -meet and socialise -get childcare -experience nature

heritage Functional Facilities consist of

Entertainment and cultural

Basic community facilities and

faciliies

The minimum capacity of such

service providers for education,

Opportunities for economic

Urban Subsistence Facilities

health, welfare, and religion

activity, employment or gainful

shall be in proportion to the

Supermarket and specialist

activity

Population served within a five

retail, such as pharmacy,

Comparison shopping

minute walking catchment

hardware, laundry, stationers, etc.

Direct onward connections to

Structured amenities, sports

national transportation

and leisure facilities

systems

regional, national and inter-


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