INCLUSIVE NEIGHBOURHOODS – RESEARCHING OPPORTUNITIES FOR INTERCULTURAL LEARNING AGREEMENT NUMBER – 2016-1-AT01-KA204-016678
CONTENT 04 INTRODUCTION 05 EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IN AUSTRIA 12 EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IN BERLIN 21 EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IN ITALY 28 EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IN SWEDEN 37 EFFECTIVE PRACTICE IN SWITZERLAND 44 IDENTIFYING GOOD AND EFFETIVE PRACTICE â&#x20AC;&#x201C; INDICATORS 45 PARTNERS IN INCLOOD
INTRO DUCTION According to official numbers based on Eurostat, the European Union saw a record of 1,2 Million asylum seekers in 2015. This unprecedented number of people - many of them will be (and have already been) officially acknowledged as refugees and gain unrestricted residence permits - poses an exceptional challenge in terms of integrative measures to be taken in different policy areas, predominantly in education, labour market access, health issues, and family reunion. Moreover, providing sufficient and adequate housing is not only a must to accommodate refugees, their families, and additional EU movers, but needs to be done right to prevent ghettos and exclusion on the one hand, and to grasp opportunities on the other. Unlike school or the workplace, peoples` places of residence as such are undeniably the site where integration and learning from each other happens, 24 hours a day. Issues of providing inclusive housing in the context of migration have been widely discussed in recent years in the participating countries and many exceptional examples have already been realized taking into account the needs and interests of their inhabitants. The notion of inclusive neighbourhoods being intercultural learning environments is multifaceted and needs to be explored and charted to subsequently being able to describe, develop, and mainstream sustainable learning opportunities. The main purpose of the project INCLOOD therefore has been to involve relevant stakeholders to exchange knowhow and
experiences on inclusive approaches in building and/or providing inclusive neighbourhoods and identify and discuss criteria that make a residential area a place for facilitating successful intercultural learning. The publication at hand is a collection of good and effective practices for inclusive neighbourhoods being successful places of intercultural learning according the criteria discussed by the stakeholders. The examples highlighted were researched, visited and collected by the partners in INCLOOD in Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Austria and should serve as an impulse for further reading and research. INCLOOD JUNE 2018 4
Effective Practice in Austria
Austria In 2015, a total of 89.098 refugees applied for asylum in Austria. Numbers have considerably decreased since then and the preliminary statistics for 2018 show nearly 40% less applications in the first quarter as compared to 2017.
Financial resources for refugees 17.503
The Austrian Grundversorgungsgesetz (law regulating the provision with basic sup plies) provides for the basic support of refugees applying for asylum in Austria. The Grundversorgung aims at covering the basic needs of everyday living (subsistence, housing, health care, clothing, provisions for special care, information and councelling, schools and language courses, pocket money etc.) for asylum applicants. The national government is responsible for the initial registration of refugees, who then are accommodated in one of the 9 Austrian provinces according to a quota transferring responsibility to the regional governments. In summer 2017 around 67.000 people received Grundversorgung in Austria. Asylum seekers await decisions concerning their application either in quarters organized by the provincial government or live privately in a flat or any other means of shared accommodation. Provisions vary accordingly.
Tendencies Despite the fact that costs for organised accommodation are generally higher, trends in Austrian migration policies tend towards a stronger centralization of the housing of newly arrived asylum seekers and a restriction of private housing. Concerning the public financing of the living expenses of refugees there are tendencies of reducing direct payments in favour of in-kind benefits.
Syrien 7.356; 30%
Afghanistan 3.781; 15%
Trends in the accommodation policy may contribute to the geographical and social exclusion of refugees and foster stigmatization. Quarters are in remote areas and the exchange with the locals is limited. Enhanced integrational measures for refugees (e.g. positive reinforcement to hire an own flat; labour market access) are only implemented once a positive asylum status has been received; valuable time in terms of integration into the host society is lost while waiting for a reply.
Sonstige 4.839; 19% Pakistan 1.574; 6% Nigeria 1.405; 6% Irak 1.403; 6% Russische Fรถderation 1.398; 6% Iran 994; 4% Unbekannt 800; 3% Somalia 697; 3% Ukraine 490; 2%
Sources https://bit.ly/2JEmXoc https://bit.ly/2JA2epx https://bit.ly/2JSvzuD
REFUGEES WELCOME LOCATION TARGET
Germany / Austria / Sweden / Italy / and many other countries Refugees and local people who are dissatisfied with how refugees are being treated in their country and who are interested in helping to ease the process of resettlement by providing a spare room and share their flats.
Refugees Welcome Austria is a project implemented by the association Vielmehr fĂźr Alle and is based on the idea of Berlin based Mensch Mensch Mensch e.V. Local people interested in supporting the project can register their flats and offer rooms to refugees. Following the registration, Refugees Welcome helps to find a suitable flatmate. Once someone suitable has been identified, both will be put in touch with each other so that they can get to know each other. If everybody is happy, the refugee will move in shortly after. Refugees Welcome supports hosts during the time when the refugees move in and will be there for any questions that might arise. A local refugee organization can always be addressed, such as the matching body. Many of these provide language courses, help with connecting to the community or provide support in the search for internships or admission to university classes.
Housing refugees in private accommodation provides advantages for everyone: refugees can live in sound accommodation, learn the language faster, and adjust to a new environment more easily. Hosts, on the other hand, will get to know a different culture and help a person in a difficult situation. http://www.fluechtlinge-willkommen.at/ http://www.refugees-welcome.net/
HOUSING PROJECT FOR REFUGEES AND STUDENTS LOCATION TARGET
Vienna / Austria Unaccompanied minor and young refugees and local students, who live together in a flat-sharing community.
Caritas House Hawi is an alternative housing project where students and refugees live together in an unconventional, self-determined type of cohabitation of different cultures. Each resident rents some private space and has access to variably usable common areas offering opportunities for communication, exchange and shared activities. The concept for Hawi was developed by The nextEnterprise Architects as the Austrian contribution for the Architectural Biennale 2016 in Venice. The challenge was to transform a potential office into a residential building, to develop measures for positively activating the neighbourhood and to draft a concept for refugees and students living together. The number of refugees has declined considerably over the last months, which means that less people need to be accommodated by Caritas and other aid organisations. A number of shelters and accommodation have already been closed accordingly. Unfortunately, also Hawi will be closed completely by end of June 2018. The residents have started a crowd-funding campaign to raise money for the continuation of the project.
Hawi is a very good example that adequate housing for refugees can be provided in a relatively short time with a minimum of costs and high quality.
http://www.tne.space/hawi-experimentelles-wohnen-auf-zeit/ https://www.caritas-wien.at/hilfe-angebote/asyl-integration/ wohnen/wohnprojekt-fuer-fluechtlinge-und-studentinnen/
Graz, Innsbruck, Salzburg, Linz, Vienna / Austria
Asylum seekers and migrants as workshop trainers and local workshop participants who want to learn something from them / each other.
With the support of KAMA, a non-profit association, asylum seekers and migrants can offer trainings and workshops in return for voluntary donations. KAMA aims at supporting the trainers in socially interacting with the local population, in getting to know and learn from each other. KAMA trainings and workshops offer the opportunity to present skills and competences; trainers are not perceived as victims but equal personalities with their strengths but also weaknesses. All training and workshop contents are welcome as long as no other course with the same content is already offered in the area. Trainers can design their courses (content and methods) whichever way they like. Courses can be offered as often as there is demand and resources (support from KAMA members, rooms, etc.) are available. Participation to trainings and workshops is free of charge but participants can support the trainers voluntarily with whatever donations. KAMA association does not take any money. KAMA`s success depends on voluntary members who support trainers in designing, advertising and implementing their trainings.
Trainers and participants meet on eye-level; role models are reversed with asylum seekers acting as trainers and local people as participants to their trainings. The KAMA idea is simple and easily transferable to other places. http://www.kama.or.at/ https://www.facebook.com/KAMA.GRAZ/?fref=ts
PHOTO BY CARITAS WIEN
Effective Practice in Berlin
Germany At the end of 2017 there were around 45.000 asylum seekers in Berlin, 26.000 were living in collective accomodation, around 10.000 in hotels and small pensions. Very few were able to move to private accomodation. In Germany a total of around 1.000.000 asylum seekers are registered end of 2017, 400.000 out of them are from Syria.
Financial resources for refugees For a period of up to 6 months after their application has been filed, asylum seekers are generally obliged to stay in an initial reception centre. After 6 months they are allowed to look for an apartment on their own. As a result of a shortage of affordable housing in Berlin, most of the asylum seekers are only able to get a room in a collective accommodation for refugees. Collective accommodations are more comfortable than reception centers or emergency shelters, however, they still offer limited privacy for families and single persons. When living in a collective accommodation or a rented apartment, refugees receive benefit payments of up to â&#x201A;Ź 404,- for a single person. The situation is particularly tense in Berlin, making it hard for asylum seekers to find an apartment on their own on the free market as thereâ&#x20AC;&#x2DC;s a general lack of affordable housing and renting an apartment has turned to be more and more expensive. Only thanks the hospitality and engagement provided by many volunteers could asylum seekers find a different kind of accommodation in the city. This was especially true in 2016/2017.
Contacts among volunteers and asylum seekers have been established since the beginning in the shelter houses and continued over the time providing help in the seeking for an accommodation. Different initiatives in the shelter houses were set and provided occasions for meetings and exchange on place.
Tendencies Berlin plans to build more collective means of accomodation in order to face possible demand in the future. Asylum seekers are proportionately distributed across German regions according to tax revenues and total population.
Challenges Mass refugee shelters have a negative impact on the people living there and generate tensions in the neighbourhood among the local community. Integration would be achieved easier if asylum seekers were accomodated in decentralised, private housing, in which they will not live separate from the population and will therefore be less marginalised. Unfortunately, the city turns more towards large mass shelters solutions which are cheapest and easy to implement
Sources https://bit.ly/2JB319C https://bit.ly/2LNaizW BAMF Das Bundesamt in Zahlen 2017: Modul Asyl, S. 54 https://bit.ly/2AQmolJ
REFUGIO SHAREHAUS LOCATION TARGET
Berlin / Germany Young people / beneficiaries of asylum or of international protection and young local residents looking for a flat.
Refugio is a community living project where refugees, students, artists and others live and work together. Half of the people living in Refugio are refugees. Refugio is the second house of this kind in Berlin. First there was a Sharehaus in South Africa, then one in Berlin Kreuzberg, from which the Sharehaus Refugio in Berlin emerged as a project of the Berliner Stadtmission. The project was initiated by two writers, Sven Lager and Elke Naters, who have gained experience in South Africa. Refugio offers private and decent living spaces with rooms for 40 persons. The rent is within the average of the students rent in Berlin. Refugio also houses a cafĂŠ on the ground floor, where small groups of refugees and locals can learn and practice German in an informal setting. External users are welcome. Refugio has established contacts with the neighborhood; but there is no specific form of cooperation. Many residents (also refugees) are now very active as Refugio Lab in developing initiatives also on the city level. Refugio is also a meeting point for several initiatives involved in the work with and for refugees such as querstadtein and Give something back to Berlin.
The informal decision-making process and the informal relationship network including the new inhabitants and the refugees; for example the selection of new residents is made jointly. https://sharehaus.net/refugio/ https://www.facebook.com/sharehausrefugio/?fref=nf https://www.facebook.com/refugiolab/ https://querstadtein.org/ http://gsbtb.org/#!/
SPREEFELD HOUSING COOPERATIVE LOCATION TARGET
Berlin / Germany Families / beneficiaries of asylum or of international protection
In Berlin there are several projects of self-organised, community-led housing projects intended to be an alternative to the profit oriented investors in the existing housing market. One example is the Spreefeld Housing Cooperative, where around 140 People live, 95 out of them are adults and 45 children and youth. The Spreefeld Cooperative and other similar projects show the same structure: they all have a common space for the residents and also a shared public space for people coming from the outside, like community gardens, guest apartments and â&#x20AC;&#x153;free option rooms. In 2016 the community decided to give some free option rooms to refugees living in over-crowded mass accommodation for a short and well-defined period of time. At the end, after controversial discussions among the residents, two women with children coming from Syria moved permanently into the community project. They found jobs thanks to the regular contacts with the other residents and are living now without financial support from the state. End of 2017 they managed to bring family members left in Syria.
The informal and intensive relationships between the community of residents and the refugees. Running the common spaces together creates a sense of belonging and strengthens the relationships among the inhabitants. https://id22.net/en/projekte/ https://www.archdaily.com/587590/coop-housing-project-at-the-river-spreefeld-carpaneto-architekten-fatkoehl-architekten-bararchitekten
COOKING TOGETHER LOCATION TARGET
Berlin / Germany Refugees and other Berliners
In Berlin there are a lot of small and big projects focused on cooking and eating together as an essential part of the integration process. All projects have some common features: They make possible that a) refugees and other people come together in an informal way by getting them involved in doing something practical, it is around a kitchen table that you build a personal connection beyond labels and categories; b) it is a role playing where refugees take an active role and also “give something back to” people engaged in helping them; c) refugees can also earn money or even find a job or start a business or a training for a better job qualification.
The informal way and the concrete task of cooking and eating together is the basis for: - meeting each other and developing mutual understanding; it may also lead to friendship beyond the meeting - giving a work perspective for some people, also to start social enterprises The need to earn a living facilitates intercultural exchange.
Projekt „Über den Tellerrand: https://ueberdentellerrand.org/ Projekt „Give Something Back to Berlin“: http:// gsbtb.org/projects/open-kitchen/ Bantaaba Food Dealer: https://www.bantabaa.de/about-us/
Effective Practice in Italy
According to UNHCR data 119,247 people landed in Italy in 2017. A figure in sharp decline compared to 2016, when 181,436 people arrived (-34%). The countries of origin represented primarily in 2017 were Nigeria (16% of arrivals, about 18.000 people), Guinea, Ivory Coast and Bangladesh (all between 8 and 9% of arrivals). To arrive in Italy were mainly men (74%), with a considerable share of unaccompanied minors (14.5% . The landings occurred mainly in Sicily (about 60%) and Calabria (about 20%).
Financial resources for refugees In Italy, the reception system is made up of a network of local authorities that carries out projects of ‚integrated reception‘ at the local level: the Protection System for asylum seekers and refugees (SPRAR). To activate this system the local authorities can use the financial resources made available by the Ministry of the Interior through the National Fund for Policies and Services of Asylum. With this tool contributions are made to local authorities that present projects intended for reception for asylum seekers, refugees and recipients of subsidiary protection. In 2017 Italy spent € 4.2 billion for the management of migratory flows, of which € 2.8 billion for reception. Italy is receiving almost € 600 million from the European Union to manage the challenges of migration, borders and security until 2020, as well as almost € 150 million
for emergency support. The money comes from the Amif (Asylum, Migration and Integration Fund) funds (â&#x201A;Ź 347.75 million) and ISF (Internal Security Funds) (â&#x201A;Ź 244.89 million) whose purpose is to improve the reception system. 750 million euros are still available to be spent until the end of 2020.
Tendencies In Italy the development of refugee reception policies for the coming years has a dual objective. On the one hand, there is the need to improve the effectiveness of the reception system, in particular with regard to services for the social, cultural and housing integration of refugees; on the other hand, bilateral agreements could be stepped up with the countries of origin or transit of refugees with the aim of controlling more the migratory flows (a first agreement was signed with Libya on 2 February 2017).
Challenges With respect to the issue of housing policies for refugees, there are problems regarding the geographical location of the reception centers. The reception centers are in fact placed in marginal areas of the cities or in isolated contexts. Those geographical position sharpens the existing social tensions as refugees are placed in territorial contexts characterized by poverty and social marginalization. To cope with this problem, widespread reception systems are being experimented with, in which refugees are integrated in smaller and more livable contexts. Other interesting experiments are those of co-housing between young refugees and Italian university students. Unfortunately, these examples are still some isolated experiences and one of the challenges is precisely to extend these experiments as much as possible.
Sources UNHCR: https://bit.ly/2riHwgV Ministry of Interior: https://bit.ly/2umB1KK
LUCHA Y SIESTA LOCATION TARGET
Rome / Italy Migrant woman / Women who are victims of violence
Lucha y Siesta was founded in 2008 by the occupation, recovery and enhancement of a building of the â&#x20AC;&#x161;20s. It is a project of housing and social acceptance for women; providing information, guidance, listening and welcoming to women who need it. It is now a project of housing for migrant woman. The occupation of the building and the development of the activities are served as an element of pressure on the Municipality; to ask the local institutions the problem of lack of services designed especially to women and migrants. The recovery and development of an abandoned and degraded building as well as courses and activities promoted by Lucha y Siesta have gradually approached the citizenship. The activities are also times where the Italian inhabitants may encounter immigrants (especially migrant women) who attend these courses. The activities have thus the function of real moments of exchange and sociability Lucha y Siesta proposes also courses and low-cost events not only for migrant women but also to all citizens.
The recovery and development of an abandoned and degraded building as well as courses and activities promoted by Lucha y Siesta have gradually approached the citizenship and now the relationship between neighbours and Lucha y Siesta is good. https://www.facebook.com/lucha.ysiesta/?fref=ts https://luchaysiesta.wordpress.com/ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dmRixHd96Xw&t=12s
BARIKAMÀ LOCATION TARGET
Rome / Italy Refugees and integration through work
After dramatic vicissitudes - the arrival in Italy on a boat, the work for a few euros in the countryside of Rosarno, in Calabria - a group of African migrants launched Barikamà, a 100% green cooperative near Rome that produces yoghurt and organic vegetables. The products are delivered to customers directly at home by bike. In the Bambara language, the most widespread language in Mali, Barikamà means „resilience“ and recalls the ability of individuals to recover after having encountered obstacles in their lives. In the beginning the three founders of Barikamà produced yogurt in a social center that housed them and they sold the yoghurt to a local market. Barikamà yogurt was quickly appreciated. In 2012 the three Africans got a 20 thousand Euro loan from the Lazio Region as a prize for young entrepreneurs. Since 2014, the migrants have also started to produce and sell organic vegetables. The initiative did not allow migrants only to improve their economic condition but, according to the creator of the cooperative, the most important aspect of the initiative is that it gives a positive image of the migrants.
The strengths of Barikamà are: 1) The network of relationships that has been built with local suppliers and customers 2) The ability to be a point of reference for many African migrants arriving in Italy 3) The ability to enter into a profitable relationship with local institutions
ASINITAS LOCATION TARGET
Rome / Italy Migrant woman
ASINITAS Onlus is a NPO organization founded in 2005. It is active in the field of education and social work. Its` mission is to promote the care, education, training, sheltering and testimony of Italian and foreign adults and minors. Its primary work focuses on promoting processes of inclusion for subjects perceived by society as non-equals, in order to bolster their social presence. Active education, person-centered care, story-telling, and gathering of biographies and testimony are the privileged methodologies. As an interdisciplinary working group it focuses on second language acquisition research with students who have a low level of literacy in their L1 by adapting several methods, from M. Montessori to Freinet, to the Italian experience of active learning with Cemea and the Movement for cooperative learning. The organization coordinates two schools of Italian as second language for foreign women and mothers, refugees and asylum seekers, and migrants In Rome. The schools also offer diverse workshops. The association promotes community participation through different activities and social labs in cooperation with local institutions, local NGOs and population to raise awareness on the issue of international migration and intercultural exchange.
The main benefit is the implementation of different types of projects with migrants in different areas: from Italian schools, to inclusion through sport, to community theater at psychological desks. www.asinitas.org https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=83cU4YzgB3o https://www.facebook.com/asinitas/
Effective Practice in Sweden
Sweden Sweden received more than 290 000 refugees in the period from the beginning of 2014 until August 2017 with the following annual data: 81 301 individuals in 2014 / 162 877 individuals in 2015 / 28 939 individuals in 2016 / 18 655 individuals in 2017.
Financial resources for refugees After receiving the temporary or permanent residence permission, all individuals with a status of refugee, quota refugee or people eligible for subsidiary protection in the age from 20 to 65, start an introduction program (according to Act (2010: 197). The daily allowance of 30 Euro is paid on individual basis 5 days (or 40 hours) a week. This allowance is decreased if the individual does not fully participate in the program. In some cases, when the newly-arrived have too high housing costs or many children, they can apply to additional housing allowance and additional introduction allowance. All asylum seekers are eligible to apply to the following welfare benefits while they are waiting for the decision on their applications: daily allowance, housing support and special allowance. Daily allowance differs for those who live in the houses provided by the Migration Board or own houses and is offered to those asylum seekers who do not have other sources of income. Housing support is provided for those who cannot find a place to
live on their own. Special support is additional allowance for a product or service that the individual is in need of and it cannot be covered by the standard daily allowance, as for example a pram, glasses or winter shoes. The daily allowance for a single adult in the Migration Board house is app. 2 Euro and app. 7 Euro for those who live in own houses with friends or relatives. The rates for couples sharing household are respectively 1,9 Euro and 6 Euro. Those individuals who participate in the introduction program and have under age children living at home have right to additional support. The additional allowance depends on the number of children and their age. The size of the allowance is 80 Euro for children under 11 years old and 150 Euro for those above 11 years old. Asylum seekers are offered a choice about their accommodation. Individuals can choose to live at a house provided by the Migration board or to arrange their own living at a relatives or friends house. Migration officers choose accommodation based on whether the applicant has children and will assess whether the accommodation will meet the childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s needs, such as education and medical treatment.
Tendencies and Challenges In 2015 the highest number of asylum applications was submitted after the 1990s and the Balkan crisis. The decrease in newcomers in 2016 depends partly on general boarder closure in Europe and partly on the new temporary law on migration in Sweden, which entered into force in July 2016. Prior to the new law, asylum seekers were often awarded permanent residency. The vast majority of asylum-seekers who have arrived since November 2015 are only eligible for a temporary permit to stay in Sweden. The government stated at the time of this policy shift that it aimed â&#x20AC;&#x153;to temporarily adjust the asylum regulations to the minimum level in the EU so that more people choose to seek asylum in other EU countries.â&#x20AC;? As a result, bringing families of migrants and refugees into Sweden has become much harder.
Sources https://bit.ly/2kkz2Vu https://bit.ly/2LKblAw https://bit.ly/2Jz2e9n https://bit.ly/2qyt1nX https://bit.ly/2t3iKTO
EKFB LOCATION TARGET
Uppsala / Sweden Unaccompanied minors and foster families
EKFB Sverige AB is a social enterprise in sphere of social work. The enterprise was founded in 2015 and has 30 employees. The main area of activity is providing foster care of unaccompanied minors. EKFB is covering about 40 Swedish foster family homes which receive unaccompanied minors. EKFB has developed a training program for Swedish families wishing to open their homes for unaccompanied minors. The program consists of modules developed by The National Board of Health and Welfare (Socialstyrelsen) and own modules. The training program covers:
- General concepts of care and legislation - Legislative rights of children in foster care, parenthood, - Methods of preparation to receive foster children - Risk factors, assessment and risk mitigation - Social problem solving
Except the above, EKFB has elaborated a continuous training programs for foster families which are conducted quarterly.
EKFB has long experience of psychosocial work with children and young adults. Integration work with unaccompanied children, linguistic and cultural understanding as well as honor-related issues are some of the areas of competence available in EKFBâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s staff team. http://www.ekfb.se/ https://www.facebook.com/enkampforbarn/ https://twitter.com/ekfb_sverige
KISA LOCATION TARGET
Uppsala / Sweden Newly arrived persons, who reside in Uppsala County and have been granted permanent or temporary residence permits.
The KISA project “Shorter Integration, Faster to Work” is owned by the Employment Service in Uppsala County. Subproject owners are Uppsala Municipality, Uppsala County and Folkuniversitetet. The project is co-financed by ESF and with contributions from all the county‘s 8 municipalities participating. The purpose of the project is to strengthen, improve and support efforts aimed at newly-arrived through collaboration. The overall objective of the project is to streamline the establishment of newly-arrived in working life. The project works with a structured collaboration model IGMA, according to which efforts among stakeholders shall be coordinated and collaborated. The path of the individual through the integration process must be clear to all involved and the individual‘s power and motivation should be taken into account. Competences and experiences are mapped and validated, which will make the individual get into work or study faster and the time for integration into Swedish society is shortened. By developing processes for structured cooperation with employers and industries, the project is looking for the right matching and right future skills supply.
Many organisations and many professionals are involved in the project. Identifying development areas in order to reduce newly-arrived exclusion from the labor market.
FATIMA LOCATION TARGET
Uppsala County / Sweden Newly arrived persons with patriarchal values, who live dominantly in segregated areas, out of reach for awareness rising actions by authorities and the civic sector.
â&#x20AC;&#x153;FATIMA - Preventing Honour Relating Violence by Education and Dialogue through Immigrant NGOsâ&#x20AC;? is a 2 year DAPHNE-funded project, carried out between 2015 and 2017. The main objective was to prevent violence linked to so-called harmful practices (e.g. female genital mutilation, forced or early marriage or forced sexual relationships, honour crimes) through training of local communities in Human Rights based on European Convention and national legislations in Sweden, Portugal, the UK and Greece. The above objective has been achieved by increasing the capacity of ethnic minority NGOs for carrying out awareness rising and educational campaign for establishing social dialogue concerning HRV in local communities. The immediate impact of the project is more informed local communities regarding the fundamental Human Rights with knowledge on how to claim and protect their rights as well as consequences for breaching the rights. The expected long-term impact of the project is altered attitudes as well as behavioral change in local communities as a result of higher awareness on Human Rights.
The project has developed a training package for human rights education and learning for intercultural dialogue in which questions about traditions in honor cultures are in conflict with the values that form the basis of human rights conventions and Swedish legislation.
Effective Practice in Switzerland
Switzerland In the peak year 2015, 39‘523 refugees filed for asylum in Switzerland, in 2017 the amount was halved (18’088). This last number corresponds to 2,2 asylum applications per 1‘000 inhabitants, which is above the European average of 1,4. The main countries of origin of the applicants are Eritrea (19%), Syria (11%) and Afghanistan (7%). 6’360 refugees were granted asylum in 2017 (recognition quota of 25,8%, non-occurrence decision quota of 34,3%).
Financial resources for refugees
The national government of Switzerland is responsible for the integration policy, the regional bodies, the cantons for the implementation. The national government pays an “integration lump sum” of €6’960.per person to the cantons for recognized refugees aimed mainly at language and vocational education. Newly arrived asylum seekers stay in a reception and processing center for up to 90 days, during which they are not allowed to work. After that they are assigned to a canton, which becomes responsible for providing lodging and food. The refugees are placed in the municipalities (usually special asylum housing) according to fix quotas. As (provisionally) recognized refugees, they are then entitled to engage in gainful employment (under certain quite restrictive conditions). The unemployment rate is
high, however. 60% of the recognized refugees are unemployed and depend on asylum / social benefits (ca. €1’250.- max. per month) after seven years of immigration. This asylum / social benefit is the maximum payed to refugees monthly.
Tendencies Trends in Swiss migration policies consist on the one hand in a stronger centralization of the housing of newly arrived asylum seekers. For this purpose, big national reception centers are built. On the other hand, concerning the public financing of the living expenses of recognized refugees there are tendencies of reducing the monthly contributions (asylum or social benefits). Latest example is the Canton of Zurich having reduced this contribution after a referendum.
Challenges The widespread housing policy in municipal asylum homes contributes to the geographical and social exclusion of refugees. These homes are often at the outskirts of the municipalities, sometimes in very remote villages. The exchange with the locals is therefore limited. Moreover, the restricted asylum or social benefits are too low to allow decent living conditions. Also, the integration lump sum is highly insufficient to allow a sustainable language and vocational education. The integration delegates from the cantons estimate that a minimum of €21’151.- per person (instead of €6’960.-) would be necessary. Furthermore, the right to work of provisinally recognized asylum seekers is very restricted and hinders their employment. Finally, big challenges are increasingly xenophobic mindsets and a fairly distorted public opinion concerning the amount refugees. The numbers of refugees are often conceived to be very high. In fact, 25% of the population of Switzerland are migrants / foreigners of which, however, only 31% are asylum seekers. 69% originate from the EU/EFTA states.
Sources https://bit.ly/2sWjkne https://bit.ly/1n5w31P https://bit.ly/2l6JJu5
HOMEASYL LOCATION TARGET
Zürich / Switzerland Recognized asylum seekers and private tenants / landlords
Homeasyl is a small organization which actively works for the private accommodation of refugees. The aim is to bring people with housing opportunities together with people with limited housing opportunities. Homeasyl’s work is based on solidarity and humanity, they want to achieve something directly with people. They work on a voluntary basis within limited (time) resources. Homeasyl takes over the procurement of living spaces free of charge. They bring refugees and private landlords together and accompany the first encounters. Moreover, homeasyl makes a pre-selection of people who might fit together. If necessary they will organize a translator. Finally, homeasyl provides help with problems in relation to their assignment. Currently, homeasyl’s main activity consists of workshops twice a month for migrants on housing in the Canton of Zurich. Together with the animators the refugees and migrants work on questions of where and how to look for flats. The organization was founded in 2015 when there didn’t exist any offer to allocate private living space to refugees, yet. Now, this service is offered by public bodies. Homeasyl is a small organization based on the voluntary work of four people.
The project has developed a training package for human rights education and learning for intercultural dialogue in which questions about traditions in honor cultures are in conflict with the values that form the basis of human rights conventions and Swedish legislation.
HOUSING PROJECT FOR REFUGEES AND STUDENTS LOCATION TARGET
Zürich / Switzerland Recognized asylum seekers and members of the cooperative.
On a surface of 6‘350 m2 the housing cooperative has been offering a home to 251 inhabitants since 2014 and jobs to over 200 people in the stores and offices. The vision is to offer a socially and ecologically sustainable living and working space. The cooperative Kalkbreite has taken up the cause of a “2000 Watt society”, sharing rather than owning and solidarity. In line with this last principle, the cooperative offers living space to 5 recognized asylum seekers. The goal is not only to offer them a home but also to include them in the “Kalkbreite community”. Concrete measures of assuring the effective exchange and a mutually enriching cohabitation are for example the regular meetings of the members of the cooperative. Moreover, participation is part of the Kalkbreite culture: how the common rooms and the public space is used is matter of discussion among the members of the cooperative. Also, exchange inevitably takes place as many of the amenities are shared, such as the laundry machines, the freezers and for some flats the whole kitchen. Moreover, the inhabitants of Kalkbreite have the possibility to organize events or workshops open for the cooperative, such as a cooking together or a movie night. Finally, there’s also a restaurant, where (only) the inhabitants and their guests can enjoy a meal on a regular basis.
Different from many homes available to asylum seekers the cooperative Kalkbreite is located in a popular and buzzing hotspot of Zurich. Also, the Kalkbreite is a community. Thus, contact and exchange with neighbors is much more likely. https://www.kalkbreite.net/projekt/konzept
IDENTIFYING GOOD AND EFFECTIVE PRACTICE Indicators for Inclusive Neighbourhoods
In an inclusive neighbourhood learning (informal and nonformal) takes place. The learning process is identified through three characteristics: needs orientation, action Communication forums (events, meeting points, projects orientation and self-directed learning. etc.) exist and are utilised by indigenous and recently Needs and requirements are identified and residents arrived residents. can be reached. There is diversity in regard to activities and participation An inclusive neighbourhood is home to residents with (Gender, Age etc.) diverse socio-demographic backgrounds and different Recently arrived residents are supported with special social classes can be reached. offers (e.g. language and or There is an intrinsic request and interest for exchange ientation courses). among residents. Political strategies in regard to the creation of inclusive There are signs of open dialogue on eye level between neighbourhoods and the fostering of civil engagement indigenous and recently arrived residents are in place. Residents of inclusive neighbourhoods participate in organizing their environment. They actively contribute to communal life and influence decisions.
Residents can live their own culture.
Diverse value propositions are accepted and co-exist on equal footing.
Inclusive neighbourhoods support a sense of belonging and being part of the community.
Living conditions of residents have improved.
THE INCLOOD-PROJECT CONSORTIUM CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING PARTNERS Inspire (AT) is an independent non-profit association. Our main topics are education and participation. We develop and implement projects for public and private customers and rely on interdisciplinary approaches and participative processes. www.inspire-thinking.at The cooperative Speha Fresia (IT) is an educational organization that deals with active labor market policies, local development.and research. The cooperative is engaged in the fight against all forms of discrimination based on gender, ethnic origin, sexual orientation or religion in order to foster the potential of diversity. www.speha-fresia.eu Folkuniversitetet (SE) is a national Adult Education Association which offers a wide range of VET and adult education training courses throughout Sweden and in several European countries. FU was registered in 1954 and is nowadays a leading organisation in Sweden in Adult Education and Lifelong learning. www.folkuniversitetet.se sozial.label e.V. (DE) is a registered, non â&#x20AC;&#x201C; profit, Berlin based association of public utility, founded in 2003. The overall mission is to promote cultural and educational exchange. Also we focus on fostering mutual understanding at a local and European level by strengthening the local organisations in their work and by supporting networking around social issues. www.soziallabel.de The Swiss Federation for Adult Learning (CH) is the national umbrella organisation for general and vocational adult learning. SVEB groups over 700 members, both private and state providers of adult learning from all language areas. www.alice.ch
SO CI E TÃ&#x20AC; CO O P E R AT I VA
The European Commission support for the production of this publication does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. All photos by INCLOOD unless otherwise stated Layout by Marampolska Nastja, Lavrincsik Ramona Impressum / Responsible for the Content Inspire - Verein fĂźr Bildung und Management ZVR: 632126545 Obfrau: Mag. a Edith Zitz Marienplatz 1 A-8020 Graz email: firstname.lastname@example.org web: www.inspire-thinking.at