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Design in General

Dr. Hsing Mei Web Computing Laboratory Computer Science and Information Engineering Department Fu Jen Catholic University Spring 2014


Cross Disciplinary Inter/Trans 跨領域/跨界(科際) => 創新

跨科際對話平台 http://case.ntu.edu.tw/shs/

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Case Study => 抄襲 or 創新 •沒有世界觀,東西看得太少,看一個想學 一個,不然就是 「我這邊要跟G網站一樣 」) •重點是了解優點跟缺點?知不知道原理? 借用不是問題,有借要有還。要懂得借力 使力。

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What we need to build a service ? • Programmer (Coding) + Designer + … ? – Workflow (Internal) + User Interface

• Communication skill ?

• User Experience (UX) • Architecture + Workflow + UX + Business Model

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Design in General • • • •

Basic Design Universal Design(通用設計) Design Empathy(同理心設計) Some Useful Skills for Design Engineering

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Basic Design • Design – Visual Design – Interface/Workflow Design – User Experience (UX)

• 4D Design Flow – – – –

發現(Discover) : How? Why? 定義(Define) 發展(Develop) : Interdisciplinary Brainstorming 傳遞(Deliver) 8


What is User Experience (UX) ? • User Experience is the sum experience of a user interacting with a product.

- Peter Morville

- James Melzer

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What is Design? • The aim of design is to create good user experiences. • Design is a craft – an artistic science – that melds technology and humanity

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Why UCD/UX? • User-Centered Design (UCD) • Increased customer satisfaction • Increased user productivity/efficiency/accuracy • Increased service/site usage and adoption • Decreased support and training costs • Reduced development time and costs – Create only the features users need

• Reduced maintenance costs – Do it right the first time Adapted from Usability Professionals’ Association website, http://www.upassoc.org/usability_resources/about_usability/definitions_of_usability.html

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What do designers do? • • • • • •

User Research Usability Analysis Information Architecture Interaction Design User Interface Design Visual/Graphic Design

- Jesse James Garrett

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Universal Design • Universal Design in Architecture and Physical

Environments – design of structures that anticipates the needs of individuals with disabilities and accommodates these needs from the outset 13


Universal Design - History • American National Standards Institute (ANSI) – 1961: Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by people with physical disabilities

• Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard (UFAS) – Adapted ANSI standard for federally funded construction

• Fair Housing Amendment – 1988: Access guidelines to multiple housing units

• Americans with Disabilities Act – 1990: Mandatory conditions for public spaces

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Assistive Technology • Assistive technology device is defined as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off-the-shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.” – Assistive Technology Act of 1998 15


無障礙的闖關遊戲 視障者應該認識的交通號誌!?

險升坡 險坡標誌,用以 促使車輛駕駛人 小心駕駛,設於 道路縱坡在百分 之七以上之路段。 16


小心落石 注意落石標誌, 用以促使車輛駕 駛人注意落石。 設於易於發生塌 方或落石危及行 車之路段將近之 處。 17


右側縮減 車道、路寬縮減標誌, 用以促使車輛駕駛人 注意前方車道或路寬 將縮減之情況,設於 同向多車道或路寬縮 減路段將近處

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路面顛簸 用以促使車輛 駕駛人減速慢 行,設於路面 顛簸路段或特 設跳動路面地 段將近之處。

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有柵門鐵路 平交道 用以警告車輛駕駛人 注意慢行或及時停車, 設於車輛駕駛人無法 直接察覺有柵門鐵路 平交道將近之處。 20


危險標誌 用以促使車輛駕駛 人小心駕駛。設於 危險路段將近之處。 本標誌下緣應設附 牌,說明危險原因

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路滑標誌 用以促使車輛駕 駛人注意慢行。 設於路面泥濘、 冰凍等滑溜路段 將近之處。

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圓環標誌 用以促使車輛駕 駛人注意慢行, 讓內環車輛優先 通行,視需要設 於圓環將近之處。

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連續彎路 連續彎路標誌先 向左彎,用以促 使車輛駕駛人減 速慢行,設於路 線具有反向曲線 或連續轉彎。

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Universal Design Architectural Principles 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Equitable Use Flexibility in Use Simple and Intuitive Use Perceptible Information Tolerance for Error Low Physical Effort Size and Space for Approach and Use

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通用設計 7 原則 1. 公平使用:這種設計對任何使用者都不會造成傷害或使其受窘 2. 彈性使用:這種設計涵蓋了廣泛的個人喜好及能力。 3. 簡易及直覺使用:不論使用者的經驗、知識、語言能力或集中 力如何,這種設計的使用都很容易了解。 4. 明顯的資訊:不論周圍狀況或使用著感官能力如何,這種設計 有效地對使用者傳達了必要的資訊。 5. 容許錯誤:這種設計將危險及因意外或不經意的動作所導致的 不利後果降至最低。 6. 省力:這種設計可以有效、舒適及不費力地使用。 7. 適當的尺寸及空間供使用:不論使用者體型、姿勢或移動性如 何,這種設計提供了適當的大小及空間供操作及使用。 26


通用設計 3 附則 1. 可長久使用,具經濟性 2. 品質優良且美觀 3. 對人體及環境無害

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Equitable Use • The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities – Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. – Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users. – Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. – Make the design appealing to all users.

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Equitable Use

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Flexibility in Use • The design accommodates a wide range of individual preference and abilities. – Provide choice in methods of use.

– Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. – Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. – Provide adaptability to the user's pace.

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Flexibility in Use

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Simple and Intuitive Use • Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. – Eliminate unnecessary complexity. – Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. – Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. – Arrange information consistent with its importance. – Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion. 32


Perceptible Information • The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. – Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. – Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. – Maximize "legibility" of essential information. – Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). – Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations.

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Perceptible Information

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Tolerance for Error • The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. – Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. – Provide warnings of hazards and errors. – Provide fail safe features. – Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.

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Tolerance for Error

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Low Physical Effort • The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. – – – –

Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. Use reasonable operating forces. Minimize repetitive actions. Minimize sustained physical effort

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Low Physical Effort

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Size and Space for Approach and Use • Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. – Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. – Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. – Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. – Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance. 39


Size and Space for Approach and Use

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Universal Design • Universal Design for Learning – design curricula with the needs of all learners in mind, so that, methods, materials and assessments are usable by all.

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The Application of “Design Empathy” through “Contextual Inquiry”

Prof (Dr.) YEN Ching Chiuan 顏慶全 Division of Industrial Design National University of Singapore

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Good Design

Human Needs

Emerging Technology

Social Trends

“To create meaningful innovations, you need to know your users and care about their lives.� 44


A Magazine Is an iPad That Does Not Work

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aXV-yaFmQNk

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Senior Observation • Webcam 101 for Seniors.... – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FcN08Tg3PWw

• CNN Interview – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7wvvRIFOVAU& NR=1

Animals • Apps for Apes – http://www.youtube.com/watch?&v=ZsSIKj5ULp4 46


EMPATHIZING

Context (脈絡) Narrow Wide

Contextual Inquiry <e.g.> Why never to ask favors from designers

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Source: http://perfectingmotherhood.wordpress.com/2010/07/09/graphic-designer-missing-cat-flyer/

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Empathizing Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, you:

• Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives. • Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters. • Immerse. Experience what your user experiences.

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Empathy Map SAY

THINK

DO

FEEL

Identify needs / insights 53


CONTEXTUAL INQUIRY

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Empathize Contextual Inquiry. go for stories. everyone should capture notes. Take pictures. do not rely on memory.

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Phenomenology (現象學) 避免視而不見, 聽而不聞

Grass Anthropology (人類學)

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Examples of application

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underlying need: (say do, think feel)

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LeapFrog: Donn Koh Leapfrog 63


Enabling

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R

eAble

Mobility made Achieving active independent living possible

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Digital Magnifier Digital Magnifier provides a direct interface between user and technology by having one single function â&#x20AC;&#x201C; enlarging information shown on the screen like a traditional magnifying glass.

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輔具 (Assistive Devices) • 洗澡機 (Bath machine) – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q5wfneldZvM – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=696DADYWag8

• 輪椅 (Wheel chair) – 升降機 (Elevator) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbwjDHuUSsE – 爬樓梯 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=opBHAq7S0Hw

• Google Driverless Car – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdgQpa1pUUE

• Blindspot – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jPacInrOlII 67


Behavior changing

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Rock On is a rocking chair designed for special needs children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) who constantly need to seek vestibular stimulation in a classroom context.

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socializing

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Good Design Enables! Bad Design Disables!

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Interface Design • http://dclick.fourdesire.com/

• Color + Shape

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S14 design ingeneral  
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