Dear Students: The start of baseball season is a lot like the beginning of a new school year. It is a time filled with anticipation, expectations, and excitement. As the Phillies paraded into Citizens Bank Park on Opening Day they felt these emotions and knew that their fans did too. They wanted to give the fans something to cheer about and did just that rallying from two runs down in the bottom of the ninth to win the game in walk-off fashion. They won because they played as a team and did not give up. They believed in themselves and understood that each had to do their job to produce a victory. That victory was not only the result of showing up to play the game, it was the result of conditioning, hard work, and practice during spring training. And even though they are now in season it doesn’t mean that the practicing stops. They continue to work on all aspects of their game throughout the regular season. This means they spend time working on the fundamentals on the field and at the plate. If they feel there is an area where they need extra work or advice they turn to their coaches to help figure out what they are doing wrong in the hopes of improving that aspect of their game. This is similar to your school experiences. When you are in your classroom and are learning new skills from your teacher. This is your spring training. Homework is your practice and when you take a test using the knowledge you have gained from both your teacher and by doing your homework, you are in the game. When you put all these skills together you should do well on your test. When that doesn’t happen you should look at the reasons why you did not do well. Review the questions that you did not answer correctly and look through your notes and find the correct answer. If you are unsure of what the answer should be, talk to your teacher. The Phillies players do the same thing when they lose a game. They examine where opposing batters hit the ball or why they struck out on a certain pitch and talk to their coaches so the next time they are in a similar situation they can be successful. The knowledge that the Phillies gain game-to-game is like the knowledge that you gain from test-to-test. You build upon what you learned previously so that at the end of the school-year you are ready to move to the next grade. The Phillies build upon what they learned so that at the end of the 162-game regular season they have won enough games to earn their way into the postseason. So the next time you are in the classroom learning something new, don’t get discouraged, think of your Fightin’ Phils and how they are practicing just as hard to excel and you will all be winners! oswalt
Teamwork Makes the Grade
The Philadelphia Phillies know how to work as a team. Since 2007, they have made it to the postseason every year by winning their division, The National League East. Take a look at their team accomplishments from the past few years. 2007 Won the National League East Division and entry into postseason play for the first time since 1993 2008 Won the National League Division Series against the Milwaukee Brewers Won the National League Championship Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers Won the World Series against the Tampa Bay Rays 2009 Won the National League Division Series against the Colorado Rockies Won the National League Championship Series against the Los Angeles Dodgers and went on to play the New York Yankees in the World Series 2010 Won the National League Division Series against the Cincinnati Reds and advanced to the National League Championship Series against the San Francisco Giants
News Activity: This 16-page Phillies guide is all about technology and baseball. Technology changes the game as new advances are developed. When baseball first started you had to be sitting in the stands to take in the game. Now, Phillies fans can live all over the country, or even the world, and never miss their team play. Look through The Inquirer for a story about a “game-changing” advance in technology. Think about some of the major advances in technology that have affected your life and share your thoughts with your class.
“Let’s Tech Out What You Know” This Newspapers in Education Phillies guide will help you learn about technology in baseball. Before we get started, let’s see what you already know. Answer the following questions about technology and baseball. Answers can be found on the back cover.
HD stands for this, as in television.
The press box at Citizens Bank Park has this type of Internet.
There are three pitching roles in baseball, name them.
The new HD video board at Citizens Bank Park has thousands of these individual lights that illuminate.
When you are visiting philly.com or phillies.com you are connected to this.
The most popular form of travel for baseball teams in the early 1900s was this.
Major League Baseball requires that players use bats made out of what material?
The field at Citizens Bank Park is covered with this type of grass.
Question Five: The Phillies hitting coach uses this to analyze a batter’s swing.
When you watch a baseball game you may wonder how a pitcher knows what pitch to throw. It is because his catcher is giving him signs to tell him what pitch to throw and where that pitch should be located in the strike zone. Take a look at the three images below and see if you know what signs the catcher is calling.
Pitchers and Catchers
Pitching the Ball
A lot of attention this season has been focused on the Phillies pitching staff, especially the starting rotation. The baseball community is expecting a great season from their starters, Roy Halladay, Cliff Lee, Cole Hamels, Roy Oswalt, and Joe Blanton. Much of their success can be attributed to the way that they train and the work that they put in on and off the field. Each guy has a passion for pitching and it really shows. The goal of the pitcher is to retire the batter and record an out. A pitcher can either cause the batter to hit the ball into fair territory allowing his defense to make a play to record an out or the pitcher can strike out the batter. A pitcher must throw three strikes to record a strikeout. The Starting Pitchers The starting rotation is made up of five pitchers and each starter typically pitches once every five days. The role of a starting pitcher is to pitch deep into the game and have what is called a “quality start.” This is when a pitcher is able to throw at least six innings but ideally seven or more and leave the game winning. If a pitcher goes all nine innings he has thrown a complete game. Contreras
The Relievers When the starting pitcher gets tired or is taken out of the game, a reliever is called in to pitch. The manager will try to create a good match by putting in a left-handed pitcher against a right-handed batter or vice versa. Some relievers are able to pitch multiple innings and are called long releivers, while some only pitch one inning or even to one batter. The Closer comes into the game in the ninth inning when the Phillies are winning by three runs or less. His job is to get the final three outs to win the game; this is called a save. The Mechanics of the Pitch The delivery of the ball depends on the velocity or speed at which it is thrown, the trajectory or direction, movement of the ball throughout the pitch, wrist, hand, and arm position. The slight variations of the pitcher’s arm or grip on the ball change the type of pitch and speed of the ball. Some popular types of pitches are the fastball, curveball, and changeup. In the early era of baseball, it may have been enough for the pitcher to throw the ball as fast as he could, but not anymore. Every aspect of the game has been elevated; therefore pitchers need to work harder
to get the batter out. Preparation has become a huge part of the pitcher’s game. The pitcher’s goal is to get batters out by throwing as few pitches as possible. Pitching drills and bullpen sessions are important to help achieve this. Pitchers work on their mechanics as well as their strength and endurance. Warming-up and cooling down are important to helping a pitcher take care of his arm and his body.
Catching the Ball
On the other side of ball is the catcher. The catcher is in charge of the infield and plays a huge role in calling the game. Last season, after Roy Halladay pitched his perfect game and postseason no-hitter, he gave all the credit to his catcher Carlos Ruiz. And when Halladay was honored with the Cy Young Award for his outstanding 2010 season pitching performance by the Baseball Writers Association he had an exact replica of the award made for Ruiz. The technology of calling the game and setting up behind the plate has a huge impact on the way that the game unfolds. The pitcher and catcher, known as the battery, prepare for the game by watching video of batters and how and where they hit certain pitches. This helps them develop strategies about how to approach each batter. Blanton
The Mechanics of the Catch The catcher has special techniques that he uses just like the pitcher does. The catcher needs to set up behind the plate and give the pitcher a good target. He will decide which pitch he thinks the batter will most likely hit into an out and gives the pitcher suggestions. If a ball is thrown in the dirt and there are runners on base, it is important for the catcher to block it so that it doesn’t get by him and allow runners to advance. If an attempt to steal a base occurs, the catcher needs to throw quickly and on target to the fielder. In addition to calling pitches, the catcher is in charge of the infield. This is because he is the only player that can see the entire field. If there is a play in front of the plate, the catcher determines which player should field the ball. All of these components make the position of catcher very valuable. The Sign
The three photos on the previous page show some of the signs Carlos Ruiz will give the pitcher during the game. Often times the catcher will give a series of signs but only one will be the true pitch being called. The pitcher and catcher have an indicator signal and this signal tells the pitcher that the next sign is the true pitch he should throw. They do this because they do not want the opposing team to figure out what pitch is being thrown. Do you have any signals that you share with your friends that are kind of like a secret language?
How well do you know the Phillies? Fill in the name and position of the seven infield and outfield players listed on the diagram. Visit phillies.com to learn what other players can play each of the positions shown and write their names in Name: each location. You Postition: may find that some players can play multiple positions.
GLOAD Guardians of the Grass;
The outfielders’ job is similar to the infielders but the skills they utilize are quite different. The outfield consists of three positions, left fielder, center fielder, and right fielder. The outfield covers a very large area so the Phillies outfielders need to be fast and able to judge where the ball is going when it is hit. Their job is to catch fly balls, back up the infield and field ground balls that are hit through the gaps. The center fielder is very athletic and fast since he has to cover a large area and back the other players up. The center fielder is in charge of the outfield. When balls are hit in the air between two outfielders it is the center fielder’s job to determine who should make a play on the ball. The right and left fielders have to prepare to back up the center fielder if he determines he should catch the ball. In baseball using your voice is important. Everyone needs to talk to each other so they know who is making a play on the baseball. If they don’t talk this is when you see two players collide or the ball drop on the ground.
The infield is composed of four position players - the first Name: baseman, second Postition: baseman, third baseman, and the shortstop. The infielders are the first line of defense and their job is to try to stop anything that is hit in the infield and throw the ball to the proper base to record an out. Sometimes the infielders catch pop-ups or line drives. The Name: infielders try to prevent Postition: runs by catching the ball before it hits the ground, by tagging runners with the ball when they stray off base, or by throwing the ball to the base before the runner gets there.
Important skills of an infielder include speed and agility. He needs to react to the ball and get into position to make the play quickly. Having good instincts are a big part of being a successful infielder. Technology has helped today’s infielder with advances in training, equipment, and new practice techniques. Another way technology helps the infielder is with specially designed equipment to aid and protect him. The second baseman and shortstop, known as the middle infielders, use smaller gloves that are lighter and allow them to make quick plays. The third and first baseman both use gloves about 12 inches long. For the third baseman this adds additional protection because he stands closer to the batter than other infield positions and this allows him to snag balls hit down the line. The first baseman’s glove is larger, has a curved edge, and gives him the ability to better dig a ball out of the dirt. When a ball is hit on the ground out of an infielders’ reach – in the hole – or over their head, it is the job of the outfielders to field the ball. utley Shane Victorino’s Glove
Activity: Tech out the Differences
Look at the infield and outfield gloves to the right and circle the differences you can see. On a separate sheet of paper, explain why you think they are different. For more fun look in the newspaper for pictures of players with their gloves and cut out the different types of gloves to make a collage.
Did you know?
Baseball gloves did not originate with the game of baseball but rather were first introduced in 1869, almost 25 years after the game was formally invented. Men at that time believed that it was not macho to use a baseball glove.
First Line of Defense;
Chase Utley’s Glove
The field at Citizens Bank Park is Kentucky Blue Grass; this type of grass is very dense and good for close mowing. The grass is kept at a height of 1 1/8 inches at all times and is mowed daily. There are 20 members of the grounds crew and they start preparing the field at 10 a.m. for a 7:05 p.m. game. The outfield covers 2.35 acres of grass.
I Lost it in the Sun
The dimensions of the field are unique to Citizens Bank Park and the outfield walls allow hitters to hit many home runs during the season. The distance and height that a ball is hit can determine whether it is a home run, an extra base hit or an out. Each outfield wall has a different distance from home plate which means that a ball hit out of the park in right field may be a fly ball in center field. The grounds crew takes good care of the field so every game you attend you can be assured the field is in as good a condition as on opening day.
Due to their location on the field and their freedom to move around, outfielders are expected to “battle” the sun. When a ball is hit, an outfielder has to adjust sunglasses and use the glove to shield the direct sunlight. For batters, it is difficult and dangerous to stand at home plate, looking into the sun with a 90 mph pitch flying toward you.
Field Dimensions Activity
Take a look at the field dimensions of Citizens Bank Park. The wall heights and distances to the wall give the players a real home run challenge. A ball hit 400’ should go out of the ballpark but it might not if it is hit toward center field. Look at the information provided and answer the conversion questions below. Keep in mind the conversions. 12 inches= 1 foot 3 feet=1 yard 5,280 feet=1 mile 1. If you ran from home plate straight down the right field line to the foul pole, how many yards did you run? 2. If Jimmy Rollins wanted to warm up by running one mile how many times should he run between home plate and straightaway center? 3. If you sprint at a speed of 6 mph toward the left field power alley, how long will it take you to get there? 4. Each base is 90’ apart. If Raúl Ibañez hit a double, how many inches did he run? 5. If Shane Victorino hit a grand slam, how many total feet did he run before reaching home?
Left Field, Power Alley Distance: 374 feet
Left Field, Foul Pole Distance: 329 feet
A dropped ball or a shadow creeping over the infield are indications that the sun affects baseball games in many ways. Technology has made designing a ballpark easier but planners and architects have to consider how the sun will affect fielders, batters, and fans.
Since many baseball games take place during the day, it is important to know that as the sun’s position in the sky changes throughout the day, it can cause the nearby buildings, stands or light towers to cast shadows on the field. Ballpark planners and architects think about how the sun can affect fans and players. Depending on the climate, the positioning of the field and the seats can provide late day shade for fans and fielders. In an open ballpark, the field position can also give fans a great view of the game and the surroundings. Citizens Bank Park, the home of the Philadelphia Phillies, is positioned to keep the sun out of the batter’s eyes and to give fans a howard spectacular view of the city skyline.
Protection from the Sun
Advances in science and technology have made it easier for us to protect ourselves from the sun’s harmful rays. The Phillies need to be especially careful since so much of their time is spent practicing and playing in the sun. Shane Victorino protects himself with sunglasses that block ultraviolet rays, sunscreen, and protective clothing. Many years ago, skin cancer was not as big a concern as it is today. Players know it is more important than ever to protect themselves.
Look in The Inquirer to learn what time the sun rises and sets. Using this information, predict the sun angles for each daylight hour. Test your theory by going outside and viewing how the sun shines across your home or neighborhood. Now find other articles in the paper that relate to the sun and how it can affect everday life.
Center Field, Straightaway Distance: 401 feet 6 inches
Distance: 90 feet
Right Field, Power Alley Distance: 369 feet
Distance: 90 feet Right Field, Foul Pole Distance: 330 feet
The Philles Coaching Staff
The Phillies have a team of experts assembled to teach and coach the players. Along with Manager Charlie Manuel, the coaches work together to help the players reach their full potential. Each position coach has a different area of expertise. When the players need help with batting, base running, or pitching, they know they have an expert on the staff that will help them.
Match Up Activity
Get to know the coaches better. Match the coaches pictures with their brief biography.
Charlie Manuel is in his seventh year as the Phillies manager. In 2008, he guided the Phillies to the World Series Championship, the first time since 1980 for the franchise. While some of his coaching methods are traditional, like writing the game-day roster by hand, Manuel also uses technology to manage the team. He watches film of his players after each game and gathers information on how to make the team better. During the game, he positions his outfielders and tries to put his team in a good situation to win the game.
Greg Gross joined the Phillies from their minor league team the Lehigh Valley IronPigs in the middle of the 2010 season as the hitting coach. He studies the techniques and form of each individual hitter and offers suggestions and ideas to improve their swing. Sometimes the slightest adjustment in a batter’s swing can make all the difference. Gross uses slow-motion video on his computer to view the swing of his batters. He can freeze the images and really fine-tune their swings. Perlozzo
This season will be Rich Dubee’s tenth season in the Phillies organization and seventh as the pitching coach. In his position, he mentors and trains the Phillies’ pitchers. He lets Manuel know where each pitcher is with their conditioning and arm. Dubee looks at research surrounding both teams and gives the pitchers advice on how to pitch during the game.
First and Third Base Coaches
The first base and third base coaches are the only coaches that stand on the field during play and only when the Phillies are up to bat. They give base runners directions that include trying to prevent pickoffs, when to steal a base, and relaying signs from the manager in the dugout. The first base coach is primarily responsible for the batter and whether or not he stops at first. The third base coach decides to send runners or hold them on second or third, and when to send them home on a base hit or fly ball. Sam Perlozzo moved from third base to first base coach this year and has been with the Phillies since 2008. Juan Samuel is a former Phillies’ second baseman and he joins the Phillies this season.
Pete Mackanin is the bench coach for the Phillies. He is second in command after Charlie Manuel. Mackanin has been with the Phillies since 2008. He is aware of all aspects of what is taking place in the game and assists the manager with game decisions and situational advice. Mackanin is the coach who assumes managerial duties when Manuel is not available. The bench coach has to be well-versed in the technology surrounding the game. He holds the facts and figures of each players statistics so he can help Manuel make good decisions that will lead to a win.
Mick Billmeyer is the Phillies bullpen coach and he has been with the organization since 2000. He is in his third season as the bullpen coach and helps the relief pitchers find success once they are called upon to enter the game. He stays in the bullpen with the relief pitchers. He also keeps an eye on how batters approach certain pitchers. When the manager or pitching coach feels a pitching change is likely, he makes sure the proper reliever is getting loose and informs the pitching coach when that pitcher is warm and able to take the mound.
News Activity: Technology changes the way that things are accomplished or completed. Think about something that you once found difficult and was later made easier by technology. Look through the newspaper for an article that expresses this.
New HD VIDEOBOARD
This season the Phillies are dramatically enhancing the fans viewing experience at Citizens Bank Park. The upgrade includes the installation of a massive, new HD-15 video display and the latest in Sony HD production technology. The new Phillies HD display will be the largest in the National League and among the largest in the world - measuring 76 feet high and 97 feet wide, and totaling 7,372 square feet of digital space. The Phillies recognize the loyalty and dedication of their fans and want to have a video scoreboard that takes the ballpark experience to the next level.
NEW PHILLIES HD VIDEOBOARD DETAILS & FUN FACTS
Overall size: 76 feet high and 97 feet wide Offers more than 2.5 times video area than previous video display Weight: approximately 84,420 lbs. (42.2 tons) Resolution: The HD-15 display exceeds 1080p HD standard with 1,512 lines of resolution (six times the resolution of the previous display) Super-wide viewing angles offer improved visibility for more fans; Viewing angles: exceed 160 degrees horizontal (greater than 80 degrees on each side off center) Takes approximately 1,380 flat-panel televisions (at 42â€? each) to fill the area of the new display If it were a consumer television, the Phillies display would be considered a 1,478â€? screen Uses state of the art LED technology providing superior brightness in direct sun light, with the capability to show up to 144 quadrillion shades of color Approximately 32,363 feet (6.1 miles) of wiring will deliver power and data to the new display
HD stands for high-definition. It is any video system that is a higher resolution than standard. The new HD display will be located under the iconic Phillies sign in left field and will almost triple the size of the formerly existing video display originally installed at Citizens Bank Park. During game time, millions of individual LEDs (lightemitting diodes) will illuminate the screen, creating superb image clarity with improved contrast and incredible wide-angle viewing of the action on the playing field. The additional size and resolution of the display will provide even more game-related action and statistical information.
Let’s see what you know about Major League Baseball and the Philadelphia Phillies. Use the schedule (found on page 13) and this guide to answer the questions in the crossword puzzle.
1. The Phillies play this team on the road in the last week of April. The team is named after a venomous rattlesnake native to the region where they play. 2. This state is where the Phillies have spring training. 5. This Phillies center fielder was born on an island state. 7. The Phillies kicked off the 2011 season on April 1st against this team
1. The D in HD stands for this. 3. The Phillies play this team at home in the middle of May. The team is named after a mountain range in the region where they play. 4. This is what a pitcher that truly excels is called. 6. This city, where the Phillies will travel to in the beginning of July, isn’t in the United States.
Use your Technology Activity
Now that you know something about the Phillies new HD scoreboard, let’s find out more about the players that you love to watch on the big screen. Visit phillies.com to get the information and answer the questions below. 1. How many Ryan Howards standing on end would it take to reach the height of the new scoreboard? 2. The scoreboard weighs 84,420 lbs. Go online to learn how much Ben Francisco weighs. How many Ben Franciscos do you need to equal the weight of the scoreboard?
If you cannot get the Phillies on television, phillies.com has an interactive application for you. The Gameday feature gives you a video game like view from behind the batter and shows pitches coming over the plate in real-time. You can watch pitch-by-pitch as well as view the lineup with batting stats, opponent information, box score, game summary, and more.
Home Field, Citizens Bank Park
Citizens Bank Park opened in 2004. The spectacular ballpark seats 43,651 baseball fans and is located in South Philadelphia. It was designed as a baseball only facility and to pay homage to the city of Philadelphia as well as to bring state-of-the-art design and technology to Philadelphia baseball. Previously, the Phillies played at Veterans Stadium, which was a multi-purpose facility. It was important for the Phillies, when designing the ballpark, for fans to enjoy a one-of-a-kind baseball experience. From the open-air concourse, to the sound and lighting operations, and the Phanatic Phun Zone and Ashburn Alley, the park has something for every Phillies fan. When designing the park, architects were careful to give the park an intimate feel.
A Phillie fan favorite, the Liberty Bell towers 100 feet above street level and rings after every Phillies home run and after every Phillies home win. The bell and clapper sway from side to side independently, its neon edges light and pulsate and its ring can be heard throughout the park. The 35-foot by 50-foot Liberty Bell is located in right-center field.
Connect The Dots Activity Start at number 1 and connect the dots in numerical order to create the electronic liberty bell that towers over Citizens Bank Park. Then, on a seperate piece of paper try to draw your own without any help.
Print at Home Tickets
Did you know that you can print Phillies tickets at home? After you make your purchase online you can print your e-ticket right on your home computer. The ticket has a special barcode that the ticket scanner will scan to let you enter the game. Just like regular tickets, the technology in the ticket scanners will know once the barcode on your ticket has been scanned and will only let the first person who scanned the ticket into the ballpark.
Liberty Bell in Philadelphia
The Liberty Bell is an important icon that represents this country’s independence. Located nearby in center city Philadelphia, the bell was commisioned from a London firm. Inscribed on the bell is the saying “Proclaim liberty throughout all the land unto all the inhabitants thereof.” Upon its arrival in Philadelphia in 1752, the bell cracked when it was first rung. The bell was recast twice by local workmen, Pass and Stow, whose names appear on the bell. The first recast left the bell with a terrible clanging sound when rang, the second time, proved satisfactory. The bell was used in the early days to summon lawmakers, alert citizens, and announce meetings and proclamations. It was famously rung after the first reading of the Declaration of Independence. It received its distinctive crack in February 1846 after being rung in honor of Washington’s birthday and has been a symbol of liberty for the past 200 years. rollins
News Activity Philadelphia is full of history and The Inquirer’s articles are helping to record history every day. Look through the newspaper to find an article detailing a historical event and explain why you believe this article is significant. Try writing your own article as if you were reporting on something historical that happened to you.
Ring the Bell
Do you know how many home games the Phillies won last year? How about how many home runs were hit by Phillies at Citizens Bank Park? Look on philly.com and phillies.com to research this information. How many times did the bell ring? Keep track this season to find out how many times the bell will ring in 2011.
Who would have thought to include a play zone for kids at a ballpark? The Phillies thought of the junior Phillies fans when they built the Phanatic Phun Zone in Citizens Bank Park. Located near the First Base Gate, and sponsored by The Philadelphia Inquirer, the Phanatic Phun Zone gives children an opportunity to climb, explore, play games and have the slide of their lives as they venture through a giant soft play area. Help Ryan Howard get to the Phanatic Phun Zone before the game starts!
Tech it out at Citizens Bank Park!
Before you go to the game, you can visit phillies.com and see panoramic views of the stadium, check weather updates, and you can even get a view from your seat. When you get there you can try the new text to order food features or text to get in touch with Phillies staff.
Dancing on the Dugout ACTIVITY
Music is a fun way that technology is used during baseball games. You will hear music played when players walk up to bat, when a pitching change is made or to get the crowd excited. At the end of the 7th inning you will find the Phanatic dancing on the dugout. What song would you dance to? Draw yourself with the Phanatic. Who has better dance moves?
finish News Activity:
Write your own news article about a new feature at Citizens Bank Park. Think of something that would be new and fanatastic and write an article describing it. Use the newspaper and phillies.com for ideas and structure information.
If you ask the players, the most significant advance in technology might have to do with the uniform they wear and the equipment they use. Baseball uniforms were once made out of wool and were quite uncomfortable and heavy. Believe it or not baseball gloves were created out of old winter mittens. The advances having to do with the clothing and equipment of the players have been real game-changers.
If you have ever been to a game in April or one in the October postseason, you know how cold the weather can be. It can feel even colder for the players with the wind whipping around down on the field. That’s why the Phillies have cold weather gear designed by Majestic. The heavy jackets and sweatshirts that they wear use “Therma Base” insulation that stretches and is wind resistant so the guys on the field don’t lose a step when making a big play. You will notice that when the players are playing in the field, whether on offense or defense, they are not wearing jackets or sweatshirts. To keep warm they will wear long sleeves under their uniform top and sometimes will even wear caps with ear flaps to keep their ears warm. The only exception to wearing a jacket on the field is when the pitcher puts on a jacket while running the bases. He does this so his pitching arm stays warm.
In the summer time, when the majority of the games are played, the heat can become a real factor for the Phillies. To keep cool, the players wear lightweight uniforms that wick away moisture and dry quickly. The New Era hats that they wear have the same technology and are also shrink resistant to keep the Phillies comfortable.
Bats and Balls
The tools of the trade are the baseball, the bat, and the glove. The ball has a rubber or cork center and is wrapped in yarn, covered in leather and stitched together. Major League baseballs weigh about 5 ounces and are about 9 inches around with 108 double stitches. Early baseballs had wooden cores and only one baseball was used during the whole game. Today every baseball gets rubbed using rubbing mud before a game and the pitchers go through several dozen each game. This is partly because fans get to keep home run and foul balls that are hit into the stands as a souvenir. A Major League baseball bat is no more than 2 and 3/4 inches in diameter and no more than 42 inches long and must be made of solid wood. During the 19th century many bat designs were experimented with to try and get different results. Today’s design is more refined and uniform.
Hit it Out!
On page three you were asked which type of baseball bat players were allowed to use. The answer has to do with kinetic energy. Players are only allowed to use wooden bats because because they absorb energy and don’t allow the balls to fly as far as they would with aluminum bats. For example, if Ryan Howard hits the ball 500 feet with a wooden bat, he would easily hit it 700 feet with an aluminum bat.
Whose glove is whose activity Gloves
Early baseball was played without gloves. Players essentially used padded mittens (hence the name mitt) to field the ball. At the end of the 19th century, glove use began to pick up as a way to better control the ball. In 1920, the web between the thumb and index finger was introduced. Since that time, gloves have evolved to be precise and efficient. On page five we discussed the gloves of the infielders and outfielders and how they vary depending upon the position played. It is also important to note that infielders’ gloves are smaller with shallow pockets to allow for quick ball retrieval. They also have open webbing to allow dirt to fall through. Outfielders’ gloves have deep pockets and are longer than infielders’ gloves to allow extra reach when catching fly balls. Pitchers and catchers also have gloves that are tailored to their position. The catcher’s glove doesn’t have individual fingers. It is more like a mitten with extra padding and a claw-like shape to funnel the pitches into the pocket.
1950s Fielders Mitt
2011 Fielders Mitt
Look at the pictures of gloves below, use the word bank provided and see if you can match the type of glove it is with the player it belongs to.
wordbank: Ruiz Ibañez
The Phillies travel all over the country on their 12 road trips composed of 26 road series during the regular season. This takes a lot of planning and a variety of transportation methods. They travel by bus, by train, and by plane. Before the 1950s teams weren’t really flying. They did most of their travel on the ground. This meant the teams played the majority of their games locally. As the years went on cities further west welcomed baseball teams. The Phillies were enfranchised in 1883 while the San Diego Padres weren’t founded until 1969. The airplane really allowed baseball teams to easily play all other teams and allowed more cities to get into the game. It wasn’t until the mid 1950s that flying became a regular occurrence. It is true that some players were so afraid of flying, that they retired early when the teams started using planes as their primary mode of transportation.
In 1876, at the time of the National League’s inception, the only reasonable way to travel was by train. The highway system wasn’t advanced enough to travel across the country by bus. For 80-years baseball teams traveled this way. A train ride from Philadelphia to Chicago would take 18 hours, so a travel day back then was just that. Games weren’t scheduled back-to-back. The train was a reliable way for teams to travel. It was pretty inexpensive at the time and train tracks ran to all the major baseball cities. In the early 1900s all of the Major League Baseball teams were in the Northeast, from Boston to St. Louis.
Airplane travel became a regular occurrence after 1950 making traveling farther faster. This allowed more teams to travel west. In 1957 the Brooklyn Dodgers and New York Giants moved to California. Prior to this no team had been west of Kansas City. Distance Between Major League BallParks Year Maximum Average 1882 1901 1955 1958 1962 1969 1977 1993 1998 2005
1036 mi 1036 mi 1248 mi 2693 mi 2693 mi 2693 mi 2693 mi 2731 mi 2731 mi 2731 mi
430 mi 417 mi 469 mi 872 mi 898 mi 1158 mi 1119 mi 1143 mi 1170 mi 1155 mi
Change -3% +12% +86% +3% +29% -3% +2% +2% -1%
The Phillies are scheduled to play 162 regular season games this season. In six months they only get 19 days off from games. The long season really takes a toll on the bodies of the players. For this reason, they need to take care of their bodies. This means they need to make sure that in addition to playing the game they exercise and warm-up and cool-down before and after any physical activity. They also need to eat healthy foods.
Phillies Schedule Activity
Plan a trip to see a Phillies game in another city and answer the questions below. What game do you want to attend? In what city are the playing? How would you travel there? Technology has made this easier because:
Technology has greatly changed the way that fans access the game. You may not believe it, but there was a time when you couldn’t see the game unless you were there and you couldn’t find out what happened until you read it in The Inquirer the next day. Now, information is available instantly online and delivered directly to your phone. This is the media portion of the game. It is the way you see, hear, or read about the game and the events surrounding the game. Technology has greatly changed over the past 100 years and that translates to more and better information for you.
The Internet is a global system of interconnected computer networks that use a standard server. That means anyone can access anything that is published to the Web. The Internet offers a vast amount of information resources and services. It was founded in the 1980s although research had begun about 20 years prior. Most traditional communications including telephone, music, film, and television are reshaped and redefined by the Internet.
Newspapers were first invented in the early 17th century to spread information. Some of the early problems the newspaper incurred were transportation, advertising, non-literacy, and censorship. Early newspapers were handwritten. When the printing press was invented in the 19th century, newspapers became more common. The Philadelphia Inquirer was founded in 1829 as The Pennsylvania Inquirer and is the third-oldest surviving daily newspaper in the United States.
Research online and find the date that the first edition of The Inquirer was printed at the center city location.
Radio owes its development to two other inventions that came before, the telegraph and the telephone. It began as wireless telegraphy, a device to transmit or receive radio waves. These waves have the ability to transmit music, speech, pictures, and data through the air. Radio began as early as the 1860s but wasn’t fine-tuned until Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian inventor, did so in 1895. Marconi sent the first transatlantic radiotelegraph message in 1902 when he sent a wireless signal across the English Channel. In addition to Marconi, Nikola Testa, who experimented with transmitters in the late 1800s took out a patent for the radio and has since been credited with being the first person to patent radio technology. The radio brought baseball into fans’ homes. Families sat around the radio and listened to the play-by-play as the broadcaster painted a mental image of what took place on the field. A Phillies/Pirates game was the first baseball game ever broadcast on the radio. Research online to find out the date of this historic radio broadcast.
The evolution of television is the result of many people working together for years. The cathode ray tube, which is the tube found in modern TV sets was invented by a German Scientist in 1897. The television is a telecommunication medium for transmitting and receiving moving images that can be black and white or color. Since 1920 the television has become commonplace in homes. Recent innovations, such as DVD, Blu-ray, DVR, and now Internet television have added to the entertainment possibilities.
Research online and find the date of the first television broadcast of a baseball game.
Research online and find the year that the Internet was first available to the general public.
Try to find the following media words in the word search. Internet Phillydotcom Inquirer
Daily News Phillies radio
television wifi blog
social network live
The press box at Citizens Bank Park is a busy place on game day. Reporters from multiple media outlets sit in the press box to watch the game while simultaneously writing an article on the game. The press box allows reporters access to the Internet through wireless technology. This allows them to upload their stories to their editors or even right to the Internet as soon as something eventful happens in the game. You can even chat live with Inquirer and Daily News reporters as they watch the game and give you inside information.
The task of the sports reporter is not an easy one. You have to pay attention to every detail before, during, and after the game to be able to relay exactly what happened. It isn’t enough to just tell what happened on the field, Phillies’ fans want behind-the-scenes information as well and it is The Inquirer’s job to get it to them. The first thing a sports reporter needs to do is collect the facts. They ask the classic questions: Who, What, Why, When, Where, and How. News happens quickly and they need to collect information rapidly to share with the public what is happening. Because of that, some reporters find themselves breaking the story on social networks or their philly.com blogs before the whole story is put together. When writing an article reporters need to start with a strong lead. This hooks their readers with the most intriguing aspect of a story up-front; otherwise they won’t bother reading the rest of it. Newspaper articles usually employ the classic inverted pyramid style where all of the five W’s and H that were mentioned earlier are handled in a single paragraph long sentence. Sports articles are usually conversational without being ungrammatical. If you want to be a good sports reporter, study good examples, like the stories written in The Inquirer. When you read the news in the newspaper, note which stories grab you and emulate their style.
Inverted Pyramid Attention grabbing lead Who? What? When? Where? Why? How?
Other gerneral information Background Information
NEWS REPORTER Activity
Have you ever thought about being an online news reporter? Use the blog below to document your favorite Phillies moments. What types of information should you include in your blog? Make sure that you use the 5 W’s, who, what, when, where, why, and H, the how. Include lots of details so the reader feels like they were at the game with you. Cut images out of the newspaper to add more life to your blog.
“Let’s Tech Out What You Know” Quiz page 3
1. High Definition 2. Starter, Reliever, Closer 3. Internet 4. Kentucky Blue Grass 5. Slow-motion video 6. Wireless, wifi 7. LEDs (light-emitting diodes) 8. train 9. wood 10. (from right to left) Fastball, Curveball, Changeup
Field Dimensions Activity Page 6 1. 123 yards 2. 13.1 times 3. 42.5 seconds 4. 2,160 inches 5. 360 feet
MATCH UP ACTIVITY Page 7 Manager - Charlie Manuel Batting Coach -Greg Gross Pitching Coach - Rich Dubee First and Third Base Coaches: First Base: Sam Perlozzo Third Base: Juan Samuel Bench Coach - Pete Mackanin Bullpen Coach - Mick Billmeyer
Use Your Technology Page 9 1. 12 Ryan Howards 2. 445 (444.3) times
CROSSWORD FUN Page 9
Across: 1. Diamondbacks 2. Florida 5. Victorino 7. Astros Down: 1. Definition 3. Rockies 4. Ace 6. Toronto
WHOSE GLOVE IS WHOSE ACTIVITY Page 12 1. Halladay 2. Ruiz 3. Polanco 4. Ibañez
THE MEDIA Page 14
1. The Inquirer was printed on July 13, 1925 in center city. 2. First radio broadcast was on August 5, 1921 3. First television broadcast was on August 26,1939 of a Cincinnati Reds and Brooklyn Dodgers game. 4. The Internet was available commercially in 1988.