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ino loloci

research + analysis

research + analysis


table of contents CONTEXT PAGES

Skyscraper precedents 2-11 Workplace design-precedent

12-15

Workplace design-trends Skyscraper design - rules of thumb-

15-19

Stockholm, Sweden- contextual analysis

22

Sweden- environmental analysis

23-25

20-22

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Shanghai World Financial Center Location: Shanghai, China Architect: KPF (Kohn Pedersen Fox) Completion Date: 2008 Building Type: Office, hotel, museum, observation, parking garage, retail Height: 1,614 feet Number of Stories: 101 Interesting Fact: It continues to have the tallest observation deck in the world(492m--1,555 ft above ground level) surpassing even the Burj Khalifa (452 m--1,483 ft). Shanghai World Financial Center

Jin Mao Tower

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form to site MM

N

Park Mall

MM

The Oriental Pearl Radio & TV Tower

HSBC Tower

Objective: “To create the simplest form”- William Pedersen, FAIA.

Homess City MM

Shanghai World Financial Center

Cen

Jin Mao Tower

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Abstract Confluence

yA ven

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i Ro g Ta Do n

Huangpu River

Silverly square prism-->sliced at opposite corners Ancient Chinese--> square--earth circle--heaven

Trapezoidal Opening

Lujiazui Ring Road

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Bottom of the trapezoid, one deck features an operable glass roof.

Dong Chang Road Ferr Terminal

Forum Observatory Park Hyatt Shanghai The Shops & Restaurants

Lujiazul Ring Road

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Roa

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2 Bus Stop For Group Visitors

Dong Tai Road

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hierarchy Forum Observatory Park Hyatt Shanghai The Shops & Restaurants

Lujiazul Ring Road

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1 2 3 4

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2 Bus Stop For Group Visitors

Dong Tai Road

Emphasis placed on the buildings public functions. “Part of the civic fabric of the city�. Five retail levels + conference center--> 97-100th floor 79th-93rd floor--> 174 room Park Hyatt Hotel: By Tony Chi & Associates 2.4 million of office space-->from the 77th floor 94 Elevators--> 41 million sq.ft

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structure to enclosure

Clustered around the rough Granite-clad base Intersecting, curving,angled planes of glass Steel columns Limestone material Green granite/ and bronze

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light to form

Sun path Today June 21 December 21 Annual variation Equinox (March and September) Sunrise/sunset Sunrise Sunset

Glazed windows used throughout the building (energy saver). “Walking on glass�--1/3 mile from the ground. South side of the building receiving most of the sunlight (natural lighting).

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function to circulation

There is six entrances:1. to the forum 2.to the observatory 3. to the Park Hyatt Shanghai hotel 4. the shops and restaurants 5. office 6. parking, drop-off point Auto[heavy] Auto[light] Bus Bicycle Pedestrian

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plans skywalk

office space

Plan of the building is spread out. 100 ft added 400 ft added by 2014 “It is really about lifting people up�KPF Senior Designer David Marlott

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sensory features

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+ -

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Positive Views

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Negative Views

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Noise

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average temp. Shanghai, China 100 80

68

82

75 66

59

60 40

75

82

41

43

Jan

Feb

57

48

46

20 0

Mar

May

Apr

June

July

Aug

Average Temperature (F)

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Sept

Oct

Nov

Dec


average rainfall Shanghai,China

250

230 212

200 150

142 118

100 50

76

63

64 43

44 11

0

85

76

Jan

7 Feb

12

10

14

Apr

May

June

15 Mar

11

13

July

Aug

Average Precipitation (mm) Average Rain Days

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8 Sept

8 Oct

8 Nov

34 7 Dec


DATA Location: Omaha, Nebraska Architect: Randy Brown Architects Completion Date: 2010 Building Type: Commercial-Office Square Footage: 5,000 sq.ft Total Construction Cost: $140,000 Interesting Fact: Galvanized metal wall panels call to mind the sheds of the region’s farms, evoking the company’s Midwestern roots.

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form to site

Objective: “ To convey the client’s technological identity while boosting the office’s already close-knit atmosphere.” Devided into a clearly defined sequence a large, open bullpen of workstations and a conference room bounded by a glass wall etched with numerical sequences to signify streams of data.

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hierarchy

A bright green wall, jutting and folding at changing angles, defines the circulation through the office like a kind of origami canopy.

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structure to enclosure

A bright green wall divides the workspaces from the public meeting rooms and cafĂŠ. Open central corridor enhancing visual openness.

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light to form

Office for an online data company, with a cafĂŠ, conference room, and gaming lounge.

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function to circulation

Opaque painted walls in the conference room contrast with the transparent walls elsewhere.

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models

Paint: Sherwin-Williams, snowbound+Humorous green+grizzly grey. Flooring: Clear sealed concrete Countertops: Plastic laminate, Nevamar s-6-54t wrought iron finish.

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models

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skyscraper design “rules of thumb� SURVEY OF THE SITE Distances and elevation of different points A detailed map [3-D] Contours will be provided

STOCKHOLM,SWEDEN

SAFETY FACTOR Elevators Stairs Escalators Electronical circuits [lights,sensors..] Air conditioning Security alarms

DESIGN Sustainability Durability Constructability Feasibility Utility Workability Spacial Comfortability

TYPE OF FOUNDATION H-Piles Bored Piles Big piece of slab Changes in long-term effective stresses [of the soil] STRUCTURAL MECHANICS Resist bending moments Shear forces Axial forces Wind loads Live loads [people,vehicles] Materials used Reinforcment bars [resist tension] Links[resist shear forces] Steel structure? [special care for buckling]

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STOCKHOLM,SWEDEN

skyscraper design “rules of thumb” reflections SURVEY OF THE SITE Maritime landscape-->24,000 islands Natural location[waterwaysz+parks] Parks,forests,walking areas

DESIGN A world leader in urban trends and contemporary Sustainable TYPE OF FOUNDATION To be diiscussed within the group Slab

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location

Sweden is located in the northern parts of Europe and has an area of about 450,000 sq.km. That’s roughly the size of California or Spain and twice that of the United Kingdom. Temperature is much milder because of the warm Gulf Stream passing by outside of Norway. The average temperature during the summers is around 20 degrees Celsius. In the south of Sweden the sun doesn’t set until nine o’clock in the evening - the Nordic light.

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environmental analysis

The 16 national environmental quality objectives are: 1. Reduced Climate Impact 2. Clean Air 3. Natural Acidification Only 4. A Non-Toxic Environment 5. A Protective Ozone Layer 6. A Safe Radiation Environment 7. Zero Eutrophication 8. Flourishing Lakes and Streams 9. Good-Quality Groundwater 10. A Balanced Marine Environment, Flourishing Coastal Areas and Archipelagos 11. Thriving Wetlands 12. Sustainable Forests 13. A Varied Agricultural Landscape 14. A Magnificent Mountain Landscape 15. A Good Built Environment 16. A Rich Diversity of Plant and Animal Life

Sweden has a long history of nature conservation. We were the first country in Europe to create national parks. The first 10 national parks were decided by Parliament in 1909 along with the first law concerning the protection of nature. Sweden´s network of Natura 2000 areas is now almost complete, under the requirements of the EU habitat and species directives.

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renewable energy sources in Sweden Biofuels-These are mainly obtained from forest or farmland, although organic wastes from households and industry also make up an important share. Geothermal energy-In the bedrock beneath Sweden, the temperature rises by 10–30°C for every 1 km increase in depth (the ‘geothermal gradient’). In volcanically active regions, the temperature increase can be much greater than that. In Sweden, the best potential for geothermal energy is considered to exist in areas where there are large bodies of groundwater at considerable depths (2–3 km), i.e. areas with thick layers of sedimentary bedrock or fault zones such as the Lake Vättern graben. Ground source heating-In the bedrock beneath Sweden, the temperature rises by 10–30°C for every 1 km increase in depth (the ‘geothermal gradient’). In volcanically active regions, the temperature increase can be much greater than that. In Sweden, the best potential for geothermal energy is considered to exist in areas where there are large bodies of groundwater at considerable depths (2–3 km), i.e. areas with thick layers of sedimentary bedrock or fault zones such as the Lake Vättern graben. Wind energy- Wind energy currently accounts for only a small share (less than 1 TWh) of the electricity produced in Sweden. A number of shallow waters and offshore banks within Sweden’s territorial sea and exclusive economic zone are of interest for the establishment of such installations. Fuel peat-Sweden has one of the highest proportions of peatlands in the world, with peat covering some 15 per cent of its surface. Peat for use as a fuel is currently extracted from around 12 000 ha of the country’s roughly 6.4 million ha of peatlands. Hydroelectric power-Sweden’s hydroelectric resources are generally considered to be fully developed. However, questions of dam safety, improvements in efficiency, and the development of ‘green’, small-scale hydro will continue to arise. In the longer term, as a result of increased and more intense precipitation, new issues relating to erosion and flooding may need to be addressed.

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STOCKHOLM,SWEDEN

reflections Green dessign LEED incorporated in the design Maximize space Maximize daylight by creating transitional space between the floors of the skyscraper. Stairs and hallway would be the major space defining element of the building [showcase the commercial program]. By using scale, form and placement and also differentiating these factors would be able to provide reorientation, rest, more productive work getting done in the offices. There would be hierarchical order in interior amond the paths. Use sustainable materials would be incorporated throughout the structure[skyscraper]. Create organization in the interior spaces that is flexible that lead to a larger form or space in the building. Considering the climate factors and laso with socialcultural factors in mind, the organization of the building would be emphasized by creating and defining spaces for each activity or space required in the skyscraper. Color, texture, different forms,lighting,materials,will help achieve the goal to be portrayed in the design work of the structure[skyscraper]. Form of the skyscraper would be articulated to create a ripple and create opportunities to analyze lighting conditions and also other factors.

research + analysis

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Precedent Analysis Diagrams

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