8th Grade Language Arts Tr a n s p o r t a t i o n U n i t
C HAPTER 1
Location- Missouri, United States of America
C LAIRE K ISER
St. Louis, Missouri
Weather- It is subject to both cold Arctic air and hot, humid tropical air from the Gulf of Mexico. The average annual temperature recorded at nearby Lambert–St. Louis International Airport, is 57.1 °F (13.9 °C). History- The area that would become St. Louis was a center of Native American Mississippian culture, which built numerous temple and residential earthwork mounds on both sides of the Mississippi River. Their major center was at Cahokia Mounds, active from 900CE to 1500 CE. The major earthworks within St. Louis boundaries were the source of the city's early nickname, the "Mound City." Historic Native American tribes in the area included the Siouan-speaking Osage people and the Illiniwek. Transportation- Transportation in St. Louis, Missouri includes road, rail, ship, and air transportation modes connecting the city of St. Louis with surrounding communities in Greater St. Louis, national transportation networks, and international locations. Industry/ Economics- The 2011 Gross Metropolitan Product (GMP) of St. Louis was $133.1 billion, 21st-highest 12
Sacramento is the
capital city of the US state of California and the seat of government of Sacramento County. It is at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in the northern portion of California's expansive Central Valley.
Sacramento has a Mediterranean climate characterized by damp to
wet, mild winters and hot, dry summers. The wet season is generally October through April, though there may be a day or two of light rainfall in June or September. The mean annual temperature is 6 1 . 0 ° F ,
C HRIS L ANE
with the monthly d a i l y a v e ra g e t e mperature ranging f r o m 46.4 °F in December to 75.5 °F in J u l y. S u mmer heat is often moderated by a sea breeze known as the "delta breeze" w h i c h c o m e s through the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta from the San Francisco Bay, and temperatures cool down sharply at night. The foggiest months are December and January. Tule fog can be extremely dense, lowering visibility to less than 100 feet and making driving conditions extremely hazardous. Chilling tule fog events have been known to last for several consecutive days or weeks. On average, there are 73 days where the high exceeds 90 °F, and 14 days where the high exceeds 100 °F ; On the other extreme, there are 15 days where the temperature fails to reach 50 °F , and 15 freezing nights per year. Extremes have ranged from 17 °F on December 11, 1932 to 114 °F on July 17, 1925. The average annual precipitation is 18.52 inches. On average, precipitation falls on 60 days each year in Sacramento, and nearly all of this falls during the winter months. Average January rainfall is 3.67 in, and measurable precipitation is rare during the summer months. In Febru-
ary 1992, Sacramento had 16 consecutive days of rain, resulting in an accumulation of 6.41 in for the period. On rare occasions, monsoonal moisture surges from the Desert Southwest can bring upper-level moisture to the Sacramento region, leading to increased summer cloudiness, humidity, and even light showers and thunderstorms. Monsoon clouds do occur, usually during late July through early September. Sacramento is the second most flood susceptible city in the United States after New Orleans.Sacramento has been noted as being the sunniest location on the planet for four months of the year, from June through September. It holds the distinction as the sunniest month, in terms of percent possible sunshine, of anywhere in the world; July in Sacramento averages 14 hours and 12 minutes of sunshine per day, amounting to approximately 98% of possible sunshine.
In 1839 John Sutter arrived on the shore of the American River near its
confluence with the Sacramento River. With the promise of a Mexican land grant, Sutter and his landing party established Sutter’s Fort. As the settlement grew and became permanent, it attracted other businessmen looking for opportunities. Sutter and the people he attracted created a commercial center in the area, but it was the Gold Rush in 1848 that created the City of Sacramento.
When gold was discovered in the nearby foothills by James Marshall, local merchant Sam Brannan rushed to open a store near the Sacramento River to take advantage of the convenient waterfront location. What was then called Sutter’s Embarcadero was soon known as the City of Sacramento. The city rapidly grew into a trading center for miners outfitting themselves for the gold fields. Early Sacramento’s waterfront location was prime for commercial success, but was prone to severe flooding. The city also fell victim to repeated fires engulfing its hastily constructed buildings composed mainly of wood and canvas. In 1850 the new city experienced its first devastating flood and in 1852 the city was again wiped out by high water. It was apparent that drastic measures would have to be taken if it was to be saved. In 1853 a mammoth project was proposed to raise the city above the flood level. The ambitious and expensive proposal was not fully accepted until another devastating flood swept through the city in 1862. Within a few years, thousands of cubic yards of earth were brought in on wagons and the daring scheme to raise the street level began. The original street level can be seen throughout Old Sacramento under the boardwalks and in basements. The center of the commercial district gradually moved east and the original part of the city on Sutter’s Embarcadero became known as the worst skid row west of Chicago. Reformers, ministers, politicians and others spoke out against conditions in this part of the city, but little was done to change the basic conditions. In the mid-1960s, a plan was set forth to redevelop the area and through it, the first historic district in the West was created. Today, with 53 historic buildings, Old Sacramento has more buildings of historic value condensed into its 28 acres than most ar-
eas of similar size in the West. Registered as a National and California Historic Landmark, the properties in the district are primarily owned by private owners, with individual businesses leasing shops and offices. The area has flourished and is once again a thriving commercial trade center.
The Sacramento region is served by several highways
and freeways. Interstate 80 (I-80) is the major east-west route, connecting Sacramento with San Francisco in the west, and Reno in the east. Business 80 (the Capital City Freeway) splits from I-80 in West Sacramento, runs through Sacramento, and then rejoins its parent in the northwest portion of the city. U.S. Highway 50 also begins its eastern journey in West Sacramento, co-signed with Business 80, but then splits off and heads toward South Lake Tahoe as the El Dorado Freeway.
Trains are a fast way of transportation. 16
Location:It is located In the southernmost tip of Nevada in Clark County. It is right in the center of the Mojave Desert. Weather: It is located in the middle of a blazing hot desert, so naturally it has a subtropical, hot, dry, and sunny all year long climate.
C ODY M INTON
Las Vegas, Nevada
History: The first non-native people to visit the area were the Mexican explorers led by Rafael Rivera. In 1905 Vegas was established as a railroad town and was given its name for the large artesian wells which supported large meadows in the area. Las Vegas means The Meadows, so that is what it was named. Eventually Vegas became less and less important, and less and less visited until the Hoover Dam was proposed which brought life to the area again. Afterwards investors came and brought more tourism by opening hotels and casinos in the area. Transportation: Las Vegas started as a railroad town and thus has many railroads that run through the town, as well it has its own bus system along with the county bus system. As well it has a monorail system linking most of the major hotels around the strip. Industry/Economy: It was originally a staging center for multiple large mining operations in the area. However in Todayâ€™s 17
modern age it has become populated by large hotels and casinos that bring in most of the business.
School/Universities: The only Major school of note in the area is the University of Nevada
Entertainment: The strip and surrounding area are populated with many large businesses along with multiple large hotels and casinos that bring in tourists from all around the country. As well it has a few sports stadiums.
Mayor/Prominent City Officials: The current Mayor is Carolyn G. Goodman. As well the Mayor Pro Tem is Stavros S. Anthony. There is also a city council which includes councilmen Beers, Coffin, Barlow, and Ross as well as Councilwoman Tarkanian.
Sports: There is the Sam Boyd Stadium which hosts UNVL football , the Las Vegas Bowl, and the USA Sevens, the largest Rugby tournament in North America. There is also the Las Vegas Speedway, which hosts multiple NASCAR and other racing events. Sights to see, there are dozens of amazing hotels and casinos to see, including the MGM Grand, as well as other attractions such as the scale models of the Eiffel Tower and the Statue of Liberty
Current Issues: Currently the whole of Clark County including Las Vegas is having large debates over the education system including things such as year round school schedule as well as school uniforms. Another issue is the fact that Yucca Mountain is the only legal place in the country to dump radioactive waste and it is only miles from Las Vegas and the Radioactive Waste could effect the health of Vegas citizens. Another issue is that of crime, Las Vegas was ranked out of 100 major cities it was ranked 92nd in a list of the best cities to raise a family, hinting to its high crime rates. 18
J ONATHAN O AKS
Death Valley, California
Death Valley is famous as the hottest place on earth and driest place in North America. The world record highest air temperature of 134°F (57°C) was recorded at Furnace Creek on July 10, 1913. Summer temperatures often top 120°F (49°C) in the shade with overnight lows dipping into the 90s°F (mid 30s°C.) Average rainfall is less than 2 inches (5cm), a fraction of what most deserts recieve. Occasional thunderstorms, especially in late summer, can cause flashfloods. In contrast to the extremes of summertime, winter and spring are very pleasant. Winter daytime temperatures are mild in the low elevations, with cool nights that only occasionally reach freezing. Higher elevations are cooler than the low valley. Temperatures drop 3 to 5°F (2-3°C) with every thousand vertical feet (approx. 300m). Sunny skies are the norm in Death Valley, but winter storms and summer monsoons can bring cloud cover and rain. Wind is common in the desert, especially in the spring. Dust storms can suddenly blow up with approaching cold fronts. There are many ‘Ghost Towns’ in Death Valley reaching back to the California Gold Rush in 1849. Some of the towns, near some of the largest gold mines in North American Territory.
H ARI P USHKAS W EST M ONROE , LA
West Monroe is one of the most famous cities in the United States. If you watched Duck Dynasty, you would know why. West Monroe is located in Northwest Louisiana in the Ouachita Parish of the state. The city gets 52 inches of rain per year and 1inch of snowfall. The lowest temperature is in January which is about 34 degrees and the highest is in July which is about 93 degrees. West Monroe was founded on March 31st, 1807, when the Ouchita territory (named after the Native American tribe that lived there) was divided into nine different regions. In fact, Joseph Biedenharn, first bottler of Coca-Cola, built his home there. It was originally a fort built by the French in the Indian territory before it was purchased by the United States. West Monroe originally used wagons but then decided adapted to the automobile, trucks, cars and today, they use forms such as hybrid transportation to help protect the environment. Industry in the city mostly includes what other cities in the United States has. Except, however, there is also the Duck Commander business which makes duck calls for the duck hunting seasons. That is one of the best businesses in the city. For entertainment, there is the reality series, Duck Dynasty, filmed in that very city of the Robertsons, who own the Duck Commander. Sports in West Monroe include much of the same ones. However, hunting competitions and other similar activities are also common in those parts of Louisiana. Attractions in West Monroe include the Biedenharn Fountain, where Biedenharn bottled the first Coca-Cola, the Black Bayou Lake Wildlife Refuge, Forsythe Park and other sights. Schools in West Monroe include West Monroe High, Claiborne School, George Welch Elementary and others. The current mayor of West Monroe is Dave Norris, a Democrat who served n office since 1978. The mayor of the entire Ouchita Territory is namely Jamie Mayo.
In the city, about 15.6 % of families and 21.6 % of the entire population was below the poverty line. This also included 36.1 % of 18-year olds under the age of 18 and 13.1 % of those age 65 years and above.
Image of the city downtown Image of Jamie Mayo
Image of Dave Norris
Weather The weather in Dallas, Texas is usually sunny with a rare chance of rain, and occasionally it is cloudy. This is perfect weather to go outside and play with your family and friends.
History In the mid-1980s to 1995, not a single high-rise structure was built within the downtown freeway loop. Dallas will be the only city in the world that has four buildings within one contiguous block that are all designed by Pritzker Architecture Prize winners.
Transportation You can get around Dallas with a car, train, bus, bike, and by walking.
Industry/Economy There is logging, mining, and oiling operations currently in Dallas.
Entertainment You can drive along the beautiful Dallas, Texas or goto museums, aquariums, and zoos.
H EATH Q UILLIN
Sports There is many sports that Dallas has to oďŹ€er like baseball, football, golf, soccer, and track. This
Sights to See You can go ride on amusement park rides and just walk around Dallas to see very interesting people, activities and buildings.
Schools/Universities There is plenty of schools in Dallas, there is a University of Texas and the University of Texas. If you are planning to have a great job in the Arts or Technology goto UT.
Mayor/Prominent City OďŹƒcials As of 2014 Mike Rawlings is the Mayor of Dallas, Texas.
Current Issues As of today Dallas is having most of the problems that every states is suďŹ€ering from.
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