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Volume1 2019

DIGITAL WOOD 3D PRINTING OF LARGE GLASS STRUCTURES SMART MATERIALS, PART 1 THE MAURITSHUIS PROJECT BIOSOLIDS MAKE SUSTAINABLE BRICKS GOLD FROM THE SEWER


CONTENT Innovatieve Materialen About is een vaktijdschrift gericht op de civieltechnische Innovatieve Materialen sector en bouw. Het bericht over ontwik(Innovative Materials) is a digital, kelingen op het gebied van duurzame, inindependent magazine novatieve materialen en/of deabout toepassing material the fields of daarvaninnovation in bijzondereinconstructies.

engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and Innovatieveindustrial Materialendesign. is een uitgave van Civiele Techniek, onafhankelijk vaktijdschrift voor civieltechnisch ingenieurs werkzaam in de grond-, weg- en waterA digital subscribtion in 2019 bouw en verkeerstechniek.

(6 editions) costs € 39,50 (excl. VAT) Members of KIVI and students: De redactie staat open voor bijdragen € 25,- U(excl. van vakgenoten. kunt VAT) daartoe contact opnemen met de redactie.

SJP Uitgevers

Postbus 861 4200 AW Gorinchem Uitgeverij tel. +31 183 66 08 08 info@innovatievematerialen.nl SJP Uitgevers

Postbus 861 Publisher 4200 AW Gorinchem Gerard van66 Nifterik tel. (0183) 08 08 e-mail: info@innovatievematerialen.nl www.innovatievematerialen.nl

Advertizing & sponsoring Drs. Petra Schoonebeek Redactie:

ps@innovatievematerialen.nl Bureau Schoonebeek vof

Hoofdredactie: Innovative Materials Gerard van Nifterik platform:

Dr. ir. Fred Veer, prof. Ir. Rob Nijsse (Glass &Advertenties Transparency Research Group, TU Delft), Drs. Petra Schoonebeek dr. Bert van Haastrecht (M2I), prof.ps@innovatievematerialen.nl Wim Poelman, dr. Ton e-mail: Hurkmans (MaterialDesign), prof.dr.ir. Jos Brouwers, Een digitaal abonnement in 2016 (Department of the Built (6 uitgaven) kostSection € 25,00 (excl. BTW) Environment, Building Physics and Services TU Eindhoven), prof.dr.ir. Jilt Sietsma, (4TU.HTM/ Zie ook: www.innovatievematerialen.nl Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering (3mE), prof.dr. Pimuitgave Groen,mag (SMART Niets uit deze worden Materials Aerospace Engineering verveelvuldigd en of openbaar worden TUvan Delft/Holst Centre, midoor(AE) middel herdruk, fotokopie, crofilm of opKris welke wijze(Flam3D), dan ook, zonder TNO), Binon voorafgaande schriftelijke toestemming Guido Verhoeven (Bond voor van de uitgever. Materialenkennis/SIM Flanders).

1 First industrial 3D concrete printing facility 2 Even Christmas trees become circular 5 Façade of roadside grass, recycled toilet paper and textiles 6 Digital wood 7 Stones from the 3D printer 8 Follow the Sun 10 3D printed material shows different transparencies and colours 12 Insulation for timber houses made of recycled paper 13 ‘Low impact biobased construction materials ready for mass market’ 14 Make it Matter 16 Branched concrete façade 18 Glass Award 2019 19 First luxury home from plastic waste 21 3D printing of Transparent Glass Structures

A few years ago MIT developed an new and innovative system for 3D-printing transparent glass (Innovative Materials volume 4, 2015). At that time it was - according to MIT - the first additive manufacturing (AM) technology to create strong, solid glass structures from computerized designs. Next milestone was the so-called G3DP2, a novel additive manufacturing platform was used for the digital fabrication of transparent glass at industrial scale. Recently G3DP2 was described and discussed in an article published in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing titled ‘Additive Manufacturing of Transparent Glass Structures’.

24 Smart materials; Part 1, introduction

Smart materials are everywhere, but often invisible or simply not recognized. For instance, highly engineered ceramic components enable the world’s most modern aeroplanes to fly. Almost no one is aware of this. In fact, in our daily life we are surrounded by smart materials without even noticing it, like the parking sensor of a car, the igniter of a stove and ultrasonic imaging in the medical field. This is the first article in a series of eight, in which prof. Pim Groen will discuss the world of smart materials. Pim Groen is professor of SMART Materials at Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Programme Manager of Holst Centre, TNO.

28 Re-Printing Architectural Heritage: The Mauritshuis-project

Additive Manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) technology has become a global phenomenon. In the domain of heritage, 3D printing can be seen as a time and cost-efficient method for restoring vulnerable architectural structures. In the last edition of Innovative Materials (volume 6 2018) attention was payed to the 4TU-project ‘Re-printing architectural heritage’. This experimental project at the Hippolytuskerk in the Dutch village of Middelstum, has tested available technologies to reproduce a mural on a section of one of the church’s vault with maximum possible fidelity to material, colours and local microstructures. Simultaneously, a second project was conducted at the Mauritshuis at The Hague. This to investigate and to discuss the potential of reprinting historical spaces as a copy.

31 Lignin as a renewable 3D printing material 32 Recycling biosolids to make sustainable bricks 34 Gold from the sewer 35 ‘Nano-scale failure in steel: Interface decohesion at iron/precipitate interfaces’ 36 A new concept for thermal energy storage 38 MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019 Cover: 3D printed large transparent glass structures (MIT), page 24

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019


NEWS

First industrial 3D concrete printing facility On January 15th 2019 two Dutch companies - Weber Beamix and BAM Infra - opened the first commercial industrial production site for the 3D printing of concrete elements for construction in Europe. According to the initiators, the

new production method already fulfils a need from the market. Recently an innovative collaboration with the province of Noord Holland to print four bicycle bridges has started. The companies say they want to enable individual serial pro-

duction combined with a huge increase in freedom in design. Less concrete is needed to realize the same result. The print robot only applies concrete where it is constructively needed. Furthermore, the use of less concrete saves a lot of CO2 emissions and no formwork is needed. According to Weber Beamix and BAM the entire process runs faster and the margin of error decreases. More at BAM (Dutch)>

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NEWS

Even Christmas trees become circular Abandoned Christmas trees could be saved from landfill and turned into paint and food sweeteners according to new research by the University of Sheffield. Christmas trees have hundreds of thousands of pine needles which take a long time to decompose compared to other tree leaves. When they rot, they emit huge quantities of greenhouse gases. Cynthia Kartey, a PhD student from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, has found that useful products can be made from the chemicals extracted from pine needles when processed. The major component (up to 85 per cent) of pine needles is a complex polymer known as lignocellulose. The complexity of this polymer makes using pine needles as a product for biomass energy unattractive and useless to most industrial processes. So Kartey focused on the breakdown of this complex structure into simple, high-valued industrial chemical feedstocks such as sugars and phenolics, which are used in products like household cleaners and mouthwash. With the aid of heat and solvents such as glycerol, which is cheap and environmentally friendly, the chemical structure of pine needles is broken down into a li-

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quid product (bio-oil) and a solid by-product (bio-char). The bio-oil contains glucose, acetic acid and phenol. These chemicals are used in many industries glucose in the production of sweeteners for food, acetic acid for making paint, adhesives and even vinegar. According to the University of Sheffield, the process is sustainable and creates zero waste as the solid by-product can be useful too in other industrial chemical processes. Fresh trees and older, abandoned Christmas trees can both be used. The UK alone uses as many as 8 million natural Christmas trees during the fes-

tive period every year and sadly, about 7 million trees end up in landfill. If pine needles were collected after Christmas and processed in this way, the chemicals could be used to replace less sustainable chemicals currently used in industry. This could lead to a decrease in the UK’s carbon footprint by reducing the UK’s dependence on imported artificial plastic-based Christmas trees and a reduction in the amount of biomass waste going to landfill. University of Sheffield>


NEWS

Hét expertisecentrum voor materiaalkarakterisering. Integer, onafhankelijk, objectief onderzoek en advies. ISO 17025 geaccrediteerd. Wij helpen u graag verder met onderzoek en analyse van uw innovatieve materialen. Bel ons op 026 3845600 of mail info@tcki.nl www.tcki.nl

TCKI adv A5 [ZS-185x124] Chemische analyse 14.indd 1

09-05-17 13:19

2017 volume 3

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS

International edition Innovative Materials, the international version of the Dutch magazine Innovatieve Materialen, is now available in English. Innovative Materials is a digital, independent magazine about material innovation in the fields of engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and industrial design.

3D-printing cellulose World’s first 3D-printed reinforced concrete bridge Materials 2017 Composites improve earthquake resistance in buildings

www. innovatievematerialen.nl info@innovatievematerialen.nl

Glass bridge Lina: world’s first bio-based car

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

Innovative Materials is published in a digital format, although there is a printed edition with a small circulation. Digital, because interactive information is attached in the form of articles, papers, videos and links to expand the information available.

E D I T I O N

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NEWS

EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 From material choice to realized product

By merging the EUROFINISH and MATERIALS 2019 trade fairs, this event will have all the ingredients to come to a successful product. From material selection to processing to the finishing touch with quality assurance in every step of the process. The Materials trade fair organized by Mikrocentrum has a strong focus on the role of materials in the success of a product. Eurofinish, organized by VOM, connects professionals involved in surface treatment techniques. According to the parties involved, combining Materials and Eurofinish is a logical step: where Materials ends, Eurofinish starts. According to the organizers, this synergy offers one central meeting place where all aspects can be found to realize a good and sustainable end product.

Dutch and Belgian market

The cooperation between both exhibitions offers Dutch and Belgian specialists within the chain the opportunity to meet in one central location, varying from materials scientists or researchers to product developers, product designers, engineers, R & D specialists, production staff and specialists in, for example, maintenance, construction, automotive, transport and machine building.

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Complete production process

During EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 the complete production process of a product can be found. Which material is chosen as the building block for a product is crucial to guarantee the quality. How the surface of this material is treated is at least as important. Good quality can only be achieved by collaboration between all players. It seems so obvious, but where are cars, machines and smartphones without a good, strong base and finish? Behind this self-evidence there’s a world full of techniques and challenges. EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 for the first time in the Benelux, a trade fair takes place where all the steps within this value chain are covered. From design and choice of material, to analysis, joining materials and surface treatment. EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 is not only limited to the solutions we know today, but also focuses on the innovations of tomorrow. The extensive conference program and the demo rooms show how developments in this field are constantly changing, literally and figuratively. According to the organizers, this makes the new trade fair EUROFINISH + MATERIALS 2019 ideal for companies that are active in the fields of design, materials, analysis, joining or surface treatment. More information can be found on the websites www.materials.nl or www.eurofinish.be for more information.

Date: 15 & 16 May 2019 (9.30 / 18.00) Location: Brabanthal, Leuven (Belgium) Websites: www.eurofinish.be www.materials.nl Organizers VOM vzw, Belgian association for surface techniques of materials Kapeldreef 60, 3001 Leuven, Belgium +32 (0) 16 40 14 20 info@vom.be www.vom.be Mikrocentrum Postbus 359, 5600 AJ Eindhoven, the Netherlands +31 (0) 40 - 296 99 22 events@mikrocentrum.nl www.mikrocentrum.nl


NEWS

Façade of roadside grass, recycled toilet paper and textiles NPSP developed façade panels based on circular residual materials. The panels were demonstrated in Dubai in the summer of 2018 on the submission of TU Eindhoven’s VIRTUE team to the Solar Decathlon and could be seen later that year during the Dutch Design Week in Eindhoven. The development took place in collaboration with Eindhoven University of Technology, Avans University of Applied Sciences and HZ University of Applied Sciences and several companies. According to NPSP, specialised in composite product engineering, the façade panel is durable and decorative, strong and dimensionally stable. At the end of life, the material can be ground and reused as the basic raw material in the same proces. The biocomposite material called Nabasco 8010 consists of fibers from mown roadside grass, recycled toilet paper, recycled textiles, waste cane and flax. The material also contains calcium carbonate (the residual material from the softening process of drinking water) and a biobased resin, based on residual materials from biodiesel production. The processing has been carried out by students. Based on all fibers, calcium carbonate and resin, a dough is made which is then pressed into a hot mold for

a few minutes. According to NPSP, maintenance is very low due to the use of the mentioned combination of raw materials and the high pressure. The shape of the facade has been specially developed for warm countries, where the façade has to cool the building. The thermal facade is a way to improve the natural ventilation of buildings by using convection of sun-heated air. The air behind the panels becomes warm, rises and the draft ensures that cool air can be sucked into the building. The project is a collaboration between NPSP and the companies AkzoNobel, KNN Cellulose and NewFoss, with the cooperation of Virtue team of TU Eindhoven and Center of Expertise Biobased Economy, Biobased Building Lectorate, Spark Campus, Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Van de Bilt seeds and flax, water board Aa en Maas, Wetterskip Fryslân and Stowa, supported by the Interreg research program of the European Union.   Photography: Hans de Wit, Avans Hogeschool https://teamvirtue.nl/

Panels of the individual materials: textile, cellulose, reed, flax and grass

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NEWS

Digital wood Researchers at Columbia University used a 3D voxel printing technique to create digital wood, complete with internal grains and external colour textures. To achieve this, the team used state of the art technologies in 3D printing, comprising destructive tomographic imaging and so-called voxel printing. After all a digital manufacturing workflow, to replicate both the surface colour texture and the internal colour texture of anisotropic organic materials such as wood, olive wood in this case.

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Photos: Columbia University

First, wooden samples were obtained by using a camera-equipped (CNC) mill and a fly-cutter, which shaves 27 Οm off the wood surface in each pass. These wood slices were photographed. The resulting stack of 230 images was prepared for manufacturing on a voxel-capable 3D printer. A voxel represents a value on a regular grid in three-dimensional space and is defined as the smallest discernible physical element in a 3D-printed assembly.


NEWS To achieve multimaterial printing, a Stratasys J750 printer sputters droplets of dissimilar materials on the build tray before gently compressing them with a metal roller to effectively mix adjacent droplets. This mixing of resins removes the grittiness to produce smoother, continuous segments. After the metal roller passes across a layer, the layer is cured with ultraviolet light, and the machine starts printing the next layer. At the end, the final printed object closely resembles the original wooden block both in its external appearance and in its internal colour pattern, as confirmed when the block is cut or broken. To test if the blocks had the right internal multicoloured structure, the researchers dipped some in liquid nitrogen and shattered them. Other blocks were broken using a chisel. The experiment shows that the differently coloured resins form a continuous grain. In addition to blocks, the researchers also created digital wood shaped objects, like an alligator. According to Columbia University, the presented workflow can be employed in digital replication of objects with complex internal patterns that have thus far been impossible to manufacture. This work was done by Fabian Stute, Joni Mici, Lewis Chamberlain, and Hod Lipson, Columbia University. The paper titled ‘Digital Wood: 3D Internal Color Texture Mapping,’ was published last December in ‘3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing’ and is online> (A) Destructive imaging setup: a camera-equipped desktop CNC mill and the wooden sample mounted on a baseboard. (B–I) A selection of cropped cross-sections of olive wood slices. (J) Dilated image cross-section to match the aspect ratio of J750 3D printer. (K) Superposed bitmaps assuming no mixing of resin droplets. 3D, three-dimensional; CNC, computer numerical control

3D printed masonry stones During BAU 2019 - 14 to 19 January in Munich - brick manufacturer Unipor (Munich) presented the results of a research project of the Unipor Group in the field of 3D printing. In close collaboration with the Technical University of Darmstadt the company developed an innovative method for the production of stones from the 3D printer. These are stone units for which special geometries are required and/or series production is not yet profitable. Unipor>

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NEWS

Follow the Sun

A team from Harvard University has invented flexible materials that can respond autonomously to light and other stimuli. This novel liquid crystal material - called liquid-crystal elastomers (LCEs) - can be programmed to move in three dimensions, possibly could be used to develop solar panels that can automatically rotate to follow the sun. The principle could be applied to other next-generation applications. They are bio-inspired by natural exam-

ples, such as the pads of gecko feet. The pads of geckos’ notoriously sticky feet are covered with so-called setae microscopic, hairlike structures whose chemical and physical composition and high flexibility allow the lizard to grip walls and ceilings with ease. Scientists have tried to replicate such dynamic microstructures in the lab with a variety of materials, including liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs), which are rubbery polymers that contain liquid crystalline

compounds that dictate the directions in which the LCEs can move and stretch. So far, synthetic LCEs have mostly been able to deform in only one or two dimensions, limiting the structures’ ability to move throughout space and take on different shapes. A group of scientists from Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering and John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences

Micropillars made of a light-responsive liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) re-orient themselves to follow light coming from different directions, which could lead to more efficient solar panels. Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University

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NEWS (SEAS) has harnessed magnetic fields to control the molecular structure of LCEs and create microscopic three-dimensional polymer shapes that can be programmed to move in any direction in response to multiple types of stimuli. The work, was reported December 18th in PNAS.

Self-regulated motion

The team was able to program their LCE shapes to reconfigure themselves in response to light by incorporating light-sensitive molecules into the structure during polymerization. Then, when the structure was illuminated from a certain direction, the side facing the light contracted, causing the entire shape to bend toward the light. This type of self-regulated motion allows LCEs to deform in response to their environment and continuously reorient themselves

Liquid crystal elastomers deform in response to heat, and the shape they take depends on the alignment of their internal crystalline elements, which can be determined by exposing them to different magnetic fields during formation. Credit: Wyss Institute at Harvard University

to autonomously follow the light. This principle could lead to the creation of a number of useful devices, including solar panels that turn to follow the sun for improved energy capture.

The article (Yuxing Yao, James T. Waters, Anna V. Shneidman, Jiaxi Cui, Xiaoguang Wang, Nikolaj K. Mandsberg, Shucong Lia, Anna C. Balazs, and Joanna Aizenberg) is online at PNAS (pdf)>

Harvard>

ICSBM 2019 – The 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Building Materials 12 - 15 August 2019, Eindhoven Following the success of the previous conference in Wuhan in 2015, the 2nd International Conference on Sustainable Building Materials, ICSBM 2019, will be organized in Eindhoven, the Netherlands, 12 - 15 August 2019. The idea behind the ICSBM conference is to find (scientific) answers to the question to what extent new, sustainable building materials can play a role in the future. The building sector is by far the largest consumer of raw materials and producer of human-made materials. From a sustainability and circularity point of view, the effects of this demand can among others be mitigated using biogenic resources, smart material design, enhanced durability, functionalization, reuse and recycling, and the use of side streams (‘waste’). The conference addresses this challenge starting from a scientific approach: building materials science being a syncretic discipline hybridizing mineralogy, ceramics, solid-state physics, chemistry, metallurgy and biology. Advanced characterization and treatment methods, together with novel technologies and modelling tools, are vital for the study and improvement of the complete life cycle of building materials, from raw materials, to production, use and recycling. Thematic workshops will be provided, e.g. microscopy (Prof. Pöllmann), 3D printing/additive manufacturing (Prof. Salet), matchmaking for international cooperation and corporate presentations. Parallel presentation sessions, poster sessions and company exhibition stands will be held for the duration of the conference. https://susbuildmat.com

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NEWS

3D printed material shows different transparencies and colours Researchers at BioNano Technology at Wageningen University have deve­ loped a material with special translucent properties. Depending on the light you can see through it or not. Meanwhile, 3D printed cups have been made to illustrate the optical effect. Sometimes the material is opaque brown, but with a different light angle just transparent. These properties are the result of the so-called dichroic (two-colour) effect of the printed material. In this case, modified pva (polyvinyl alcohol), which is widely used in 3D printing land. The colour effect is created by the addition of golden nanoparticles to the pva. The gold particles reflect the light or let it through, depending on their size. Vittorio Saggiomo is the spiritual father of the dichroic print material. But the discovery of the light effect by golden nanoparticles was by master student Lars Kool, two years ago. The assignment

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was to make gold nanoparticles by reducing gold ions with citric acid. The amount of gold in the material is minute, a mere 0.07 weight percent. Such a small amount of gold doesn’t change the printability of the material, which remains the same as with normal material. However, even at this low amount of gold, the nanocomposite material shows a distinct dichroic effect showing a brown opaque colour in reflection (when the illumination and the observer are on the same side) and a violet transparent colour in transmission (when the illumination and the observer are on opposite sides). The material used in this new research is a standard material that can be printed with any off the shelf 3D printer. According to the WUR scientists it opens the doors to a new class of 3D printable nanomaterials where the intrinsic properties of the nano world, in this case

optical properties, are retained even in 3D printed objects. Such peculiar optical properties can be used not only by artists for their colours, but in the future also for nanocomposite based lenses and filters. The researchers are now working on improving this methodology using different nanoparticles and different materials. WUR>

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SPEAKERS INCLUDE: NEWS

Michael Kauffman, General Manager Composites & Ceramics, General Electric

Willard Cutler, Technology Director, Corning

I-X Center, Cleveland, Ohio, USA Exhibits and Conference: April 30-May 1, 2019 Welcome Reception (invite only): April 29, 2019

Lionel Vargas-Gonzalez, Ceramic Synthesis and Processing, Ceramic and Transparent Materials Branch, US Army Research Laboratory

Join us at the leading conference for advanced ceramics and glass materials, manufacturing and components

Adam Stevenson, Group Leader and Worldwide R&D Portfolio Manager for Engineered Ceramics, Saint-Gobain

Suraj Rawal, Technical Fellow, Lockheed Martin Space

Reasons to attend Be the first to hear about the latest material and manufacturing developments

Asma Sharafi PhD., Research Engineer, Energy Storage Research, Ford Motor Company

Refine your manufacturing processes with new techniques learnt at the conference Discover new applications in end-user markets for advanced ceramics and glass Keep up-to-date with changing markets and regulations for new materials

REGISTER FOR YOUR FREE PASS WWW.CERAMICSEXPOUSA.COM

Mark DiPerri Business Development Manager, Advanced Materials Division, Toshiba American Electronic Components, Inc.

Remember to view the full agenda and speaker list at ceramicsexpousa.com/ conference Founding partner

Key topics: additive manufacturing • electro-ceramics • polymer derived ceramics • sourcing raw 11 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019 materials • market growth • R&D processes • thermal management • end-user applications


NEWS

Insulation for timber houses made of recycled paper additives. They also searched for the right ‘starter’ to bind the fibres within the blink of an eye. At last, they selected an suitable binding material: a substance from the food industry. During an upscaling test the flakes were blown into several wooden frames, alongside an identical cavity with flakes without the novel additive, and fitted using the customary technique. At VKF ZIP AG fire lab the wooden frames were exposed to flames at temperatures of 800 to 1,000 degrees for an hour. The wooden frame was not supposed to burn through at any point, nor should any red-hot flakes fall out. The new insulation material stood the test and protected the construction reliably, while the flakes without the additive fell out of the wooden frame for lack of adhesion.

In future, mountains of waste paper might be transformed into a valuable, fireproof insulating material. Franziska Grüneberger (scientist at EMPA) and Willi Senn (development engineer at Isofloc) developed an insulating material made of recycled paper. It’s especially suitable for prefabricated wooden elements and even multistory timber houses, and protects the construction against fire. Over more, the additive it contains is harmless to humans, animals and the environment. The trick lies in the strength of the fibres, which is important for long-term fire resistance. Precisely this firmness, however, is hard to achieve in the industrial production of insulating layers. Instead of insulating mats, the recycled paper fibres are blown into a cavity until it is filled completely. These cellulose fibres that are already established on the market by Isofloc AG, a manufacturer of insulation materials. But how to make it a stable, insulating and fireproof material out of it? Franziska Grüneberger and her colleague started looking for suitable binding agents, according to the scientists ‘a tour de force of chemistry’. First: for use in sustainable timber construction, the binding agent must be non-toxic. Secondly, the desired binding agent needs to be affordable and available in abundance. Senn and Grüneberger launched a series of experiments and combined the insulating fibres with different

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According to Isofloc the advantages are obvious. Fitting the insulating material in loose form saves an enormous amount of time. With the additional advantage of dimensional stability and the associated effectiveness for fire safety, protection can be achieved that is on a par with glued mineral wool mats. The final development step is now taking place at Isofloc, where a new generation of blow-in machines is developed. Isofloc’s expects the new insulation will hit the market together with the corresponding blow-in machines in around a year. www.empa.ch/web/s604/isofloc


NEWS

‘Low impact biobased construction materials ready for the mass market’

ISOBIO carried out its final event on 29 January in Brussels. The European ISOBIO project started in 2015 and was intended to stimulate the wide use of biobased building materials through innovation. This was done by developing new concepts in the use of pre-treated biobased aggregates for construction, which include insulation materials, moisture buffering materials, binders and resins. The outcome of the project leads to three novel, low-impact materials. First: the ISOBIO board - an entirely biobased insulation board, consisting of hemp bound with a biobased binder. Second: an insulating lime render utilising a high proportion of hemp shiv as aggregate. Third: an insulating clay plaster with enhanced moisture buffering properties. These innovative materials have also been combined into a composite structural panel, which can be used either as the external envelope in new build or as an external or internal retrofit panel. According to ISOBIO the new material solutions are very energy efficient: compared to a standard UK house, the ISOBIO structural panel would reduce heating requirements by 45%. The ISOBIO materials are also ultralow car-

bon. This is due to the global warming potential (climate change impact) of the ISOBIO structural panel (27.5 kg CO2 per m2 of panel) being around one quarter that of a standard UK new-build wall, but also because of the large quantity of atmospheric carbon stored in the biogenic material in the panel. Moreover, material costs would be much lower compared to the modern reference wall. After four years, the ISOBIO project was officially ended on 31 January 2019.

More at http://isobioproject.com>

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MAKE IT MATTER

MAKE IT MATTER MAKE IT MATTER is compiled in collaboration with MaterialDistrict (MaterialDistrict.com). In this section new, and/or interesting developments and innovative materials are highlighted.

FUR FUR is a concrete wall tile that is inspired by the fur of animals, it can create a soft looking and seamless surface both indoors and outdoors. The material is available in standard single colours white, black, pink, beige, dark blue and grey, but can also be custom coloured. The tiles are also available in double colour, which are decorated with playful splashes of a second colour.

More>

‘Salted’ aluminium foam This aluminium foam is made by adding salt or other materials in the casting process. The salt is removed once the aluminium has hardened, turning the material porous. Depending on the size of the salt grains, the porosity can be varied. The aluminium is lightweight, shock- and temperature-resistant. The material can be made in various shapes, like tiles, sheets or cilinders, or can be processed like regular aluminium to make more complex shapes. The foam can be used in filter systems, light equipment, wall decoration, acoustic solutions, and more. More>

Unrecycable fiber material Dutch designer Tim Teven created a new material made from unrecyclable paper fibres, which he used to make building blocks for furniture. Paper is easily recyclable, but it can’t be recycled endlessly. In the recycling factory, unwanted materials are taken out, including plastic, stones, metal and wood. The process also takes out fibres that are not recyclable anymore, a leftover material that is also known as screen. Teven used this material to make building blocks to construct several interior pieces, including shelves, benches, tables, and stools. Photo: Iris Rijskamp/Tim Teven

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More>


MAKE IT MATTER Nuatan Nuatan is a 100% biobased, biocompatible and biodegradable plastic. Essentially, it’s a blend of two biopolymers, Polylactid Acid (PLA), derived from corn starch, and Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), made from corn starch that has been metabolised by microorganisms. The material can be formed using various production methods, including injection moulding and 3D printing. The material can withstand temperatures of over 100 degrees Celsius, and it biodegrades in 90 days if put in an industrial composter. More>

Bamboo solid panel MOSO Bamboo Solid Panels is a material that consists of multiple layers of bamboo. Up to five layers of bamboo are pressed on top of each other to create panels that are hard, stable, and durable. The hardness, density and dimensional stability of MOSO Bamboo Solid Panel is similar or better than good quality hardwoods. Made from rapidly renewable bamboo, being CO2 neutral. MOSO Bamboo Solid Panels are available in two sizes (2440 x 1220 mm, 3000 x 700 mm) and the thickness ranging from 16 to 40 mm. More>

The Recycled collection The Portuguese Pladec Recycled collection consists of a variety of wall panels as an alternative to flat wall panels, with the aim to create more ecological interior products. The collection includes three subcategories: Ecological Organic Green Environmental Recycle collection, the Bio-Terra collection and the Bio-Vine collection, all based on ecological materials. All panels have a thickness of between 12 and 50 mm and are available in various sizes. More>

Acoustic cork wall tile The acoustic cork wall tile collections Lisboa and Porto are made from 93% recycled cork and 7% resin, produced in a waste-free molding process. The tiles can be secured to a pressure fit rail system with a gentle push. The cork is a waste material from wine stopper production. The design of Lisboa tiles takes inspiration from the street grids of its namesake city Lisbon, Portugal. The tiles may be oriented horizontally or vertically to provide sound softening and pattern. More>

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NEWS

‘Branched’ concrete façade From 4 - 8 February the Bouwbeurs 2019 took place in the Jaarbeurs in Utrecht. Part of the event was the so-called Projects Expo, in which three striking or innovative projects were highlighted: a renovation project, a new construction project and an infrastructure project. As

The making of the façade formwork

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far as the latter is concerned, the choice was made at Station Zoetermeer-Lansingerland, where material use was decisive for an iconic façade. Lansingerland-Zoetermeer station is a railway station at the intersection of the extended Oosterheem route of

RandstadRail and the railway line Gouda - The Hague. It lies on the border of Bleiswijk and Zoetermeer and is also known as station BleiZo. The station was put into operation at the beginning of December 2018, but the official delivery is this spring. It’s an inno-

Façade-formwork at the Bouwbeurs


NEWS vative station, mainly due to the design. For this reason, a special place for the project was created at the Projects Expo of the Bouwbeurs 2019. At the Projects Expo various elements of the project were exposed, such as a concrete mock-up and part of the formwork for the characteristic branch motif on the platform caps and the façade of the bridge. (See video below) The station is constructed on the top of a so-called ‘green viaduct’, more than 40 meters wide and 190 meters long, with four 61 meters long concrete beams that span the A 12 as a constructive basis. The design was from Team V and Arcadis. Clients: Metropolitan Region Rotterdam The Hague and the Gemeenschappelijke Regeling Bleizo. Vobi acted as main contractor. More at www. stationlansingerland-zoetermeer.nl (Dutch)>

Video

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NEWS insulating and sun protection windows for more security. The total project comprises 9,000 m² of glass and consists of solar insulating glass SGG COOL-LITE SKN165, high-performance glass SGG CLIMAPLUS XN and SGG EMALIT, hardened and colour enamelled glass.

Solar Highways

Glass Award 2019

Solar Highways is a modular noise barrier with integrated PV installation. On this scale this has never been realized along the Dutch motorways. It is also the largest project in Europe where energy is generated with integrated solar panels in noise barriers. Solar Highways is a development by Heijmans (contractor), Van Campen / BAYARDS (aluminium manufacturer) and Scheuten Glas from Venlo. The noise barrier is located near the A50 at Uden where 400 meters (68 units) of Scheuten Optisol noise barriers have been installed, which generate enough solar energy with an energy yield of between 145 and 175 MWh per year to supply 40 to 60 households with electricity . The noise barriers along the A50 had to be modified to improve the sound resistance and to optimize the sun position (east-west) for the application of bifacial (two-sided) solar cells. More about the Poortgebouw (Dutch)>

The Poortgebouw Hoog Catharijne in Utrecht, a project by Saint-Gobain Gevelbouw, has won the Glass Award 2019. Solar Highways, from Scheuten Glass, won the Innovation Award. The presentation took place on 8 February, during the Bouwbeurs 2019 in the Jaarbeurs in Utrecht. Saint-Gobain Glassolutions, in collaboration with façade builder Blitta from Venray, produced and supplied the glazing for the façades of the Poortgebouw, the so-called Stadskamer, Bruggebouw and the Entreegebouw of the new Hoog-Catharijne shopping and office area at Utrecht. The Poortgebouw stands out because of its colours and its double curved shapes. The coldly curved, coloured insulating glass is iconic. The glazing of the Poortgebouw consists of 1,700 windows, each with a unique shape and a unique, non-cylindrical bending.

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In the glazing and the panels, bendings up to 10 centimetres could be realized through the integral fastening system. In addition, the glass producer has layered both the single glazed windows and the

Solar Highways at Scheuten (Dutch)>


NEWS

First luxury home from plastic waste The Arnhem company Save Plastics developed the first ever fully self-supporting and mobile home made of local waste plastic, which does not compromise on luxury and comfort. The house was pre-sented during the opening of the ‘Arnhem Plasticvrij?-event (Plastic-free-event) on February 8th. The house, also known as Save Home, applies innovative methods to cleverly combine comfort and sustainability. It is therefore the first house that unites the four elements of ‘good, green living’, i.e. comfort & security, self-support, mobility, and local, circular production. The materials that are used for the construction of the house are as ‘local and circular’ as possible. This means that the plastic waste from Arnhem and its residents is melted to create doors and roofs. When the plastic soup is used in this way, it is once again assigned a value. Plastic that is too tricky to recycle and the (mix of) low-value plastics are often put into the incinerator or find their way to landfill. This has no function or value. Save Plastics thinks that’s a shame because plastic has a life-span of 50 years per recycle and can be melted down to create something new nine times. The house is self-supporting: this means that is does not need to be connected to the electricity or gas networks. There is electric heating which works via solar panels and water is captured and recycled. The walls of the house also offer a very high degree of insulation, around twice as high as ordinary houses. That is why very little energy is required to heat the house. Save Plastics has been making various products from waste plastics, which would otherwise disappear into the incinerator, for the past 30 years. According to Bram Peters, director of Save Plastics, a new sustainable approach can only be created, if there is a market for it. If great houses can be built

from waste plastic and that this could also be commercially interesting for the ordinary consumer, anything is possible. Save Plastics is the co-founder of the cooperative Plastic Fantastic, a group of green thinkers and en-trepreneurs who believe that the plastic soup problem could be approached in a better, more sustain-able and practical manner. Plastic Fantastic is also working on the first completely plastic office: the dock office for Airhunters, on the IPKW site. The pilot project has been supported by a contribution from the KVG programme, financed by Stichting Afvalfonds. www.saveplastics.nl>

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Vakbeurs en congres

EUROFINISH+MATERIALS 2019 De centrale ontmoetingsplek in de Benelux met alle aspecten voor een goed en duurzaam eindproduct  15 en 16 mei 2019  Brabanthal, Leuven (België)

Highlights: • Focus op materiaalkeuze, karakterisatie, verbindingstechnieken en oppervlaktebehandeling • Uitgebreid congresprogramma en meet&match event • Demonstraties en innovaties

ratis Registreer u voor een g nish.be bezoek op www.eurofi of www.materials.nl Organisatie:


RESEARCH

3D printing of Transparent Glass Structures A few years ago MIT developed an new and innovative system for 3D-printing transparent glass (Innovative Materials volume 4, 2015). At that time it was - according to MIT - the first additive manufacturing (AM) technology to create strong, solid glass structures from computerized designs. Next milestone was the so-called G3DP2, a novel additive manufacturing platform was used for the digital fabrication of transparent glass at industrial scale, developed by MIT scientists. During the Milan Design Week 2017 several three meter tall glass structures were exposed, made by this G3DP2 platform. Recently G3DP2 was described and discussed in an article published in 3D Printing and Additive Manufacturing titled ‘Additive Manufacturing of Transparent Glass Structures’ (Chikara Inamura, Michael Stern, Daniel Lizardo, Peter Houk, and Neri Oxman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA). G3DP2 is a high fidelity, large-scale, additive manufacturing technology for 3D printing optically transparent glass structures at architectural dimensions. This enabling technology builds upon

previous efforts led by The Mediated Matter Group to 3D print optically transparent glass for product scale applications. G3DP2 transcends its predecessor by restructuring the machine’s archi-

tecture and process control operations as informed by material properties and behaviours of silicate glass to 3D print building components with tuneable and predictable mechanical and optical

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019 properties. This new manufacturing platform includes a digitally integrated thermal control system - to accompany the various stages of glass forming - as well as a novel 4-axis motion control system permitting flow control, spatial accuracy and precision, and faster production rates.

The two platforms and dimensions of G3DP on the left, and G3DP2 on the right

Glass II-project During the Milan Design Week 2017 the MIT Mediated Matter Group presented the Glass II project: an installation comprised of a series of 3m-tall glass columns fully manufactured with the G3DP2 platform. The Glass II project showed an installation comprised of a series of 3m-tall glass columns, built from smaller 3D printed glass cylinders, fully manufactured with the G3DP2 platform. Each column’s unique and constantly changing surface is the result of continuous branching into multiple lobes to support its load. Given their geometric complexity and dynamic optical properties, the columns act as architecturally scaled lenses that can concentrate or disperse light from within and/or outside the glass surface. Two dark-mirrored surfaces are mounted on the facing end walls defining the space, reflecting the row of columns and creating the illusion of an infinite array of ‘light totems’ fading into darkness.

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Projectteam: Chikara Inamura (project lead), Michael Stern, Daniel Lizardo, Tal Achitub, Tomer Weller, Owen Trueblood, Nassia Inglessis, Giorgia Franchin, Kelly Donovan, Peter Houk (project adviser), prof. Neri Oxman (project and group director). More at MIT Media Lab>

According to MIT, the G3DP2 project demonstrates the potential of this AM technology to produce freestanding glass structures for the first time at architectural scale. A milestone was the so-called Glass II project that was demonstrated during the Milan Design Week in by the MIT Mediated Matter Group in 2017. In the future, the scientists expect to combine the advantages of this AM technology with the multitude of unique material properties of glass such as transparency, strength, and chemical stability. Doing so, MIT may start to develop new types of multifunctional building blocks. Transparent and hollow-section glass tubes simultaneously act as an heating,


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019 ventilation, and air conditioning system. Through these systems, synthetic and biological mediums circulate and react to incoming sunlight and surrounding temperature, passively regulating the building while illuminating the interior space as if they were a dynamic stained glass. According to the MIT scientists, this would invoke a fundamental shift in the notion of glass in architecture. ‘Additive Manufacturing of Transparent Glass Structures’ (Chikara Inamura, Michael Stern, Daniel Lizardo, Peter Houk en Neri Oxman, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA) is online (pdf)>

Video

Construction of the glass columns during the Milan Design Week 2017

Left: 3D-printed glass columns displayed during Milan Design Week. Right: close-up view of one of the glass columns and the caustics projected on the floor

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019

Part 1, introduction

Smart materials Smart materials are everywhere, but often invisible or simply not recognized. For instance, highly engineered ceramic components enable the world’s most modern aeroplanes to fly. Almost no one is aware of this. In fact, in our daily life we are surrounded by smart materials without even noticing it, like the parking sensor of a car, the igniter of a stove and ultrasonic imaging in the medical field. This is the first article in a series of eight, in which prof. Pim Groen will discuss the world of smart materials. Pim Groen is professor of SMART Materials at Aerospace Engineering (AE) at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) and Programme Manager of Holst Centre, TNO. Different classes of materials can be identified. In the classical way there are three. First: metals which typically have a high density, a reasonable high melting point and elastic modulus. They are normally reactive towards oxygen and

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usually quite ductile. Secondly: polymers. They have a low density, low melting point and low modulus. Furthermore, these can be ductile and brittle. Finally: ceramics. These materials are

available in all kind of different grades ranging from pottery to highly engineered materials. These ceramics have lower densities but high melting point. They show a very high elastic modulus and are very brittle.


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019

Smart materials: traditional classifications

Functional?

What are these smart materials? In this context it’s interesting to a quick look at so called ‘functional materials’, an expression that is often used, but can be regarded as complete useless. In fact, all materials are functional. For instance, wood is also functional because you can make a chair out of it and sit on it. That’s quite functional. But smart materials are different. Smart materials can be defined as ‘materials that have properties that can be changed in a controlled fashion by external stimuli, such as stress, tempera-

ture, moisture, pH, electric- or magnetic fields’.

Numerous examples

There are numerous examples of smart materials. Like piezoelectric materials, shape memory alloys and thermochromic materials. Thermochromic materials are able to change their colour when the temperature is changed. This principle is used in glasses which change colour in response to exposure to UV light. The secrets are in the chemistry. As a result of UV radiation, free electrons are formed which lead to the formation of metallic silver that will adsorb visible radiation.

We are surrounded by smart materials without even noticing it, like the parking sensor of a car (Photo: Stichting Applied Piezo)

Prof. Pim Groen during his presentation ‘Introduction on SMART Materials’ at Materials 2018 in Veldhoven

Self-healing materials are able to repair themselves if they are damaged. This is already introduced in the market, like cars which have a special paint or coating which can heal scratches when exposed to sunlight. Another class of materials which might be of interest are so-called electroactive polymers. Recently they are attracting more and more attention because actuators can be made out of them. They usually consist of a low stiffness polymer with on both side two electrodes. If a high voltage is applied over the electrodes, the Coulomb attraction will create an attractive force over the polymer and it will deform. The pressure that can be achieved by this kind of actuator is depending on the geometry, the relative dielectric constant and the square of the voltage. Note that in this case really very high voltages are needed which makes applications difficult. There are many more examples, like temperature responsive polymers and ferrofluids. The latter are liquids that becomes strongly magnetized in the presence of a magnetic field. They are

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019 colloidal liquids made of nanoscale ferromagnetic, or ferrimagnetic, particles suspended in a carrier fluid, usually an organic solvent or water. Ferrofluids are for instance used in vacuum bearings where rotation between the inside and the outside is acquired.

Liquid crystals

Liquid crystalline materials are a state of matter which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals. A liquid crystal may flow like a liquid, but its molecules may be oriented in a crystal-like way. Liquid crystals find are widely used in liquid crystal displays.

Thermoelectric

Finally: thermoelectric materials. The most important property of thermoelectric materials is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice versa via a thermocouple. A thermoelectric device creates voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, heat is transferred from one side to the other, creating a temperature difference. Thus, there are two ways to apply these materials. The Seebeck effect (the conversion of heat directly into electricity) is used to make a thermocouple and the Peltier effect (the reverse of the Seebeck effect) is used to make heaters or coolers.

Piezoelectric materials Above: Self healing concrete(foto TU Delft) Below: Ferrofluïd material (Photo: Gregory F. Maxwell, Wikipedia)

Finally, piezoelectric materials should be mentioned. The word piezoelectricity means electricity resulting from pressure and latent heat. This class of materials will be discussed in a next article, and after the piezo part the class of ‘shape memory alloys’ will be payed attention to.

Smart/not smart

But is a so-called ‘smart reader’ a smart material or does it contain a smart material? The answer to both questions is ‘no’. It’s a collection of materials which makes this happen. It consists of small balls microcapsules - which contain white particles which are positively charged and negatively charged black particles. If no voltage is applied, you see a grey pixel. But if a voltage is applied, the black a

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019 pens in a battery. It’s simple to illustrate. Imagine a sheet of paper upon which some silver and the active material are printed. When a small voltage is applied over the system, the colour changes from neutral to blue. When the battery is removed, and the electrodes are short circuited, it returns to its original state. So clearly smart materials are part of our daily life. The next time there will an introduction on piezoelectric materials with more examples of these materials in real life.

Principle of an e-reader (Picture: E ink corporation)

white particles separate and a black pixel is formed. And finally an example of a really smart material: a window of the Boeing 787 dreamliner which can dim electronically.

The basics behind this phenomena is the electrochromic effect. By the application of an electric field, you can have migration of ions which changes the colour of the material. This is almost what hap-

Prof. Pim Groen, TU Delft, Holst Centre - TNO www.holstcentre.com> www.tudelft.nl/en/ae>

Boeing 787 Dreamliner (Photo: Boeing)

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RESEARCH

Re-Printing Architectural Heritage: Questions of original and representation in 3D print innovation

The Mauritshuis-project

Additive Manufacturing (commonly known as 3D printing) technology has become a global phenomenon. In the domain of heritage, 3D printing can be seen as a time and cost-efficient method for restoring vulnerable architectural structures. The technology can also provide an opportunity to reproduce missing or destroyed cultural heritage or to express lost appearances, in the cases of conflicts or environmental threats. In the last edition of Innovative Materials (volume 6 2018) attention was payed to the 4TU-project ‘Re-printing architectural heritage’. This experimental project at the Hippolytuskerk in the Dutch village of Middelstum, has tested available technologies to reproduce a mural on a section of one of the church’s vault with maximum possible fidelity to material, colours and local microstructures. Simultaneously, a second project was conducted at the Mauritshuis at The Hague. This to investigate and to discuss the potential of reprinting historical spaces as a copy.

The Mauritshuis is an aristocratic palace built in The Hague between 1633 and 1644, The Netherlands. Since 1822 it is a museum that houses the Royal Picture Gallery. The collection of Flemish and Dutch 17th century masterpieces is unique in the world. Due to its historical position for the Netherlands it was agreed to use this museum as a test case for the principle

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idea of reproducing a historical space by 3D-printing and to revive forms and colours that disappeared over the centuries. Today, because of ageing of the materials, overpainting and renovations, the room looks very different from its original appearance. Margriet van Eikema Hommes studied together with the conservators of the Mauritshuis the original appearance


RESEARCH of the Golden Room and has developed 2D reproductions this state. The 3D print helps translate the theoretical knowledge obtained and results from the 2D reproductions, in spatial 3d reconstructions. The 3D print features a section of the room in its reconstructed original state, thus recreating a long lost spatial and esthetical entity. They provide the viewer new insights on the visual impact of this ensemble, its conceptual unity, its pictorial vocabulary and changes in perception history over time. In this way, the project connects technological and humanities cutting-edge research. First it was necessary to define a suitable section with sufficient texture and colour and finally a part of the so called Gouden Zaal (Golden Room) was selected.

Physical product

Next, various additive manufacturing technologies were investigated regarding to their suitability. In addition to the possibility of gypsum-based coloured components, plastic-based components were also investigated, which were coated with coloured foils. After examining a series of samples, a gypsum-based geometry was selected for this project. This promised the most accurate definition of colour and glossiness for the interpretation of the actual and historical space. The next step was to physically create the selected section after digital processing. Due to the limitations of the dimension of the printers, it was necessary to divide the model into many components and to print these separately. In order to make the resulting cut lines appear as inconspicuously as possible in the model, cuts were made in such a way that they disappear into the geometric texture of the model. Subsequently, the components were printed in their given geometry, texture and colouring and mounted on a supporting substructure. This substructure makes it possible to set up the resulting object as a stand-alone component.

Subsequently, the components were printed in their given geometry, texture and coloring and mounted on a supporting substructure. This substructure makes it possible to set up the resulting object as a stand-alone component

During the project, the process, the technologies and the first physical results were evaluated in different workshops. In addition, the physical result and process of the project were discussed and presented to a wider audience during the ‘research week’ of the Faculty of Architecture/TU Delft in November 2018.

Results

Selection of the area to be printed

Related to the restricted budget and dimension of the printers, the limitations in quality and dimensions are obvious. It can be expected that with the development of more suitable technology and with an acceptance of the scientific and social potential, larger objects could be targeted to be reprinted. Next to this, the quality of the printed results in texture, geometry and glossiness will increase and therefore allow a better likeliness of original and reprint. The general results of the

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RESEARCH project do deliver the expected process and physical results and by that reflect the expectation and deliver a first sketch concept of the process, technologies and physical results. Next to the internal evaluation of these results a public evaluation and discussion of the results and their implication for future projects has to take place in future follow-up projects. This article was based on the report ‘Re-Printing Architectural Heritage: Questions of original and representation in 3D print innovation’ (NWO file 314-98084), 2018, with thanks to prof. Carola Hein. This work was done by: Prof. Dr. Ing Ulrich Knaack (TU Delft) Prof. Dr. Ing. Carola Hein (TU Delft) Prof. dr. Joris Dik (TU Delft) Dr. Margriet van Eikema Hommes (TU Delft + Materials in Art and Archaeology & Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands) Partners: Dr. Edwin Buijsen (Mauritshuis Museum) Boy van den Hoorn (Mauritshuis Museum) Dick Vlasblom (QUBICX) Valentin Van Hecke (4Visualization) Miktha Alkadri (TU Delft)

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On the left the 3D printed mural of the Hippolytuskerk at Middelstum (Innovative Materials number 6 2018); on the right the 3D printed section of the Golden Room of the Mauritshuis; both exhibited at TU Delft (Photos: TU Delft)


RESEARCH

Lignin as a renewable 3D printing material Scientists at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory have developed a renewable 3D printing feedstock based on lignin, a biorefinery by-product. The discovery, published in Science Advances, expands ORNL’s achievements in lowering the cost of bioproducts by creating novel uses for lignin - the material left over from the processing of biomass. Researchers combined a hardwood lignin with conventional plastic, nylon, and carbon fibre to create a composite with just the right characteristics for the 3D printing process.

Combine

Unlike composites like acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) that are made of petroleum-based thermoplastics, heating of lignin for softening and extrusion from a 3D-printing nozzle is limited. Prolonged exposure to heat dramatically increases its viscosity - it becomes too thick to be extruded easily. But when researchers combined lignin with nylon, they found a surprising

result: the composite’s room temperature stiffness increased while its melt viscosity decreased. The lignin-nylon material had tensile strength similar to nylon alone and lower viscosity, in fact,

than conventional ABS or high impact polystyrene. Scientists were also able to mix in a higher percentage of lignin - 40 to 50 percent by weight - a new achievement in the quest for a lignin-based printing material. ORNL scientists then added 4 to 16 percent carbon fibre into the mix. The new composite heats up more easily, flows faster for speedier printing, and results in a stronger product. The lignin-nylon composite is patent-pending. The publication ‘A path for lignin valorization via additive manufacturing of high-performance sustainable composites with enhanced 3D printability‘ is online>

ORNL> Sustainable 3D printed products made from 40 to 60 wt % lignin containing polymeric materials formulated by a solvent-free process and exhibiting appropriate processability constrained by an optimum window of temperature, shear rate and/or filament feeding rate, and viscosity

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RESEARCH

Recycling biosolids to make sustainable bricks How can you recycle the world’s stockpiles of treated sewage sludge and boost sustainability in the construction industry, all at the same time? Turn those biosolids into bricks. Biosolids are a by-product of the wastewater treatment process that can be used as fertiliser, in land rehabilitation or as a construction material. Scientists of the RMIT University of Melbourne investigated the possibilities of baking biosolids with clay into bricks. The research was published in January in the magazine Buildings titled: ‘A Proposal for Recycling the World’s Unused Stockpiles of Treated Wastewater Sludge (Biosolids) in Fired-Clay Bricks’. Around 30% of the world’s biosolids are stockpiled or sent to landfill, using up valuable land and potentially emitting greenhouse gases, creating an environmental challenge. A team at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, has demonstrated that fired-clay bricks incorporating biosolids could be a sustainable solution for both

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the wastewater treatment and brickmaking industries. Published in January in the journal Buildings, the research showed how making biosolids bricks only required around half the energy of conventional bricks. As well as being cheaper to produce, the biosolids bricks also had a lower thermal conductivity, due to a higher porosity, transferring less heat to potentially give buildings higher environmental performance. The opportunities are global. The EU produces over 9 million tonnes of biosolids a year, while the United States produces about 7.1 million tonnes. In Australia, 327,000 tonnes of biosolids are produced annually. In total, about 5 million tonnes of the biosolids produced in Australia, New Zealand, the EU, US and Canada currently go to landfill or stockpiles each year. According RMIT using a minimum of 15% biosolids content in 15% of bricks produced could use up this 5 million tonnes.

Setup used in the study


RESEARCH

Lead investigator Associate Professor Abbas Mohajerani said the research sought to tackle two environmental issues - the stockpiles of biosolids and the excavation of soil required for brick production. According to Mohajerani more than 3 billion cubic metres of clay soil is dug up each year for the global brickmaking industry, to produce about 1.5 trillion bricks. The research examined the physical, chemical and mechanical properties of fired-clay bricks incorporating different proportions of biosolids, from 10 to 25%.

The biosolid-enhanced bricks passed compressive strength tests and analysis demonstrated heavy metals are largely trapped within the brick. The research also showed brick firing energy demand was cut by up to 48.6% for bricks incorporating 25% biosolids. This is due to the organic content of the biosolids and could considerably reduce the carbon footprint of brick manufacturing companies.

Government Research Training Program scholarships, is published in the ‘Green Building Materials Special Issue’ of Buildings (January 2019, DOI: 10.3390/ buildings9010014).

The research, funded by RMIT University, Melbourne Water and Australian

RMIT>

‘A Proposal for Recycling the World’s Unused Stockpiles of Treated Wastewater Sludge (Biosolids) in Fired-Clay Bricks’ is online>

Associate Professor Abbas Mohajerani of RMIT’s School of Engineering with a biosolids brick

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RESEARCH

Gold from the sewer Gold has been the basis of currency for many civilizations throughout history. Nowadays gold is primarily used in electronics, where it is irreplaceable due to its unique properties. However, diminishing gold supplies and a continuous rise in the production of electronics have led the European Union to label this precious metal as a critical resource. While gold can be found in a number of different sources, such as electronic waste, sea water, fresh water, waste water, and sewage sludge, there are currently no materials reported that can selectively extract gold from such complex media. Until now. Recently the laboratory of Professor Wendy L. Queen at the Swiss EPFL developed a kind of ‘sponge’ that can mine gold from a variety of complex liquids. The porous material, referred to as Fe-BTC/PpPDA, is constructed by a metal-organic framework (MOF) and polymer building blocks, and has a very large internal surface area, which allows it to adsorb up to 1 gram of gold per gram of material. In this work, published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society, the new material was tested in highly complex real-world samples. The PhD student responsible for the work, Daniel T. Sun, in collabora-

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tion with Dr Natalia Gasilova, has shown that these materials can remove gold in as little as two minutes from river water, sea water, and solutions obtained from electronic waste. Further, the sponge can be destroyed after metal extraction, leaving behind 23.9-karat gold, the highest purity reported to date for such an extraction method. https://actu.epfl.ch> Rapid, Selective Extraction of Trace Amounts of Gold from Complex Water Mixtures with a MOF/Polymer Composite, Daniel T. Sun, N. Gasilova, S. Yang, E. Oveisi and Wendy L. Queen, Journal of the American Chemical Society, 5 November 2018, DOI: 10.1021 / jacs.8b09555. The publication is available online>


RESEARCH

‘Nano-scale failure in steel: Interface decohesion at iron/precipitate interfaces’ Multiphase alloys such as advanced high strength steels can show unexpected failure due to dislocations piling up at internal boundaries between the soft iron matrix and the hard precipitates. The stress concentrations caused by the dislocation pile-ups might trigger interface decohesion followed by the formation of voids and, eventually, macroscopic cracks. To prevent such material failure, accurately predictive material models are needed. Dr.ir. Astrid Elzas studied together with prof.dr. Barend Thijsse crack nucleation and interface decohesion on the nanoscale with large-scale molecular dynamics simulations, to understand which conditions lead to interface decohesion. Systematically varying different physical parameters allowed clear observation of the important physical effects in a controlled manner. Not only where the studied interfaces and the

Schematic representation of various interfaces subjected to different loading modes, due to their orientation. Various relations between tractions and separations are found for the different interfaces and different loading modes

Apart from the deeper and systematic understanding of interface decohesion resulting from this study, also interface/material-specific traction-separation relationships are developed which can be applied in larger scale material models to improve the accuracy of this models with respect to the description of interface behaviour and with that lead to a better prediction of material failure.

Molecular dynamics simulation of interface decohesion at an interface be­ tween the soft iron matrix (red) and a hard precipitate (blue) of steel

numbers of dislocations piling-up at the interfaces varied, also different loading modes where considered. Apart from pure shear and pure tensile loading, in this study also mixed loading, i.e. a tensile force under an angle with the interface, was considered. It is found that the interface structure, which changes during response to loading, is the key factor determining the material response.

On 10 January 2019 Astrid Elzas obtained her Doctorate cum laude for her thesis ‘Nano-scale failure in steel’ at Delft University of Technology. The thesis can be found at: https://doi.org/10.4233/uuid:f72f61f4-4508-4552-85b8d89abbbee90e

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RESEARCH

A new concept for thermal energy storage MIT researchers have demonstrated a new way to store unused heat from car engines, industrial machinery, and even sunshine until it’s needed. Graduate student Cedric Viry, Professor Jeffrey Grossman, and postdoc Grace Han, with their collaborators used specially designed ‘photoswitching’ molecules to control the release of heat from ‘phase-change’ materials (PCM) used to store thermal energy. A phase-change material absorbs lots of heat as it melts and releases it as it resolidifies. The principle that MIT has developed uses light to switch between the two phases. Once melted and activated by ultraviolet light, the material stores the absorbed heat, until a beam of visible light triggers solidification and heat release. Key to that control are added molecules that respond to light by changing shape from one that impedes solidification to a different one that permits it. To explore the viability of that approach, the researchers used a conventional PCM called and prepared a special variation of the photoswitch molecule azobenzene, which consists of two linked rings of atoms that can be in different positions with respect to one another. In the ‘trans’ form of the molecule, the rings are flat - its naturally occurring ground state. In its ‘cis’ form, one of the benzene rings is tilted at 56° relative to the other one. It switches from one shape to the other in response to light. Shine ultraviolet (UV) light on the flat version, and it’ll

Using this instrument, the researchers shine a laser on their photoswitching molecules and then perform photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopy studies to gather information on the molecules’ electronic structure and chemical bonding. Photo: Stuart Darsch

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The thermal energy storage and release cycle. In a solidified sample (structure A), crystals of the PCM and the azobenzene photoswitch in its trans form pack together tightly. The cycle proceeds as follows. Step 1 - Heat the solid composite above the melting point of the PCM. It becomes a mixture of molten PCM and crystals of azobenzene, which has a higher melting point (structure B). Step 2 - Shine ultraviolet (UV) light onto the mixture (and keep heating it so it stays melted), and the azobenzene dopant switches from trans to cis (the form with the twisted ends) and disperses into the liquid PCM (structure C). Step 3 - Cool the composite to a temperature below its solidification point. The cis azobenzene dopants keep the PCM molecules from aligning, so the mixture can’t solidify; it remains in its liquid form (structure D). Step 4 - Shine visible light onto the mixture so that the cis azobenzene dopant changes back to its trans form. The PCM molecules and the trans dopant can now stack tightly, so the composite immediately solidifies (structure A), releasing its latent heat


RESEARCH twist; shine visible light on the twisted version, and it’ll flatten out. A series of tests showed that their system worked well. The researchers kept a sample mixture in liquid form down to room temperature - fully 10°C below where it should have solidified - and then, after 10 hours, used a light beam to trigger solidification and release the stored thermal energy. Finally, the researchers are extending their concept to different materials and temperature ranges. The researchers believe they should be able to develop systems that can store more thermal energy and can operate at a variety of temperature ranges, including the low temperatures of interest for biomedical and electronic applications. Energy.MIT.edu> Further information on photoswitches research at MIT can be found online: G.G.D. Han, H. Li, en J.C. Grossman. ‘Optically-controlled longterm storage and release of thermal energy in phase-change materials.’ Nature Communications, vol. 8, artikelnr. 1446, 2017. doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01608-y.> G.G.D. Han, J. Deru, E. Cho en J.C. Grossman. ‘Optically-regulated thermal energy storage in diverse organic phase-change materials.’ Chemical Communications, 2018. doi.org/10.1039/C8CC05919E.>

From left: Cedric Viry, professor Jeffrey Grossman ad postdoc Grace Han (Foto: Stuart Darschnd)

Voeg informatie toe aan de Kennisbank Biobased Bouwen De Biobased Economy speelt een belangrijke rol in de duurzame ontwikkeling van Nederland en biedt nieuwe kansen voor het bedrijfsleven. Via de kennisbank kunt u kennis vergaren en delen over de beschikbaarheid en toepassingsmogelijkheden van biobased materialen, producten en bouwconcepten. Samen versterken we zo de biobased economie. Ruim dertig partijen in de bouwsector ondertekenden de green deal biobased bouwen. Deze producenten, architecten, adviseurs en kennisinstellingen delen hun kennis rond kansrijke mogelijkheden van biobased bouwen. Ook de ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken (Wonen en Rijksdienst), Economische Zaken, en Infrastructuur en Milieu ondersteunen de green deal. Bouw ook mee aan de biobased economie en voeg uw project- of productbeschrijvingen toe aan deze kennisbank. Kijk op www.biobasedbouwen.nl voor meer informatie>

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NEWS

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 2019

With 140 exhibitors, exhibitions with 200 new material presentations of 100 leading startups and designers, and a lecture programme with 60 speakers, MaterialDistrict Rotterdam is once again imbued with material innovation. R&D and design professionals will be immersed in an inspiring mix of current themes, such as circularity, digitalisation, smartness, health and social design from 12 to 14 March in Rotterdam Ahoy, the Netherlands. This year, organiser MaterialDistrict (formerly Materia) attracted nine internationally renowned ambassadors who will represent the six sectors and play an important role in putting together the lecture programme and the selection of promising start-ups and designers. For the sector Architecture, the ambassadors are Ben van Berkel and Filippo Lodi (UNStudio and UNSense), for Interiors the designduo Niels van Eijk and Miriam van der Lubbe (Van Eijk & Van der Lubbe), for Products Anouk Groen (RNA Design), for Textiles & Fabrics Anne Marie Commandeur (Stijl instituut) and Liesbeth in ’t Hout, for Urban & Landscapes Cees Donkers (former city architect of the city of Eindhoven, the Netherlands) and for Print & Sign it’s Annemarie Kleve (Anders2).

38 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2019

Mogu makes bricks and other objects out of mycelium, the spore-system of fungi. These spores can grow in every desired shape and live on organic waste like sawdust. The material has similar qualities to Styrofoam and can be used in a wide variety of applications


NEWS Visitors can look forward to an impressive six independent MaterialDistrict exhibitions. In collaboration with the ambassadors, six pavilions will be decorated, in which special exhibition pieces of start-ups and designers will be showcased; varying from a carpet made of palm leather to faรงades made of thinglass. MaterialDistrict will also display the 200 newest materials from its independent collection; printed roof tiles, a composite material made of marble dust and oysters, paving stones made from burned waste, as well as 197 other innovations that can all be seen, felt and experienced at the fair. MaterialDistrict has set up a broad lecture program, in which renowned (inter) national architects, scientists, designers and other experts share the latest developments in the field of materials with the public. In addition, some 140 companies once again took the opportunity this year to introduce their latest material innovations to the general public at MaterialDistrict Rotterdam.

Featured: Butong bubble concrete panels are made by pressing two form matrices together. How these matrices join inside the panel determine the filter effect of the panel. The panels have holes from both sides of the panel in a hexagonal pattern. Due to that the cells of the two sides of the matrix are joined, the panel will keep its uniform thickness. In its semi-hard condition, panels can easily be manipulated or cut into shape

More info and a free ticket: http://Rotterdam.MaterialDistrict.nl>

Opening hours: Tuesday, March 12: 10: 30-18: 30 Wednesday, March 13: 10: 30-20: 30 Thursday, March 14: 10: 30-17: 30

Typha, commonly known as reed, cattail or bulrush, is a fast growing plant that flourishes in the watery areas of Friesland in the Netherlands. Studio Tjeerd Veenhoven is developing insulation suitable for cavity walls that meets the current building standards. The aim is to make the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) as sustainable as possible. They strive for low CO2 emissions and low energy use, and avoid the use of harmful substances, by harvesting, producing and applying the value chain locally

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AGENDA AM Expo 2019 12 - 13 March 2019, Luzern

Swisstech 2019 14 - 17 May 2019, Basel

MaterialDistrict Rotterdam 12 - 14 March 2019, Rotterdam

Materials & Eurofinish 2019 15 - 16 May 2019, Leuven

JEC World 2019 12 - 14 March 2019, Parijs

Materials & Eurofinish 2019 15 - 16 May 2019, Leuven

CCE International 2019 12 - 14 March 2019, München

Architect@work Zürich 15 - 16 May 2019, Zürich, Zwitserland

RapidPro 2019 13 - 14 March 2019, Veldhoven

Moulding Expo 2019 21 May 2019, Stuttgart

Fastener Fair Stuttgart 2019 19 - 21 March 2019, Stuttgart

4Smarts 22 - 23 May 2019, Darmstadt

Bauma 2019 8 - 14 April 2019, München

25th International Congress on Glass (ICG2019) 9 - 14 June 2019, Boston, USA

Building Holland 2019 9 - 11 April 2019

Atlantic Design & Manufacturing 11 - 13 June 2019, New York

3D-printing Europe 2019 10 - 11 April 2019, Berlijn

XVI ECerS Conference 16 - 20 June 2019, Turijn

KMO, Fachmesse für Kunststoffinnovationen 11 April 2019, Bad Salzuflen

Materials Science & Engineering 2019 24 - 26 June 2019, Wenen

CRU World Aluminium Congres 2019 24 - 26 April 2019, Londen

GIFA 2019 24 - 29 June 2019, Düsseldorf

5th Ceramics Expo 30 April - 1 May 2019, Cleveland, Ohio USA

METEC 2019 25 - 29 June 2019, Düsseldorf

INNOVATIEVE MATERIALEN 1 2019


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Select key words and find relevant materials scientists or research groups within 4TU.

High-Tech Materials form the key to innovative and sustainable technology

www.4tu.nl/htm @4TU_HTM

4TU.HTM Research Programme New Horizons in Designer Materials | Visibility and accessibility of Materials Science & Engineering | Annual symposium Dutch Materials | 4TU.Joint Materials Science Activities | web application http://hightechmaterials.4tu.nl


Innovative Materials Innovative Materials provides information on material innovations, or innovative use of materials. The idea is that the ever increasing demands lead to a constant search for better and safer products as well as material and energy savings. Enabling these innovations is crucial, not only to be competitive but also to meet the challenges of enhancing and protecting the environment, like durability, C2C and carbon footprint. By opting for smart, sustainable and innovative materials constructors, engineers and designers obtain more opportunities to distinguish themselves. As a platform Innovative Materials wants to help to achieve this by connecting supply and demand. Innovative Materials is a digital magazine, which logically provides the opportunity to add more information than is customary in a conventional paper journal. Often the articles are linked to a relevant website, underlying information, reports, video material or previously published articles. info@innovatievematerialen.nl

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