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Volume 1 2018

Paints based on potato starch SPONG3D Glass sandwich panel GEVEL 2018: Materials 2018 Challenging Glass 6 New terminal Schiphol

INTERNATIONAL

EDITION


CONTENT Innovatieve Materialen About is een vaktijdschrift gericht op de civieltechnische Innovatieve Materialen sector en bouw. Het bericht over ontwik(Innovative Materials) is a digital, kelingen op het gebied van duurzame, inindependent magazine novatieve materialen en/of deabout toepassing material the fields of daarvaninnovation in bijzondereinconstructies.

engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and Innovatieveindustrial Materialendesign. is een uitgave van Civiele Techniek, onafhankelijk vaktijdschrift voor civieltechnisch Innovatieve Materialen is ingenieurs published werkzaam in deformat, grond-, wegen waterin a digital although bouw en verkeerstechniek.

there is a printed edition with a small circulation. Digital, De redactie staat open voor because bijdragen interactive information is attached van vakgenoten. U kunt daartoe contact in the form ofmet articles, papers, opnemen de redactie. videos and links to expand the information available.

Scope

The digital edition is sent to Uitgeverij engineers, scientists, students, SJPdecision Uitgeversmakers, designers, innovators, suppliers and appliers Postbus 861 working in civil engineering, 4200 AW Gorinchem construction, building, architecture, tel. (0183) 66 08 08 design, government and industry e-mail: info@innovatievematerialen.nl (both manufacturing industry and www.innovatievematerialen.nl end users). Innovatieve Materialen has Redactie: entered partnerships with several intermediate organisations Bureau Schoonebeek vof and universities,Hoofdredactie: all active in the field of material innovation. Gerard van Nifterik More information (in Dutch): www.innovatievematerialen.nl

Advertenties

A digital subscribtion in 2018 Drs. Petra Schoonebeek (6 editions) costs € 39,50 (excl. VAT) e-mail: ps@innovatievematerialen.nl Members of KIVI-leden and students: € 25,- (excl. VAT) Een digitaal abonnement in 2016 (6 uitgaven) kost € 25,00 (excl. BTW)

Publisher

SJP Uitgevers Zie ook: www.innovatievematerialen.nl

Postbus 861 4200 AW Gorinchem Nietstel. uit deze worden +31 uitgave 183 66 mag 08 08 verveelvuldigd en of openbaar worden info@innovatievematerialen.nl

door middel van herdruk, fotokopie, microfilm of op welke wijze dan ook, zonder voorafgaande schriftelijke toestemming Editor van de uitgever.

Gerard van Nifterik

Advertizing & sponsoring

Drs. Petra Schoonebeek

1 News 6 Paints and varnishes based on potato starch

If a surface has to be protected against corrosion, in 80 percent of all cases this takes place through coating it with paints or varnishes. When doing so, the proportion of bio-based, environmentally-friendly solutions is extremely small. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP, in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, are looking to close this gap and are developing a cost-effective coating based on renewable raw materials. The focus of the research is on potato starch.

8 SPONG3D

Last January, the website archdaily.com identified eight so called ‘new energy efficient materials architects should know.’ Architects tend to meet all kind of challenges to save energy and to design buildings thOne these highlighted materials is Spong3D, developed by Dutch researchers, cooperating in a 4TU-project (4TU is a coalition of the four Dutch Technical Universities).

12 Glass sandwich panel

Glass has always fascinated architects worldwide due to its most characteristic property, transparency. In addition to this, a compressive strength higher than that of concrete, wood or even steel, has resulted to a continuously increasing demand for structural glass components. In such structural applications the glass elements are dimensioned to meet the desired stiffness and strength requirements. As a result, they tend to be thick and heavy, often requiring a substantial and visible supporting substructure. Glass sandwich structures are a promising solution for creating fully transparent planar elements of high stiffness and decreased weight. Such panels can reduce material consumption while sparing the necessity of a supporting substructure.

16 Gevel 2018:

Facades play a crucial role when it comes to making the built environment more sustainable. That was the slogan of Gevel 2018 trade fair, organized this year on 23 - 25 January in Rotterdam Ahoy. At Gevel 2018 the latest trends, innovations and products were presented.

22 Gevel 2018: Experimental concrete 24 Gevel 2018: Material innovations 4TU.Bouw 28 Natural simplicity for new Schiphol terminal

Schiphol is growing and needs more space for travellers and aircraft. A new terminal can welcome around 14 million travellers each year. The winning design for the terminal was created by KL AIR, a group consisting of KAAN Architecten, Estudio Lamela, ABT and Ineco. Light artist Arnout Meijer Studio, DGMR and Planeground were also involved. The design reflects what Schiphol stands for: practical, functional and stylish. It is also sustainable.

30 Preview: Materials 2018 31 Preview: Challenging Glass 6 32 Preview: Materials Xperience 2018


NEWS

Recycled PET Bricks

EcoInclusión is a non-profit organization from the city of Alta Gracia, province of Córdoba, Argentina. EcoInclusión was founded in 2014 by a group of young people who claim to promote the con-

struction of a fairer and more sustainable society. The organisation is active in the reduction of PET bottles waste with the production of bricks made of plastic

residues destined to the construction in vulnerable sectors, with the aim of generating environmental and social impact and cultural participation in the communities. The bricks have the technical certification granted by the UN-Habitat Secretariat. The material is developed and patented by Ceve-Conicet, Villa Siburu - Córdoba, Argentina. According to Ceve, the stones with recycled PET plastic are suitable for exterior and interior walls. The ‘stones’ are made from a mixture of PET plastic particles from disposable bottles, Portland cement and additives. Twenty bottles of recycled plastic are needed to produce a brick, which has characteristics like those of a clay brick, but with better performance as a thermal insulation. http://ecoinclusion.com.ar/

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NEWS

Aerobrick

Better thermal insulation means lower heating costs - but this should not be at the expense of aesthetics and architecture. A new type of brick filled with aerogel could make thin and highly insulating walls possible in the future - without any additional insulation layer. More than fifteen years ago, world’s first masonry brick with a heat-insulating core of natural perlite was launched. Perlite is an amorphous volcanic glass that has a relatively high water content. Expanded perlite is an industrial mineral and a commercial product, often used as an insulating material. Empa researchers have now replaced Perlite in insulating bricks with Aerogel: a highly porous solid with very high ther-

mal insulation properties that can withstand temperatures of up to 300 °C. It is not a novel material for the researchers: they have already used it to develop a high-performance insulating plaster which, among other things, allows historical buildings to be renovated energetically without affecting their appearance. Together with his colleagues, Empa researcher Jannis Wernery from the research department ‘Building Energy Materials and Components’ has developed a paste-like mixture of aerogel particles to be used as filler material for the brick. The material can easily be filled into the cavities and then joins with the clay of the bricks. The aerogel stays in the bricks - you can work with them as usual. This resulted in the ‘Aerobrick’. In order to achieve the same insulation values as a 165 mm thick wall of aerobricks, a wall of perlite bricks must be 263 mm thick; and a wall of non-insulating bricks even more than one meter. In order to achieve the required insulation values, a wall of perlite brick must be about 35 % thicker than an aerobrick wall. Even more impressive is the comparison with ordinary brickwork made of non-insulating bricks: these conduct heat up to eight times better. A conventional wall would therefore have to be almost two metres deep in order to insulate as well as an Aerobricks wall of just 20 centimetres in depth. With a measured thermal conductivity of just 59 milliwatts per square meter, the Aerobrick is currently the best insulating brick in the world, Empa says. But now and in the very near future, no one will probably be able to build a new house from aerobricks - the filling material is currently still too expensive. However, experts assume that the costs for Aerogel will fall massively in the near to medium term; then nothing will stand in the way of the use of the new wonder brick. https://www.empa.ch/web/s604/aerobrick

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BERICHTEN Hét expertisecentrum voor materiaalkarakterisering. Integer, onafhankelijk, objectief onderzoek en advies. ISO 17025 geaccrediteerd. Wij helpen u graag verder met onderzoek en analyse van uw innovatieve materialen. Bel ons op 026 3845600 of mail info@tcki.nl www.tcki.nl

TCKI adv A5 [ZS-185x124] Chemische analyse 14.indd 1

09-05-17 13:19

2017 volume 3

INNOVATIVE MATERIALS

International edition Innovative Materials, the international version of the Dutch magazine Innovatieve Materialen, is now available in English. Innovative Materials is a digital, independent magazine about material innovation in the fields of engineering, construction (buildings, infrastructure and industrial) and industrial design.

3D-printing cellulose World’s first 3D-printed reinforced concrete bridge Materials 2017 Composites improve earthquake resistance in buildings Glass bridge Lina: world’s first bio-based car

I N T E R N A T I O N A L

E D I T I O N

Innovative Materials is published in a digital format, although there is a printed edition with a small circulation. Digital, because interactive information is attached in the form of articles, papers, videos and links to expand the information available. www. innovatievematerialen.nl info@innovatievematerialen.nl l

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NEWS

‘Rotational 3D printing’ Arranging fibers just like nature does it Nature has produced exquisite composite materials - wood, bone, teeth, and shells - that combine light weight and density with desirable mechanical properties such as stiffness, strength and damage tolerance. Since ancient civilizations combined straw and mud to form bricks, people have fabricated engineered composites of increasing performance and complexity. But reproducing the exceptional mechanical properties and complex microstructures found in nature has been challenging. Now, a team of researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) has demonstrated a novel 3D printing method that yields unprecedented control of the arrangement of short fibers embedded in polymer matrices. This would enable the creation of structural materials that are optimized for strength, stiffness, and damage tolerance. According to the researchers, their method, referred to as ‘rotational 3D printing,’ could have broad ranging applications. Given the modular nature of their ink designs, many different filler and matrix combinations can be implemented to tailor electrical, optical, or thermal properties of the printed objects. Rotational 3D printing can be used to achieve optimal, or near optimal, fiber arrangements at every location in the printed part, resulting in higher strength and stiffness with less material. Rather than using magnetic or electric fields to orient fibers, the flow of the viscous ink itself is controlled to impart the desired fiber orientation. The technique allows for the 3D printing of engineered materials that can be spatially programmed to achieve specific performance goals. For example, the orientation of the fibers can be local-

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ly optimized to increase the damage tolerance at locations that would be expected to undergo the highest stress during loading, hardening potential failure points. The Harvard Office of Technology Development has protected the intellectual property relating to this project. https://www.seas.harvard.edu>

Credits The work, described in the journal PNAS (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA), was carried out in the Lewis lab at Harvard. Collaborators included postdoctoral fellows Brett Compton (now Assistant Professor in Mechanical Engineering at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville), and Jordan Raney (now Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics at the University of Pennsylvania); and visiting PhD student Jochen Mueller from Prof. Kristina Shea’s lab at ETH Zurich.


NEWS

CO2-cured concrete reduces carbon footprint The U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a patent for CO2-cured Solidia Concrete, further advancing the availability of higher-performing and more sustainable materials to the global construction and materials industries. Solidia Technologies holds the exclusive licensing rights to the patent, which is held by Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, where the original generation of the material was invented. U.S. Patent No. 9,868,667, ‘Bonding Element, Bonding Matrix and Composite Material Having the Bonding Element and Method of Manufacturing Thereof,’ covers the composition of matter of the distinctive, non-hydraulic, CO2-cured concrete available as Solidia Concrete. The production of Solidia Cement and Solidia Concrete begins with a patented process for bonding together and hardening a collection of loosely packed particles. This process, dubbed reactive hydrothermal liquid phase densification (rHLPD), uses a liquid solution to penetrate into the pores between the particles, react with the particles, and create ‘bridges’ between the particles to lock them into place. This last step is precisely what happens when ordinary Portland cement (OPC) reacts with water to bond together the sand and aggregate particles that constitute conventional concrete. According to Solidia Technologies Solidia Cement is a sustainable replacement for ordinary Portland cement, because it consumes less energy and generates 30 % less greenhouse gases and other pollutants. Combined, the amount of CO2 avoided in the production of Solidia Cement plus the CO2 sequestered during the curing of Solidia Concrete can reduce the carbon footprint of concrete-based construction products by up to 70 %. Solidiatech>

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Paints and varnishes based on potato starch If a surface has to be protected against corrosion, in 80 percent of all cases this takes place through coating it with paints or varnishes. When doing so, the proportion of bio-based, environmentally-friendly solutions is extremely small. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP, in cooperation with the Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA, are looking to close this gap and are developing a cost-effective coating based on renewable raw materials. The focus of the research is on potato starch. Climate change, finite resources, increasing burdens on the environment mean that more and more industries are focusing on sustainable production. And this is also the case in the production of coatings such as paints and varnishes. However, in the past, paints and varnishes with bio based binders or film formers have usually been too expensive or could not meet the requirements. But through the use of modified starch, scientists at the Fraunhofer IAP have found a way which even in this field makes sustainable and cost-effective solutions possible. Until now, traditional industrial fields of application of starch have been the paper/corrugated cardboard and adhesives industries. In the field of paints and varnishes on the other hand, starch was usually only used

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as an additive. With starch as the main component of a water-based dispersion, Fraunhofer researchers say to have now very promising adhesion results. At the center of the research is the coating of metals for indoor use, for example aluminium, which can be used for fire doors, computer housings or window frames.

From potato starch to film former

The use of starch as the main component of paints and varnishes posed various challenges to the Fraunhofer experts. Film formers must fulfil several tasks. They must form a continuous film, which adheres well to the substrate material, is compatible with additional layers and additives and can embed

pigments and fillers as well. In its natural form, however, starch exhibits several properties, which stand in the way of its use as a film former. For example, it is not soluble in cold water and neither does it form continuous, non-brittle films. The Fraunhofer researchers therefore had to modify the starch to adapt it to the requirements. The solution by the Potsdam scientists involves an initial degradation step of the starch in order to improve its solubility in water and the subsequently associated solids content of the starch in water, as well as its film forming ability. However, in order to produce a starch-based coating material, which is comparable with a conventional coating, this is not yet sufficient, as although the film former should initially be soluble


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 or dispersible in water, the coating must subsequently no longer dissolve in water. The starch must therefore be modified further. This takes place by way of a chemical process known as esterification. The resulting starch esters are dispersible in water, form continuous films and have, according to Fraunhofer, very good adhesive properties on glass and aluminium surfaces. The esterified starch is then ‘cross­linked’ through which the sensitivity of the coating to water is reduced further.

Stability

The stability tests to check the long term stability are then also carried out at the Fraunhofer IPA. In the tests, the coated materials are exposed to rapidly changing temperature cycles in a time-compressed form to simulate the change from day to night and the course of the seasons. In addition, the test objects are exposed to electrolyte enriched water in order to see how the coating reacts to water and how resistant it is under extreme conditions.

Future alternatives

In the next step, the resistance to corrosion and adhesion of the modified starch on different metal substrates is exami­ ned. New ‘recipes’ are also being tested, which are intended to optimize the properties of the coating even further. Apart from the already tested aluminium, two other important metals, steel and galvanized steel, are to be tested.

In future, indoor aluminum surfaces should also be cost-effectively coated with paints based on potato starch (Foto: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft)

According to Fraunhofer, the investigations show that with its good film forming and very good adhesion properties on various substrates, starch esters have the potential to be future alternatives to petroleum-based film formers in the coatings industry. Tekst: Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft>

Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer ResearchFraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research> Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA>

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

SPONG3D Innovative 3D printing improves thermal performance Last January, the website archdaily.com identified eight so called ‘new energy efficient materials architects should know.’ Architects tend to meet all kind of challenges to save energy and to design buildings that can limit carbon emissions and be resilient against changing climate conditions. Fortunately a new wave of chemistry and material science is bringing innovative materials and building systems to the marketplace. From advanced insulation foams to multiwall cladding, this next generation of high-performing materials will help accelerate energy-efficient design. One these highlighted materials is Spong3D, developed and tested by Dutch researchers, cooperating in a 4TU-project (4TU is a coalition of the four Dutch Technical Universities).

Spong3D is an adaptive 3D printed facade system that integrates multiple functions to optimize thermal performances according to the different environmental conditions throughout the year. The façade system controls the heat exchange between the interior and exterior conditions of the building. It has two sub-systems. The first consists of a porous inner core with air cavities to provide thermal insulation. The second one contains a series of outer channels that enable the flowing of liquid. The liquid acts as movable thermal mass to provide adaptive heat storage. Together, the composition of the channels and the cavities form a complex structure, inte-

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grating multiple functions into a singular component, which can only be produced by using an Additive Manufacturing (AM; like 3D printing) technology.

The research

The optimization of thermal performances occurred through an iterative, cyclical process. Several samples with different geometric configurations of porous structures were designed and tested in order to maximize thermal insulation, allow appropriate heat absorption in the liquids, minimize the flow resistance, achieve acceptable water tightness and minimize the production time.

The external layer (where the liquid flows) requires water-tightness and a fluid shape of the channels to allow for minimal pressure drop and uniform flow. Several samples with different configurations were tested for flow resistance and the best performing shape was selected. The current shape of the channels is inspired by natural configurations that transfer fluids such as blood vessels, the veins of leaves and three dimensional bionic structures. Though further inves-

tigation is needed, the current shape is promising with regard to the circulation of the liquid. The channels should also allow for appropriate heat absorption into the liquid. To accommodate this need, the current models were produced with Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) printing, using PETG, a transparent 3D printing material that has relatively low thermal conductivity. Further investigations may consider the calibrated combination of translucent and dark materials.

In order to design the test-samples, preliminary choices were made by taking into account that the porosity of the material determines the thermal resistance of the faรงade. The higher the porosity, the less solid (and conductive) material there is, and therefore higher thermal resistance. Thus, the first set of samples was based on ordered cellular structures like polyhedra, which performed well for thermal criteria and structural robustness, but caused challenges with regard to the printing process.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 ration with KIWI Solutions. The investigation of the 3D printing technology was based on the latest available production technologies, using 3D printers for larger objects and innovative materials. In conclusion, the main outlook of this research is a proof of concept for a faรงade system that can adapt its thermal behaviour to different environmental conditions, regulate the temperature inside the building and reduce the environmental impact through innovative production technologies. Despite the challenges faced so far, the project showed promising results regarding the development of tailored products with complex shapes by using 3D printing technology. In the case of Spong3D, it was possible to successfully generate a faรงade system with high complexity that achieves high levels of thermal comfort. Additionally, by using 3D printing technology the project uses material resources more strategically and minimalizes waste material throughout the production process.

Structural behaviour

To control the movement of the liquid through the overall system, each faรงade panel consist of two external layers that integrate two reversed pumps for water circulation. The water can be stored in a tank in the centre of the panel. In a cooling situation, the liquid is first placed on the inside to absorb internal heat gain and is then pumped to the outside layer to discharge the heat to the cool night sky. In the alternative case, for heating purposes, the liquid is placed outside to absorb any solar heat gain during daytime and is then pumped to the inside to release this heat inside the building. The pumps are also connected with the water tank to store the water inside the tank when necessary. The structural behaviour of the overall system was analysed by investigating the impact of the wind load to the faรงade panel and calculating the deformations. The result is a curtain wall system that transfers the loads to the main structure of the building. The structural analysis did not reveal major structural challenges. However, deeper studies on the structural behaviour of the 3D printed

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material are required especially when considering extreme thermal conditions and durability.

Tekst: 4TU.Bouw>

Impact

Finally, the thermal impact of the overall system on a room was simulated. The investigation focused on two scenarios, a summer day and a sunny winter day. Energy simulations showed that a cooling rate of 25 W/m2 could be obtained during typical summer conditions. This is more or less equivalent to 50 % of the internal heat gains in a conventional office environment. Similarly, 4.8 kWh of thermal energy could be harvested for a typical 12 m2 office space on a sunny winter day, which accounts for approximately 70 % of the typical corresponding heating demand.

Epilogue

A large 1:1 (full scale) prototype was produced. One important aspect of this research was to study the feasibility to produce a faรงade panel within particular time constraints. This was one of the main challenges that influenced the design and the production process. The production process occurred in collabo-

Video

Credits Team: Delft University of Technology ing. Maria Valentini Sarakinioti MSc., dr. MArch. Michela Turrin, MArch. M.Teeling, ir. Paul de Ruiter, Mark van Erk, dr.ir. arch. Martin Tenpierik, dr.ing. Thaleia Konstantinou MSc., Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ulrich Knaack Eindhoven University of Technology ir. Arno Pronk, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Patrick Teuffel, Arthur van Lier, Rens Vorstermans, Eline Dolkemade, Marie de Klijn MSc., ir. Roel Loonen, Prof. dr. ir. Jan Hensen KIWI Solutions Dick Vlasblom


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

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Figure 1: Concept illustration of glass sandwich panels

Glass sandwich panel: A lightweight all-glass structure of increased stiffness Glass has always fascinated architects worldwide due to its most characteristic property, transparency. In addition to this, a compressive strength higher than that of concrete, wood or even steel, has resulted to a continuously increasing demand for structural glass components. In such structural applications the glass elements are dimensioned to meet the desired stiffness and strength requirements. As a result, they tend to be thick and heavy, often requiring a substantial and visible supporting substructure. Glass sandwich structures are a promising solution for creating fully transparent planar elements of high stiffness and decreased weight. Such panels can reduce material consumption while sparing the necessity of a supporting substructure. Sandwich structures are common in nature, from the beak of birds to the bones of a cuttlefish. The Built Environment has already adopted the principle of a sandwich structure in a vast range of applications, from cladding elements to floor panels. Yet, until now, glass sandwich

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panels have been little explored and scarcely applied, making use of opaque core materials such as FRP or aluminium honeycomb. Glass had not yet been considered for the structural core elements due to its brittle nature that allows only for elastic deformation until

failure. However, recent advances in the adhesive technologies have enabled us to engineer sandwich panels where both the skins and the core elements are made of glass, achieving maximum transparency.


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 Bidirectional Support of the skins.

This panel is made with glass stripes 3mm thick and 40mm wide. The stripes are glued to each other with acrylate adhesive. The stripes are supposed to provide bidirectional support to the skins and a very good shear transfer in 2 directions.

Regional Support of the skins

This panel is made with glass bowls 120mm in diameter. These spacers are relatively cheap and thanks to their shape they provide very good shear transfer between the bottom and the top skin.

1

2 3

and bottom skin consisted of one pane of annealed glass each. Ready-made, standardized, objects such as glass bowls and glasses were employed for the core elements to ensure that all elements are of the same exact dimensions with very little tolerances. The core elements were bonded to the two skins using a UV-curing colourless acrylate adhesive of high bonding strength and stiffness. The developed designs can be seen in Figure 2.

Prototypes testing This panel is made with small semi-spherical glass bowls. This panel provides really poor shear interaction because it is punctually connected to the skins. The bowls are not arranged linearly but in a 2-3 formation.

Punctual Support of the skins

These panels are identical but one has double the height. They are made with candle holders which provide fairly good shear transfer. The purpose of making 2 panels with different core thickness is to compare the effect of thickness in stiffness and strength.

4

5

Regional Support of the skins

6

7 These 2 panels feature the same topology. The first one is made with solid glass pieces and the second one with glass rods.

Linear Support of the skins

Figure 2: Illustration of the seven different design concepts

An all-glass sandwich panel

The novel idea of a fully-glass sandwich panel was initially developed for a floor application by Building Technology MSc student Dimitrios Vitalis together with dr. ir. Fred Veer and ir. Faidra Oikonomopoulou from the Glass & Transparency Group of TU Delft, Faculty of Architecture. In a floor component, a high stiffness to weight ratio is essential, as the dead load acts perpendicular to the element and adds to the general load applied to the structure. By definition, a sandwich panel consists of two skins separated by a core which provides the shear interaction between them. As the load bearing material is held at a distance from the neutral axis,

the element’s shape factor is increased. When the panel is loaded in bending the top skin is in compression, the bottom skin is in tension, while the core is loaded in shear. Glass is a material with high compressive strength; in comparison, its tensile strength is relatively low. Hence, a glass sandwich panel is expected to fail at the tension-stressed, bottom skin. Several different core topologies were initially designed and explored both numerically and by physical testing to define the parameters that influence the behaviour of a sandwich structure made fully of glass. Seven prototypes, each measuring 1000 x 300 mm were designed to have the same stiffness for providing comparable results. The top

All prototypes were tested until failure in four-point-bending. All panels broke at the bottom skin, indicating that they exhibit a satisfactory sandwich behaviour. Nevertheless, in some panels, (namely prototypes 1 and 3), the core spacers failed prior to the skins, suggesting that in these panels lower shear interaction is obtained, possibly due to the sparse distribution of the core elements and their limited contact area with the glass skins. Once the core elements fail, the two skins start behaving independently causing early failure. This highlights the importance of the correct distribution and geometry of the spacers. In this direction, sandwich panels 6 and 7 suggested that linear support of the skins provides higher stiffness. Overall, most panels broke close to the support, where higher stresses are induced. After the failure of the bottom skin, the panels would instantly break completely, stressing the need of lamination of the top and bottom skin for safety purposes. The physical prototypes also showed that the spacers do result in some visual distraction, which can however be turned to an advantage, if properly designed: The optimized design of the glass spacers can lead to interesting patterns, reflecting through the gradient density the force flow within a panel or/and highlighting subjects behind/below the element by creating open, core-free zones.

1:2 physical prototype

Based on the knowledge acquired through the above research, within the course of Technoledge Structural Design of MSC Building Technology, a team of seven students designed and built a large prototype out of two glass sandwich panels, each measuring 3000 x 1500 mm. The physical mock-up, in 1:2 scale, will be tested structurally in the future

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Figure 3: Images of the tested prototypes

Figure 4: Final design by the student team of the Technoledge course

was done parametrically in Grasshopper. The final design can be seen in Figure 4. Different glass elements were considered to provide the core elements. Eventually, the students opted for extruded star-shaped glass rod profiles made by SCHOTT. This geometry can create very interesting visual results, as the star profiles can be rotated to provide a pattern direction. Moreover, they have sufficient surface to be properly bonded to the top and bottom glass panes. The extruded profiles were delivered in the standardized 1500 mm length and were manually cut and polished to 100 mm long segments (see Figure 5).

prior to engineering the final, 1:1 prototype of 6 x 6 m, aimed to be installed as an exhibition floor in Glasstec 2019 to manifest the potential of this novel structural glass component. The new concept was to create a floor out of two sandwich glass panels where a core-free zone is placed in the middle, so that an object can be exhibited below. At the same time a statement is made for the structural potential of the innovative glass construction. To increase the stiffness of the panels and prevent the generation of peak stresses close to the supports, core elements are more densely distributed close to the outline of the floor. Core elements surround as well the central core-free area and through a gradient design are distributed to the rest of the panel. The final design of the core distribution

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Figure 5: 100 mm long cut and polished extruded star profiles by SCHOTT


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Figure 6: A laser-cut MDF jig ensures the accurate positioning of the spacers

Figure 7: Positioning of the top plate of the glass sandwich panel

The spacers were then thoroughly cleaned and bonded by a colourless adhesive of high stiffness to the correct position on the glass plates with the aid of a MDF jig, laser-cut with the desired pattern (see Figure 6-7). Two laminated annealed glass plates comprised the top and bottom skins to allow for safety and structural redundancy in case of failure. Special, custom-made 3D printed connectors, following the shape of the star profiles were made by the student team to enable the connection of the two panels without compromising the overall visual result.

duced to facade elements, subjected to out-of-plane loading. Not only highly transparent glass facades but also facades with integrated selective distraction or integrated climate regulating solutions can be manufactured following this principle. The glass sandwich could even constitute infill panels that would be attached to the main structure of the building and contribute to its lateral stability. And these are only a few of the applications that are yet to be explored.

The manufactured 1:2 prototype is yet to be structurally tested. Nevertheless, as a visual prototype it demonstrates the great potential of glass sandwich panels as a relatively lightweight and transparent yet stiff structural component. The potential of a customizable glass floor has already been presented here but such a sandwich panel can also be intro-

Concept initiators: Dimitrios Vitalis, Faidra Oikonomopoulou, Frederic A. Veer, Vicente Plaza Gonzalez Technoledge student team: Liesanne Wieleman, MJ Veenendaal, Joep Nizet, Bram Rooijakkers, Charbel Saleh, Franke de Haan, Anne Bruggen Collaborators: Lida Barou, Serdar Asut

Credits:

Figure 7: The final, bonded 1:2 scale prototype made in Technoledge Structural Design Course

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

GEVEL 2018 Facades play a crucial role when it comes to making the built environment more sustainable. That was the slogan at Gevel 2018 trade fair, organized this year on 23 - 25 January in Rotterdam Ahoy. At Gevel 2018 the latest trends, innovations and products were presented. Like always a lecture program and an overview was given of experimental and ground-breaking projects, for which three so called Theme Zones were set up: Create, Renovate and Transform. This year, Gevel 2018 attracted nearly 5,500 visitors, mainly architects and contractors. Attention was given to fire safety, energy and integrated energy generation, circularity and natural building materials. A random selection of innovative materials. Building with straw

Not completely new, but striking and surely innovative are the straw panels from Strotec (Eindhoven). The company presented prefabricated self-supporting straw panels, which are produced by Ecococon from Latvia. Strotec has the sales rights for the Netherlands. By the slogan ‘Building with insulation’, Strotec supplies prefabricated panels with a thickness of 400 mm and an insulation value of 7 m2 K/W, almost twice

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as much as the requirement from the Dutch Building Decree of 2016. A finished facade even reaches 8,3 m2 K/W, the company says. The compression degree of 100120 kg/m3 is maintained while pressing the straw panels, preserving multidirectional straw structure, resulting in better thermal resistance of the straw panel. The surplus of straw is cut off very accurately using special mechanisms. This

is done so smoothly that you will use about twice less plaster for this type of panels compared with other panelling or thatched surfaces. Ecococon panels are plastered with special natural clay plasters. According to Strotec, the construction method not only offers a pleasant indoor climate, but also contributes to the reduction of CO2 emissions through the use of natural building materials. Depending on the level of preparation, approximately 100 m2 of wall area can


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 be installed by four people within 1-2 days. Due to the special design, the panels can be connected with each other without the use of special machines or tools, only a winch. The panels are not to heavey, 20 to 200 kg, and can be moved by hand or with small hoists, without heavy duty equipment. Installation the Ecococon panels allows to avoid the formation of cold bridges, because when connecting the panels their straw edges are pushed together. Furthermore, the system works sound-insulating (Rw = 54 Db) and meets the European Flammability Class B-s1, d0, difficult to ignite, suitable for facades and structural walls. www.strotec.nl http://www.ecococon.lt/dutch/

Solar Hanlite

Aberson SmartBuild is primarily a specialist in façade systems but presented during the Facade 2018 Solar Hantile, a novelty for the Dutch market. It is a kind of a roof tile that generates energy, which in itself is not new, but according to Aberson, the special feature of this sunroof tile is that it looks very similar to a regular roof tile. That makes Solar Hantile ‘invisible’ in comparison with conventional flat solar panels. Moreover, it is virtually maintenance free, strong and has a high efficiency. Solar Hantile was presented last summer in China by the producer of the system: Hanergy Thin Film Power Group Ltd, Beijing. The Hantile panel, using laminated packaging technology, encapsulates a thin, light, flexible and efficient CIGS (copper-indium-galliumselenide) thinfilm solar chip into ultra-clear float glass that not only able to maximized solar chip’s conversion rate but fulfilling architectural aesthetic demands at the same time. Alberson>

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 Hempro: building and isolating with one material IsoHemp, supplier of building blocks based on hemp fibers, drew attention to its Hempro system, a construction system that makes building and isolating with one material possible. The Belgian-made hemp block is a free-standing masonry element, comprised of hemp chips (80 %) and a mixture of air and hydraulic lime. The product is moulded, pressed and then cured and dried in the open air without the need for any heat input. IsoHemp blocks are used for thermal, hydric and acoustic regulation in new builds (with structure), and interior and exterior renovation. They are used in the form of masonry for filling framework, building envelopes or as partition walls or floor insulation. They are not at all suitable for supporting a floor or roof. The IsoHemp hemp blocks are bonded using IsoHemp bonding mortar in a thin 3 mm joint. So far, the IsoHemp blocks didn’t fulfil any structural function. The Hempro system now makes it possible to use the blocks constructively. To this end, a number of products - the U-block, pre-drilled block and connecting block - have been developed - which essentially function as concrete formwork. With the IsoHemp system, a concrete structure is cleverly integrated with the hemp fiber blocks. According to IsoHemp, this creates a homogeneous construction with all the properties and advantages of the product: heat and sound insulation, fire resistance and regulation of moisture. Thanks to their large size and light weight, the hemp blocks can be placed quickly, reducing construction time. According to IsoHemp, the Hempro system solves numerous technical problems and makes it possible to carry out different construction types, both for specific projects and for single-family homes.

www.isohemp.nl> Download brochure (Dutch)>

Claytec Greentech 700 Claytec’s presented Claytec Greentech 700, a new construction panel based on loam and hemp fiber. The material was developed for the coating of wood or metal constructions in-house. The Greentech sheets are intended for interior walls, ceilings and roof cladding, but can also be used on solid surfaces such as concrete, sand-lime brick and masonry. The material can be finished with clay plaster or plaster. The material consists of loam and furthermore about 30 percent hemp fibers, natural binder based on soy, and magnesite. The panels have a density of about 700 kg/m3 and are fire resistant (classification: B - s1 d0). Claytec specializes in building materials based on clay. Since 2010, Claytec has been cooperating closely with EKOPLUS, the Dutch wholesaler for clay building materials. See http://ekoplus.nl

More at Claytec>

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

E-Board: Façade renovation and insulation all-in-one Vandersandengroup set the spotlight on E-Board, a facade insulation system developed by the company. It consists of two main elements: an insulating plate and brick slips. According to Vandersanden the aesthetic possibilities are endless and the designer gets optimal freedom. In addition to achieving a maximum EPC, E-Board provides an indoor space and it is possible to maintain the appearance of a building or to give a new look to renovation and transformation projects. The installation of E-Board starts with the application of insulation panels moulded in EPSHR with alignment ridges, the perfect way to achieve correct alignment and improved adhesion of the brick slips. Available in our four brick sizes, with joints of approximately 12 mm for standard brickwork, and of approximately 4 mm for a joint-free effect. The E-Board panels are made from EPSHR of which 94% consists of air. The sealed cell structure locks in the air and, as a result, forms an excellent insulator. The material is strong, retains its shape, there is no movement with pressure and it is unaffected by moisture. The latest E-Board panels have improved insulation: Ν = 0.031 W/mK. EPS is 100% recyclable. Thanks to their composition, the moulded E-Board insulation panels are 100 % waterproof. The tongue-and-groove system ensures that the panels snap together seamlessly. The PU bonding between the panels creates a sealed insulation shell. The sides of the panels are lightly chamfered, resulting in a V-notch on the front of each seam, which is always filled by waterproof adhesive mortar. More at Vandersandengroup>

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Wooden Wall Design

The Investment and Development Agency of Latvia presented several innovative companies and products including those of Wooden Wall Design (WWD), a brand name of the company AW Latvia from Smiltene, Latvia. WWD specialises in decorative wood panels for wall covering. They are made of various tree species, different length, width and thickness of the components, which are combined in one characteristic article. The surface has different shades - from

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grey to brown, from light yellow to black. Some of them have been formed in the sun, rain and wind for a hundred years. Wall finishing panels are a handmade product. WWD has two product lines: so called ‘reclaimed wood panels’ and ‘solid wood panels’. ‘Reclaimed (or antique) wood’ is old, reused wooden material. This includes centenary boards, planks with a surface, which scorched by the sun and hardened by the rain and wind, planks

even with cracks and holes from the nails. Solid wood panels are made of new wood. WWD has developed twenty different wallcovering products that all vary in texture, embossing, roughness and of course in colour. http://woodenwalldesign.com/en/ Brochure>


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

May 1 – 3, 2018

Cleveland, OH, USA North America’s leading supply chain exhibition and conference for advanced ceramic and glass materials, manufacturing, and technologies

See the full spectrum of ceramic materials, components, equipment manufacturers, and suppliers at Ceramics Expo 2018!

FREE-TOATTEND EXHIBIT HALL & SESSIONS!

Show features include: • 300+ exhibitors displaying the latest materials and manufacturing technologies and techniques

Exhibiting companies include:

• Two-track manufacturing & applications conference providing in-depth insights and market trends • Dedicated networking events and B2B Matchmaking connecting you with the right people • 18 free technical and industry panels and keynotes from 60 expert speakers • Innovation trail highlighting the latest material and processing developments • 4,000 attendees including engineers and buyers, senior executives, R&D, and scientists

Founding partner

21 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 Register for a free exhibit and session pass online: www.ceramicsexpousa.com


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

GEVEL 2018

Experimental concrete

Exhibition Experimental concrete (Photo: bureaubakker)

Recent years the exhibition Experimental Concrete is a regular guest at the Gevel fair. The exhibition shows the results of so-called Case Studies Precast Concrete in the form of experimental prototypes. This year an exhibition of the case studies was organized in the Theme zone ‘Create’. Experimental concrete is about case studies for unanswered questions, extreme applications and seemingly impossible ideas. Exploring the feasibility of the increasingly far-reaching fascinations and ambitions of designers and designers is the starting point of this initiative. In the experience of many designers and architects concrete is often grey, boring and heavy. But it doesn’t always have to be that way. The case studies Experimental Concrete are used to bring designers into dialogue with the concrete industry, both from large companies and small startups. Together, the boundaries are sought of material compositions, production processes, applications and use. Every question is possible within the Case Studies. Whether it involves reproducing an existing and exotic example, a completely new application, a problem that has come to the fore in a designer’s practice or a real challenge to the industry to do something with concrete that seems completely to oppose the ‘natural’ quality of the material, each proposal is approached seriously and professionally. The ideas are explained in two brainstorming sessions, developed and eventually processed into specifications for producing a prototype. The core of the Case Studies as offered by the initiators is

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 ultimately to discover each other’s fascinations, ambitions and potentials. But it’s also a quest for potentials of concrete, the fascinations for the material of both designers and industry and the ambitions with respect to aesthetics, production and innovation.

Emmenthaler

A good example is the Emmenthaler project (Haitsma Beton, Marijke Mulder; KAAN Architects, Loes Martens; Orange Architects, Jeroen Schipper). The central question was: how to create concrete holes similar to those in cheese. In cheese the holes are caused by the ‘ripening’ of the cheese: bacteria secrete gases that can no longer escape. Similar methods within the concrete production process did not seem to work. The material is too heavy, so gases cannot come together to form big bubbles. Various other options have been tested, from filled balloons to balls of tempex, plastics and glass. It turned out that even when these additives were not removed after sawing, the results unexpectedly became pretty and attractive.

Acoustic concrete, with reed

Ravencrete

Meanwhile a large number of inspiration materials has been made, such as Ravencrete: a quest for concrete with a luxurious, marble-like appearance, so to speak suitable for a Roman bathhouse (Hurks precast concrete, Pierre van Boxtel, Gerard Brood; bureaubakker, Siebe Bakker, Kim Degen) Another example is ‘farmers concrete’. In this case, concrete has been redefined as a mix of sustainable binder, sand, gravel but also other aggregates such as straw and wood, wool or Above: Project Emmenthaler

‘Farmers concrete’, with eggshells

Above: Ravencrete; Below: acoustic, in this case with fur

lime in the form of eggshells and bones from the slaughter. These new added aggregates have resulted in special insulating concrete, extra light concrete and concrete with special acoustic textures that, for example, capture or spread sound. Experiments were carried out with compressed straw, wheat, maize, chicken and goose feathers, wool and the pig bones. Grasses and stems from crops had been added to the concrete as organic insulation material. (Geelen Beton, Wim Rongen; Information Based Architecture, Mark Hemel) Credits: bureaubakker>

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GEVEL INNOVATIVE2018 MATERIALS 1 2018

4TU.Bouw: Material innovations Inspired by new materials and possibilities, Gevel also provided an overview of more experimental and groundbreaking projects, housed in the Themazones Creating, Renovation and Transformation. There were prototypes exhibited of Dutch technical universities, innovative startups and other sources of inspiration. Like the innovative Lighthouse Projects of 4TU.Bouw. 4TU.Bouw represents the collaboration between the four Technical Universities in the Netherlands on the topic of ‘The Built Environment’. The cooperation consists of the Department of the Built Environment at TU Eindhoven, the faculty of Engineering Technology at Twente University, the faculties of Architecture and Civil Engineering and Geosciences at TU Delft and Wageningen University & Research. The goal of the 4TU.Bouw initiative is to promote collaboration be­ tween the member faculties, industrial partners and government, in order to meet the grand challenges ahead. Built Environment is the biotope of the modern citizen, providing infrastructure for transport, defence against flooding,

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shelter, space for working, meeting and leisure activities, etc. The demands upon reliability, safety and comfort of these structures is continuously increasing. Meanwhile the Built Environment sector is confronted with enormous challenges like scarcity of resources, climate change, accelerated population growth and demographic changes. These challenges require joint strategies and collaboration between end-user, academia, the industry and governmental agencies. Therefore, in the context of the Dutch ‘Nationale Wetenschapsagenda’, 4TU.Bouw, with its partners, has identified the important, societal and scientifically relevant research themes: ‘De toekomst wordt gebouwd’. These themes have been utilized as context for the 4TU.Bouw

Lighthouse programme 2017: eight dedicated, fast track innovation projects have been started, all addressing aspects of the agenda. These projects should provide a proof of concept - or failure of new technologies that will contribute to solid approaches and solutions to the challenges ahead, for all stakeholders. An at random selection from the offer: RE3 GLASS, Geocon bridge and 3D Concrete Printing.

Glass reuse

The so-called RE3 GLASS-project was aiming for a glass reduce/reuse/recycle strategy. The applicability of glass in structures is continuously ascending, as the transparency and high compressive strength of the material render it the


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 for large all glass-structures that do not buckle due to slender proportions and thus can take full advantage of the stated compressive strength of glass. In addition, cast glass units can tolerate a higher degree of impurities and thus can be produced by using waste glass as a raw source.

Cement free structural applications

Monolithic glass objects (Photo: projectgroep dr.ir. Fred Veer and ir. Faidra Oikonomopoulou, prof.ir. Rob Nijsse and ir. Telesilla Bristogianni)

optimum choice for realizing diaphanous structural components that allow for light transmittance and space continuity. The fabrication boundaries of the material are constantly stretching: visible metal connections are minimized and glass surfaces are maximized, resulting to pure all-glass structures. Still, due to the prevalence of the float glass industry, all-glass structures are currently confined to the limited forms and shapes that can be generated by planar, 2D glass elements. Moreover, despite the fact

Bench of geopolymer concrete, Utrecht (Photo: projectgroup GeoCon-bridge)

that glass is fully recyclable, most of the glass currently employed in buildings is neither reused nor recycled due to its perplexed disassembly and its contamination from coatings and adhesives. Cast glass can be the answer to the above restraints, as it can escape the design limitations generated from the 2-dimensional nature of float glass. By pouring molten glass into moulds, solid 3-dimensional glass components can be attained of virtually any shape. These monolithic glass objects can form repetitive units

The idea behind Lighthouse project ‘Geocon bridge’ was to develop a Geopolymer Concrete Mixture for Structural Applications. Geopolymers are materials based on by-products from industries. By using geopolymer concrete technology it is possible to reduce our waste and to produce concrete in the environmental-friendly way. An 80 % or greater reduction of greenhouse gases compared with Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) can be achieved through geopolymer technology. However, there are limited practical applications and experience. For a broad and large scale industrial application of geopolymer concrete, challenges still exist in the technological and engineering aspects. The main goal of GeoCon Bridge project was to develop a geopolymer concrete mixture and to upscale it to structural application. Through a combination of laboratory experiments on material and structural elements, structural design and finite element simulations, and based on previous experience with OPC concrete, knowledge generated in this project provides an important step towards a ‘cement free’ construction. The project was performed jointly by three team members: Microlab and Group of Concrete Structures from Technical University of Delft and Technical University of Eindhoven.

3D Concrete Printing

With the project ‘3D Concrete Printing’ the possibilities of additive manufacturing for structural applications were investigated. Recent years have seen a rapid growth of additive manufacturing methods for concrete construction. Potential advantages include reduced material use and cost, reduced labor, mass customization and CO2 footprint reduction. None of these methods, however, has yet been able to produce additively manufactured concrete with material properties suitable for structural applications, i.e. ductility and

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

3D printing of concrete (Photo: projectgroup 3D concrete printing)

(flexural) tensile strength. In order to make additive manufacturing viable as a production method for structural concrete, a quality leap had to be made. In the project ‘3D Concrete Printing for Structural Applications’, three concepts have been explored to achieve the required structural performance: applying

steel fiber reinforcement to an existing printable concrete mortar, developing a strain-hardening cementitious composite based on PVA fibers, and embedding high strength steel cable as reinforcement in the concrete filament. Especially the last two options seem to be promising and are likely to open the road to a

wide range of structural applications of 3D printed concrete. The project ‘3D Concrete Printing for Structural Applications’ has resulted in two quite different but highly promising concepts to achieve ductility and (flexural) tensile strength in printed concrete. According to the researchers involved, this will greatly increase the possibilities to apply the new technology of 3D concrete printing to structural designs. Credits: 4TU.Bouw, Siebe Bakker (bureaubakker) More about the lighthouse projects in the next edition of this magazine. Bron: 4TU.Bouw, Siebe Bakker (bureaubakker)

Artist impression 3D printed bridge at Gemert (Credits: BAM/Label4Visuals)

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3D printed bridge at Provincie Noord-Brabant


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Voeg informatie toe aan de Kennisbank Biobased Bouwen De Biobased Economy speelt een belangrijke rol in de duurzame ontwikkeling van Nederland en biedt nieuwe kansen voor het bedrijfsleven. Via de kennisbank kunt u kennis vergaren en delen over de beschikbaarheid en toepassingsmogelijkheden van biobased materialen, producten en bouwconcepten. Samen versterken we zo de biobased economie. Ruim dertig partijen in de bouwsector ondertekenden de green deal biobased bouwen. Deze producenten, architecten, adviseurs en kennisinstellingen delen hun kennis rond kansrijke mogelijkheden van biobased bouwen. Ook de ministeries van Binnenlandse Zaken (Wonen en Rijksdienst), Economische Zaken, en Infrastructuur en Milieu ondersteunen de green deal. Bouw ook mee aan de biobased economie en voeg uw project- of productbeschrijvingen toe aan deze kennisbank. Kijk op www.biobasedbouwen.nl voor meer informatie>

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Natural simplicity for new Schiphol terminal

Copyrights: Filippo Bolognese

Schiphol is growing and needs more space for travellers and aircraft. A new terminal can welcome around 14 million travellers each year. The winning design for the terminal was created by KL AIR, a group consisting of KAAN Architecten, Estudio Lamela, ABT and Ineco. Light artist Arnout Meijer Studio, DGMR and Planeground were also involved. The design reflects what Schiphol stands for: practical, functional and stylish. It is also sustainable.

Schiphol will open its new terminal in 2023. It will be located to the south of Schiphol Plaza and will be fully integrated in the existing airport. Schiphol is thereby retaining its ‘One terminal concept’: the airport isn’t a collection of pretty much free-standing terminals, but a compact unit that has all its facilities under one roof. The future-proof design helps to create a positive travel experience, offers an excellent travel process and contributes to the airport’s sustainability ambitions.

which is home to the security checks too. It makes things clear: on the ground floor, you’re simply visiting the airport, whereas on the higher floors, you are a traveller.’

Natural simplicity

The terminal is one large space without any columns or obstacles, so travellers are able to see the next step of their

journey at all times. ‘This helps you to orientate and puts you in constant contact with the outside world. It’s actually possible to experience the Netherlands already from the terminal, because you can see the clouds and look outside.’ An ingenious light plan by light artist Arnout Meijer ensures that travellers who are airside are gradually able to adjust from the time zone they’re currently in. Two

Functionality priority

Functionality takes priority. Every day, an average of tens of thousands of travellers need to find their way through the terminal from or to their aircraft, but how do they do that as efficiently as possible? KL AIR put the traveller’s experience first: plenty of daylight, all the space they need to move about and a clear layout – all have a calming effect on travellers. There’s no need to ask where they need to be or what to do, as it’s obvious. Marco van der Ploeg, advisor at ABT, explains: ‘Check-in, for example, has been raised to mezzanine level,

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Copyrights: Filippo Bolognese


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Copyrights: Beauty & The Bit

green patios also make travellers feel at ease. ‘We have opted for natural simplicity’, summarises Marco. ‘Even in the design of the facilities. We have created an integrated roof, for example, which stows all the installation technology neatly away.’

Sustainable

An integrated team, consisting of representatives of the partners involved, developed the winning design on site at KAAN in record time. ABT advised on the installations, the construction, the geotechnical engineering, the building physics, the sustainability and the plan of approach and associated methodologies. A large number of measures make the terminal sustainable. For example, the magnificent sweep of natural light into the terminal doesn’t just enhance the experience, but it also almost ne-

gates the need for energy to power the lights. The patios help to provide clean air and rainwater is recycled. The energy generated by solar panels is stored in a smart grid first, rather than being converted from direct current to alternating current straight away. Both Schiphol and visitors are able to use this energy straight from the smart grid, to charge their smartphones, for example. The new terminal boasts excellent insulation and careful consideration has been given to ventilation.

Economical with materials

The structure is also sustainable, firstly because that allows the space to be laid out in a flexible manner, thereby also making it future-proof. The use of materials is also particularly striking. Marco explains: ‘We are minimising the quantity of necessary materials. For example,

advanced calculations have enabled us to use less steel in the roof structure. We have also opted for natural, recyclable materials with low CO2 emissions. The floor, for example, is partly made of wood, which is rather unique in an airport. Another benefit is that if a repair is required, Schiphol is able to do it quickly and locally.’ For ABT, the new terminal is far from their first project at Schiphol, explains Marco. ‘But each time, we are proud to be able to work for our national airport. We continue to get an enormous kick out of building for the Netherlands and playing our part in creating the Schiphol of the future.’ Text: ABT

Copyrights: Filippo Bolognese

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NEWS

‘The role of materials & techniques in the success of a product’

Materials 2018, trade fair & congress On 30 and 31 May, the sixth edition of Materials, trade fair & congress will take place in Veldhoven, The Netherlands. This year the organisation has chosen the theme 'The role of materials & techniques in the success of a product'. Obviously, there is a lot of attention for materials and the associated techniques, but also for solutions relating to corrosion, wear, stitches, light weight, fatigue and so on. The trade fair also supports four logical and related basics: materials, analyses, connections and surface techniques. Each with its own zone on the exhibition floor and each with an appealing conference program.

Materials form the basis of the exhibition. They are the building blocks of everything around us. When better - stronger, cheaper, lighter or more beautiful - materials are required, there are constantly new developments that respond to this. 3D printing, nanotechnology, self-healing materials may involve new materials for existing markets, but also new developments that require years of research before the materials have been converted into a practically applicable product. Furthermore, the sixth edition will pay extra attention to design. This is underlined by the collaboration with BNO (Association of Dutch Designers). Topics that are highlighted include: design, choice of materials, software, reuse, circular economy and biomimicry. The Materials 2018, trade fair & congress is the place to learn everything about materials and material innovation. Solutions are offered for problems such as fatigue, wear and corrosion, but it must also provide inspiration, for example to get an idea of what the materials and the associated techniques of the future look like.

Materials 2018 • Wednesday, May 30 and Thursday, May 31, from 9.30 am to 5 pm

• Location NH Conference Center Koningshof in • • • • • 30 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Veldhoven 80 exhibitors 40 lectures Experience Areas with live demos Free entrance for visitors www.materials.nl


INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Cristal houses, Amsterdam. Facade of glass ‘bricks’ (TU Delft)

Challenging Glass 6 Challenging Glass is celebrating its 6th edition this year on 17 and 18 May at the TU Delft, the Netherlands. This international congress focuses on the architectural and structural use of glass. With participants from all over the world, more than 90 presentations of high-quality papers and inspiring keynote presentations, the conference promises to be a great success. The Challenging Glass congress derives its title from the material properties of glass: it is a very challenging material to work with, both architecturally and constructively. The brittleness, which is caused by the absence of a crystal structure, makes the strength unpredictable and collapses instantly and completely. Its transparency, and thus privileged relationship with light, has given glass a prominent role in architectural developments since the late Gothic cathedrals. Challenging Glass also refers to what engineers, architects and researchers have to do with the material: expanding its possibilities, extending its boundaries, optimizing its performance. Challenging Glass is organized every two years in collaboration with a leading research group on structural glass at an internationally renowned university. The congress conference took place as such at Delft University of Technology (TU Delft) in 2008, 2010 and 2012, at the Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland in 2014

and at Ghent University (UGent) in 2016. For the Next year the congress will be organized again at TU Delft. The organizers are Christian Louter (Delft University of Technology), Freek Bos (Eindhoven University of Technology) and Jan Belis (UGent & Eindhoven University of Technology) and the local hosts are Fred Veer and Rob Nijsse, both TU Delft. Challenging Glass is an international bi-annual conference that aims at gathering world class designers, engineers, researchers and industry partners to discuss on the architectural and structural use of glass.

Challenging Glass 6 will take place 17 & 18 May 2018 at TU Delft in the Netherlands. Conference themes are: Projects & Case studies, Joints & Fixings & Adhesives, Strength & Stability, Laminated Glass & Interlayer Properties, Hybrid & Composite Glass Components, Numerical Modeling & Experimental Validation, Curved & Bended Glass, Architectural Design, Geometries & Lighting, Structural Glass Design Philosophy & Structural Safety, Insulating Glass Units and Glass in Facades. http://www.challengingglass.com

Constructive glass at the Steve Jobs Theatre (Foto: Eckersley O’Callaghan; www.eocengineers.com)

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS INNOVATIEVE MATERIALEN 1 2018 1 2018

Material Xperience 2018 With 7,500 visitors, 140 exhibitors, 9,000 m2 of event space, the world’s largest multisectoral materials fair takes place in Ahoy Rotterdam, from 13 - 15 March. During this 13th edition of Material Xperience, R&D and design professionals from the worlds of architecture, interiors, fashion & workwear, product, mobility and graphics & packaging will be immersed in the latest material innovations. Material innovation is essential in almost every sector, and innovations are increasingly taking place in a multisectoral way. Can you charge a smartphone by wearing a dress? Will buildings of the future be printed? Is it possible to make packaging from your own waste? Will cars of the future by driven on 3D printed tires? Material Xperience, organised by Materia, is the only exhibition in the world that presents all of these important multisectoral material developments in their entirety. According to Els Zijlstra, Creative Director at Materia, new materials are at the basis of 70% of all innovations in the world. Themes such as the circular economy, smart materials and nanotechnology, lightweight, strong materials, energy saving, health and digital production processes are topical in all sectors. That’s what the organisation wants to make visible during one event.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018

Exhibitions

This year visitors there will be six pavilions on the exhibition floor, containing special exhibits and installations from each sector. A metal 3D printed ship’s propeller, a dress made from fungus textiles, a sandstone printed bridge, are just a few examples that will expand the imagination of visitors. And of course, Materia will also display the 200 newest materials from the Materia collection; textiles made of pineapple leaf fibres, wall panels from hemp composite, organic photovoltaic materials that convert light into energy, as well as 197 other innovations that can all be seen and felt at the fair.

Product launches and novelties

Last but not least, a large number of well-known brands are introducing their new material innovations to the general public, at Material Xperience. In total, more than 140 leading material manufacturers are exhibiting their originations. More at: www.materialsxperience.nl>

Visit Material Xperience 2018 takes place from Tuesday, 13 March until Thursday, 15 March, in Ahoy Rotterdam. For more information and a free ticket, go to www.materialxperience.nl. Opening times Tuesday (13 March) 10:30 - 18:30 Wednesday (14 March) 10:30 20:30 Thursday (15 March) 10:30 - 17:30

The Lecture Program For the first time in the history of the fair, there will be two simultaneous theater programs running on the exhibition floor, providing a line-up of 55-speakers who will share their knowledge and experience with audiences. Prof. Adriaan Beukers (Professor of Lightweight Constructions at TU Delft) talks about the advancement of carbon fiberreinforced composites that will replace metal in the mobility sector. Using examples from the world famous agency 3XN, Kasper Guldager (architect MAA) will illustrate both the urgency and the future of circular building. Marina Toeters (Design and Research for fashion technology) addresses the growth, the future and the importance of bio-based raw materials, textile technology and the impact of new production techniques for the fashion industry.

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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018 JEC World 2018 6-8 March2018, Paris www.jeccomposites.com/ events/jec-world-2018

Challenging Glass 17-18 May 2018, Delft, The Netherlands www.challengingglass.com

AMX 2018 6-7 March2018, Luzern, Switzerland https://www.am-expo.ch/en

Bio-based Materials 15-16 May 2018, Cologne http://bio-based-conference. com

Circular Materials Conference 7-8 March 2018, Gotenborg www.circularmaterialsconference.se/

Utech Europe 29-31 May 2018, Maastricht, The Netherlands http://www.utecheurope.eu

RapidPro2018 7-8 March 2018, Veldhoven, The Netherlands https://rapidpro.nl/

LIMA, Leichtbaumesse 29-30 May 2018, Chemnitz, Germany http://www.lima-chemnitz.de/

Materials Xperience 13-15 March 2018, Rotterdam http://materialxperience.nl/

Materials 2018 30-31 May 2018, Veldhoven The Netherlands www.materials.nl

World biomarkets 2018 20-22 March2018, Amsterdam

www.biobasedworldnews.com

Materials Science and Engineering 11-13 June, 2018 Barcelona, Spain

Nationaal Kunststof Congres 5 April 2018, Steenwijk, The Netherlands www.nkc2018.nl/

15th International Conference on Inorganic Membranes 18-22 June 2018, Dresden https://www.icim2018.com/

Ceramitec 2018 10-13 April 2018, München www.ceramitec.com

Holz messe 29 aug-1 September 2018, Klagenfurt, Autriche www.kaerntnermessen.at

3D Printing Materials 17 April 2018, Geleen www.3dprintingmaterialsconference.com/

Kunststoffen 2018 27-28 September 2018, Veldhoven, The Netherlands https://kunststoffenbeurs.nl/

Plastics Recycling Show 24 -25 April 2018, Amsterdam www.prseventeurope.com/

Aluminium 2018 9-11 October 2018, Düsseldorf, Germany www.aluminium-messe.com

Hannover Messe 23-27 April 2018, Hannover http://www.hannovermesse. de/home

Composites Europe 6-8 November 2018, Stuttgart, Germany www.composites-europe.com

Intermat 2018 23-28 April 2018, Paris https://paris.intermatconstruction.com/

XVI ECerS Conference 16-20 June 2019, Turijn, Italy http://ecers.org/

Ceramics Expo 2018 1-3 May 2018, Cleveland www.ceramicsexpousa.com

K 2019 16-23 October 2019, Düsseldorf, Germany www.k-online.de/

34 | INNOVATIVE MATERIALS 1 2018


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INNOVATIVE MATERIALS Innovative Materials Innovative Materials provides information on material innovations, or innovative use of materials. The idea is that the ever increasing demands lead to a constant search for better and safer products as well as material and energy savings. Enabling these innovations is crucial, not only to be competitive but also to meet the challenges of enhancing and protecting the environment, like durability, C2C and carbon footprint. By opting for smart, sustainable and innovative materials constructors, engineers and designers obtain more opportunities to distinguish themselves. As a platform Innovative Materials wants to help to achieve this by connecting supply and demand. info@innovatievematerialen.nl

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Innovative Materials is published in a digital format, although there is a printed edition with a small circulation. Digital, because interactive information is attached in the form of articles, papers, videos and links to expand the information available. There are two editions. The free one is a non-printable magazine, published online. In this version the interactive links are limited. Subscribers (â‚Ź 39,50) will receive full access to both the digital edition and an interactive PDF, with links to all the extra information.

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