Page 1

INNOTRAIN IT

IT Service Management QUICK – SIMPLE - CLEAR Preview

Extract

Chapter 5

2011


IT Service Management

Authors

Dr. Mariusz Grabowski, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau Dr. Claus Hoffmann, Beatrix Lang GmbH Philipp Küller, Hochschule Heilbronn Elena-Teodora Miron, Universität Wien Dr. Dariusz Put, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau Dr. Piotr Soja, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau Dr. Janusz Stal, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau Marcus Vogt, Hochschule Heilbronn Dr. Eng. Tadeusz Wilusz, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau Dr. Agnieszka Zając, Universität der Wirtschaft Krakau

I


5 Managing organizational changes 5.1 Challenges of change management Today's IT organisations face the challenge of becoming better aligned with business requirements. This requires a fundamental change in the corporate and IT culture. ITSM and IT innovations require IT to interact with specialised departments, participants and stakeholders in the company. In doing so, IT evolves from a purely supportive organisation to a service and innovation partner that is aligned with business requirements. This is not easy, as it requires real change on the part of IT: from a reactive provider of systems and applications to a partner for implementing business strategies and developing innovations. Increasingly, corporate management expects from IT managers that IT will be used to improve business processes, cut costs and make work more efficient. In many cases, companies see the role of IT as providing the innovations which, in coordination with the respective processes, enable an entirely new level of efficiency for increasing productivity and, ultimately, profitability. The consequence might even be a change of the business model. Organisations are always changing. Change is a universal principle and an unavoidable fact of life. Change management goes beyond pure project management by collecting tasks, measures and activities intended to provide a comprehensive change with far-reaching content for implementing new strategies, structures, systems, processes or behaviours in an organisation. Each change project should initiate typical change phases. As defined by Kurt Lewin, these phases are unfreezing, changing and refreezing. 1. Unfreezing: Preparations are made for the change. In this phase, plans are communicated, those affected by the change are brought into the discussion, resources for help and support are developed and discrepancy experiences are generated in order to clearly establish the need for the change measures. In general, time is allowed to prepare for the change.

2. Changing: The change is carried out. The introduction is reinforced by direct intervention of those responsible and by training, and the process is controlled. The objective is to involve employees to the greatest extent possible. This should never be done on a merely "pro forma" basis. If employees do not feel that they are being taken seriously, they will inwardly withdraw for a long time and not contribute actively to the project. 3. Refreezing: The purpose of the last phase is to change the habits of the group. The new process must settle in completely. This is ensured by continuing to monitor, even beyond


the introductory phase, whether the process works and is being upheld. The stabilising phase involves fine-tuning and verifying compatibility with the corporate culture and the support of employees. For all three phases, this guiding principle applies: It is not IT alone that changes the company and produces innovations, but ultimately people. People have to be won over. Therefore, when implementing IT Service Management and introducing IT-based innovations in small and mediumsized companies, conscious handling of the necessary changes and the reactions of the employees is important for success. If employees are not prepared for changes correctly and in a timely manner, there is a possibility of rejection or slow implementation. Conversations about reservations and fears can provide clarity. Above all, the participants must be aware of the personal benefits of the change and their own organisation or corporate success. Within the context of the employee meetings, the managers have primary responsibility, where they fulfil a wide variety of critical tasks. Successful implementation of the changes depends above all on their ability. Managing changes, such as with the introduction of ITSM, has to take numerous aspects into account: the technological aspect, the aspect of processes, the aspect of organisation and, above all, the aspect of the corporate culture and the personnel. The balance of these 4 factors is the key to success. To attain an actual change, the following components of change management are central:

!

The first and most basic is the vision or at least a concretely described objective: What do you want to reach with the introduction of ITSM? What is the reason for introducing ITSM? What benefits does this provide for the company and employee?

!

Based on this, a custom-tailored communication strategy that is defined in writing is required. This is independent of the actual size of the change process.

!

The capabilities of employees should also be assessed realistically. In many cases, fear of and resistance to change is based on the feeling of not being able to do what is required. Wherever possible, each employee should come to the realization that the project is valuable and effective. Unfortunately, this will not happen with all of them.

!

Many projects fail due to lack of resources: no time, no money, no support. It is essential to clarify these in advance and to make them transparent and available.

!

Each change project should provide incentive to the employees: either via extrinsic motivation (external incentives such as a bonus) or intrinsic motivation (inner incentives such as greater responsibility).

!

The change process should be structured well. If employees perceive a change as chaotic, they will have little motivation to help make it reality.


5.2 Factors of change processes The best new technology is of no benefit if it is not used. Therefore, ITSM projects must not be implemented in a solely technology-driven manner. The development of the personnel and the organisation are of central importance. Companies are social organisations that pursue a clearly defined purpose, have structures and are demarcated clearly from their environment. Each technological change necessarily has effects on structural and personnel resources that have to be adapted in order to handle new technologies optimally. Therefore, viewing the introduction of ITSM or an innovation in companies from a technical standpoint only is short-sighted and will, of necessity, fail in practice. After all, companies are complex social systems that reflect the "messiness" of life: they bring together people with different values and standards, individual biographies, a wide variety of interests, and different abilities and resources. Organisations are the setting for power struggles, secret trickery and games of intrigue with changing players, strategies, rules and fronts. Companies are only human—in many cases, to a greater extent than they are aware of or comfortable with. From this organisational perspective, it is only natural that to be successful, an ITSM introduction must also have the organisation and people in focus. In this social perspective, as opposed to the purely technical understanding of organisations, communication plays a central role. In particular, employees' emotions are a central factor in change processes such as the introduction of ITSM, deciding the success or failure of the integration and use of the new medium. Basically, the personnel and organisational development has to take into account three levels that are connected to each other in practice: the organisation, the group and the individual. The following illustration shows the relationships.


Figure 20 - Organisational and personnel development

Personnel and organisational development are long-term, comprehensive change processes of organisations and the people who work in them. The processes are based on the learning process of all those involved with direct participation and hands-on experience. Objectives lie in simultaneous improvement of the performance capability of the organisation, such as the effectiveness, flexibility or ability to innovate, and the quality of working life, which is expressed in aspects such as personal expression, humanity and self-development. Thus change processes involve much more than technical and structural matters. What is called emotion management has developed into a critical success factor in change management, as numerous studies have proven. Involving employees and their needs and sensitivities from the beginning and continuously over the entire introduction and development process is extremely important—even long after this period of time. The introduction of ITSM and IT innovations means new tasks for the employees. At the same time, existing work processes can be changed and made more effective. A challenge that, in practice, is undertaken consciously only in rare cases is changing organizational structures and processes. From an organisational perspective, responsibilities and areas of competence have to be clarified in addition to the tasks. New competences must be assigned to fill the new tasks, particularly in order to manage a new or expanded budget.


The organisational changes must be reflected in the formal structure and process organisation. As part of the organisational structure, job descriptions and organisational charts must be adapted. Work processes must be reconfigured during the process organisation. The sequence of the fundamental work, information and communication processes in the company must be defined. In addition, the management tools used in the company must be adapted. When targets are agreed with employees, this must involve aspects such as the use of ITSM. Statements must be made about the use of ITSM, but also about incentives for employees. This allows the dedication of the employee to be evaluated and possibly reflected in raises. The people who work in the company are the pillars that support the introduction and use of ITSM. Without their active participation, the project will become drawn out, putting its success in jeopardy. However, not only is an appropriate level of willingness to change and motivation required on the part of the project participants, managers and employees, but also a high level of requirementsbased personnel development to prepare the employees to handle ITSM properly. The basis for each change process is the acceptance of a change. This is composed of two areas: Willingness to change and capacity for change (shown in the following illustration). This means that project members, managers and employees have to both want to and be able to.

Figure 21: Acceptance of ITSM

The capacity for change can be influenced by the use of well-chosen communication tools (information, communication, special activities) that give employees the ability to have the information they need about changes. Qualification tools (specialised competence, methodical competence, social competence, personal competence) are also required in order to put the employees in a position to deal with the required change. The willingness to change can be formed using motivational tools (intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, win-win situations) that will ideally express a high level of esteem towards the employees and convey the message: "We need you!" Organisational tools (project organisation, promoters,


participation, accompaniment) must also be tailored to fit the change process exactly, so that optimum involvement can be obtained from employees, ensuring their buy-in and ultimately resulting in the pride of "owning" the change. The project team, managers and employees need a wide variety of competences according to their specific task in order to carry out the change project smoothly and successfully and establish it for the long term. The following illustration lists typical fields of action competences of project participants.

Figure 22 - Action competence of project participants

Specialised competence: Specialised competence means that the project participants have mastered their area of responsibility and possess the necessary technical skills and abilities. Their individual background and experience should also be able to be used for new tasks. If they lack the relevant skill and knowledge, they should be able to obtain it in qualification measures. Social competence: Social competence is the ability to work with other persons constructively and to tackle tasks and master them together. The prerequisite for this is the willingness to get to know other people with their unique quirks, specific background, standards and values and to accept them the way they are. Another critical aspect is the ability to put oneself in other people's shoes and adapt to them. Methodical competence: Methodical competence includes the willingness and ability to apply various methodological approaches in a way that is appropriate to the situation and persons involved in order to reach a goal effectively. Examples of typical methods include conflict resolution, conversation and negotiation, brainstorming, presentation, moderation and problem solving.


Personal competence: Personal competence is the ability to know oneself and to develop as a person. People with a high degree of personal competence have an inner independence and draw power and motivation from the stimulus of the tasks. They place value on developing their personality and give and solicit feedback. They have a high degree of emotional competence and are aware and in control of their actions, thoughts and feelings. Successful project management requires that the entire project team have the necessary competences. In particular, the project manager, as the key figure in the change project, should have the following skills and experience: Specialised competence !

Possessing adequate knowledge and experience in project management and expertise in group dynamics

!

Being used to working in a systematic manner

!

Being able to structure workflows and procedures in a logical manner

!

Consistently reviewing the status of the ITSM or innovation project and initiating measures where applicable

!

Passing on information quickly and in an understandable manner

!

Giving project team members regular and constructive feedback

Social competence !

Putting into practice in the project what he or she expects of the project team

!

Setting up rules and agreements for the collaboration and following them himself or herself

!

Ensuring a constructive and open atmosphere for conversations

!

Recognising conflicts at an early stage and applying conflict resolution techniques

!

Dealing with other opinions and criticism in a constructive manner

!

Ensuring shared attainment of team results

!

Building confidence and trust

!

Being able to motivate the team, particularly when there are difficulties within it

Methodical competence !

Techniques of moderation, presentation and rhetoric


!

Methods of project and time management

!

Conflict resolution techniques

!

Problem-solving and creativity techniques

!

Discussion and negotiation techniques

!

Conference and meeting techniques

Personal competence !

Knowing his or her project management style and reflecting on it where necessary

!

Being enthusiastic about the ITSM project and innovation and having the ability to awaken the enthusiasm of others for it

!

Showing dedication and taking responsibility

!

Having the flexibility to change course when the old ways no longer work

!

Being able to listen

To fulfil the task, the project team, work groups and possible promoters need to have the corresponding specialised competence, social competence, methodical competence and personal competence. The project manager has to check whether a sufficient level of these competences is present and, where applicable, draw up a training plan to meet the needs. In many cases, investments in teaching competences are not made because there is an assumption that those involved will simply "pull together" on their own. However, teamwork is no easy task. It does not come out of a vacuum. Teams evolve and pass through different phases. Precisely at the beginning of a project, therefore, a team-building measure can be a great help. Groups always evolve in phases, and all teams go through these. Sometimes the phases overlap, and sometimes there are loopbacks—especially when an attempt is made to artificially bypass or accelerate phases. An experienced project manager should be familiar with the various phases and provide constructive support to his or her team in the process. We can distinguish between the following phases:

!

Test phase (Forming): The group gets together, undertakes its task and envisions the objective.

!

"Hand-to-hand combat" phase (Storming): Different interests and ways of thinking and acting lead to confrontation and conflict.


!

Organisation phase (Norming): People work constructively on the basis of good collaboration. Consensus is found. The rules and guidelines pursue the goal of the task.

!

Performing: The prerequisites for the content of the work phase are created. All of the energy is put into in collaboration (synergy) and problem-solving and solution-oriented behaviour are in focus.

The various phases can be illustrated in what is called a "team development clock" (shown in the illustration below).

Figure 23 - The team development clock

In addition to a management and project team, the company's managers are also important promoters and stakeholders in the introduction of ITSM and innovation. Their willingness to support the project is often more important than assumed. They are the examples for their employee. The employees observe and register exactly the behaviour of the managers, which is reflected, for example, in the following actions: !

Do the managers behave more sceptically, or are they excited by the ITSM project and IT innovations?

!

How do they talk about the ITSM project? Are they "passionate apologists" or simply "sceptical implementers" of top management, with their slogan something like: "What will those guys on the top floor think of next?"

!

What priority does management give the ITSM project?


!

What time resources do managers give the employees for the project?

!

To what extent do the managers play a role in helping to create business processes and IT services?

!

Do the managers prepare and advocate for it actively, or do they do only the bare minimum?

Change projects need the support and enthusiasm of middle management. They are the pillars that support the change process and provide orientation for the employees. Therefore, there is an urgent need to make the ITSM project a top priority at the highest levels and obtain a commitment from each individual manager. Manager training courses should explicitly: !

Establish the necessity of active promotion

!

Agree on a uniform procedure for providing information and communication about the project

!

Promoting the active participation of the managers

!

Clearly communicating the importance of adjusting the IT and business strategy in order to ensure the company's competitiveness

!

Develop aids to argumentation for using IT innovations

!

Explain to managers the course and development of change phases and convey to them how they can provide help in these phases

!

Time should be allowed for discussion opportunities

All managers should be clearly aware that emotions play a great role in changes such as the introduction of ITSM or IT innovations in companies. Technical training programs on their own are not enough. Employees need help and support and in change processes. Managers must have the competence and willingness to offer this professional support to their employees.

5.3 Dealing with emotions constructively 5.3.1

Individual behaviour patterns and emotional intelligence

Many change agents speak positively of changes while criticising unwillingness to change among their fellows, colleagues or employees. This is particularly true of the introduction of ITSM. Sometimes, however, change agents are not familiar with their own ability to change and willingness to change. It should be a matter of course for each change agent to reflect on his or her own behaviour and solicit feedback regularly. Each personality is distinguished by different characteristics; the individual behaviour patterns when dealing with changes are correspondingly varied. Successful implementation of changes depends on the ability of the change agents and, above all, on their emotional intelligence. The term "emotional intelligence" was coined by John Mayer of the


University of New Hampshire and Peter Salovey of Yale University to describe the ability to perceive, understand and influence one's own emotions and those of others. In many cases, changes are very emotional processes and emotional intelligence is thus an important success factor. Mayer, Salovey and Caruso have developed a test to measure emotional intelligence that follows the pattern of conventional achievement tests and can be greatly helpful for change managers in change projects. The MSCEIT (Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test) measures emotional intelligence in four areas. These are perceiving, using, understanding and managing emotions. The first area, perceiving emotions, includes the ability to perceive emotions in other people's facial expressions, gestures, body language and voice. The second area, using emotions as a resource for support, includes knowledge about the relationships between emotions and thoughts (one's own and those of others) that is used for problem-solving, for example. Understanding emotions reflects the ability to analyse emotions, assess the changeability of one's own emotions and those of others and understand the consequences of these emotions. Influencing emotions takes place on the basis of objectives, self-image and social awareness of the individual and includes, for example, the ability to avoid feelings or correct evaluations based on feelings.

5.3.2

Emotional stages in change projects: the change curve

Feelings determine our thoughts and actions. Depending on the basic mood we are currently in (interest, fear, anger, sadness, joy), we think in a logic that is specific to this mood. As brain research has now proven beyond a doubt, there is no such thing as purely objective thinking— even if time and again, people like to assume that there is. The emotional curve of a typical organisational change process illustrates the change curve (see following illustration).

Figure 24 - Change curve


The change curve is a phase model that describes seven segments of time. Each change goes through typical segments with characteristic behavioural and emotional patterns. These phases are similar for all people and all changes. Some people remain in one or the other phase for a long time. Sometimes they also go in circles, passing through phases several times. By taking these phases into account, helpful support can be provided to change processes and, above all, the employees affected by organisational change. We can distinguish between the following phases:

Phase 1: Foreboding – concern The initial signs of the change start to appear. People notice that something is afoot and that things are happening around them. Employees in the company have heard that "something new" is to be introduced. Some may be familiar with the terms ITSM or ITIL and have heard negative things about them. Others have the feeling that they cannot keep up with all of the IT regulations and business processes; now there is even more that they have to apply. Still others may even be enthused about the discussions in the specialised departments and the new technical platform. The employees know that how they use IT will change, but they do not yet know what that means on an individual level. The possible risks that can be incurred by a change are perceived. Employees see a threat to the existing status quo. There are rumours, disquiet and turbulence. People experience a "loss of control" because they have the impression that they cannot influence what is happening. Worry is a typical and adequate reaction in this phase. Actions we recommend: !

Communicate openly, clearly and directly, for example in person by managers or by means of articles in the employee magazine.

!

Provide information about vision and objectives of the ITSM introduction.

!

Tell the truth about the situation: What decisions are already set in stone?

!

Make the structure of the project process public to the greatest extent possible.

!

Tell the employees how their cooperation is being requested and what opportunities are being provided to this end.

!

Put a damper on office gossip with your own active communication measures.

Phase 2: Shock - uncertainty When the need for the change is made public, all fears and premonitions become real at once. In this fear phase, the affected employees tend to feel confused and take more of a "wait-and-see" approach. They can neither adopt enthusiastic visions of the future nor take part actively in the


change at this point. This is the phase in which many project participants experience frustration because employees do not immediately share the enthusiasm for ITSM and IT innovations. They behave more passively, thinking: "This too shall pass." However, this is precisely the point at which it is important to push forward with illustrating the benefits ITSM means for employees. Actions we recommend: !

Introduce questions to the communication to bring about a change in perspective: "What would happen if nothing changes and if we do not introduce ITSM?"

!

Work not on solving the problem, but on employees' resistance to change. This means calling as many resources as possible into action and showing the employees what support options they will have during the ITSM introduction.

!

Two-way communication: Repeatedly explain to the employees what the change is about and what goals are being pursued.

!

"Telling": The important thing is not only that the employees understand the planned change intellectually, but also that they feel valued and do not believe themselves to be an interfering factor.

!

Push phase: The introduction of ITSM should be advanced in a well-organised manner.

Phase 3: Defence – anger The initial fear phase is followed by resistance to the change. The affected persons attempt to deny the necessary extent of the change. "Who needs ITSM, anyway? Everything was fine up until now", is a typical statement in this phase. This can result in a brief sprint of heightened activity and performance. People try to do "more of the same." For example, typists who had to change their style of work with the advent of the PC increased their number of keystrokes on the typewriter by a massive amount during this phase, attempting to prove that the computer was not necessary. In the resistance phase, employees frequently get angry about upper management, which in their opinion decides the fate of the "little people.". They say that "the bosses can't do that to us." Many doubt the real benefit of ITSM and also express anger about it. In this phase, employees frequently curse everyone and everything. Actions we recommend: !

Anger needs time and space to be vented: the project members, steering team and managers have to deal with the emotional objections again and again—even when they themselves can't stand to hear it any more.

!

Offer personal communication: Do not take attacks (too) personally.


!

Remove distortions of the truth with constant follow-up questions and support a change of perspective.

!

Make pending changes more tangible by explaining in detail the concrete changes and possibilities that result for the employee from ITSM and IT innovations.

Phase 4: Rational acceptance – frustration After unsuccessful resistance, the employees finally realise that something in the company has to change in order for it to remain successful. They try—usually still half-heartedly—to agree to smallscale changes. However, these often do not provide the expected success. Employees understand rationally that the company's IT benefits from a service management concept and that an introduction is necessary. However, they hope that the introduction will be over quickly and that they themselves will be affected by it only little or not at all. The employees feel like they have to resign themselves to an unavoidable situation and are frustrated. Statements like "We don't have a chance anyway if the people at the top want to do it" are in peoples' heads and make the rounds. The affected employees think of avoidance strategies in order to be affected by the ITSM introduction as little as possible. Actions we recommend: !

Relate the changes clearly and break them down to individual persons.

!

Stop talking about "one" or "the organisation" or "in general".

!

"Selling": Present the benefits for the organisation and the individual employee.

Phase 5: Emotional acceptance – grief When the employees finally realise that there is no way back, they cross the emotional low point. What was still in the "head" in the fourth phase now sinks one level lower into the "heart". The affected persons feel depressed and beaten down. They notice that the established repertoire of actions is exhausted and it is necessary to say goodbye to old behaviours. The thoughts focus on what is lost: the lost sense of security and familiarity. Those affected by the ITSM introduction feel powerless and discouraged. This "valley of tears" is one of the most difficult stages of every change. The activity is at its lowest point and the employees feel like they will not be able to deliver what is required of them for the change. In many cases, they feel overwhelmed and do not see the value of the ITSM introduction. It is the critical threshold for reorientation. In this phase, it is precisely older employees who are in danger of giving up and not moving to the next phase. Even if the initiators or project participants think ITSM is a small step and cannot understand what all the brouhaha is about, they have to deal with employees' emotions and take them seriously. The


employees will need to manage business processes optimally and support them with IT services. Their acceptance is critical for the success of the ITSM project. Actions we recommend: !

Slow down the pace of change somewhat and do not fall into the trap of doing things merely for the sake of doing things. Sadness and negative emotions on the part of those affected need space and need to be heard.

!

Feelings have to be verbalised.

!

Give the past its due (what was good about the old way?) and consciously depart from it by initiating farewell and separation rituals.

Phase 6: Opening – confidence Once the sadness phase is finished, the path is clear for a fundamental reorientation. Employees become more curious about expanding the horizons of their experience. They start showing interest in the new and unknown. New action strategies are tried out and help and information is solicited to master the new challenges. Statements are heard such as "Surely I can do this." or "That can't be so difficult. After all, I have mastered completely different things before.". Confidence grows, but setbacks are still encountered and mistakes are made in this phase. The employees show an increasing interest in IT services. They seek out information about all the things they can do with it and how they can take advantage of it. They discuss the benefits and show each other what's new. Actions we recommend: !

Create a fault-tolerant culture and promote experimenting.

!

Offer information sources and fields of experimentation, for example in events, seminars and training sessions.

!

Offer concrete opportunities to make contributions, for example as part of a continuous improvement process or discussion in creative groups.

!

Provide opportunities for mutual dialogue and learning.

Phase 7: Integration – self-confidence The continuous learning successes in handling ITSM expand the employee's entire patterns of perception, thought and action. One success after the other is made with ITSM. The affected persons start getting along better all the time in the "new world," with which they are almost as


familiar as the old one. The new tasks are experienced as challenges. The employees use ITSM and IT innovations in the company. They value the benefits and wonder how they ever got along without it. The ITSM philosophy is integrated into everyday work and is lived out. Employees show interest in actively cooperating and provide information and knowledge ever more frequently. Actions we recommend: !

Go through feedback loops: What was good during the ITSM introduction? What can be carried over to future change processes? What can be done better in the next process? How did the affected persons feel about the change? What rules supported the change? Which additional competences were gained, and which are still required?

!

Festive completion of the active change phase: Shared celebration and recognition of all those who participated and were affected.

5.3.3

Dealing with resistance and conflicts constructively

Not everyone likes to change. Giving up accustomed ways of behaving and learning new ones causes many employees to react at first with resistance and individual conflicts. However, resistance is an everyday by-product of the work process. There is no change, no development and no learning without resistance. Change and resistance are two sides of the same coin. Despite this, many project teams and initiators of change processes consider resistance and conflicts as burdensome, intolerable, annoying and unacceptable. They wonder why the employees do not understand the necessity of introducing ITSM. However, understanding is only one element of change processes. The critical factor for success is handling the emotions of those affected, particularly their fears and reservations. These emotions cannot be neutralised with rational explanations. The most important factor in change processes such as introducing ITSM is dealing with conflicts and resistance constructively. Ignoring or simply bypassing these can put the success of the entire project at risk. Projects pushed through forcefully can cause serious delays and exploding costs and result in employees putting up serious roadblocks. In addition, the employees remember exactly how they were treated during the change process. The negative experiences will continue to circulate in the company as "horror stories" for a long time. In a worst-case scenario, the employees will approach the next change process with a high degree of mistrust and not give any credence to the project participants.

How does resistance come about? Resistance is a behaviour that seeks to maintain the status quo of a situation in the presence of pressure to change it. Whether the change is necessary and logical is not important. Due to


subjective perceptions, people react emotionally with reservations that cannot be explained immediately, diffuse rejection or passive resistance. Four major reasons lead to resistance in change projects such as the introduction of ITSM: Information deficit: The affected employees have not understood why ITSM is to be introduced. They have not understood the triggering factors, the background, the objectives and the personal benefits. Qualification deficit: Employees do not feel up to the task of the new technology. They doubt that they will make it through the switch. They may also be afraid of exposing a vulnerability in dealing with ITSM. They cannot go along with the change. However, these reservations are seldom voiced directly. Organisation deficit: The ITSM project is not planned well. The employees cannot follow the course of the project or find it too hectic or chaotic. It is given inadequate support by those in charge and the employees feel that they are receiving too little support. The project may, in some cases, not be promoted clearly enough by top management or other managers. Motivation deficit: The affected persons understand the need for introducing ITSM in the company and even believe the information being passed along by those responsible for the project. However, they do not want to go along with the change, as they do not expect any positive individual effects. Instead, they expect to be put at a personal disadvantage, for example with extra work. A major factor for the lack of motivation is that the affected persons do not have a stake in the change. The employees feel bypassed, though it is precisely they who are to use IT and are not motivated to deal with the new technical solutions.

How is resistance expressed? Resistance to a ITSM project is not always obvious right away. In many cases, employees shy away from direct confrontation and try to maintain their individual situation by not using the new medium. In practice, the challenge is to identify and uncover areas of resistance. Resistance is characterised by three behaviours that are oriented on the classic biological patterns: attack ("fight"), escape ("flight") or playing dead. The following are a few specific examples of boycott strategies and resistance. Attack Some employees follow the maxim "The best defence is a good offence". Confrontational statements are often made in an attempt to avoid changes and discredit the project plans, such as "That may all be true in theory, but it doesn't work that way in reality or in our company." In many cases, the reaction is highly emotional and polemical: "We have to justify the cost of every little pencil, but there's enough money to introduce this expensive gewgaw that no one needs."


Sometimes, threats are voiced openly: "If we introduce ITSM, I'll simply stop passing on information." In many cases, people resort to rhetorical attacks to avoid arguments: "Can you tell me exactly how much ITSM saves us in dollars and cents?" or "ITSM is already old hat. If we make an investment, it should be in something really state-of-the-art." It is especially important to consider resistance that leads to intrigues and the formation of cliques in the company. These can easily bring about a high degree of disquiet, conflict and rumours and divide the employees. Flight For some employees, initially withdrawing and fleeing is the best option for dealing with changes for some employees. It is a good way to find out whether the change will be lasting or the efforts are unnecessary. They want to go to any length to avoid pre-emptive obedience and do only what is absolutely necessary in the change process in order not to attract attention. "I'm just doing my job here" is a frequently heard statement of those who want to accomplish the maximum with the least possible effort. They support the introduction of ITSM, but only on "low flame". "I'm not paid to think, I'm paid to work" is another argument from employees who perceive work as an unpleasant burden and associate only negative things with it. This statement is not compatible with the age of the knowledge society, but is more widespread in the company than one might think. Playing dead As much as people differ, so too do they react differently to change. Some people withdraw, shut themselves off, say nothing more and wait. They go into a kind of inner emigration, get sick or are absent from important informational events or training sessions. Another form of the "playing dead" reflex is sitting out. It is a highly effective method that presents great difficulties to even experienced project managers and project agents. People who "sit out" change agree with and say yes to everything, but do nothing, or do it only after being asked several times.

Which types of resistance exist? Employees display different types of behaviour when resisting. Come common types of resistance include: Those who pay lip service: They find innovations "right, important, good, long overdue etc." They are the typical yes men and women who, in reality, do nothing and do not participate. They practice a mild form of resistance. Harmonisers: They gloss over problems and have an attitude of: "Everything is going great" or "we got along fine until now." They are the typical maintainers of the status quo. Indifferent: They are difficult to win over for changes. Characteristic statements include: "I have been through so much here" or "This too shall pass."


Principled opponents: They fight. They are concerned with the principle of the matter itself, not with privileges. They often have very good arguments. Their resistance is very helpful for implementing ITSM in the company optimally. These resistors often think of dangers one might have overlooked. Emigrants: They no longer cooperate. They have inwardly resigned from the company. They say nothing at all any more, but at most shake their head in thought. In those situations, it may be useful to determine the reason for the resignation. It may be possible to restore the trust. Schemers: They use each informal opportunity to convince others of that ITSM does not make any sense and are also referred to as coffee break celebrities. Theirs is often the most dangerous version of resistance, because it is not noticed or registered. However, it has a high degree of influence on other employees, as many fears and reservations are brought to light, and in some cases false rumours are started maliciously. These resistors have to be identified and given a serious talking-to about their behaviour.

Dealing with resistance constructively Resistance is not a secret phenomenon that appears out of nowhere for some hidden reason. No substantial change ever occurs without resistance. It is not the occurrence of resistance, but the lack of resistance in the company that should be cause of concerned. However, resistance to change is entirely rational, as maintaining the current situation can have individual advantages for certain employees. However, the reasons for the change are usually emotional. Therefore, resistance always includes a hidden emotional message. Therefore, sufficient effort should be put into watching for resistance to the ITSM introduction and taking into account. It is precisely the failure to give heed to resistance that cause the affected employees to stonewall and possibly also cause boomerang effects. Some possible responses to and ways of dealing with resistance include: !

Build in time to think, engage in dialogue, and discuss.

!

Respond to the resistance and do not attack it.

!

Remove the pressure: Give enough space and time for articulating concerns.

!

Search out the reasons and reach agreements.

It is possible to deal constructively with resistance if we know the background from which it comes and respond to any bad feelings and development errors that may occur at an early stage. Earlier, we already discussed the most common reasons for resistance. They are the starting point for managing looming conflicts. The following is a list of a few tried-and-tested strategies.


Passing on information and engaging in trusting communication !

Communicate the reasons for the change clearly: People change and let go of their resistance if they understand that the change makes sense from their perspective. It is necessary to communicate clearly to the employees what benefits ITSM means for them personally.

!

Pass on information in a timely manner: In many cases, project managers or other management wait until the information is final and complete before passing it on. However well-intentioned this approach often is, it frequently results in rumours and resistance in the company and causes the right time to provide the information to be missed. When it is finally spread, the information follows on the heels of rumours and informal communication. The chance to take over leadership in forming people's opinions is squandered. In practice, therefore, it may make more sense to distribute information even if it is not complete, while at the same time providing information faster and more often. However, it is important to emphasise in such cases that the information is not yet complete and/or finalised in the company. Employees usually prefer the continuous flow of information, even if it is incomplete. This makes them feel valued, involved and well informed.

!

Communicate regularly and over the long term: An important aspect in dealing with resistance is continuous communication with employees. The top and middle management levels and the project team must never tire of talking about the planned changes involved in ITSM, no matter how many times they have to do so. Changes always mean a great need for information that has to be met.

!

Speak the right language with the right media. Employees who are affected by change processes will usually not be persuaded with glossy brochures or marketing presentations. They see through the attempt to avoid involving them in a serious manner and simply to persuade them of the need for ITSM. Therefore, selecting the right communication media is critical for communication and avoiding resistance. However, this must be supplemented by the correct address and a suitable communication style. Merely conveying information according to the slogan "Just the facts, Ma'am" is not enough to overcome resistance in the company. Approximately 80% of every interpersonal relationship is played out on the relationship level, with emotions as the central element. This 80% must be used to win over employees for ITSM in the company. Communication measures in the language of the affected employees that consciously take into account emotions can reach the employees and cause them to rethink their opinion.

Qualification programs !

Take away employees' fear of failing: In many cases, situations such as the introduction of ITSM cause employees to be afraid that they will not understand the philosophy, the complex body of rules and regulations or the application of new IT solutions. They often have no feeling for what specifically is in store for them, what they will have to learn and what they will


need to do differently in future. Therefore, employees find it to be a great relief when they find out that it is "not so hard after all." For this reason, qualification programs also have to address employees' fears. This can be done, for example by inviting a company that is already using ITSM successfully to come and talk about their experiences. In some cases, another way to reduce fears and resistance is to offer a test phase without obligation and then to introduce ITSM in a binding manner later, after the employees give their consent.

Make organisation structures transparent !

Give the process structure: A possible organisation deficit can be prevented in the earliest stages of project management with careful planning. If employees find an ITSM project to be chaotic, they will very quickly try to escape and work as "brakes." Despite the ever-increasing quality of project management tools, the quality of project planning and execution has not increased substantially. The human factor and time factor are often neglected too much, and thus develop their own dynamic that becomes almost uncontrollable, overwhelming project members. A way to avoid this trap is to create a realistic schedule at an early stage and monitor the project continuously.

Increase motivation !

Turn the affected persons into active participants: Only motivated employees can implement change projects such as ITSM introduction in a fast and lasting manner. A principle which, in many cases, cannot be mentioned too often is "turning those affected into active participants". The employees have to build and develop "their" performance process. They should be involved in planning from the beginning and be allowed to play a part in creating it.

!

Find out hidden fears: In many cases, employee's fears are not readily apparent, and thus have to be brought to light in conversations. Leading questions to get to the bottom of hidden fears might include: •

Are the employees worried about job security or are they afraid of a necessary change?

Are the employees concerned about whether they are ready for a new challenge?

Do the employees fear that their independence or existing freedom of action will be curtailed?

Do the employees have concerns with regard to their individual career development prospects?

Do the employees fear losing income or suffering other financial disadvantages?


5.4 Communication in change processes 5.4.1

Tools of change communication

When introducing ITSM, intensive communication with the employees should take place. They should notice that their opinion is wanted and taken into account, both in mediated communication using the intranet or other media such as discussion forums as well as in direct face-to-face communication with supervisors, colleagues or promoters. Companies can use different communication arenas when introducing ITSM:

!

Individual communication: The introduction of ITSM can be explained in personal conversations between supervisors and managers, particularly if tasks change due to ITSM or new tasks are added, such as updating service catalogues. Beyond purely conveying information, this can build trust and credibility for the ITSM philosophy. The effort made by the supervisor to provide information and communicate and his or her willingness to be available for conversations and questions has a lasting effect on the success of all employee communication measures.

!

Communication in teams/work groups: Team meetings and workplace discussions can be used as forum for discussing the introduction of ITSM. The manager of the ITSM project or others in charge of the project or IT organisation can be specifically invited to meetings to talk directly to employees and work teams about ITSM. Another option could be special events devoted to the subject of ITSM.

!

Communicating in large groups: Large groups allow many employees to be addressed at the same time. Usually, management will report on the ITSM project and give employees the opportunity to provide feedback. In particular, large-group communication can integrate different interest in the company and present the project's vision as well as its values and standards. They do not focus on concrete tasks of employees with regard to ITSM.

The introduction of ITSM must be communicated widely in the company. To do so, a wide variety of communication media are available, which should be selected carefully so as to take full advantage of their particular features when conveying messages. Precisely in change processes, the media mix should focus on two-way communication. One-sided pieces of information have to be directed towards employees in order to update them about the project. However, it is only conversations between the employees and their managers, the project team or management that can create lasting acceptance and effect change. Managers, in particular, should be prepared for this in a targeted manner and make themselves available to meet the need for discussion. The following illustration shows an example of the range of available, established and special communication media in the company.


Figure 25 - Communication media in the company

5.4.2

Communicating the change process

All affected employees should be provided with information about the ITSM project. The important thing is to then create a uniform status of information in the company and acceptance for ITSM. Not all employees can be heard and incorporated directly when developing the ITSM project. Therefore, the objective of employee information is to not only spread necessary knowledge about ITSM, but also to foster good long-term relationships in the company with an information policy that is based on trust. The challenge of internal information consists in demonstrating the concrete benefits of ITSM for the employees and speaking the right language for the target group. In many cases, the opportunity is missed to make it clear to employees that ITSM is a new philosophy in dealing with IT. Of central importance in this phase is to win over the hearts of employees and spread a shared spirit, rather than handing out glossy brochures with technical details. Only then will they participate actively in the dialogue and use ITSM to manage their tasks. In the information phase, the media mix used has to be defined exactly. However, it is also necessary to clarify the following points: !

Information objectives: What concrete information objectives for the introduction of ITSM are to be reached? For example, are there emotional objectives in addition to the objective ones? What changes do the employees want for themselves, such as a higher level of knowledge or a positive attitude towards ITSM?


!

Target groups: What target groups within the company are the information measures intended to reach in the first place? What topical interest do the target groups have with regard to ITSM? Are there company stakeholders that have to be informed?

!

Statements and core messages: What benefits does ITSM offer the target groups? What central statements about the ITSM introduction can be derived from that? Which core messages should be spread in the first place, and which messages are to be avoided? What is the tone of the statements? Is the tenor of the address factual or emotional? Which perspective is chosen: is it that of the ITSM users or that of upper management or IT managers?

!

Media mix: Which internal media are to be used to provide information to the employees?

!

Monitoring success: What is the best way to measure and monitor the success and effectiveness of the information measures?

The employees can be addressed using informational brochures and flyers that tell them everything they need to know in a clearly arranged and attractive manner. The address should ensure that the employees feel that their emotions are being taken into account. Technical details and sprawling descriptions are to be avoided. More important is to name and thank the employees involved in development and design. In particular, the informal change agents – the promoters – play a central role here in creating acceptance and motivation. Printed and e-mail newsletters can also be a vehicle for reaching a large number of employees in a short time. Here, too, the focus should be on a marketing-type approach, presenting the benefits the individual employee has from using ITSM. Only if the employees see a clear benefit will they use ITSM. Conscious use should also be made of providing information in purpose in face-to-face situations to reach employees on the personal relationship level. The following are requirements for successful employee information concept.

!

Credibility and trust: The target groups addressed have to trust the communication department and have respect for their expertise in the subject. Credibility determines whether the employees will listen to a message at all.

!

Context: Successful employee information has to fit into the context of all measures. It should reinforce the message, not contradict it.

!

Content: The message about ITSM has to include benefit and meaning for the target group. It must be compatible with the value system of the employees and the company.

!

Clarity: The messages have to be simple and clearly formulated. The chosen words should mean the same thing to the recipient that they do to the sender. Specifically, complex technical details have to broken down into simple statements. The more widely a message will be spread, the clearer and more understandable it has to be. All project participants and


upper management have to speak with a single voice, as otherwise employees will become confused and the measures will be ineffective. !

Continuity: To attain a desired result among the employees, multiple points of information contact are required. Accordingly, messages should be repeated, but it is important to ensure that the statements remain the same.

!

Information channels: Existing channels should be used to spread the message first, such as the employee magazine, newsletter or bulletin board, as employees are already familiar with them. In addition, an intranet can be used as a powerful information medium in the company.

In practice, the following tips for communication have proven useful: !

Less is more: Messages, subjects and amount of text should be kept to a minimum and target groups have to be selected carefully.

!

The core messages have to be defined, focal points determined and an intensive effort should be made to distribute this information throughout the company.

!

Specific, targeted address or groups of persons and internal stakeholders: Internal interest groups, formal and informal opinion leaders and key communicators have to be identified.

!

Cross-media information: Multiple media have to be used in order to spread messages effectively. In-person measures must be used in a targeted manner to maintain relationships.

!

A positive image of ITSM must be conveyed. Avoid giving the impression that ITSM is "difficult," "complicated" or "removed from reality." Rather, ITSM should be portrayed, for example, as "future-oriented," "lively" and "exciting."


6

ITSM Guide - Extract Chapter 5 - Organisational Change  
ITSM Guide - Extract Chapter 5 - Organisational Change  

INNOTRAIN IT IT Service Management Guide - Extract Chapter 5 - Organisational Change

Advertisement