Page 1

2014


2

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


W

elcome to this first annual report of the new EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics.

Our focus has been on setting up the EPSRC Centre: defining and approving our first projects, recruiting research and operations staff, establishing our operating processes and building our industrial and academic network. This report provides an overview of our projects, our facilities and capabilities, our people, our plans and most importantly, it describes how you can engage with us as an academic or industrialist working in the same field. Chris Rider Director

1


2

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Contents Executive Summary 4 What is Large-Area Electronics? 7 About the EPSRC Centre 9 Technical Programme 11 Advanced Manufacturing Processes Theme 12 Advanced Rheology for Printing Large-Area Electronics (ARPLAE)

12

Patterning Strategies for Integration of Multifunctional Organic Materials (PASMOMA) 13 Plastic Nanoelectronics by Adhesion Chris Rider is Director of the EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics and has been Director of the Cambridge Innovation and Knowledge Centre since 2009. Prior to that Chris was a Department Head at Kodak European Research, Cambridge, leading a team of scientists working on various projects to provide technology for Kodak’s Displays and Graphic Communications businesses. Chris set up and led a research team whose focus was to develop technologies to enable the manufacture of optoelectronic structures of all kinds on plastic substrates. Projects included cholesteric LC and electrowetting reflective display technologies, inorganic electroluminescent displays, zinc oxide thin film transistors, flexible photovoltaics, electronically tunable photonic crystals and additive self-aligning processes for patterning functional materials. Chris has also led commercialisation projects for Kodak and has first-hand experience of the processes needed to take technology from its initial conception through to product launch. Chris is named as an inventor on 51 patent filings.

Lithography (PLANALITH)

14

System Integration Theme 15 Integration of Printed Electronics with Silicon for Smart Sensor Systems (iPESS)

15

Flexible Energy Harvesting for Low Power Mobile Devices (FLEXIPOWER)

16

Platform for High Speed Testing of Large-Area Electronic Systems (PHISTLES)

17

Design for Manufacture

18

EPSRC Centre Facilities 20 National Outreach

23

Large-Area Electronics Demonstrator Project

24

Industry Launch Event

25

Energy Harvesting Workshop

25

Our People

26

How to Engage with the EPSRC Centre

31

CONTENTS

3


Executive Summary The ESPRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics launched on 1st October 2013. This report gives an overview of our first year and outlines our future plans and activities.

T

he EPSRC Centre was formed to focus on the challenges of scale-up and high-yield manufacture of Large-Area Electronics (LAE) systems incorporating multiple functional elements and of improving key manufacturing processes for enhanced performance. We are working with a wide range of companies who are pioneering this electronics manufacturing revolution and with end-users who see its commercial potential, helping to establish a vibrant new electronics systems manufacturing industry. Led by the Director, Chris Rider, a team of senior academics at the University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, the University of Manchester and Swansea University manage the EPSRC Centre with support from our advisory board of leading academics and industrialists from the sector. The EPSRC Centre’s operations team of the Programme Manager, National Outreach Manager and Centre Coordinator are now in post. With the recruitment of a cohort of nine researchers, we have started to build an interdisciplinary research community which is augmented by our close links to the EPSRC Centres for Doctoral Training in Industrial Functional Coatings (Swansea University) and in Plastic Electronics Materials (Imperial College London).

4

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Our research is organised into two main themes – Advanced Manufacturing Processes and System Integration. Within these themes we have set up 6 projects which aim to develop: • improved rheological understanding to achieve high resolution, high yield contact printing • a novel adhesion lithography process for fabricating short channel length devices such as high frequency diodes • patterning strategies based on self-assembly of multifunctional materials • a hybrid printed electronics/silicon based sensor system on a plastic substrate • a printed solution for high volume manufacture of a wireless energy harvesting module • a platform for high speed testing of electronics in roll-to-roll manufacturing This academic research at early technology readiness levels funded by the EPSRC grant creates a platform to leverage further research funding as well as significant involvement of industrial partners, as illustrated by the fact that we are already involved in two Technology Strategy Board collaborative projects with total funding of over £1.1m. Our national outreach strategy aims to build a strong community around LAE manufacturing by engaging with the whole UK academic community and companies from all parts of the value chain, and to increase awareness of the potential benefits of LAE technology among end-users, the general public and the next generations of young scientists and engineers. In this past year, we have launched our website (www.largeareaelectronics.org) to facilitate outreach and communication with our network and held our first two industry events. We are currently developing an integrated and interactive demonstrator kit to highlight UK LAE capabilities and communicate what LAE is and what it can do. Our first annual conference ‘Innovations in Large-Area Electronics’ will take place on February 3-4th 2015 at Downing College, Cambridge.

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

5


Thin-film, Flexible, Organic and Large-Area Electronics

Cost effective photovoltaics including off-grid and BIPV OPV Capacity: 28MW in 2014, 1 GW in 2020 Research and Markets 2013

Smart surfaces including touch sensors and accessories Touch sensor capacity: - 35.9 million square meters (2015) - CAGR 19% (2013-’15) NPD DisplaySearch Q2 2013

Wearable electronics e.g. smart patches for healthcare & fitness, smart watches, e-skin

OLED lighting for buildings, cars, streets TAM $0.15Bn (2018) CAGR >40% (2013-2018) IDTechEx Dec 2013

TAM $6Bn (2017) CAGR 42% (2011-’17) IMSResearch Q4 2013

Flexible displays for e-book, smartphones, large OLED TVs TAM $10Bn (2018) CAGR 20% (2013-’18) IDTechEx Dec 2013

6

Smart sensors and systems on foil (energy autonomous, wireless connected) TAM $1Bn (2020) CAGR 27% (2013-’20) Yole Developments 2013

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


What is Large-Area Electronics? Large-Area Electronics (including printable, flexible or organic electronics) is a new way of making electronics using novel electronic materials, often formulated as inks, and low-temperature processes such as printing and coating.

T

he concept of using low-temperature manufacturing processes such as printing to deposit functional materials directly onto flexible substrates to make optoelectronic devices and intelligent systems is revolutionary from both cost and environmental perspectives. Manufacturing plants can be built with one tenth to one hundredth of the capital cost of conventional semiconductor or thin-film fabrication plants. Devices can be produced in high-volume over large areas on flexible substrates thereby enabling electronic systems to be deployed in a wide variety of non-traditional situations: on paper and plastic, on clothes, in furniture, cars and buildings, as well as on packaging and even in and on the human body. We prefer to use the broad term “Large-Area Electronics” (LAE) because many systems will require both conventional and printed electronics, benefiting from the high performance of the conventional and the ability of the printable to create functionality over large-areas cost-effectively. Much progress has been made over the last 20 years in producing new functional materials with suitable performance and stability in operation as evidenced by the OLED display market.

Other areas are following the lead of OLED displays and these include: • organic photovoltaics, • OLED lighting, • “distributed intelligence” based on printable logic circuits and electronic components, • printable sensors including biosensors, and • flexible displays. Multifunctional LAE systems, combining elements that could include sensors, power generation and storage, signal processing and logic elements, and output capability through information display or by wireless transmission are now rapidly emerging with applications in sectors such as healthcare, wellness and fitness, smart packaging, automotive, industrial, smart buildings and design. However, the broader industry has been slow to take-off, due in part to (i) printing-based manufacturing scale-up being significantly more challenging than expected and (ii) the inability to produce and test complete multifunctional electronic systems as required in several early markets. The EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing is tackling these challenges by addressing high-volume manufacturing routes for printed electronics and the integration of component technologies into systems.

WHAT IS LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS?

7


W

e’re using a new approach to manufacturing that will enable electronic systems to move off the conventional rigid circuit board and into a whole range of new application opportunities in healthcare, on packaging, in environmental sensing and in wearables to name but a few. Chris Rider, Director

8

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


About the EPSRC Centre The EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics addresses key manufacturing research challenges aimed at meeting end-user needs for multifunctional LAE systems. The objectives of the EPSRC Centre are to: • address the technical challenges of manufacturing multifunctional LAE systems; • develop a long-term research programme in advanced manufacturing processes aimed at ongoing reduction in manufacturing cost and improvement in system performance; • support the scale-up of technologies and processes developed in and with the Centre by UK manufacturing industry; and • promote the adoption of LAE technologies by the wider UK electronics manufacturing industry. This Centre for Innovative Manufacturing brings together four UK academic Centres of Excellence in LAE at the University of Cambridge (Cambridge Innovation and Knowledge Centre, CIKC), Imperial College London (Centre for Plastic Electronics, CPE), Swansea University (Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, WCPC) and the University of Manchester (Organic Materials Innovation Centre, OMIC) to create a truly national centre with world-class expertise in design, development, fabrication and characterisation of a wide range of devices, materials and processes.

ABOUT THE EPSRC CENTRE

9


SYSTEM INTEGRATION

THEME 2

THEME 1

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES

ENERGY HARVESTING & STORAGE ELEMENTS

POWER SYSTEMS INTEGRATION

INTERCONNECT & INTEGRATION SERVICES ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT

DESIGN FOR MANUFACTURE, TEST & REPAIR

MULTI-FUNCTIONAL SYSTEM INTEGRATION

BASELINE DEVICE PROCESSES

DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH-THROUGHPUT TESTING TECHNIQUES

ENABLING TECHNOLOGIES

10

HIGH-THROUGHPUT TEST RIG

INTEGRATION

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Technical Programme The EPSRC Centre’s technical programme is designed to deliver a coherent programme of research that will address industrial needs and provide the capabilities to meet the manufacturing requirements of early market opportunities for LAE systems.

T

he programme is organised in two themes: System Integration and Advanced Manufacturing Processes, each comprising of a number of research projects.

Key Research Challenges Theme 1: Advanced Manufacturing Processes

One class of challenges relate to process capability, for example highresolution patterning by a high-yielding, high-volume additive method. The advanced manufacturing processes (AMP) theme is investigating concepts that will increase functional device performance and reduce cost over a 10 year timescale to ensure the industry stays competitive and can meet increasing end-user needs thereby providing a flow of innovative process improvements which could become the basis for a process roadmap for the LAE industry.

• Developing high resolution patterning processes for higher device and system performance. • Development of novel multifunctional materials systems and patterning processes for improved manufacturability.

The system integration (SI) theme addresses the key end-user need for multifunctional systems in a range of new mass-market applications, including brand enhancement, smart packaging, active anti-counterfeiting, distributed sensing, integrated smart systems and home healthcare. All these applications either require significant printing content or the distribution of functions over a large area and a printing-based manufacturing approach therefore makes economic sense. All require some form of on-board power, a sensor, some processing and an output. Many LAE companies specialise in a single function, such as photovoltaics, lighting or displays, etc. and the capability to produce multifunctional systems is largely lacking which is holding back the development of the market. Therefore this theme will develop innovative, cost-effective processes for high-yield LAE system manufacture by approaching the task from first principles, considering and co-optimising all aspects, including system design, materials selection, process development and testing.

• Developing innovative approaches to multifunctional system manufacture of Large-Area Electronics using processes that minimise cost. • Reducing the cost of system integration by developing a Design for Manufacture approach which co-optimises yield and performance. • Developing novel approaches to high-throughput functional testing. • Enhancing yield through simple repair schemes and the use of redundancy.

Theme 2: System Integration

TECHNICAL PROGRAMME

11


ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THEME RHODRI WILLIAMS DALE ROGERS

Project objectives • a radically improved understanding of functional ink formulation and its interaction with the image carrier and substrate to optimise performance for high resolution printing; • the development of scientifically rigorous techniques for characterisation of the critical rheological properties of fluids in high deformation rate shear and extensional flows in order to achieve optimal performance; and • the establishment of performance metric(s) based on the first two objectives.

12

Advanced Rheology for Printing Large-Area Electronics (ARPLAE)

T

his project addresses fundamental rheological challenges to achieve high-resolution features in high-yield contact printing of functional inks. These inks typically include additives in the form of polymers, colloidal particles, etc, which are required to achieve functional performance, however the complexity of the resulting fluid rheology is a barrier both to their characterisation and to adequate predictions of their performance in industrial process flows. Improved understanding of the rheological aspects of these processes and materials is required to establish a rigorous basis for their better prediction and control. Methods of fluid characterisation capable of replicating industrially relevant rates of deformation, deformation amplitudes and timescales are largely inaccessible to industry at present. In ARPLAE we will assess several advanced rheological tools and characterisation processes which have been employed successfully in other areas e.g. in rheological aspects of high speed machine lubrication. These include an experimental technique for the production of high strain-rate uniaxial extensional flows at process relevant deformation rates and short process timescales. By measuring the rheology of functional inks using state-of-the-art characterisation tools and by understanding the effect of rheology on physical processes such as cavitation that occur during printing, the data for a predictive model will be obtained to enable ink rheology to be optimised for improved quality and yield in printing. The project seeks to define a measure of functional ink characteristics which can be incorporated in the development of better performing fluids, and in improved methods of predicting the consequences of changes in ink formulation. The project has initiated a scoping study to identify a target functional ink and print process where a performance improvement would be highly significant commercially. We anticipate that a special focus will be on gravure printing due to its suitability for the production of quality-sensitive layers like organic semiconductors and semiconductor/dielectric-interfaces in transistors. The final output of the project will be a demonstration of improved resolution/yield in the printing of the chosen materials resulting directly from improved ink formulation using the techniques developed in the project. 

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THEME NATALIE STINGELIN JAIME MARTIN PHIL BRIDGES DONAL BRADLEY PAUL STAVRINOU

Project objectives • to pattern surface relief/ energy structures using non-lithographic processes;

Patterning Strategies for Integration of Multifunctional Organic Materials (PASMOMA)

T

he motivation for the PASMOMA project is to provide a materials technology for simple, robust processing of multiple sensors, multifunctional arrays or self-assembled complementary structures at high yield without the use of conventional lithographic processes and to realise manufacturing benefits through use of selfassembly and novel multifunctional materials to save process steps. Using well-defined surface structures produced e.g. by embossing and moulding, we will achieve the deposition of microdispersions of functional materials, including organic semiconductors, light-emitters, dielectrics or conductors, at predefined locations without the need for lithography. i

• to realise selectivity of particle deposition based on relief structure size; •

to deposit different materials (dielectrics, conductors, semiconductors) at predefined positions; and

• to gain precise size control of particles in semiconductor microdispersion.

D1

d1

ii

D2

d2

Schematic 1: Deposition of microemulsions of different particle size will allow deposition of functional material 1 (blue, diameter D1) in surface relief structures that match dimensions (i.e. the material is only deposited in grooves of d1). In a subsequent step, coating of a second formulation, comprising particles of smaller size will allow deposition of material at different locations.

The project uses a concept labelled “nano-pinballing” where a surface layer embossed (or moulded) with a relief pattern is coated with a microemulsion of a functional material with a well-defined particle size. Only if the particles are smaller than the pattern dimension can they enter the surface structure. Relief structures of dimensions from <50 nm to a few 100 nm will be investigated to achieve the required patterning resolution. If areas of the substrate are patterned with different size structures, then several functional materials can be selectively deposited in different areas by selecting the appropriate particle size for each material. This will allow us to produce sensor arrays or RGB emitters using materials of different structures. Preliminary data shows that microemulsions and dispersions of a range of systems can be prepared using commercially available emulsifiers as stabilisers. The project examines metallic and organic conductors, such as PEDOT: PSS, solution-processable dielectrics and organic semiconductors for sensor or display applications. A library of dispersions will allow formulation of microemulsion inks so that they can be deposited with a range of techniques, including Xerox-printing, spray-coating and/or using standard coating techniques. The goal is to provide a versatile strategy applicable to a wide range of materials.

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THEME

13


Plastic Nanoelectronics by Adhesion Lithography (PLANALITH)

ADVANCED MANUFACTURING PROCESSES THEME

T

THOMAS ANTHOPOULOS

he level of performance of the majority of electronic devices is governed by two key parameters; (i) the properties of the electroactive materials employed, and (ii) key device dimension(s).

In the case of a printed thin-film transistor (TFT), the current-driving capability of the device is primarily determined by the charge carrier mobility of the semiconductor and the transistor channel dimensions namely channel length and width. Similarly, in the case of printed rectifying diodes, such as Schottky diodes, the maximum rectification frequency attainable is determined by the charge carrier mobility of the semiconductor and the thickness of the active layer as well as the active area of the device. Although much effort in recent years has been focused on the development of novel materials with improved electronic properties, relatively little progress has been achieved in developing alternative patterning techniques that combine extreme downscaling of key device dimensions with high manufacturing throughput and yield.

a-Lith process steps 1. A thin metal film is deposited (m1),and patterned to expose the underlying substrate. 2.

An alkyl-terminated metallophilic self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is conformally attached to all exposed surfaces of the metal.

3.

A second metal film (M2) is deposited. Owing to the presence of the SAM, the adhesion of M2 to M1 is much weaker than its adhesion to the substrate.

Laterally aligned asymmetric metal electrodes with nanometre-scale separation offer unique advantages for application in co-planar rectifying diodes which include reduced parasitic capacitance and potentially ultra-low reverse currents. Existing fabrication routes for these structures, e.g. electron-beam lithography, oblique-angle shadow-evaporation, etc, suffer from extremely low throughput, poor scalability to larger substrate sizes, complex multi-step processing protocols, and/or high equipment costs. In the PLANALITH project we are exploring the use of a novel patterning technique, namely adhesion lithography (a-Lith) to develop devices based on large aspect ratio a/symmetric metal electrode nanogaps (i.e. inter-electrode distance <50 nm). Co-planar nanogap electrode structures developed by a-Lith can be combined with solution processable semiconducting materials such as low-temperature solution-processable metal oxides or organic materials to form rectifying diodes which can then be incorporated into rectifying circuits. Because of the unique combination of the co-planar device layout with the ultra-short inter-electrode distance and the high charge carrier mobility of the semiconductors to be used, high operating frequencies are anticipated, making such diodes of interest for incorporating into systems such as RF energy harvesting circuits.

4. Adhesive tape is applied uniformly to the surface of M2.

metal (M1)

5. The tape is peeled away and M2 is detached from the regions above M1. 6.

The two metals will sit in a complementary arrangement side-by-side on the substrate, separated in the limiting case by just the length of the SAM â&#x20AC;&#x201C; a few nanometres or less (reference to paper).

1

1

2

substrate 1 A key part metal of the of an automated metal will (M1) be the development (M1) PLANALITH project a-Lith system that will enable the manufacturing and optimisation of a large SAM metal (M1) substrate 1 substrate number of devices in a controlled manner with high yield.

1.

1

1 2

3 2

2 3

4 3

3

4.

SAM metal (M1) metal (M1) substrate metal (M1) substrate substrate metal (M2) SAM substrate SAM

SAMsubstrate substrate substrate adhesive tape substrate metal (M2) metal (M2) metal (M2) substrate substrate substrate adhesive tape substrate adhesive tape

SAM substrate

1

4

direction of substrate peel-edge metal (M2) travel pulling direction pulling metal (M2) direction pulling 5. 5 substrate substrate direction tape substrate 3 direction of adhesive peel-edge direction of travel peel-edge M1 M2 direction ofnano-gap travel adhesive tape peel-edge travel substrate 5 substrate substrate 6 substrate 5 substrate

54

nano-gap M1 nano-gap

adhesive tape 4 4

14

4

substrate substrate

6

substrate

6

6

direction of peel-edge substrate travel direction of peel-edge adhesive tape travel substrate 5 6. 5

4 6

nano-gap substrate

M2 M1

nano-gap

M2 ~50 nm ~50 nm ~50 nm

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014

6

M2 M1

substrate

substrate

5

substrate

nano-gapsubstrate M1

~50 nm

direction of peel-edge travel

pulling direction

3

6

nano-gapsubstrate M1 M2 substrate substrate

metal (M2)

3.

2 3

substrate pulling direction

pulling 2 direction

SAM substrate

2.

2

pulling direction

M2

~50 nm ~50 nm

M1 substrate

M2


SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

HENNING SIRRINGHAUS MIKE TURNER KRISHNA PERSAUD TIM CLAYPOLE EHSAN DANESH DANIEL TATE ATEFEH AMIN VINCENZO PECUNIA ANTONY SOU The building blocks of the iPESS system include: •

A range of printed sensor elements that operate at low voltages and low power with specificity achieved by digitally printing an array of several different active sensor materials or a single material that acts as a selective recognition element.

A printed electronics analogue frontend that provides adequate signal amplification and signal conditioning for the sensor signal to be recorded by a silicon microcontroller.

A printed electronics multiplexer that allows a silicon microcontroller to interface with multiple sensor elements without requiring a large number of I/O connections.

Integration of Printed Electronics with Silicon for Smart Sensor Systems (iPESS)

T

he iPESS project aims to develop the key building blocks for a hybrid printed electronics/silicon based sensor system in the form of a smart label integrated on a plastic substrate.

Low cost smart integrated sensors are an important element of key current technology trends, e.g. the Internet of Things, wearable electronics, personal health monitoring, ‘Smart buildings’, and many others. Realising this potential requires low-cost integration of accurate and reliable sensors (gas, chemical, biological, mechanical) with full internet connectivity into mechanically flexible environments. Although the use of conventional silicon electronics is required for complex processing tasks, such as communications, the integration of printed electronics for elements, including signal amplification and multiplexing, could enable new form factors to be realised and lower cost systems. Our overall ambition is to be able to integrate the printed sensors with the analogue front end to develop a cost-effective integration platform for integrated sensor systems. Our focus in the iPESS project is on gas sensors, but the technology can be applied in the future to a broad range of sensors and sensor arrays, including physical or biological sensors, opening up a wide range of exploitation opportunities. The project builds on previous work at the University of Manchester on gas sensor arrays, which was based on field-effect transistor (FET) sensors on rigid (silicon) substrates. The iPESS project will develop a printing process for these sensor elements and also achieve better sensitivity by realising sensor arrays comprising multiple different sensor materials. Initially this array of FET sensors will be read by an existing external readout system but longer term we will seek to combine it with the printed electronics front end that is also being developed as part of this project. The iPESS team at the University of Cambridge is responsible for the development of a non-contact printed analogue front end that can amplify the sensor signal and that is also capable of being interfaced with a silicon microcontroller. This requires realisation of an operational amplifier with adequate gain and stability and a multiplexer that allows a silicon microcontroller to interface with multiple sensor elements without requiring a large number connections. The initial target is to combine the printed analogue front end with a silicon microcontroller and a conventional sensor, but the project will include a feasibility study for the integration of printed sensors with the analogue front end.

SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

15


SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

TIM CLAYPOLE DAVID GETHIN

An RF energy harvesting system comprises a number of building blocks: • the rf antenna; • rectification circuit, including diodes and capacitors; •

circuit elements required to process the electrical power so that it can be stored, such as voltage multiplication;

• energy storage (a capacitor, supercapacitor or rechargeable battery); and •

additional circuitry so that the harvester element and the whole system is protected from short-circuits or overloads when the harvester element is not operating.

In many circumstances, it may be cost-effective to combine silicon-based electronics with printed circuitry to meet the application requirements for a complete energy harvesting system.

16

Flexible Energy Harvesting for Low Power Mobile Devices (FLEXIPOWER)

M

any high-volume applications of Large-Area Electronics require local sources of energy in the same form-factor and at a suitable price. Currently, coin cell batteries are frequently used and whilst these are highly cost-effective, they are relatively thick and rigid. Our vision is that printed or part-printed energy harvesting systems can be designed to enable the use of very high-volume production processes and so reach price-points that facilitate the deployment of simple wireless electronic systems in many markets by eliminating the need for primary batteries. FLEXIPOWER aims to develop architectures and processes to enable printing of RF energy harvesting components as a route to very highvolume, low-cost manufacture and develop high-volume processes for their integration into a thin flexible system. The project is led by the Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating which has the expertise and infrastructure to enable the demonstration of the manufacturing of printed devices that can be scaled to very high volume – up to hundreds of millions. The project will focus on the most important opportunities for a printed solution, aiming at breakthrough technology which is well ahead of current industrial capability. The project is commencing with a study to identify where technical breakthroughs are needed in each element of an RF energy harvesting system and assessing our current capability to print the required components. Although subject to refinement during the scoping phase, the likely areas of project focus include: improving the Q factor of the printed antenna, developing improved capacitors and diodes, exploring new approaches for tuning printed CR circuits, printing energy storage elements, including supercaps and secondary batteries, and examining strategies for system integration and testing for very high volume manufacture. We intend to define related projects with industry, especially where improved materials are believed to be necessary to achieve improved performance.

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

ANDREW FLEWITT ABHISHEK KUMAR KHAM NIANG

The aims of the PHISTLES project are: •

to develop a model for cost-effective testing of Large-Area Electronics during manufacture;

to develop a library of techniques that can offer a step change in the cost and time for testing Large-Area Electronics; and

to show how these could be integrated into a generic measurement platform which itself could be included in a production line.

Platform for High Speed Testing of Large-Area Electronic Systems (PHISTLES)

T

he large-area electronic display industry has found it absolutely essential to be able to perform in-line testing (and subsequent repair) of products for economic production. This is a consequence of the very large areas over which display manufacture takes place, and the statistical likelihood of a significant defect being present per unit area. The high value of the display backplane means that testing and repair is economically essential. A similar approach will be necessary in the next generation of lowcost, Large-Area Electronics. Although the use of low cost materials and processes in the manufacture of Large-Area Electronics means that the cost of an individual sub-system for integration into labels, novelty products, toys and games and similar applications is orders of magnitude lower than the display, there is still an economic driver for testing, assuming that the cost of the test can be made to be sufficiently low. However, whereas the testing of a display can be achieved economically using established techniques that employ probe cards and multiple communication channels, this will not be true for printed logic where production speeds could be in excess of 1 million circuits per hour and so a new approach is required to be able to perform economical testing at such high rates. PHISTLES proposes to achieve high testing rates by employing novel simultaneous multiple device tests (SMUDT), where a single test is performed on several devices at once thereby increasing test throughput by an order of magnitude. The aim of the project will be to produce a ‘library’ of test scenarios, validated by a combination of experimental tests and simulation, and to develop a non-contact methodology for as many of the tests as possible. The work on developing a high-speed testing platform for Large-Area Electronics has already begun through a TSB-funded collaborative project focussing on a specific test scenario employing contact electrical testing of logic circuits.

SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

17


SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

AROKIA NATHAN

The project will develop design tools to optimise system manufacturing processes by: • minimising the number of materials in the materials set; • using the minimum number of the highest yielding processes in the total process flow; • reducing the total number of process steps through parallel processing strategies; • optimising device architecture and dimensions to maximise yield without compromising system performance (“just good enough” performance approach); and • using “sub-system” integration where monolithic integration is not possible or cost-effective.

18

Design for Manufacture

T

his project is currently in the definition phase with a planned start date in October 2014. The aim is to apply design for manufacture thinking to LAE system manufacturing based on a model set of selected functional elements that can be brought together in different ways to produce a wide variety of systems. In conjunction with the development of functional testing approaches, we will develop test structures to facilitate functional testing both during and after manufacturing. We will also investigate the use of “make-or-break” strategies to make repairs. It is possible to cut conductive tracks by processes such as laser ablation. It is also possible, albeit with significant registration, linewidth and curing challenges, to reconnect open-circuit defects. With these capabilities, it will be possible to investigate the potential to repair simple open- or closed-circuit defects. Furthermore, it will be possible to investigate the use of manufacturing, at minimal incremental cost, redundant functional elements which might be connected into a system to replace a defective element.

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


SYSTEM INTEGRATION THEME

19


EPSRC Centre Facilities The EPSRC Centre brings together the extensive research facilities at the four partner universities, including state of the art equipment for all aspects of Large-Area Electronics from materials synthesis to system integration.

20

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Femtolitre inkjet printing system from SIJ Technology capable of depositing femtolitre-sized ink droplets of a broad range of functional inks, including metallic nanoparticles, semiconducting molecules and polymers, dielectrics and biomolecules. • Enables the printing of high-resolution patterns with line and space dimensions of typically 1-5 μm. • Facilitates the printing of multilayer device structures in which several functional layers have to be deposited on top of each other with controlled and abrupt interfaces. • Capable of printing with high-resolution to bond unpackaged silicon chips to a plastic substrate. • Can potentially be used to repair open line defects with the necessary resolution and registration.

T

he Cambridge Innovation and Knowledge Centre in Advanced Manufacturing Technologies for Photonics and Electronics (CIKC) at the University of Cambridge draws on expertise from Electrical Engineering and Physics to provide first-hand experience of the industrial challenges in scaling up low-temperature manufacturing processes for a wide range of optoelectronic devices based on material classes such as liquid crystals, metal oxides, organic polymers and small molecules. CIKC has access to extensive cleanroom suites with device fabrication facilities, including photolithography, solution processing, inkjet printing, thin film deposition, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching and a wide range of characterisation and device testing equipment. The Centre for Plastic Electronics (CPE) at Imperial College London coordinates plastic electronics activities throughout Imperial College spanning a range of disciplines from molecular design via organic synthesis, materials processing and characterization to device fabrication and application development, and encompassing fundamental molecular science strongly underpinned by theory and modelling. CPE is linked to the EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Plastic Electronics Materials. Research in CPE includes the following areas: • materials design, synthesis and processing for plastic electronics • advanced multi-parameter structural, electrical and optical characterization, including morphology, charge transport and spectroscopic measurement facilities • nanostructure and interface control • multi-scale materials and device modelling • device fabrication and optimization

The Organic Materials Innovation Centre (OMIC) at the University of Manchester provides expertise in the development of new conducting, semi-conducting and dielectric materials and their formulation for controlled deposition – printing onto a wide range of substrates. OMIC has key skills in: • synthesis of new organic materials (small molecule, polymers and conjugated liquid crystals) for electronics; • new routes to high volume synthesis of quantum dots and nano-dimensional materials; • inkjet printing of functional materials including conductive metals and electro-active materials; • development of novel sensor technology based on organic thin film transistors; and • fabrication and testing of OFET devices.

The Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating (WCPC) at Swansea University is one of the world’s leading centres for research and development for the printing and coating industry encompassing both fundamental and applied research in all aspects of manufacture by volume contact printing processes for applications, including packaging, graphics, sensors, electronics, PV, fuel cells, automotive, product decoration, functional coatings and biomaterials. The WCPC has expertise in ink formulation (for both liquid and paste systems) and in characterisation (rheology, print geometry, topography, device function) as well as an extensive range of printing facilities including: • • • • • • •

Screen printing (A4, A3) Flexography (sheet and roll-to-roll) Gravure Offset (2 station A3 sheet) Aerosol printer Inkjet printing Bioplotter

EPSRC CENTRE FACILITIES

21


22

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


National Outreach Our plan for national outreach is formed around the EPSRC Centre’s vision to tackle major manufacturing challenges associated with large business opportunities. Our current user base includes companies that supply manufacturing process equipment, materials suppliers, prototyping companies, manufacturers of LAE and endusers who wish to incorporate LAE into their products. As the EPSRC Centre makes demonstrable progress in the Technical Programme, it will be possible to engage further with our industrial community in a variety of ways across the commercial value chain.

The EPSRC Centre high level objectives for national outreach are to:

The tools we are using to achieve our outreach objectives include:

• Increase the awareness of end-users about LAE technology and manufacturing capabilities in the UK, and educate them on how using LAE can add value, thereby increasing market pull. Particular targets are those companies in the FMCG, Healthcare, Architectural, Engineering, Automotive and Aerospace sectors (business value).

Networking: By bringing together four leading academic groups, the EPSRC Centre has an extensive network in place with strong links to other UK universities, the Printed Electronics Leadership Group, the KTN, the High Value Manufacturing Catapult, other EU Centres of excellence through the COLAE project, the Organic Electronics Association (OE-A) and a broad range of international centres working in the field. Through the national outreach programme, this network will be broadened into a truly national network for manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics.

• Increase awareness of the general public about LAE as the new way of making “green” and sustainable electronics, with strong positive societal impacts (value proposition for society). • Build a strong and recognised UK community around LAE manufacturing excellence by engaging with the whole UK LAE academic community and companies from all parts of the LAE value-chain (value proposition for the UK stakeholders communities). • Attract more interest from new generations of young scientists to LAE (training and educational).

Annual Conference: The outreach programme is centred on an annual conference to build a community of researchers from both academia and industry. The first of these conferences, ‘Innovations in Large-Area Electronics 2015’ has been arranged for February 3-4th 2015 at Downing College, Cambridge. With an emphasis on manufacturing,

NATIONAL OUTREACH

23


the conference aims to provide an opportunity to hear the latest results from UK academic researchers, the latest developments from UK and international companies active in the technology and keynotes from leading international end-user organisations. There will be a poster session, drinks reception and conference dinner providing ample networking opportunities throughout the conference. Communications: The EPSRC Centre has developed a website aimed at dissemination and engagement with industry, end-users and the wider public (www.largeareaelectronics.org). Quarterly newsletters are being produced and distributed to a mailing list of 300 academics and industry professionals, this number will be grown through participation in events and sign-up via the website. A logo and other marketing tools have been established for building the EPSRC Centre brand and image. The EPSRC Centre’s vision and mission have been communicated through participation at major industry events such as Manufacturing the Future (Glasgow, September 2014), Plastic Electronics Conference (Grenoble, October 2014), LOPE-C (Munich, May 2014), and the Manufacturing for Printed Electronics Conference (Cambridge, March 2014). Events: The EPSRC Centre held its first 2 events in 2014 – an industry launch event and a roadmapping workshop on energy harvesting systems

(see below). We will continue to use strategic roadmapping workshops with representation from industry and academia to explore market dynamics, business needs and technical challenges as they evolve in the light of progress in the field. As well as helping to prioritise opportunities and challenges, we have found such workshops to be a useful tool to engage with new partners. These workshops will be supplemented by a sequence of dissemination events focussed on technical issues as the opportunity arises. Demonstrators – In order to communicate the benefits of Large-Area Electronics to a wide audience we will produce a demonstrator which comprises components and systems from UK manufacturers of Large-Area Electronics combined together in a simple-to-use, interactive system (see opposite). Feasibility projects –The EPSRC Centre has allocated a proportion of funds for small-scale feasibility studies which will be used to broaden its portfolio and its range of collaborative partners by involving companies wishing to apply LAE technology or other UK academic groups offering complementary technologies that enhance EPSRC Centre programme. The first call for proposals has been scheduled for year 2 of the programme once the main technical projects are in place and the needs can be defined more clearly.

Large-Area Electronics Demonstrator Project A portable interactive demonstrator system comprising many functional elements – e.g. sensors, displays, energy harvesting, energy storage, lighting brought together in an attractive and compelling way that illustrates both functional capability as well as new modes of use. The demonstrator will contain around 10 “functional elements” provided by UK-based technology providers and we are planning for a production run of approximately 25 demonstrator “boxes”, to be offered to industry and public sector organisations. Additional support has been obtained from the Department of Business, Innovation and Skills (£25k) to provide support for professional resources from outside the EPSRC Centre, including engaging a designer and electronics system developer.

24

The EPSRC Centre will use this demonstrator to: • Communicate to potential end-users of LAE what LAE can do and how it could be applied. • Communicate to designers what technical capabilities are now being developed in the UK that they might be able to use in their work. • Communicate to any audiences of non-specialists. • Communicate to schools that careers in engineering/ science are attractive. • Communicate to final year Science and Engineering degree students that a career in LAE is an option/ attractive or a PhD in the field is worth considering.

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Industry Launch Event The industry launch event for the EPSRC Centre was held on February 3rd, 2014 at the Hilton London Euston Hotel. This was an opportunity for industry partners to learn about the vision for the new EPSRC Centre, its staff and capabilities and to explore how we can work together on collaborative projects. The event was attended by 43 guests from UK companies and from other academic institutions.

Energy Harvesting Workshop The EPSRC Centre organized a roadmapping workshop on High-Volume Manufacturing of Energy Harvesting Systems on June 4th, 2014 with 23 participants from industry and academia. Energy harvesting systems have a wide range of applications as a means to reduce battery size and lengthen battery life or as a means of eliminating the use of primary batteries altogether. The EPSRC Centre has a vision that printed or part-printed energy harvesting systems can enable the use of very high-volume production processes and so reach price-points that will open up mass markets. • identify technical barriers holding back the development of printed energy harvesters. • assist with defining the objectives for a project to address the most important technical barriers (FLEXIPOWER).

Introducing Dr Luigi Occhipinti, National Outreach Manager Luigi Occhipinti joined the EPSRC Centre in April 2014 with more than 18 years of experience driving research and innovation in the global semiconductor industry. Luigi has an Electronic Engineering degree and a PhD in Electrical Engineering. He has authored and co-authored over 80 scientaific publications and more than 35 patents. Prior to joining the EPSRC Centre, he was R&D Senior Group Manager and Programs Director at STMicroelectronics, leading research teams and programs across Italy, Europe and Singapore in the field of Flexible and Disposable Electronics, Smart Systems Integration, MEMSbased sensors and diagnostic bio-systems.

The workshop collated the industry needs that will affect the commercial landscape for energy harvesting products and the most promising application domains to meet these needs. Five priority applications were considered in detail and roadmaps. The most important R&D priorities to deliver these applications were identified as (i) Printed diode development (RF – UHF) (ii) High Q printed antennae (design, materials etc) (iii) Printed logic circuits (e.g. power management, comparator/ADC, microprocessor etc) (iv) Development of printed sensors (v)

Printed rechargeable battery

(vi) Integration (e.g. sensors and electronics with pre-printed PV and other EH systems) (vii) Supercapacitors (viii) Printed capacitors (ix)

Fully printed devices

NATIONAL OUTREACH

25


Our People

26

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Chris Rider Director

Dr Mark Leadbeater Programme Manager

Dr Luigi Occhipinti National Outreach Manager

Donata Gilliland Centre Coordinator

OUR PEOPLE

27


Co-investigators

Professor Thomas Anthopoulos Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London

Professor Donal Bradley

Professor Tim Claypole

Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London

College of Engineering and Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, Swansea University

Professor David Gethin

Dr Andrew Flewitt

College of Engineering and Welsh Centre for Printing and Coating, Swansea University

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge

Professor Krishna Persaud

Professor Arokia Nathan

School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, University of Manchester

Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge

Professor Henning Sirringhaus

Dr Paul Stavrinou Department of Physics and Centre for Plastic Electronics, Imperial College London

Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Professor Mike Turner

Professor Natalie Stingelin-Stutzmann

School of Chemistry and Organic Materials Innovation Centre, University of Manchester

Department of Materials, Imperial College London

Professor Rhodri Williams Centre for Complex Fluids Processing, College of Engineering, University of Swansea

28

Professor Steve Yeates School of Chemistry, University of Manchester

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


Our researchers Phil Bridges PASMOMA

Dr Atefeh Amin iPESS

MRes student, EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Plastic Electronics Materials, Imperial College London

Research Associate, Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Patterning strategies for multifunctional organic materials.

Flexible low voltage complementary circuits.

Dr Abhishek Kumar PHISTLES

Dr Ehsan Danesh iPESS

Research Associate, Electronic Devices and Materials Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge

Research Associate, Organic Materials Innovation Centre, University of Manchester Design and realisation of printed sensors

Development of novel test concept for large-area electronic devices.

Vincenzo Pecunia iPESS

Dr Jaime Martin PASMOMA

Research Assistant, Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge

Research Associate, Department of Materials, Imperial College London Patterning strategies for multifunctional organic materials.

Solution-based transistors, and process integration for flexible electronics.

Dr Daniel Tate iPESS

Antony Sou iPESS

Research Associate, Organic Materials Innovation Centre, University of Manchester

Researcher, Optoelectronics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge Modelling design of organic field effect transistors and circuits.

Developing chemical field effect transistor sensors.

Dr Dale Rogers ARPLAE

Dr Kham Niang PHISTLES

Research Associate, College of Engineering, Swansea University

Research Associate, Electronic Devices and Materials Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge

Understanding of the rheological aspects of highresolution contact printing processes.

Measurement of thin film transistors.

OUR PEOPLE

29


30

EPSRC CENTRE FOR INNOVATIVE MANUFACTURING IN LARGE-AREA ELECTRONICS ANNUAL REVIEW 2014


How to Engage with the EPSRC Centre Industry Supporters 3M United Kingdom PLC Cambridge Display Technology Ltd CPI Ltd (part of the High Value Manufacturing Catapult) De La Rue International Ltd Dow Corning Ltd Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (DSTL) Eight19 Ltd Merck Chemicals Ltd Molecular Vision Ltd National Physical Laboratory (NPL) Nokia Research Centre, Cambridge Oxford Lasers Ltd Plastic Logic Ltd

Our research programme is strongly influenced by industry input and as such we are always looking for industry partners to participate in collaborative projects leveraging our expertise. As a national outreach centre for the LAE community, we would be pleased to facilitate discussions regarding relevant funding calls, and help identify possible teaming partners with a particular expertise. Some of the ways to collaborate with the EPSRC Centre • Sponsor a PhD studentship on a topic of interest to your organisation • Sponsor a student project • Work in the EPSRC Centre using KTP or other exchange schemes • Secondment of EPSRC Centre staff to work in your organisation • Propose a feasibility project

PragmatIC Printing Ltd

• Collaborate with us on a TSB or Horizon 2020 or other publicly-funded project

RK Print Coat Instruments Ltd

• Join a multi-company technology programme

SABMiller PLC Solvay Fluor GmbH

HOW TO ENGAGE WITH THE EPSRC CENTRE

31


Contact us Electrical Engineering Division University of Cambridge 9 JJ Thomson Avenue Cambridge, CB3 0FA info@largeareaelectronics.org www.largeareaelectronics.org +44 1223 332838

EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Large-Area Electronics Annual Report 2014  
Read more
Read more
Similar to
Popular now
Just for you