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The Official Publication of the Indiana Nursery & Landscape Association

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News Volume 77 • Issue 2

March/April 2017

The Plants Issue

Sun-Loving Groundcovers The Battle Plan: Strategies for Beating the Box Stores Making a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle How to Effectively Utilize Purdue Extension and more!


2016 INLA Nursery & Landscape Awards

Cover: INLA Award of Excellence Winner for Residential Landscape Design/Build over $50,000 — Mark M. Holeman, Inc.

Follow us!

Calendar 6

Certification Calendar 32

IAH Quiz 33

Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association

Membership Challenge To All INLA Members:

Just one . r e b m e m new

The INLA membership committee is asking each member to bring one new member into the association during the challenge period of January 1 – May 1, 2017. Just one new member. All of us knows at least one landscape or nursery company that isn’t currently a member. In growing our membership we strengthen not only our association, but perhaps more importantly, our green industry.

Membership Challenge Prize! The company that brings in the most new members will win a year’s paid dues for the INLA. In case of a tie, we will draw the winner. The winner will be announced May 5, 2017.

Please contact either Kim Glass (317-639-5679) or Rick Haggard (765-366-4994) with any questions.

For INLA membership information, online application, and a current list of members, visit www.inla1.og.

Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News Volume 77 • Issue 2 March/April 2017


The Plants Issue EDUCATION

14 Native Plants for Indiana Education

18 Sun-Loving Groundcovers Indiana Nursery & Landscape News is the official publication of the Indiana Nursery & Landscape Association, Inc. (INLA) and is published bimonthly. Indiana Nursery & Landscape Association 7915 S. Emerson Ave., Suite 247 Indianapolis, IN 46237 Phone: 317-889-2382 Toll Free: 800-443-7336


20 The Battle Plan: Strategies for Beating the Box Stores Community

22 How to Effectively Utilize Purdue Extension

Publisher Rick Haggard, Executive Director, INLA 765-366-4994 •


Editor and Ad Sales Mary Breidenbach, Cumulus Design 317-757-8634 •


Advertising Rates: Media Kit available online at

Copy Deadline: First of the month preceding the month of the issue. Reprint permission granted if source is indicated. Views expressed in articles or editorials do not necessarily reflect the views and opinions of the association or its directors, but are those of the writer. Trade names used in articles are for identification only. No discrimination is intended toward similar products and the INLA does not endorse the use of the products mentioned.


24 Scan, Link, and Learn 26 Making a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle



30 Purdue University’s Horticulture Garden

Plus More! 2

President’s Message


Executive Director’s Message

Subscriptions: Included with membership to the INLA. Nonmembers: $36.00 per year (six issues per year).

6 Calendar

For questions regarding subscriptions, please call INLA at 317-889-2382.





Landscape Industry Certification Exam Registration Form Employers Must Use the New Form I-9 INLA Nursery & Landscape Awards 2016

32 Certification & Education Certification Calendar 33 IAH Quiz! Earn CEUs 34 George Brenn’s IAH Study Guide Cover Photo: Private residence in Indianapolis, Indiana. Photo courtesy Mark M. Holeman, Inc.


Advertiser List Classifieds Toolbox Talks


President’s Message I want to thank all of you who attended the Indiana Green Expo in January. It was a huge success with so many great exhibits. The tradeshow floor was sold out, with some exhibitors having to be staged in the hall! We are seeing a growing trend in companies wanting to exhibit, so be sure to capture the early bird pricing and preferred location for next year. There was also a wonderful selection of education classes offered — many with continuing education credits for those that need to keep in compliance. If you missed this year’s expo, we have bigger and better plans for next year, so stay tuned for future announcements about it! Brian Franco

A special thank you to all our exhibitors, especially our corporate sponsors — Bluegrass Farms of Indiana, BASF, and Brehob Nurseries. I would also like to congratulate all of the winners from this year’s awards, including John and Judy Brehob and Donna Sheets. They certainly deserve this recognition, as you will see, as the awards are highlighted in this issue on page 10. I would also like to send out a special thank you to all those who donated to the INEF scholarship fund. We once again raised several thousand dollars that in return benefit our profession by helping to offset the education expense of our youth. As we continue to plan, create budgets, and review our practices for the year, I wonder what has happened to winter! We face all kinds of challenges in our businesses and weather challenges are getting harder to predict. As I write this article in early February, there are daylilies and hosta shoots coming up already! This will be the second year in a row that we have not had a snowfall over 4 inches in the Indianapolis area, and this year we have had the least amount of snowfall in 14 years! I remember when I was a kid, we used to play hockey for months on the neighborhood pond. Now if you were to see a child on the neighborhood pond you would most likely call the police for fear of them falling in! Times are changing, and as business owners you must change with the times. Speaking of change, it is time for some of you to get more involved in our professional organizations. “You get out of it what you put in” is a phrase that has been said for many years, but that statement is true on so many levels. If you are interested in getting more involved with the INLA, then being on a committee is where it all starts. We just had our annual committee meeting and had a great turnout. I want to thank Automatic Supply for hosting this year’s committee meeting. Please contact Rick Haggard (, 800-443-7336) if you missed the meeting and want to be more involved with our association. With this issue’s theme being “plants,” you will find numerous articles of interest. Native plants will be discussed in detail as we should be using more plants that are native to our areas (page 14), as well as suggestions for sun tolerant groundcovers (page 18). We will also be discussing how to utilize Purdue Extension Services as a resource (page 22). For the nursery and garden centers, we tackle the qustion, “How do we compete with the big box stores and keep the competitive edge?” (page 20). These are just a few — ­ many more are inside. We would appreciate any feedback on how we can make this organization the best that it can be. I wish you all the best for this year and please have a safe, exciting, and profitable spring season! Everything happens for a reason, just make the best of it! Brian Franco, INLA President


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

2017 INLA Officers Brian Franco President Franco Landscaping, Inc. PO Box 34156, Indianapolis, IN 46234 317-858-3858; Fax 317-858-8906 Dave LaFara, President-Elect Tiffany Lawn & Garden Supply 4931 Robison Rd, Indianapolis, IN 46268 317-228-4900; Fax 317-228-4910 Dean Ricci, Vice President Ricci’s Landscape Management, Inc. 502 Norbeh Drive, Hebron, IN 46341 219-996-2682; Fax 219-996-2680 Brian Julius, Past President Walnut Ridge Nursery & Garden Center 2108 Hamburg Pike Jeffersonville, IN 47130 812-288-6691; Fax 812-288-1580 Rick Haggard, Executive Director & Publisher 3596 Linkside Court, Carmel, IN 46032 Office: 800-443-7336 Cell: 765-366-4994; Fax: 317-889-3935 •

Board of Directors Jim Calvin (2018) Calvin Landscape • 317-247-6316 Kyle Daniel (2018) Purdue University, Nursery & Landscape Extension 765-494-7621 • Kim Glass (2017) M.J. Schuetz Agency • 317-639-5679 Gabriel Gluesenkamp (2019) Designscape Horticultural Services 812-988-8900 • Mark O’Brien (2017) Cardno • 574-586-2412 Bob Wasson (2018) Wasson Nursery and Garden Center 765-759-9000 • Shaun Yeary (2019) Greendell Landscape Solutions • 317-996-2826

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Executive Director’s Message This edition of the Executive Director’s letter is going to touch on several topics, so please excuse my random interjections under my main topics.

Rick Haggard

The 2017 Indiana Green Expo, January 3–5, 2017 I cannot express how thankful I am not only to Donna Sheets, Julie Gillen, Vickie Newell, Mary Breidenbach, INLA Board of Directors, and all the INLA members, but to the MRTF staff and members as well. This is a great team and one that I hope continues for many years to come. In recent weeks I had the opportunity to visit many other trade shows and pick up on some items I would like to implement, but as far as education I feel confident in saying our Indiana Green Expo experience is one of the best. The trade show itself was a sellout with an increase of both vendors and booth space. The landscape challenge format was changed to have three teams of 4 students from Central Nine Career Center complete the challenge with mentors and one assistant from Vive Landscape, Gardens of Growth, and Lemcke Landscape. WOW! The craftsmanship of these high school kids with the guidance of these companies was impressive. The Vive Landscape team won the Landscape Challenge based on voting by attendees and judges, but I feel all the teams did a very commendable job. Based on the feedback I received, all these students will have a place of employment in the state of Indiana as there was already recruitment in place. At the awards ceremony, it was deeply touching that not only did Vive Landscape return their cash prize ($200.00) to the scholarship fund, but the students did as well. Joe Ramey, their director, stated that the kids decided that bragging rights were more important to them than the money and as a group wanted to do their part to help others succeed. How unselfish is that to give the money back?


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Best of Show Booth Awards

Increased applications for the Indiana Accredited Horticulturist (IAH) certification It is really exciting to see an increase in the number of registrations to download or request the CD, to study and in the near future take the IAH test. I have estimated that close to 120 have registered to download the program or request the CD in recent months. In my opinion the plant identification part is one of the lower-scoring sections. So while studying all the chapters is equally important, plant identification is what seems to keep several from gaining those points to pass. (See page 8 for newly certified initial IAH individuals!) Employees! I received excellent feedback from several members regarding the article I did on what Landscape Ontario has done in regards to apprenticeship programs. I have reached out to several in the industry and other sources of potential labor. Almost everyone I have talked to is in favor of trying to assist in setting up or offering some form of education/training program. I have also signed up to be a part of many focus groups, regarding our industry needs to other groups such as the FFA and Junior Achievement, besides the Indiana Workforce Development. As with anything, something of this magnitude is going to take a little time to gain traction. Unfortunately, time and people interested are not on our side, whereas the resources are in place. Also, please do not forget to have your key employees register for the monthly INLA eNewsletter. I know not everyone is able to read the written edition, but all employees can sign up for the free email newsletter. Go to our website — — and click on the box in the top right corner of the home page titled, “Subscribe to the INLA eNewsletter.”

Equipment: Ariens & McGavic Outdoor

Green Goods: Brehob Nurseries, LLC

Finally … Membership!! I always wonder why the INLA seems to have a stagnant number of membership. The amount we gain seems to be fairly equal to the amount we lose. To address this, the membership committee has put a challenge to its members to bring on as many new members between now and the first part of May. The company who recruits the most members will be rewarded with a free year of INLA membership. So everyone please try and gain as many new members as possible. Even if it’s just one new member ­— it will help. On this subject, I must recognize Kent Wilhelmus of Second Nature Landscape for expressing interest in having a Southwest Indiana Nursery and Landscape Chapter. There will be more to come on this, so keep your eyes and ears open.

Hard Goods: Tiffany Lawn & Garden Supply and Reading Rock

Keep It Green, Rick Haggard, INLA Excutive Director, 765-366-4994 (cell)

Most Interactive: Automatic Supply

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017



New & Returning INLA Members

March 2017 2

IAH Exam Highland, IN • Allen Garden Center Contact: Melissa Mravec, 219-924-3938


IAH Review and Exam Crown Point, IN • St. Matthew’s Church Hall Contact: Wayne Gruber, 219-741-1295


NWINLA Annual Education Seminar Merrillville, IN • Avalon Manor More information: Maximum CCHs available: 2(5). 3a(6), 3b(3), 6(5), RT(4)

Active For IAH Exam Registration & Fees: Go to

11–19 Indiana Flower & Patio Show Indianapolis, IN • Indiana State Fairgrounds

GreenImage Landscape (317) 288-2921 Dan Weingart 5140 East 65th St Indianapolis, IN 46220 Rozzi Greenhouse (574) 735-3503 Phyllis Rozzi 2398 Burlington Ave Logansport, IN 46947

April 2017 7–8

Green Side Up Inc (260) 349-0724 Harry Milton, PO Box 5020 Kendallville, IN 46755

Landscape Industry Certified Written and Hands-On Exam (CLT) Greenwood, IN • Central Nine Career Center Must pre-register for Softscape and Ornamental Maintenance. Registration Deadline: March 10 (see application on page 8.) Contact: INLA office, 317-889-2382. More information on LIC/CLT is at

Stay up-to-date

Weekly Update of Current Indiana Legislative Session The INLA is a member of the Green Industry Alliance (GIA), an organization formed to help all facets of the green industry have a legislative voice. The lobbyist contracted by GIA provides members with a weekly update of state bills that pertain to the green industry.

Scenic Green (317) 370-6017 Brian Jones PO Box 7816 Indianapolis, IN 46278 VanBeck Services, Inc (812) 618-2010 Ryan Beck PO Box 6952 Evansville, IN 47719 XP Landscapes LLC (317) 902-7718 Mark Tippmann 124 E Northfield Dr Ste F #110 Brownsburg, IN 46112

A listing of all updates during the current legislative session can be found at: To contact your legislator: Go to and select “Contact My Legislator”

New Initial Indiana Accredited Horticulturist (IAH) Nathaniel Berg, City of Indianapolis, Dept. of Code Enforcement

Debi Guynn, Lemcke Landscape

Joe Bey, Lemcke Landscape

Seth Inman, Trees PLE, Inc.

Eric Bitner, 5 Saplings LLC Kari Francis, Dammann’s Lawn & Garden Kristen Grounds, Lemcke Landscape 6

Jordan Houze, Designscape

Lisa Kosanke, Dammann’s Lawn & Garden Ryan McCartney, City of Indianapolis, Dept. of Code Enforcement

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Brian Sanford, Dammann’s Lawn & Garden Lindsay Smith, Landsmith Landscape Design Jeanie Stammen, Wasson Nursery Sara Stocksdale, Wasson Nursery T. Pillan Whitehawk, Wasson Nursery

Please Note: New Chapters Added to Indiana Accredited Horticulture (IAH) Manual As of January 6, 2017, all IAH exams will include questions from the NEW CHAPTER 9 (Ornamental Plant Pathogen Biology and Management) as well as questions from the NEW CHAPTER 15 (Diagnosing Plant Health Problems). The new chapters are on the new download from the website and available on the CD.

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


REGISTRATION / Central Nine Career Center, Greenwood, IN / April 7: Written Exam / April 8: Hands-on Exam


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Employers Must Use the New Form I-9 Starting January 22, 2017 U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) recently published a revised version of Form I-9, Employment Eligibility Verification. By January 22, 2017, employers must use only the new version, dated 11/14/2016. Until then, they can continue to use the version dated 03/08/2013 or the new version. Among the changes in the new version, Section 1 asks for “other last names used” rather than “other names used,” and streamlines certification for certain foreign nationals. Other changes include: • The addition of prompts to ensure information is entered correctly. • The ability to enter multiple preparers and translators. • A dedicated area for including additional information rather than having to add it in the margins. • A supplemental page for the preparer/ translator. The instructions have been separated from the form, in line with other USCIS forms, and include specific instructions for completing each field. The revised Form I-9 is also easier to complete on a computer. Enhancements include drop-down lists and calendars for filling in dates, on-screen instructions for each field, easy access to the full instructions, and an option to clear the form and start over. When the employer prints the completed form, a quick response (QR) code is automatically generated, which can be read by most QR readers. Form I-9 requirements were established in November 1986 when Congress passed the Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA). IRCA prohibits employers from hiring people, including U.S. citizens, for employment in the United States without verifying their identity and employment authorization on Form I-9. For more information about USCIS and its programs, please visit


The Snowfighters Institute brings Snow & Ice Management companies, of all sizes, together to discuss specific topics pertaining to all aspects of managing and running a snow contracting operation in small group sessions. 2017 events will run from April – September. All INLA members receive $500 off any in-house SFI event in 2017.


Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


INLA Nursery and Landscape Awards


Nursery and Landscape Achievement Award

John and Judy Brehob

To be awarded annually to individuals with good standing in the industry who have given freely of his/her time for the strengthening of the green industry in Indiana. John and Judy Brehob receiving the award from Rick Haggard.

INLA Award of Merit

Donna Sheets former Executive Director of INLA from 2001? - 2016 Given for meritorious service to the landscape horticulture industry of Indiana. Left: Donna Sheets receiving the award from Rich Blankenship. Bottom: Donna with all the past presidents she worked with. Left to right: Brian Franco, Brian Julius, Robert Johnstone, Rich Blankenship, Stephanie Sheldon, Donna Sheets, Frank Gieseking, Dan Gluesenkamp, Rick Haggard, and Jim Price. (Not pictured, Dallas Foster)


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

The annual Indiana Nursery & Landscape Awards were presented on January 4, 2017, at the Indiana Convention Center in Indianapolis during the Indiana Green Expo.

Scholarships Indiana Nursery Endowment Fund Scholarship

These awards recognize excellence in our industry — both the outstanding physical projects in 2016 as well as contributions by individuals throughout their career. Congratulations to all the winners!

Past President Robert Johnstone

Awarded to:

Central Nine Career Center, Landscape/Horticulture Program Frank Gieseking (INEF President) presented the award to Joe Ramey, Director of Landscape/Horticulture Program. Central Nine was awarded $5000.00.

H.W. Gilbert Memorial Scholarship

Robert Johnstone (left) received the award from Brian Julius.

Awarded to: Katelyn Bierrum and Keegan Kirsch Keegan Kirsch received the award from Professor Mike Dana, Purdue University Katelyn Bierrum

2017 Landscape Challenge Winner Vive Landscape Team

Accepting the Masters of the 2017 Landscape Challenge plaque is Joe Ramey, Central Nine Career Center and Ryan Coyle, Vive Landscape from Shaun Yeary.

All the participants of the 2017 Landscape Challenge. This year three teams of 4 students from Central Nine Career Center completed the challenge with mentors and one assistant from Vive Landscape, Gardens of Growth, and Lemcke Landscape.

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


INLA Award of Excellence 2016 Residential Landscape Design/Build Under $50,000

Residential Landscape Design/Build Over $50,000

MG Landscape and Irrigation

Mark M. Holeman

Project: Private Residence, Greenwood

Project: Private Residence, Indianapolis

Hardscape Residential Design/Build Under $50,000

Hardscape Residential Design/Build Over $50,000

Corressell Landscape

Franco Landscaping

Project: Private Residence, Newburg

Project: Private Residence, Columbus

Special Projects: Lighting

Franco Landscaping Project: Private Residence, Columbus 12

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


March/April 2017

The Plants Issue EDUCATION

14 Native Plants for Indiana Education

18 Sun-Loving Groundcovers Business

20 The Battle Plan: Strategies for Beating the Box Stores Community

22 How to Effectively Utilize Purdue Extension Education

24 Scan, Link, and Learn Education

26 Making a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle Community (Visual Bonus!)

30 Purdue University’s Horticulture Garden

Wild Bergamot


Native Plants for Indiana Rick Haggard, Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association Photo Credit: I offered to write an article for this edition to suggest native plant use in the landscapes of Indiana. When I decided what I wanted to write the article on, I quickly focused on just the aesthetics instead of specific plants. However, the more I thought of the appeal and appearance I starting thinking of their other qualities. Therefore, I am writing this article about the reasons natives and nativar (cultivars of natives) are critical to the landscapes. These reasons can help you sell more plants to your customers and improve our environment. Do you know that many native plants improve water quality? How many of the landscapers in Indiana are installing around ponds and lake frontage, or creating waterfalls? Native plants with their deep roots in a rain garden or at the water’s edge encourage stormWild Columbine water runoff and its associated pollutants to infiltrate into the ground instead of running into our streams, rivers, and lakes. Some communities offer incentives, and if they do not perhaps if you install in several homes in a subdivision, your company could help create and maintain a community rain garden. I am sure several of you have been approached by customers to create rain barrels to capture the water for reuse. Not only will many of these natives help you improve water quality, the added advantage offers the ability to have a beautiful garden to enjoy. Natives also provide nectar and food for wildlife. I am sure many of you have had customers say that they like seeing the birds, squirrels, and other animals visit their gardens. Many plants not only offer food for these, but in some cases also offer shelter from their adversaries. Plants that offer other food sources that are not widely publicized are prairie plants that drop extremely nutritious seed that is devoured by songbirds. Switchgrass provides excellent cover (Native Plants for Indiana continues on page 16.)


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Native Plants for Indiana (continued from page 14) and food for ducks, upland game birds (such as wild turkeys, pheasants, and northern bobwhite), and songbirds. Here is a short list of plants native to Indiana that supply nectar. How many of you design, install, or sell these plants without realizing they also provide nectar for butterflies and other organisms?

Rough Blazing Star

Redbud, Cercis canadensis Flowering Dogwood, Cornus florida Blue Wild Indigo, Baptisia australis Butterfly Weed, Asclepias tuberosa Wild Bergamot, Monarda fistulosa Wild Columbine, Aquilegia canadensis Foxglove Beardtongue, Penstemon digitalis Rough Blazing Star, Liatris aspera Purple Coneflower, Echinacea purpurea Showy Goldenrod, Solidago speciosa New England Aster, Symphyotrichum novae-angliae Common Spiderwort, Tradescantia ohiensis There is a definite push to grow and sell natives in Indiana, but please keep in mind that the beauty of the plant is in the eye of the beholder. I cannot begin to count the number of times a customer has said to me that they want something they read about, but once they are shown the plant it is obvious its natural beauty did not meet their expectations. And I promise you that some


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

plants do not have a compelling bad smell as expressed by their shriveling noses. All native plants have their own characteristics that will enhance many landscapes whether they are formal or informal.

Butterfly Weed

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12/5/13 Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017 10:54 AM 17


Sun-Loving Groundcovers Presented by Midwest Groundcovers

With such a wide variety of groundcovers that are suitable for sunny sites, it can be a challenge to pick the right one. We’ve highlighted a few to help make your job easier.

Allium schoenoprasum ‘Forescate’ Among the showiest of spring-blooming bulbs, Allium schoenoprasum ‘Forescate’ (Forescate Chives) brightens the May landscape with clean, clear green foliage and bright, rosy pink, one-half-inch flower umbels that bob atop stalks reaching 12 to 18 inches tall. Rounded clumps of grass-like foliage fill in nicely, spreading 18 to 24 inches to create a softly pleasing groundcover.

Ceratostigma plumbaginoides Low-growing Ceratostigma plumbaginoides (Plumbago) forms rounded, medium-green mats reaching about 8 inches tall with an 18to 24-inch spread. Come August, brilliant blue star-shaped flowers bloom in profusion; flowers are held slightly above the foliage and stems may stretch to 12 inches tall. This burst of color is followed by an autumn show of scarlet to deep maroon foliage.

Hardy: Zones 4 to 8; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought and salt tolerant; deer resistant; attracts butterflies and other pollinators

Hardy: Zones 5 to 9; prefers moist, welldrained soils. Bonus points: Drought and salt tolerant; deer and rabbit resistant; attracts butterflies

Geranium cinereum ‘Ballerina’ ‘Ballerina’ is a delicate-looking geranium that’s actually a workhorse, featuring medium green shiny foliage on a plant that grows only 3 to 6 inches tall but spreads 8 to 12 inches. Five-petaled flowers are held well above the foliage and each 1-inch bloom is a treasure. Lightly shaded pink petals spread from a deep red eye, and each petal is intricately veined with red. Deadheading encourages bloom from May through September.

Geum triflorum Geum triflorum (Prairie Smoke) is among the most unusual of groundcovers, producing small, graceful pink nodding flowers atop 18-inch-tall pink-tinged stems. These are followed by dramatic feathery seed heads that appear to float on the breeze and, when viewed from a slight distance, give the impression of wisps of smoke. The medium to deep green foliage is lobed, toothed, and covered with soft hairs. This native plant spreads 12 to 18 inches.

Hardy: Zones 4 to 8; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Rabbit resistant; long bloom time 18

Hardy: Zones 3 to 8; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Fall color; deer resistant; attracts pollinators

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Dianthus gratianopolitanus ‘Tiny Rubies’ Infinitely charming, Dianthus gratianopolitanus ‘Tiny Rubies’ (Cheddar Pinks) features gray-green grass-like foliage that grows to about 3 to 6 inches tall; the plant spreads 8 to 12 inches wide, forming a low, dense mat. In May through July, small dark pink, slightly ruffled flowers float above the foliage, offering up a subtle scent. Hardy: Zones 3 to 9; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought and salt tolerant; deer resistant; attracts butterflies

Leptinella squalida The feathery, fern-like foliage of Leptinella squalida (Green Brass Buttons) grows only 3 to 6 inches tall, forming a lush mat that spreads 8 to 12 inches. This gray-green carpet is highlighted by tiny yellow flowers in April and May. Because of its low profile it can be used as a lawn substitute, and its fine texture makes it suitable for fairy gardens. Hardy: Zones 5 to 9; prefers moist, welldrained soils. Bonus points: Tolerant of foot traffic; good in containers

Phuopsis stylosa Fast-growing but not aggressive, Phuopsis stylosa (Crosswort) is said to have “Galium foliage with Allium blooms.” The 6- to 8-inch-tall foliage appears in whorls of six to nine tiny leaves surrounding squared stems; the plant quickly spreads to 18 to 24 inches. In summer, 2-inch globes of dark pink blooms are held on 8- to 12-inch stalks. Hardy: Zones 5 to 9; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought tolerant; deer and rabbit resistant; attracts pollinators

Sempervivum ‘Green Wheel’ Dramatic and geometric, the tightly whorled leaves of Sempervivum ‘Green Wheel’ (Hens and Chicks) form multiple green rosettes, making this cultivar a standout among more open and familiar forms. Growing 3 to 6 inches tall and wide, each mounding plant provides a unique display. In June through August, small pink flowers emerge from the base of the rosette, radiating to reach sister plants. Hardy: Zones 3 to 9; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought tolerant; deer resistant; attracts wildlife

Sedum kamtschaticum Small but bright, the scalloped, succulent, medium-green foliage of Sedum kamtschaticum (Russian Stonecrop) grows on stems about 6 inches tall; each plant spreads 12 to 18 inches, forming a low carpet. In late spring through July, cymes of small, sunny yellow flowers increase the wattage.

Growing a diverse selection of native trees and shrubs

Hardy: Zones 3 to 8; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought and salt tolerant; deer and rabbit resistant; attracts butterflies

Thymus pseudolanuginosus Soft and fuzzy, Thymus pseudolanuginosus (Woolly Thyme) begs to be touched. It’s low growing, reaching only about 3 to 6 inches in height with a spread of 8 to 12 inches, and it fills in nicely between pavers or flagstones. The foliage is covered in downy hairs, giving each small, rounded green leaf a silvery aura. Tiny light pink flowers bloom in June and July.

Specializing in Root Pruning

Hardy: Zones 2 to 9; prefers dry soils. Bonus points: Drought and salt tolerant; tolerant of foot traffic; deer and rabbit resistant; attracts butterflies

About the Author

Midwest Groundcovers is an industry leader in the propagation, growing, and wholesale distribution of quality container nursery stock. We operate over 700 acres of state-of-the-art nursery production facilities at five locations in St. Charles, IL; Virgil, IL; and Glenn, MI. Each year these nurseries produce millions of container plants, including more than 140 different varieties of groundcovers; over 240 species of local ecotype native plants identified as Natural Garden Natives®; 140 regional Midwest native species of which some are naturally occurring selections; more than 500 varieties of perennials and ornamental grasses; and over 275 varieties of deciduous shrubs, native shrubs, broadleaf evergreens, hardy shrub roses, conifers, and vines.

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017



The Battle Plan:

Strategies for Beating the Box Stores! Bob Wasson, Wasson Nursery, Inc. We all hear it and see it in the news. Another locally owned mom-and-pop retailer is closing its doors. It is a headline that has become all too common. The only logical reason is the merciless competition from big box retailers. They are too big, their pockets are too deep, they’ve got buying power and inventory strategies and … blah, blah, blah. As I first started writing this article, my sights were focused on an opening paragraph similar to the one above. A prophetic missive speaking to the ultimate demise of the sweet, friendly, innocent Independent Garden Centers (IGCs). It was my misguided thought that as independent garden center owners, we needed a game plan to fend off the competition from the big box stores. (Just for clarification, the “box stores” are the massive, bloated, evil retailers such as Lowes, Home Depot, Walmart, and the like.) But after digging deeper and talking to other IGC owners and managers, I decided upon a different direction for this article. I think we’re already winning the battle. We just need to be reminded of what to do and keep doing it!  You see, the threat of the big box is in no way a new idea. For decades, these mass merchants have been populating the cities and suburbs of America; chomping away at successful local merchants and small businesses. This of course has led to closings and consolidations of many businesses in our industry as well as many other industries. But, let’s face it. The box store changed the game; but that doesn’t mean the game is unwinnable. It is my opinion that although box stores create a threat that is dominating, ever-present, and definitely real, I believe that the garden centers who’ve made it this far already know the answer. They already possess the magic bullet. So, you may be wondering: “If we’ve already got it all figured out, what is it?” Well, I first want to define what “winning” means with respect to this article. To me, winning is growing your revenue and your customer base while responsibly maintaining your commitments to profits, employees, customers, and your community. 20

And now I present to you ... The “Not-so-secret-list-of-ideas-that-you-probably-alreadyknow-but-never-hurts-to-freshen-up-on” Battle Plan.

The Battle Plan Product We’ll never be able to compete on the box store playing field of huge product offerings and low prices. If you’re trying to beat the box store here, then you’re playing the wrong game. It’s important that we continue to offer plants that are a little bigger, a little nicer, and that come with a little more old-fashioned, friendly advice. But we already know this. The more important decision when it comes to product is determining the selling price. According to industry consultant Sid Raisch, you may just want to stay away from the calculator. In one recent article Sid recommends a Market Value pricing strategy. “This model forces the retailer to focus on quality. Is the plant branded and supported by an advertising campaign? Is it better quality or larger than other similar plants? Then customers will pay more.” Using this strategy allows you to earn more profit from superior products and forces you to get rid of products that don’t allow for a minimum profit margin. Don’t just blindly assign a price based on a calculator and a markup percentage. Look at the product to see what price makes sense. You may be leaving dollars on the table. Action Item: Investigate industry articles by well-known consultants including Sid Raisch & Steve Bailey. They are usually visible each month in at least one industry publication such as Lawn & Garden Retailer, Greenhouse Grower Retailing, and Green Profit to name a few.

Customer Experience I seriously don’t think I’ve ever had a “wow” experience inside a box store. For me, every trip is exactly the same; go in and get out as fast as humanly possible! To continue to gain ground against the box stores we must give our current and future customers a reason to come to our stores. This could be the “wow” display that stops customers dead in their tracks and literally forces them to post a photo to their Instagram account. On the other hand, a “wow” customer experience could be as simple as a return policy that doesn’t worry about receipts and refunds but instead offers a free replacement and a good education on what may have gone wrong with the first plant. An even simpler example would be to always keep a clean shopping area and remove dead, ugly plants from the sales floor. It sounds obvious, but many stores still allow this to happen. Whether it’s a big thing or a bunch of little things, your store needs to provide some sort of “wow” reaction. What is your wow? Action Item: There are so many ways to win when it comes to customer experience. Live acoustic music during a busy shopping day, free food and snacks from a hot grill, classes & workshops, special events featuring local breweries and wineries, Easter egg hunts, host community events and groups, I could go on and on.

Employees This section could have very well been included as part of the customer experience, but I feel that employees deserve a category of their own. You’ll never find a more passionate staff than the employees at an IGC. They are usually people who have a passion for plants and people and love to share their passions with others. They welcome, they educate, they get to know the customers. A garden center staff is the biggest equalizer in the battle against the box stores. We need to constantly be on the lookout for good employees. A good business is always hiring. In this industry, that has never been so true. Suppose you have two excel-

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Advanced Tree 2017.qxp_Advanced Tree 2017 1/16

lent candidates vying for one open position. How do you choose? What do you do? Smart garden centers do the smart thing — they hire them both! Action Item: One idea that my business has recently enacted was to invest in more training and education for our staff. We teamed up with the INLA and registered almost 20 garden center staff members to take the Indiana Accredited Horticulturalist exam. Everyone who passed the exam was rewarded with a cash bonus and even those who didn’t pass at least learned some useful information and know they represent a company who cares about them.

Your Competition This may sound crazy, but I believe our biggest ally in the continued fight against box stores is our competition. The green industry is thriving in most areas, and even more vibrant than the state of the industry is the state of the IGC community. I’ve never seen a group of business owners and managers so willing to open their doors and share their ideas, successes, and failures. When building our newest garden center in Fishers, Indiana, we consulted with a garden center owner in Ohio who allowed us to take pictures and measurements, and ask countless questions. I’ve been on a handful of garden center tours. Most recently in Portland, Oregon, dozens of garden centers opened their doors to over one hundred “competing” owners and managers from all over the country. No doors were left unopened, no question was off limits, and cameras were encouraged. Statewide groups like the INLA also provide networking opportunities to meet and talk with industry leaders. If you haven’t taken the next step to join an industry association or peer group, don’t delay! The sharing of information is our biggest asset.


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Action Item: Join industry organizations such as Garden Centers of America. Get involved in local organizations including the Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association. Attend trade shows such as The IGC Show in Chicago. There are Facebook groups such as “IGC Talk!” and “Retail Independent Garden Center Business.” These are all examples of places or forums that allow you to share ideas and learn from others.

Self-Awareness: Finally, we come to the most important of all the little “bullets” in this battle plan. I think we all know or can figure out what self-awareness means when it comes to you as a person. But what does it mean in terms of a garden center? To me, this type of selfawareness requires a decision to pinpoint your strengths and focus only on them. Don’t worry about all the areas where you can’t compete, or the product lines you can’t display, or the drive-by traffic that you just can’t change. Choose to focus on what you’re great at and then do it really, really well. For example, suppose you decide that your strength is that your garden center has a great area to display and sell trees and you also have a great relationship with a local tree vendor. A self-aware garden center would dive deep into trees and become ever-so-passionate in the marketing, signage, and displaying of the trees. Other product categories would be reduced or eliminated to allow for proper focus. Customers would be engaged in pruning and planting seminars. The garden center would pair its passion for trees with the new “edibles” trend, creating a Fruit Tree Festival and drawing in hundreds or potentially thousands of new customers. By simply becoming self-aware, we define our competitive advantage. Then we exploit it. Action Item: Exploit your strengths. Forget about your weaknesses. Don’t fall victim to the box store mentality and think you must try to cater to every potential customer. Instead, tell your story in the best way possible. That is truly the best weapon to battle the box store. In fact, it’s the one advantage they’ll never be able to attain.

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About the Author

Bob Wasson is an owner of Wasson Nursery, Inc. Wasson Nursery is a family-based landscaping, lawn care, and garden center business with locations in Union City, Muncie, and Fishers, Indiana. Bob is a member of the INLA Board of Directors.

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017



How to Effectively Utilize Purdue Extension Kyle Daniel, Nursery and Landscape Outreach Specialist, Purdue University

“…to aid in diffusing among the people of the United States useful and practical information on subjects relating to agriculture, and to encourage the application of the same, there may be continued or inaugurated in connection with the college or colleges in each State, Territory, or possession.” –Smith-Lever Act of 1914 Abraham Lincoln signed the Land Grant College Act in 1862, also known as the Morrill Act, which established state colleges that specialize in agriculture and the mechanic arts. This act greatly expanded the opportunities for people to obtain a college education and research in areas of need. In 1914, Woodrow Wilson signed into legislation the Smith-Lever Act, which created the cooperative extension services in association with the land grant universities. In Indiana that is the Purdue Extension Program. When it was signed, Wilson stated that the act was, “one of the most significant and far-reaching measures for the education of adults ever adopted by the government.” As agriculture becomes more diverse and urbanization continues to expand, Purdue Extension has expanded and adapted to address the needs of citizens of Indiana. Today’s mission statement of Purdue Extension is to deliver practical, research-based information that transforms lives and livelihood. Though the mission statement has changed over time, the original purpose of Purdue Extension has been kept after more than 100 years. Purdue Extension has offices in each of the state’s 92 counties, most of which contain an educator in the agriculture and natural resources, health and human services, community development,

Above: The annual Purdue Turf and Landscape Field Day at the Daniel Research Center in West Lafayette is held in July. Right: The Purdue Education Store is an invaluable resource for the green industry. 22

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

and 4-H youth development. The county extension offices have a wealth of knowledge and information and are a great resource for the green industry. On the main campus, as well as at some statewide offices, are extension specialists. For the green industry, there are specialists in nursery and landscape, turfgrass, entomology, pathology, urban forestry, business and marketing, and controlled environment, as well as others. The specialists host statewide educational programming, deliver research-based information through various outlets, conduct research on industry needs, and many other responsibilities. The structure of Purdue Extension allows for local and statewide assistance for citizens in Indiana. There are a multitude of ways that Purdue Extension can assist you and your company. Educational opportunities, such as the Indiana Green Expo, Purdue Turf and Landscape Field Day, Indiana Arborist Association Annual Conference, business and marketing seminars, and various workshops throughout the state, are not only beneficial for the information you will receive but the networking opportunities as well. Purdue Extension also has numerous websites that can be useful (many listed below) for your company, professional, and personal growth. A strong relationship between the green industry and Purdue Extension is extremely important. Feedback and communication from the industry helps to guide research based on needs, allows extension to offer effective and useful programming, indicates methods of delivery to disseminate information, and assists the industry in facing issues that arise in business and production practices. In continuing a strong relationship with the stakeholders, Purdue Extension will be there to deliver practical, research-based information to transform and grow the green industry. If you ever have any suggestions, need assistance, or would like to become more involved with Purdue Extension, please contact me at

Purdue Extension Resources for the Green Industry Educational Events

Purdue Extension Websites

• Indiana Green Expo • Purdue Turf and Landscape Field Day • Indiana Arborist Association Annual Conference • Purdue Turf and Landscape Seminar

Nursery and Landscape

• Many others

Ornamental Pathology

Landscape Entomology

Online Extension Resources

Purdue Extension

Urban Forestry

The Purdue Education Store — Publications, bulletins, books, etc

Horticultural Business and Marketing

Purdue Tree Doctor, Annual Doctor, and Perennial Doctor Apps for smartphones

Controlled Environment Agriculture

Purdue Plant and Pest Diagnostic Laboratory Lab to send plant samples for disease, insects, id, etc.

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


1/22/16 10:18 AM


Scan, Link, and Learn

Purdue Arboretum offers plant lovers a way to learn outside the classroom Paul Siciliano, Purdue Arboretum Director Purdue Arboretum has created interactive course modules for Purdue courses in both woody and herbaceous plants. These learning materials will soon be available to the public, providing plant lovers with an opportunity to learn about plants independently. Learners will have immediate access to detailed information, photography, and audio podcasts while viewing the plants in the landscape. All mapped plants are signed with QR codes, which link to each plant’s specific information page on the Purdue Arboretum Explorer, the Arboretum’s mobile learning platform and interactive database (http://mlp. In addition to these plants, several hundred more specimens are signed throughout the campus with QR codes that take users to the Arboretum’s Explorer site. The woody plants course module includes over 180 landscape plants divided into 11 groups with detailed and printable maps of each plant’s location on campus. In addition to these mapped plants, users are able to query other similar plants they can visit on campus by searching the campus collection database. The course module provides learners with an opportunity to study plants in real time. Students are able to visit the plants in the field and learn about them as they are viewing them. Users have immediate access to a plant’s identification characteristics, landscape value, cultural requirements, and maintenance needs. The website provides a study feature that is designed to accommodate the various ways that students are learning the material, whether through podcasts, images, or detailed lists of information. As well, learners are able to create their own location- and time-relevant content through access to social networks where they can post comments on virtual walls associated with locations. They can use such platforms to reflect on their experiences, document their observations, and connect with other learners to share information. For learning plant names, users can create digital flash cards and utilize on-line self-tests. They can choose to learn plant names and plant families while viewing images and key information about the plants. In addition to woody landscape plants, the Arboretum is also creating a course module for herbaceous plants. This learning platform will be very similar to the one created for the woody collection. 24

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

The course module can be accessed via QR codes on plant signage.

This is an example of the plant information displayed on the course page. It includes identifying characteristics, landscape uses, fruiting, flowering, and other information specific to the plant and associated cultivars.

These are examples of some of the images that students have access to for each individual plant.

Open accessibility to arboretum resources, including thoroughly labeled specimens and catalogued information, is a major goal of the arboretum. These resources are available to a diverse clientele that includes students, community and school groups, alumni, tourists, instructors, researchers, extension specialists, and green industry professionals. Currently, the Purdue Arboretum has over 41,000 woody plants belonging to 848 taxa (species, subspecies, varieties, formas, and cultivars). It includes all 956 acres of academics, university residences, athletics, recreational sports grounds, and campus parks at the Purdue University West Lafayette Campus.

For more information contact Paul Siciliano, Purdue Arboretum Director, at

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A map of plant walks is displayed in the course module. Learners can print out the maps and plant names to take with them on each walk. In addition, they can access the information pages for each of the individual plants.

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Making a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle Kyle Daniel, Nursery and Landscape Outreach Specialist, Purdue University Photo credit: Aaron Patton, Purdue University What comes to mind when you think of thistle? If you are like me, a Leonardo da Vinci quote comes to mind, “Even the richest soil, if left uncultivated will produce the rankest weeds.” In the nursery and landscape, I would classify thistle in the category of “rankest weeds.” Not only is thistle difficult to control around ornamentals, it produces thousands of seeds per plant that can stay viable in the soil for several years (there is difference in number of seeds and viability between species). Although there are several types of thistle in Indiana, there are two main species of thistle that can be a nuisance in or around ornamentals: Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) and bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare). There are differences between these two species of thistle, including life cycle, identification characteristics, and reproductive strategies. There are several weeds that have a common name with thistle, such as musk thistle, sow thistle, and Russian thistle, but these are not Cirsium spp. so they will not be discussed here. Canada thistle is a perennial weed with a massive root system, which can reach three feet vertically as well as horizontally. Canada thistle reproduces both sexually via wind-blown seed and asexually via rhizomes (underground root-like structures). Bull thistle is a biennial, which completes its life cycle in two years. Bull thistle reproduces via wind-blown seeds. In bull thistle, the first year is vegetative (as a rosette) and the second year is reproductive (producing seeds). Bull thistle has a taproot as opposed to the spreading root system, but has sharper and more numerous spiny wings and more pubescence than the Canada thistle. Between bull thistle and Canada thistle, Canada thistle is much more difficult to control due to the perennial nature, extensive root system, and rhizome propagules. Perennial weeds require a multi-facet26

Bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) in flower.

Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense) seed head.

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Canadian thistle (Cirsium arvense) rosette form.

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ed approach to control, and Canada thistle is no different. The primary target should be the current growth of the weed, thus utilizing a postemergence herbicide, such as a clopyralid or metsulfuron containing product (Table 1). If the weeds are small, other products, such as glyphosate- or glufosinate-containing products will suffice. More than one application of a postemergence herbicide may be required to provide adequate control. A preemergence herbicide should then be applied (or can be a tank mix with a postemergence herbicide) to control new plants from establishing. “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure” is especially true when referring to weed control.

When applying a systemic, postemergence herbicide to perennial weeds, such as Canada thistle, the goal is for the herbicide to translocate to the root system. The optimum time to spray is when the weeds are small, but this may not always be possible. If the plants are more mature, then the ideal time is to spray after the first flower buds are initiated prior to the flower opening. For Canada thistle in Indiana, this is usually in early June. Seed dispersal typically occurs in early to mid-June and germination occurs in the early fall or spring. For a foliar-applied herbicide to be effective, the plant must be actively growing. When temperatures are extremely hot (Eliminating Thistle continues on page 28.)

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Making a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle (continued from page 27) Table 1: Effective preemergence and postemergence herbicides for thistle in nurseries and landscapes. Effective Preemergence Herbicides for Cirsium spp. in Nurseries and Landscape Trade Name

Active Ingredient




Can be tank mixed with glyphosate as a burndown.

Casoron 4G


Long residual. Don’t apply during high temperatures.

Specticle G/Marengo


Low rate and long residual. Read label to ensure you are using the correct indaziflam product

Effective Postemergence Herbicides for Cirsium spp. in Nurseries and Landscape Trade Name

Active Ingredient




Works well, but only labeled for certain ornamentals. Always check the label prior to use.

Basagran T/O


Only effective in rosette stage or prior to early flower stage. Multiple applications will be necessary for Canada thistle.



Only effective in rosette stage or less than four inches. Multiple applications will be necessry for Canada thistle.



Spray when thistle is shorter than six inches.

or cold, Canada thistle is not actively growing, thus the herbicide will be ineffective. For an effective weed-control program in nurseries and landscapes, following the prescribed methods below will provide effective weed control on an annual basis. The goal is to deplete the weed seed bank, which will lead to a decrease in herbicide needed, less labor required, and a decrease in postemergence herbicide use that can cause phytotoxicity to the crop or ornamentals.

Tips for a successful herbicide management program in nurseries and landscapes • Scout • Preemergence herbicide in the spring (March-April) • Preemergence herbicide in the fall (September) • Postemergence herbicide during the growing season used sparingly • Rotate chemicals to reduce resistance • Split applications may be used to extend the efficacy Please note: Reference to products in this article is not intended to be an endorsement to the exclusion of others that may be similar. Persons using such products assume responsibility for their use in accordance with current directions of the manufacturer.

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Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Purdue University’s Horticulture Garden


Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

About the Garden Location: Outside the back door to the Horticulture Building at Marsteller Street and Agriculture Mall Drive on the Purdue Campus. History: Originally found at the Purdue University Horticultural Park, the herbaceous plant teaching collection was relocated to the current location in 1982 to make the garden more accessible to students. Purpose: The Horticulture Garden is a living outdoor classroom that focuses on the diversity of plant material covered in Professor Mike Dana’s herbaceous ornamentals class. The garden offers learning opportunities for students from many programs including botany, plant pathology, entomology, veterinary medicine, and visual arts. The garden provides a wonderful getaway for the University community and is an important resource for plant enthusiasts to learn about plants. Design: Since the goal of this half-acre living laboratory is plant diversity, you won’t find large masses of any one plant. This, however, doesn’t affect the visually stunning results! Credit for the garden’s appearance and management goes to Horticulture Garden Coordinator Mary Lou Hayden, who in addition to her teaching responsibilities creates the garden’s design each year, serves as the collection’s manager, and oversees the students who assist in its care. Visiting the garden: Being open to the public throughout the year, the garden is an important campus amenity. Appointments are available for individual or group tours. Visit the website for information — HortGardens.aspx. Future: Currently, a process has begun to re-design and update the Horticulture Garden. Enhanced entrances and walkways, an irrigation system, additional seating, and a vine trellis are just some of the elements being planned. Contributions to the Horticulture Garden Project Fund are welcomed. If interested, go to https:// to access the EVERTRUE Campaign for Purdue.

If you’d like more information about specific gifts and recognition, contact Dr. Hazel Wetzstein, Head of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture at 765-4941306, or e-mail:

Certification & Education

Certifications Indiana Accredited Horticulturist (IAH)

Landscape Industry Certification Indiana Testing in April!

The Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association has developed the Indiana Accredited Horticulturist Program to provide a method of self-study and accreditation for individuals in the nursery industry. The goal of this certification and accreditation program is to develop knowledgeable, motivated, professional employees for the landscape nursery industry. >>>

Landscape Industry Certified (CLT)

The INLA offers Indiana green industry professionals the opportunity to become internationally certified through PLANET's Landscape Industry Certified program. Become certified in one or all of the following specialties: Hardscape / Softscape / Ornamental / Maintenance / Turf Maintenance / Irrigation — with each specialty having its own written field exam. >>> >>>

Certification Calendar

Upcoming CCHs & Special Dates March 2: IAH Exam

Highland, IN • Allen Garden Center Contact: Melissa Mravec, 219-924-3938 IAH Exam Registration & Fees: Go to

March 6: IAH Review and Exam

Crown Point, IN • St. Matthew’s Ch Hall Contact: Wayne Gruber, 219-741-1295 IAH Exam Registration & Fees: Go to

March 7 : NWINLA Annual Education Seminar Merrillville, IN • Avalon Manor info: CCH: 2(5), 3a(6), 3b(3), 6(5), RT(4)

April 7 & 8: Landscape Industry Certified Exam (CLT) See info to right. 32

Landscape Industry Certified is the international distinction awarded by the National Association of Landscape Professionals (NALP) that represents individuals in the landscape industry who are qualified, confident, and recognized. Since 1993, more than 14,000 professionals have earned a landscape industry certification credential. Elevate your role in the landscape industry and improve the perceptions of lawn care and landscape professionals in the eyes of the public by becoming Landscape Industry Certified. • Take pride in your work, knowing that you’ve proven mastery of the skills and knowledge used on the job. • Become more confident through your personal achievement. • Gain respect and recognition from the industry, your clients, and your potential customers. • Improve the marketability of your company by hiring and retaining certified professionals. Indiana Nursery & Landscape Assciation (INLA), the state’s test administrator is offering a 2017 spring testing event on April 7& 8. Friday, April 7: Written exam Saturday, April 8: Hands-on exam Location: Central Nine Career Center in Greenwood, Indiana. Testing is for Landscape Industry Certified Technician – Exterior (CLT-E): Softscape Installation and Ornamental Maintenance only. Pre-registration is required. DROP DEAD Application deadline: MARCH 10 2017. Application on page 8. The NALP/PLANET Training Manual Order Form can be found on the INLA website — To learn more about certification, visit To learn more about the April testing event, contact INLA at 317-889-2382.

Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Certification & Education

IAH Quiz

IAH Quiz: MARCH 2017

Due: April 15, 2017

The Indiana Accredited Horticulturist Committee is pleased to provide you an opportunity to earn CEUs (continuing education units) in each issue of the Indiana Nursery and Landscape News.

Complete the quiz and mail or fax to INLA by the deadline above. Be sure to write your name, IAH number, and contact information on the bottom of the quiz when submitting. If additional space is needed, please attach the extra paper to this form and submit together. Mark your answers.

The IAH quiz offered in each issue can be completed by anyone who is an “Active” (current) IAH (initial or masters).

2. The most basic “building blocks” of a plant are the __________.

Each quiz will be worth a .5 (onehalf) CEU (continuing education unit) for the completion of the bi-monthly quiz with a pass rate of 80%. Over a 2-year period, you could earn up to 6 CEUs if you take and pass every quiz! The INLA office will grade the quiz. Questions and answers have been provided by the IAH committee. Thank you and good luck studying! The Indiana Accredited Horticulturist Committee Chair - George Brenn, Four Seasons Landscaping Nursery Committee Members - Brian Bunge, LaPorte County Nursery - Wayne Gruber, Niemeyer’s Landscape Supply - Jim Messmer - Melissa Mravec, Allen Landscape - Jodie Overmyer, Price Nurseries - Dean Ricci, Ricci Landscape Management

Please Note: New Chapters Added to Indiana Accredited Horticulture (IAH) Manual As of January 6, 2017, all IAH exams will include questions from the NEW CHAPTER 9 (Ornamental Plant Pathogen Biology and Management) as well as questions from the NEW CHAPTER 15 (Diagnosing Plant Health Problems). The new chapters are on the new download from the website and available on the CD.

1. The location of leaf attachment to a stem is called a __________.

3. Water vapor moves out of a leaf through the __________ and this process is known as _________. 4. Growth of lateral buds behind a shoot’s tip is controlled by an auxin and this phenomenon is called _________ ___________. 5. Roots serve several functions on a plant, including anchoring, ________ and ________ . 6. The primary function of leaves is to ___________ ______ by converting sunlight, carbon dioxide and water through a process known as _____________. 7. Plant stems contain the vascular system, comprised of the ________ and ________. 8. Flowers are the _______ organs of the plant. 9. Root hairs absorb ________ , ___________ and ________ from the soil. 10. Cell division and expansion occur in the _________.

Name:_____________________________________________________________________________ IAH No.:___________________________________________________________________________ Phone:_____________________________________________________________________________ Email:_____________________________________________________________________________ Fax: 317-889-3935 or Mail: INLA, 7915 S. Emerson Ave., #247, Indianapolis, IN 46237 Answers: Please contact the INLA office if you would like to receive the answers or find out your results to any previous IAH quiz.

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Certification & Education

George Brenn’s IAH Study Guide

Text: © George Brenn

George Brenn, Four Seasons Landscaping Nursery, created this study guide to help teach the material covered in the IAH Manual. His intention was to assist those trying to master the subjects within the manual.

NEW Chapter 9 – Ornamental Plant Pathogen, Biology, and Management

The new IAH Chapter 9, authored by Dr. Janna Beckerman, deals primarily with the biology of plant diseases, what causes them, and how you may be able to manage them. DIAGNOSIS of these diseases and other pests is a broad topic that has now become Chapter 15 of the IAH Manual. DISEASES – What are they? Actually easier to focus on cause of diseases: there are 2 types of diseases: Biotic (= infectious) diseases are caused by living entities Abiotic (= non-infectious) diseases are caused by non-living agents and are not transmittable from one plant to another. Examples of Abiotic Diseases include: • Excess of toxic substance in soil or air • Lack of essential substance necessary for proper growth • Extremes of light, temperature, moisture, etc. • People pressure issues Many Abiotic problems can be prevented by: • Proper handling of trees & shrubs • Avoiding harmful cultural practices • Minimizing exposure to extreme environmental conditions • Providing necessary materials for proper plant growth Most common Abiotic Diseases in landscapes are caused by ignorance of & abuse by people

Biotic Diseases are caused by plant pathogens, which are living organisms.

Fungi – single & multi-celled organisms; feed by decomposing and absorbing organic matter in which they live and grow. Pathogenic fungi reproduce via spores contained in fruiting bodies, some of which are readily visible (Cedar-Apple Rust) while others can only be observed using a hand lens or microscope. Spores are carried by wind, rain, insects, etc. to new hosts. Cool, wet conditions are most favorable for both infection & growth of fungi. Anthracnose, Blight, Leaf Spot, Rust and Powdery Mildew are fungal diseases. Oomycetes are water molds (pseudofungi) and differ from true fungi in that their zoospores swim. Fungicides that control Oomycetes will not work on true fungi. Common Oomycetes pathogens include Phytophthora, Pythium, and Downy Mildew (all very destructive). Bacteria – microscopic single-celled organisms that multiply by division. Usually infect host plant at wounds or natural openings. Generally require warmth & moisture and may not be problematic during dry summer weather, except in irrigated areas. Can be spread by splashing H20, insects, movement of infested plants, soil, or by equipment (pruners). Common bacterial diseases include Fireblight, Crown Gall, and bacterial leaf spots and wilt. Phytoplasmas are similar to bacteria, but lack cell walls (like microscopic blobs) and are often transmitted by sap-feeding insects like Leaf Hoppers. Example: Aster Yellows Viruses – submicroscopic particles that require a cell of living host in which to reproduce. Ornamental viruses rarely kill woody plants and some show no symptoms. Spread by plant-feeding insects, infected seeds, or equipment. Once infected by a virus, plant is permanently infected as there is no cure for plant viruses. Example: Mosaic Nematodes – microscopic, unsegmented multi-cellular roundworms are incredibly numerous. Frequently damage roots, can clog vascular system, and are persistent in soil. Parasitic Plants – have a modified root (haustorium). Example: Dodder


Disease triangle: diseases require 1.) Susceptible Host, 2.) Favorable Environment, 3.) Pathogen Major control strategy is to eliminate one side of this triangle. If one or more factors do not occur, disease does not occur. Plants differ in their resistance and susceptibility to a disease. Virulence refers to how aggressively a pathogen infects a plant. Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

George Brenn’s Study Guide — NEW Chapter 9 continues

Disease Cycle: Some diseases have a single cycle each year (Juniper Rust) while others continually produce new inoculum and can repeat the disease cycle several times each growing season. Apple Scab, Fireblight, and Powdery Mildew are examples of “repeat offenders, and may require repeated application of fungicides, etc.

Principles of Disease Management Basic principles for disease management include 1. Prevention – Manage the Host: “Right plant in the right place.” Need to consider a. Hardiness e. Proper spacing of plants b. Site Characteristics f. Proper watering c. Light (Sun, Shade, Part Sun) g. Proper fertilization d. Proper planting depth h. Winter protection 2. Exclusion - Manage or eliminate pathogen a. Use pathogen-free seed, cuttings, plants; sterilize tools b. Sanitation: rake and destroy diseased leaves, remove & discard diseased plant parts c. Bury or burn diseased plants d. Sterilize soil 3. Eradication - focuses on eliminating a pathogen after it is introduced into an area prior to its establishment and dissemination. Methods include Crop Rotation and Sanitation. 4. Protection - shielding’ the susceptible plant from inevitable infection by the pathogen. Includes pesticides (fungicides and insecticides) applied to plant foliage as a chemical barrier. EFFECTIVE FUNGICIDE USE Fungicides – act as a “protective coat of paint” which makes plant resistant to attack by pathogen. Fungicides are only effective IF: 1.) Correct diagnosis identifies pathogen as a fungus 2.) Fungicide is applied correctly (foliar spray or soil drench) 3.) Timing & frequency of application is adequate to treat disease Formulation is important – some fungicides are available in different formulations so they can be best used for specific applications: G(R)-Granular DF-Dry Flowable WP-Wettable Powder WG-Wettable Granule EC-Emulsifiable Concentrate Foliar applications make a chemical barrier on leaf, stem, and flower surfaces: need to keep this barrier active and complete: uniform coverage is critical (spreader sticker) Soil drench applications – for soil-borne root diseases: Efficacy impacted by soil type & pH Timing is critical – fungicides usually NOT effective in controlling disease if pathogen has already infected plant tissues (whoever gets there first, pathogen or fungicide, wins the race). Fungicides biodegrade fairly rapidly so reapplications are most likely necessary. Plant growth affects completeness of barrier: newly emerged leaves & shoots are unprotected until sprayed. Application – Applying the proper amount of chemical is as important as adequately covering the plant. If label says to use 1 oz/gallon, DO NOT assume that 2 ounces will be twice as good If label says reapply in 7 – 14 days, when should you reapply? Weather dependent. Rotating Chemicals – Every time certain fungicides are used, there is a chance that the target organism may develop resistance. In fact, this is stated on most fungicide labels. To prevent fungicide resistance from occurring: 1. Implement good plant health practices. 2. Use the recommended dose as stated on the label 3. Minimize the number of fungicide treatments used per season 4. Avoid consecutive applications of site-specific fungicides Fungicide Resistance Management - Fungicides that share a common mode of action belong to the same Fungicide Class (Fungicide Family). If a fungus is resistant to a specific fungicide, it is usually resistant to all the fungicides within that fungicide class. FRAC Codes - Fungicide Resistance Action Committee Codes – FRAC codes are on product label Fungicides are also characterized by their Target Site specificity - Site-specific fungicides react with one very specific, very important biochemical process. Multi-site fungicides have multiple modes of action, so they affect multiple target sites, and simultaneously interfere with numerous metabolic processes of the fungus (= many older fungicides like Mancozeb, etc.)

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News • March/April 2017


Toolbox Talks

Back Injury Prevention Techniques Your back is in motion all day, every day, even when you sleep. It bends when you sit, twists when you turn, lifts when you stand, and supports you when you walk. An injured back can be uncomfortable or it can be disabling. By learning a few back injury prevention techniques, you may be able to make your workday safer. Here are some tips:

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• When you are driving, make sure your back is wellsupported and that you use good posture. To prevent back strain, keep the steering wheel close enough that your knees are slightly flexed and higher than your hips.

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• When you have to lift an object, always plan ahead. Decide how you are going to pick up the load, carry it, and set it down, then check the route for obstructions. Always get assistance if the load is too heavy or too awkward.

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Indiana Irrigation Co...........................................................25

MacAllister Machinery Co., Inc..............................................3

• As you lift, position your feet close to the load and squat — don’t bend down. Rise to a standing position, using the strong muscles in your legs rather than the weaker ones in your back. Don’t twist your body when carrying the load. Lower yourself to a squatting position as you set it down.

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• Take several short rest breaks at work by standing up and doing a few minutes of stretching exercises. If your job requires you to stand all day, try placing one foot on a slightly higher surface to relax tight back muscles.

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• When you sleep at night, curl up on your side and place a pillow between your knees for added support. If you do sleep on your back, place pillows under your bent knees to relieve the strain on your back muscles.

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Indiana nursery & Landscape association •

Indiana Nursery & Landscape Association Membership Application Please complete the following and return it with payment to the INLA office. INLA Office, 7915 S. Emerson Ave., Suite 247, Indianapolis, IN 46237 • 317-889-2382 • 800-443-7336 • Fax 317-889-3935

The Undersigned hereby applies for active, associate, affiliate or student membership in the Indiana Nursery and Landscape Association, and agrees to be governed by the by-laws and code of ethics of said association. Enclosed herewith is payment for membership dues. If applying for Active Member status, it is understood that dues are subject to annual revision based on volume of business done during the preceding year. Name of Firm: ___________________________________________________________ Address: _______________________________________________________________ City, State, Zip: __________________________________________________________ Phone/Fax: _____________________________________________________________ Email:______________________________ Web site:__________________________ Owner/Contact: _________________________________________________________ Signature: ______________________________________________________________ Sponsor’s Name (if available): ______________________________________________ Method of Payment:

 Check (Make check payable to INLA)  MasterCard



Card No.: __________________________________________________________ Expiration Date: _______________________ Security Code: _________________ Name on card:_______________________________________________________ Billing address: ______________________________________________________ Signature: __________________________________________________________ INLA MEMBERSHIP CATEGORIES (please check the appropriate category):

 Active Member Any individual, partnership or corporation engaged in a business or profession closely allied to the Nursery industry or who is actively engaged in a Wholesale/Retail Nursery business or actively engaged in a Landscape/Maintenance business and whose majority of business is Nursery related within the State of Indiana. Active Member Dues is based on the volume of business done in the previous year and due by June 30th.


Class A Class B Class C Class D

$1,000,000 plus $500,000 to $1,000,000 $250,000 to $500,000 $0 to $250,000

$340.00 $275.00 $210.00 $175.00

 Associate Member – $175 Any individual, partnership or corporation engaged in a business or profession closely allied to the Nursery Industry or any Individual, partnership or corporation based outside of the State of Indiana who is engaged in the Nursery Industry. Annual renewal due December 31st.

 Affiliate Member – $55 Any individual who is not directly engaged in the Nursery Industry but who holds a position in education, research, literature, public office or civil service or community group engaged in horticulture activities or any retired active members. Annual renewal due December 31st.

 Student Member – $30

ABOUT YOUR BUSINESS Active Members (Please check those that apply.)  Wholesale (or)


IN State Nursery Inspection # ___________________ Nursery Dealer’s License # _____________________ Retail Merchants License # _____________________  Grower  Garden Center  Green House  Landscape Contractor  Re-Wholesaler  Lawn and Landscape Maintenance  Ice and Snow Removal  Equipment Dealer  Horticulture Product Supplier  Landscape Design Acres in Nursery Stock ________________________ Greenhouse square footage_____________________ Plant material handled by your business:  Shade Trees  Fruit Trees & Small Fruit  Evergreens  Greenhouse  Ground Covers  Turf  Perennials  Shrubs  Annuals  Aquatics  Other  Of the above we specialize in:

________________________________________ ________________________________________

Licensing information may be obtained from the Indiana Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Division of Entomology and Plant Pathology, 402 W. Washington Street, Room W290, Indianapolis, IN 46204, (317) 232-4120 or visit their Web site at

Associate Member (Please check those that apply.)  Landscape Design  Consultant  Equipment Dealer  Irrigation Supply  Out of State Business  Ponds  Horticulture, Product  Educational Facility Supplier Agency  Sod  Turf  Watergardens  Soil/Amendments  Hardscape Supplier/  In-House Mulch Landscape Mgmt  Not for profit  Other I/we hereby declare that the above statements are true and I/we agree to pay annual dues as set forth in the schedule contained herein; and to abide by the ByLaws and the Code of Ethics of the Indiana Nursery and Landscape Associate, Inc. I/we further agree to promote the objectives of the Association and the interests of its membership as far as shall be in my/our power to do so. Signature of applicant:


Rick Haggard, Executive Director INDIANA NURSERY & LANDSCAPE ASSOCIATION 7915 S. Emerson Ave., Suite 247 Indianapolis, IN 46237 March/April 2017 Address Service Requested

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Indiana Nursery & Landscape News, MarApr2017  

The Plants Issue — discover Sun-Loving Groundcovers, a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle, Native Plants for Indiana, and more.

Indiana Nursery & Landscape News, MarApr2017  

The Plants Issue — discover Sun-Loving Groundcovers, a Game Plan to Eliminate Thistle, Native Plants for Indiana, and more.