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Inklings ’11 – ’12 STAFF HANDBOOK a guide for better articles, a better paper, and better journalism

Welcome to Inklings!

Dear 2011-12 Inklings Staff. As Inklings moves forward into the Information Age, we have developed to the point that we are a highly credible news source. Sometimes, our articles appear first on Google searches. However, in order to further our own integrity and quality as an organization, we have made it a goal to promote and value in-depth and though-provoking articles in this coming year. Although these types of articles may take more time to complete than others, they have the effect of engaging both the staff and the Staples community at large. Besides just the writing aspect, we feel that the entire staff could benefit from learning and refreshing a wide variety of total journalistic skills. This includes, but is not limited to, Photoshop, writing mechanics, how to write a good review, and InDesign tools. Journalism contains a wide variety of aspects that the whole staff could benefit from learning. We will have workshops and classes throughout the year that will further these skills, and Advanced Journalism will become a learning environment instead of just putting out issues. We are still in high school! Not only do we want to improve our final product; we also feel the need to foster a friendlier environment in the news room. That is why we will be implementing several staff-unifying strategies over the course of the year. There are so many new staff members this year that is especially important to get to know each other. So get ready to learn more about your fellow Inklings staff members! On a final note, everyone can find a niche at Inklings. If you need anything over the course of the year, do not hesitate to stop by room 2031. We will most likely be there. Get excited for a great year,

Eric Essagof Editor in Chief

Stevie Klein Editor in Chief

Isaac Stein Web Editor in Chief

Julian Clarke Managing Editor

Emily Goldberg Web Managing Editor

Alix Neenan Managing Editor


Table of Contents     

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Publication Dates Inklings Staff List Contact Info for Staff Inklings Code of Ethics Code of Conduct agreement Guidelines for doing the job of reporting Identify yourself as reporter On the record vs. off the record Don’t badger or threaten Remain objective Right of reply Anonymity guidelines Never release articles to sources Don’t bargain for information The limits of conducting electronic interviews Never manufacture quotes and get proper context Spell names correctly Use three sources for each story Word count Good way to end interviews Do not interview friends Substantiate sources Principles of interviewing Guidelines on how to write and submit stories Filing practices Use of first person Writing leads Handling quotations Paragraphing Pyramid structuring Headlines Captions and cutlines Pointers on covering public meetings Sample news story (“Haunted Toilet”) Web Guidelines Meetings Uploading stories Comments InDesign Shortcuts Common AP Styleguide rules to follow Inklings job descriptions Editors-in-chief Managing editors


5 6 7 10 13 14 14 14 14 15 15 15 16 16 16 17 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 20 20 20 21 21 22 22 22 24 25 26 27 27 27 27 28 30 36 36 36


Design and graphics editors Business manager Page editors Photography and graphics editor Web editor-in-chief Web managing Editor Web Section Editors Web master Copy editor Writers Advisers Staff checklists of responsibilities Editors-in-chief Managing editors Section editors Web editors Staff writers Business manager Inklings flow chart of responsibilities Editorial policy Letters to the editors Comments on the webpage Corrections Conflicts of interest Advertising Censorship Photography guidelines Internet Prior review Student death policy Surveys and polls Business practices Ten reasons school papers are important Ten reasons to advertise in a school paper Advertising sales leads What Inklings advertising can offer and what it cannot How you should act Form letter Advertising rate card Advertising contract Advertising invoice Model release form

37 37 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 40 40 41 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 48 48 48 48 48 49 49 49 50 50 50 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 56 57 58 59


Paper Publication Dates ’11-‘12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Aug 30 Sep. 30 Oct. 28 Nov. 18 Dec. 16 Jan. 16 Feb. 17 March 16 April 13 May 4 June 1 June 22

All hands on deck Blue Red Blue Red Blue Red Blue Red Blue Red Blue

Web Publication Dates ’11-‘12

Dates will vary


2011- 2012 Inklings Staff Editors in Chief Eric Essagof Stevie Klein Isaac Stein Photography Madison Horne

Graphics Nate Rosen

Managing Editors Julian Clark Emily Goldberg Alix Neenan Business Charlotte Breig

Senior Writer ????

Red / Alix News Ben Reiser Bryan Schivone

Opinions Features A&E Jordan Shenhar Danny Cooper Jacklyn Kerames Jamie Wheeler Roberts Carlie Schwaeber Rachel Labarre

Sports Ryder Chasin Kelsey Landauer

Blue / Julian News Rachel Guetta Alicia Lourekas

Opinions Molly Berreca Hannah Foley

Features A&E Leah Bitsky Deanna Schreiber Nicolette Weinbaum Sammy Warshaw

Sports Will McDonald ???

Green / Emily Webmaster Marcus Russi

Web A & E Charlie Greenwald Ned Hardy

Web News Cheyenne Haslett Emily Kowal

Opinions Chloe Baker Mark Schwabacher

Web Features Claire O’Halloran ???

Web Sports Kate Beispel Haley Zeldes


Inklings Staff ’11-’12

Emails and phone numbers not posted in this version. If you need to get in touch with a writer, artist, or photographer, contact is at


Emails and phone numbers not posted in this version. If you need to get in touch with a writer, artist, or photographer, contact is at


Emails and phone numbers not posted in this version. If you need to get in touch with a writer, artist, or photographer, contact is at


Code of Ethics Preamble Members of the Society of Professional Journalists[and Inklings] believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's credibility. Members of the Society share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the Society's principles and standards of practice. Seek Truth and Report It Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information. Journalists should:    

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Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible. Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing. Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources' reliability. Always question sources’ motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise made in exchange for information. Keep promises. Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context. Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations. Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it. Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story Never plagiarize. Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so. Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others. Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status. Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.


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Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid. Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting. Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context. Distinguish news from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two. Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public's business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.

Minimize Harm Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect. Journalists should: 

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Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects. Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief. Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance. Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone’s privacy. Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity. Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes. Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges. Balance a criminal suspect’s fair trial rights with the public’s right to be informed.

Act Independently Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know. Journalists should:   

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Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived. Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility. Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity. Disclose unavoidable conflicts. Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.


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Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage. Be wary of sources offering information for favors or money; avoid bidding for news.

Be Accountable Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other. Journalists should:     

Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct. Encourage the public to voice grievances against the news media. Admit mistakes and correct them promptly. Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media. Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.

Sigma Delta Chi’s first Code of Ethics was borrowed from the American Society of Newspaper Editors in 1926. In 1973, Sigma Delta Chi wrote its own code, which was revised in 1984 and 1987. The present version of the Society of Professional Journalists’ Code of Ethics was adopted in September 1996. Inklings adopted the code as its own in February 2002


Code of Conduct (adapted from Student Assembly code) As a member of Inklings, Staples High School’s student newspaper, I understand that participation in this activity is a privilege. I am a student leader who is looked upon as a role model both in and outside of school; therefore, I am expected to use proper judgment never putting my character in question. I agree specifically to act in accordance with the following guidelines regarding the use of illegal substances and academic integrity.     

No possession, sale and/or use of tobacco products. No possession, sale and/or use of alcohol. No possession, sale and/or use of illegal drugs. Never knowingly host an event in which alcohol/drugs are used. Never engage in an act of bullying, cheating, plagiarism, or academic dishonesty.

If any of the above guidelines are violated, the following consequences will be enacted at the discretion of the advisers in consultation with school administration:   

First Offense: Student staff-member will be suspended from the issue masthead and from all staff work for one issue. Second Offense: Student staff-member will be removed from Inklings editorial position permanently or up to a specified number of issues as determined by advisers. Offenses at off-campus Inklings functions: Inklings gatherings and field-trips are considered to be school activities and as such the student staff-member will be reported to school officials and receive school censure according to the student guidelines and be subject to Inklings policies as well. Depending on the severity of the crime, if a student has been officially arraigned and charged with the commission of a crime, the Inklings editors and advisors reserve the right to remove any staff member from writing or holding any position with the paper for any length of time. Violating the Code of Conduct does not mean that the student will be removed from the class, only that he or she will not be able to serve in an editorial capacity for the paper.

, have read and understand the Code of

I, (Please Print)

Conduct and am aware of the consequences for its violation. Student Signature


As the parent or legal guardian, I have read and discussed this code of conduct with my student. I recognize my responsibility in ensuring that my student abides by the provisions of this agreement.

Parent Signature:



Guidelines for doing the job of reporting Inklings reporters are not only charged with the job of writing a story, they are the paper’s representatives. How they conduct themselves as a reporter has a direct relationship on how the community perceives the paper and its work. Shoddy reporting practices lead to shoddy articles which, in turn, lead to an ineffective newspaper trusted by few. All Staples reporters must follow these rules in order to publish in the paper: 1

IDENTIFY YOURSELF AS A REPORTER Before you conduct an interview with a source, whether talking to a student, teacher or parent, you must make it clear to your source that you are a writer for Inklings. Not doing so, and then publishing quotations or information from sources, opens the paper to charges of libel, defamation of character, erodes the public’s trust in the paper, and charges of invasion of privacy. If the paper is to get the best interviews, the community must trust the paper and its reporters. Using information from sources unaware of its intended use may result in that reporter losing his or her chance to publish in Inklings again, as per the judgment of the editors-in-chief and the faculty advisers.


KNOW THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ON AND OFF THE RECORD At times you or your sources may conduct interviews on and off the record. On the record means that everything a source is telling you may be published in an article. Off the record means that the information that source is telling you may not be published in the paper in any form. Once you go off the record, be sure during the interview to go back on the record in order to use the information. Not following these rules and publishing information obtained off the record erodes the trust the community has in the paper and may mean you lose the chance to publish in the paper again, as per the view of the editors-in-chief and the faculty advisors.


BE PERSISTANT BUT DO NOT BADGER Reporters that threaten or intimidate sources into talking to the paper will not be tolerated. Just as reporters have the First Amendment right to publish their work, a source has the right not to talk. When one source refuses to speak, a good reporter will find another source to interview. If, however, that source is intrinsic to the article but will not speak, the writer should indicate in the article that the source “would not comment on . . .” Any reporter found engaging in inappropriate interviewing practices will not be permitted to work on the staff in a reporting capacity.



REMAIN OBJECTIVE As a reporter your primary job is to gather the thoughts of others. Unless you are specifically writing an opinion for the opinion section, your personal beliefs concerning a policy, an event, whatever the subject of your article, is secondary and should be kept out of the article you write and the interviews you conduct.


REMEMBER RIGHT OF REPLY / SIMULTANEOUS REBUTTAL Right of reply is important to writing news. If you are writing a news or news feature piece that criticizes a person or a program, or if you conduct an interview with a source that criticizes a person or program, you must give the subject of that criticism the “right to reply” to the content if that content is going to be published in the paper. Articles that do not follow right of reply will not be published.


DO NOT GRANT ANONYMITY LIGHTLY As a reporter, you will be asked by the sources of your story not to use their names. Avoid doing so. Only in rare instances when the safety of an individual is in question may the paper use an unnamed source. The granting of that anonymity can only be given by the editors-in-chiefs or the advisers. SPECIAL NOTE: Because advisers have no reporters’ protections and can be asked by administration to reveal sources, do not identify the source to the advisers. Get sources who are willing to put their full names to their information whenever possible. Sources will also ask you to use only their first names and their grade. This is not to be used. Using this technique can prove problematic because when done, the reporter has attributed the content to four of five Sarahs in a grade, for example. The use of unnamed sources can lead to half-truths, sensationalized content, and increased liability for the newspaper in cases of libel. Articles with anonymous sources not cleared with the staff will not be printed. Use three guiding concepts when considering using anonymous sources: 1) The information must be important to the article and the community 2) The information cannot be obtained by any other means. Lack of time or laziness is not reasons the editors can support for granting anonymity. 3) The source’s safety may be in jeopardy if information is attributed by name.


Reporters must recognize the important contract that has been reached with a source has been granted anonymity. Revealing a source’s identity undermines the credibility of the paper and the journalist’s work. Student journalists should resist divulging source identity unless the source is in danger of hurting him or herself. 7

AVOID RELEASING ARTICLES TO SOURCES Sources will often ask to see a story before it is printed in the school paper. They do so for various reasons: They may be worried about their job or reputation, they have had a negative experience with the paper previously, or they may be trying to hide the truth. Regardless, in order to protect your First Amendment right to produce your piece of journalism, avoid agreeing to release an article to a source in its entirety. A teacher or student who reads your article before it is printed will in all likelihood change your story. Respectfully tell the source that staff policy prohibits releasing articles in their entirety and that any questions should be directed towards the editors-in-chief and/or advisers. You may and should read back quotations for accuracy or discuss the overall direction of an article, but again, do not release the copy for approval.


NEVER GUARANTEE PUBLISHING INFORMATION IN AN ARTICLE Sources will often demand that you publish one quotation or perspective before they agree to tell you more. Do not enter into this agreement. Their perspective may not be objective, and it is not their article. Respectfully tell them that you cannot bargain for information in such a manner.


UNDERSTAND THE LIMITS OF ELECTRONIC INTERVIEWS The advantages of e-mail interviewing are many: E-mail is quick and easy. The cut and paste aspect of typed words lends itself to accuracy for the paper and the reporter. Both the source and the reporter have proof that the interview took place. The quote can be sent over great distances, and the source has time to be thoughtful and circumspect in his or her answers. However, e-mail interviewing limits the effectiveness of an interview. Sources find it easy to dismiss questions and avoid talking when all he or she has to do is hit “Delete.” There is little chance for probing a situation and getting at the complexity of an issue via e-mail. Context can be confused. How people talk and look is often as important as what they say. The interviewing process can be slowed by response time. There is also no chance for incorporating visual aspects of the source’s surroundings into the article. Lastly, sources are becoming more leery of writing things via the internet since their words can often end up on bloggs


on Facebooks, etc. Therefore, e-mail interviewing is best used to establish an interview or ask for clarification about a fact or statistic. 10 NEVER MANUFACTURE A QUOTATION OR QUOTE SOURCES OUT OF CONTEXT Reporters must talk to sources in order to use quotations or paraphrased material. Making up a quotation is dishonest and undermines the credibility of the entire paper and editorial staff. The quote may seem innocuous to the writer and even to the source; however, word quickly spreads that a reporter never interviewed a source and the paper suffers. Likewise, when using a quotation, remain true to the sources intent and meaning when offering information. Manufacturing a quotation may result in suspension or dismissal from the paper, as per the view of the editorsin-chief and the faculty advisors.

11 GET PROPER SPELLING AND TITLES FOR EVERY SOURCE Before or after every interview, make sure you have the proper spelling of your sources’ names and that you have recorded their title or grade level if needed. Pay particular attention to titles: Is it chair, chairperson, or chair man. The only way to know is to ask.

12 USE AT LEAST THREE DIFFERENT SOURCES WHENEVER POSSIBLE A good guide to finding good information is to interview at least three sources for each story. Writers should make sure not to interview Inklings staff or rely too heavily upon sources of one kind (i.e. friends, same grade, outspoken teachers, etc.). 13 FOLLOW WORD COUNT CLOSELY Follow word count limits closely. The paper has photographs, art work, and space allotted for each article it assigns. Going over or not reaching word count slows the layout of everyone’s article.


END INTERVIEW WITH THIS QUESTION At the end of the interview, ask this question: “Is there anything else you would like to say?” Often you get your best information and quotations when you conclude with this question.


15 DO NOT INTERVIEW YOUR FRIENDS As a reporter, your job is to go out and get the story from the public. Going to your friends makes you and the paper look lazy and ill-informed. It calls into question the legitimacy of the paper. Talk to people you don’t know, people not in your class, or people in other grades. 16 SUBSTANTIATE AND IDENTIFY SOURCES Reporters should check and substantiate facts—especially ones integral to the story. Accuracy is important for the newspaper’s reputation, and as an information providing entity, the newspaper has a responsibility to its readers to be accurate and correct as possible. When using information, quotations, statistics, poll results, background from reports, websites, newspapers, books, television shows, radio, etc. properly attribute the work of those reporters and researchers so that the reporter shows where information came from and so that the readers can better judge the information’s value and merit. For example: “According to a New York Times poll in June of 2008 . . .”

17 SOME MORE PRINCIPLES OF GOOD INTERVIEWING These are elements that commonly make up successful interviews. The ten elements below are not a formula, but rather reminders of what needs to happen for reporters to get information from a source that helps build a relationship and gives accurate information. (Source: Medill at Northwestern University) 1. Kibitz: Establish Humanity Demonstrate through your questions that you care about them and what they have to say 2. Gather Facts: Show diligence Ask for exact dollar figures, the number of people involved, the official title of a report, the years of experience in the job, etc. Getting the details correct is important and helps establish trust between reporter and interviewee. 3. Ask Why: Be Curious Communicate to your interview that you are interested. Remember: that person is interested in the topic and the readers will be too if you’re curious. If you aren’t, the interview will go nowhere. 4. Emotions: Build Relationships Show empathy for your interviewee’s cause and area of interest. Acknowledge the work he or she has done. In other words, do your homework; be familiar with your interviewees subject. 5. People: Expand the Circle Find out who else is involved, the other characters in the story.


6. Get Tough: It’s Your Job You need to be ready to ask questions that your reader wants answered. “Nothing personal, just doing my job.” 7. Hypotheticals: Up the Ante Get the interviewee thinking about “what ifs,” get them dreaming of possibilities, or worst case scenarios. However, use hypotheticals carefully; do not push hypotheticals. Some sources hate to talk about things that have yet to happen. Others love to think big and will reveal interesting angles to the situation at hand. 8. Anecdotes: Everyone Loves ‘Em Get your source telling your audience an interesting story, but boil the story down to its important elements and then use a quote for color. 9. Cool Off: Build a Lifetime Source Remember, without sources, articles cannot be written. At Staples, we have a limited number of sources to use. Treat interviewees with respect and politeness. Never argue with a source. You are not there to change his or her mind. Open the doorway to confirming quotes and facts at a later date. You will not be annoying them; you will be building their trust in your work. 10. Look around, record, and ask You are going to events and talking to people that the reader can’t get to or doesn’t know about. So use all your senses. Sights, sounds, smells, touch—these observations and questions about them are priceless. What does a person look like? How do the act? Mannerisms? How does he or she dress? If you are interviewing at a locale or event, what color are the balloons or banner? etc.


Guidelines on How to Write and Submit Stories Newspapers are the result of the efforts of many people. Any issue of the paper publishes the work of roughly 50 writers and a dozen layout staff members and editors. With so many writers and editors it is essential that the staff all follow one system to create and file articles and pictures. Doing gives the staffs a better chance to produce a paper that consistent, accurate and professional. Here are the Inklings style guidelines and rules: GENERAL GUIDELINES


FILING STORIES AND PHOTOS After you have written a story or taken a picture, you must file it in such a manner that editors can find it and place in the paper or upload it to the web. To file a story or photo properly, you must upload the story or photo to the Inklings Dropbox folder that you have subscribed to and is now on your computer desktop. To get Dropbox a) Got to b) Click on “download Dropbox” c) When the installer window pops up, click “I do not have an account.” d) Enter your first and last name, legit email, etc., and click free 2 gigabyte option e) Drop box will put on your desktop an icon to get to Dropbox in the future. f) Follow tutorial as to what Dropbox can do. g) IMPORTANT! Once you have done the previous steps, email Ross Gordon at and he will “invite” you to share the Inklings issue folders. Naming your stories and photos correctly is as important as loading then in the proper place. Inklings reporters will write over 500 stories and take at least 10 times as many photos. So to find them on the y-drive, name your work like this: Last Name (dash) Slugline Example: Swanson-Changes in Turf


USE OF FIRST PERSON Typically, the first person and the second person are not used in a newspaper. All news, sports, features and reviews should avoid referring to “I” or “we.” EXCEPTION: The editorials may use the editorial “we,” but only when


referring to the editorial board, not the students in the school. The first person may be used in columns. When in doubt, leave “I” out. 3

LEADS Keep these ideas in mind when writing leads to your stories.  NEWS LEADS: If writing event coverage or spot news about an incident (fire, accident, arrest, mishap, etc.) use an AP summary lead by answering the who, what, when, where, and why and how in the first sentence, then form a new paragraph and proceed.  FEATURES AND NEWS FEATURES: Those reporters writing columns, reviews, or features may use any lead they like. Below are some examples: o Anecdotal – tell a small story that relates to larger issues or a person’s life. o Case history – The study of a particular person or situation. o Descriptive – Use colorful and vivid description to bring the person, setting, situation to life. o Quotation – Start with dramatic quote, hit enter and then in second paragraph begin explaining and writing. o Shocker – the writer provides statistics or other facts that startle the reader  The first word is important. If you can, avoid starting article with a, an or the. Start with the most riveting word: i.e. Suspense, Failure, Champions, Turf, Taser.


QUOTATIONS Writers for Inklings recognize the value of quotations in articles; they provide color, direct observation, and accuracy of information. However, writers should also know how to use quotations properly. First, use quotes sparingly. Readers expect an article that tells a story, not a transcript of an interview. Use quotations when the source puts into words ideas better than the writer can. When incorporating the quoted words, keep these guidelines in mind:  Avoid changing grammatical errors the speaker makes. Casual minor tongue slips like err or umm may be removed.  You may omit part of the quotation to aid in clarity or brevity. Indicate such breaks with ellipses ( …). Writers should not omit words if it alters the meaning of the quotation.  Add [sic] next to grammatical errors of speakers if you chose to retain the error.  Long quotations should be avoided. Better to paraphrase to aid in readability.  All quotations and paraphrases need to be attributed. Use the simple “said” in the past tense to indicate attribution.



Never make up a quotation or attribute words to a source that did not speak directly to the paper. If caught manufacturing quotations, that writer may lose the privilege to publish work in the paper as determined by the advisers and the editors-in-chief.

PARAGRAPHING Writing for a newspaper is different than writing essays for a class. Vary the lengths of your paragraphs keep many of them short. Writers do this by making new paragraphs whenever they change ideas or direction, mention a new source, have a long quotation from a source, want to add transition, or want to draw attention to a particular sentence by making the sentence stand alone.


PYRAMIDS Writers familiar with pyramid organization should keep in mind the value of organizing stories around them. For news stories, use the inverted pyramid which suggests placing the most important information first and then including less important information later in the article. Features, columns and opinions can have a more flexible organization.


HEADLINES Because of their large font and strategic placement on the page, headlines are the first text readers see when reading an article in the paper or on the web. They serve important functions: They sell the story and draw the reader’s attention, they tell the facts and give a summary of what an article is about so that people can judge whether they want to read it, and they dress up the page by eliminating blocks of gray text while at the same time organizing a page so readers don’t get lost while reading legs of text. Since they do so much for the paper and the web, they are important to learn how to write. Inklings writers are responsible for writing the headlines for their stories. The rough and final drafts of stories should all have headlines at the top of page. The headline written by the writer helps the layout and the copy editors understand the deired focus of the piece. For reasons of space and placement on the page, final writing and approval of headlines is the responsibility of the individual page editors and managing editor. Inklings uses up style headline capitalization: Up style: Swanson Explores Notre Dame Coaching Job Down style: Swanson explores Notre Dame coaching job


Inklings follows these guidelines for headline writing:  Tell the whole story as accurately as possible. Avoid sensationalism and inane attempts at gaining attention. 

Avoid involved, confusing or ambiguous headlines.

Most headlines do better with verbs. Active verbs are better than state of being verbs (is are was were, etc) Weak: Swanson: A Winner for the Ages Strong: Swanson Wins One for the Ages

Do not split parts of verbs or prep phrases from one line to another. Bad:

Swanson Wins One for the Ages Good: Swanson Wins One for the Ages 

Use present, future, or present perfect tense whenever possible. Good: Swanson Approves Budget Concessions Bad: Swanson Approved Budget Concessions

Use alliteration sparingly. Once in a while alliteration can show creativity, but overusing it can make the paper and the web sound a bit silly. For example, Swanson Sees Signs of Sweet Success.

Use concise, precise wording. The shorter and fewer words one uses, the large the typeface can be above the story. Bad: Educators Ratify Latest Compensation Package Agreement Good: Teachers Agree to New Pay Contract

Strive for Variety. When appropriate use these different kinds of headlines Slammer:


Swanson Sets Scoring Record

Hammer: Hoopla: Swanson Dunks for First Time Read in:

As Hours Grow Precious


Read out:

Daylight Savings Ends Practice Early Players worry about Shortened Prep Times

Tripod: 

Sets Scoring Record; Hoopla: Swanson Dunks for First Time

Use telegraphic style. Omit words like a, and, or the. Use a comma to represent and. Bad: The Board Freezes Salaries and Ends Talks Good: Board Freezes Salaries, Ends Talks


Use proper headline punctuation. Periods never appear in headlines. Use semicolons to divide complete thoughts: (Board Freezes Salaries; Teachers Take to Case to Public). If quotation marks are needed, use single quotation marks, not double: (Players’ ‘Guys and Dolls’ a Success).

CAPTIONS AND CUTLINES Captions should appear beneath or next to all photographs that run in the paper or on the web. Photos attract reader attention and add an important dimension to articles, but they cannot speak for themselves. They need captions for context. A good caption explains what is happening in the in the photo and imparts pertinent knowledge while avoiding stating the obvious. Think of captions as leads to a story: supply the viewer with the 5w’s and 1h in one or two sentences. Extended captions of more than two sentences may be used for briefs or stand alone photos that cover a story. 

Inklings like to begin cutlines with leadins, a few words in uppercase letters that attract readers to the cutline. Make sure the leadin matches the time of the article and the photo.

AND ONE! Ted Swanson is fouled by Darien forward Sven Lundgren in the final moments of the Dec. 17 game at Staples. Swanson made both free‐ throws to seal the victory. 

Identify as many people in a photograph as possible. The more names the more readers see their names in print, but don’t go crazy. If there are three or four people, fine. Ten? Too many.

Avoid stating the obvious. Let the photos be a chance to impart information from the article if there is little to say about what is going on in the photos.



COVERING TOWN MEETINGS (BOE, BOF, RMT) In its mission to provide useful information to the school and town community, Inklings covers government and municipal meetings when issues that affect students and the larger school community come before them. Here are some good guidelines to help writers when covering town meetings.

Get a copy of the agenda to understand what will be discussed. Interesting to note when meeting changes direction.

Organize your notes to save time.

Record which members of the board were present and who was not.

Take as many notes as possible. Place stars, exclamation points next to interesting material.

As meeting draws to a close, reconstruct quotes that you think might be useful to your article. This will also get you thinking about what has been the important information.

If people come before a board to speak, they usually have a document to submit. Ask for a copy.

Get names of those who speak. Their comments are public and you have the privilege to print them.

To all who ask, introduce yourself as a reporter for Inklings. You are not there as citizen, so do not voice an opinion on an issue, even when asked. “Sorry, I don’t think it right to voice my opinion because I am covering this for the paper.”

If in doubt as to how to organize your story, write your article using AP summary lead and inverted pyramid. Keep paragraphs short, paraphrase often with attribution, and use good, accurate quotes.

Check your facts and follow up. If something confused you, ask someone about it before you share your ignorance with the town.

Mike May

Ted Swanson Use initials or numbers to show people around table

TS: “I’m in favor of later start times.” MM: “Ted hates sports!”


10 SAMPLE NEWS STORY TO STYLE CONSIDERATIONS Below is a fictional news story from the now defunct Weekly World News. Although the content is ridiculous, the writing style, use of paraphrase, quotation, variety of paragraph length, and attribution are to be emulated. Read, enjoy and uses these conventions in your own writing.

Haunted Toilet Claims Another Victim BROOKLYN, N.Y. -The disappearance of a third plumber fixing the same toilet in the same apartment building within eight years has reawakened fears that the commode is haunted. Plumber Max Crandell, 54, vanished without a trace after arriving to take care of a clog, police say. Crandell -described by associates as stable and happily married -- follows in the footsteps of two other workmen who've disappeared, the first in 1991 and the second in 1995. This has led some paranormal experts to speculate that the toilet could be some kind of "porthole to another dimension." And it's giving the willies to residents of the Park Slope-area building. "I don't know whether that toilet is haunted or not," said building superintendent Mario DeConza. "All I know is it's going to be impossible to find a plumber who's willing to work on it now." Even before the first plumber went missing, the toilet may have claimed a victim. Back in January 1991, a writer who lived in the apartment dropped out of sight. Afterward, investigators found books on his shelf and in the bathroom that included spellcasting and witchcraft tomes. A week later, a plumber was summoned by the super to fix a stubborn clog in the then-vacant apartment -- and was never heard from again. The most publicized incident took place in '95 when a second plumber was working on the toilet as the tenants

One sentence lead that answers basic questions: who, what, when, where, why how Paraphrase of background information. Notice it’s only two sentences long. This is transition leading to the first quotation of “speculation.” Notice that the attribution in the middle of the quotation or at the end, never in the middle.

Always lead into a quote with a complete sentence of transition

Last paragraph refrains from “summing up” as in “What have we leaned.” End on a quotation that adds an interesting point at the end

watched TV. They soon heard a scream and rushed in, but saw no sign of the man. "Also, the toilet was full of what looked like blood," recalled DeConza with a shiver. That episode earned the john the nickname "The Haunted Toilet" in the New York tabloids. But gutsy Courtney Kemiwitz, current occupant of the apartment, isn't a bit bothered by all the toilet-of-terror talk -- because after the 1995 incident, the landlord slashed the rent by half. "New York rents are crazy. This is really a steal -- and I don't believe in ghosts," she said. Miss Kemiwitz says she's used the toilet without incident daily since moving in last March. The only anomalies she's encountered have been odd sounds echoing up, as if something big were sloshing around in some far off body of water. And sometimes unusual objects are found floating in the potty, such as pieces of bluish stone or unfamiliarlooking 10-legged beetles. "Also, once in a while when I'm sitting there, I get this weird feeling that I'm being watched, but I know that's just my imagination," Ms. Kemiwitz said. She has no idea what happened to Crandell, who vanished on July 8. "He went into the bathroom while I was cooking dinner," she said. "After about an hour, I went looking for him to see if he was done -but he was gone. Nothing was left of him but his plunger and his workboots."


Web Guidelines The website is an integral part of the newspaper staff, allowing the paper to fulfill its mission of being a reliable source of student and town news while at the same time serving as a platform for student expression and thought. The site is hosted outside of the school to increase its independence. 1 WEB MEETINGS Meetings of both web editors and General Meetings will occur at consistent and timely intervals throughout the year. 

In the event that a meeting is cancelled, exempting snow days, all writers and editors shall be notified at least 24 hours in advance. In order to maintain a website of the highest quality and content, web editors must attend all Editorial meetings. Editors with conflicts due to sports or other activities should notify the editor in chief.

2 UPLOADING STORIES Web page editors, the web managing editor, the webmaster, and the Web Editor-in-Chief may upload articles to the website. Writers and other editors may only upload articles with the explicit permission of the Web Managing Editor or the Web Editor-in-Chief. 

All articles submitted to the web, in addition to being uploaded to Dropbox, must be submitted to the adviser working with the web staff in print format on the day that they are due, exempting students who submit articles but are not enrolled in the Advanced Journalism class. (They may email the article to the respective web page editor).

In the event that a Web Page Editor writes an article for his or her own section, the article must be submitted to another Web Page Editor, the Web Managing Editor, or the Web Editor-in-Chief for edits.

3 COMMENTS Comments posted to the web are entrusted to the webmaster for approval. In the event that the Webmaster, the Web Managing Editor, or the Web Editor-in-Chief believe that a comment is obscene, libelous, or otherwise improper, the webmaster, web managing editor, and web editor-in-chief will meet as a group to resolve the issue. In the event of further disagreement, final ethical say lies with the web editor-in-chief, as he or she is in charge of the Code of Ethics as it applies to the website. In keeping with the goal of professionalism and to avoid conflicts of interest, no staff member may comment on any articles posted on Inklings Online.


InDesign Shortcuts NSPA’s Blend Magazine has compiled a list of valuable timesaving keyboard shortcuts to use during layout. Here they are:

FORMATTING option + 8

This will create a bullet point in one step

command + \ Press these keys right after the bullet to indent the next line, making it even

shift + tab This will give the text a right indent tab

shift + drag Pressing these keys will make sure that the line you are drawing is perfectly straight.

command + option + E

select an entire line, press option + right/left arrows Tracking is the space between all words in a line. To adjust this, select an entire line, press option + right/left arrows.


Command + ] When you press these keys, whatever you have selected will be brought forward. If you want to bring something to the very front, press command+shif+]

Command +[ Likewise, this will send things backward. If you want to send an object completely backward, press command+shift+[

These keys allow your content to fit into the frame you’ve provided. In order to fit the frame to the content, press the keys comment+option+C at the same time.

Shift + arrow keys


Option = command = W

These keys will bring up spellcheck.

Pressing these keys will bring up text wrap options. This will allow you to arrange objects and text around each other.

command + I TYPEFACE SHORTCUTS Sometimes words or even certain letter need to be adjusted fro a better design. 

Leading is the space between individual line of text. To adjust this, select multiple lines, then press option +/down arrows Kerning is the space between individual letters within a word. To adjust this,

This will move whatever you select exactly a pica away from the direction of the arrow key you pressed.

NAVIGATION spacebar + drag This will give you access to the hand tool and let you drag around the page however you want. It’s a useful tool that makes it easier for you to move throughout the page.



command + 0

Pressing this key will bring up the color palette, allowing you to easily alter whatever object you have selected.

When you press these keys, it will automatically fit your page into your window so you can view how the complete design looks. To fit the entire spread within your viewing window, press command+option+0. To view the document in its actual size, press command+1.


Z + drag

command + ;

Press z, then drag your mouse to the place you want to zoom in on. It will bring you exactly to that area.

command + R This toll will let you toggle between viewing your page with or without rulers

By pressing these keys, you can toggle between viewing your page with and without your guides and column grids.


command + option H


Pressing these keys at the same time while selecting an object will allow it ti be displayed in high quality. To have it displayed in typical quality, press command+option+z.

This will let you switch from the type tool to the selection tool, allowing you to use shortcuts.

control + shift + > By pressing these keys at the same time, you will be able to increase the size of you font by increments. To decrease, press control+shift+ <

command + B These keys bring up the text frame options palette, where you can adjust, inset and vertical justification.

ALIGNMENT SHORTCUTS For any project, the designer must decide how they want their text aligned. These shortcuts make the process faster. Align Center: command+shift+c Justify (all lines): command+shift+f Justify(all but last line): command+shift+j Align Left: command+shift+l Align Right: command+shift+r Justify Center: command+option+shift+c


command = T This will bring up the character table, where you can easily change between typefaces, font size, kerning, tracking, leading and more.


Common AP Stylebook rules to follow Inklings follows the Associated Press Stylebook. All questions of style or debates on style will be answered by the AP. Here are common style points that Inklings writers frequently use. Abbreviations The following are common Acronyms the paper uses: & Acronyms BOE for Board of Education BOF for Board of Finance FCIAC for Fairfield County Interscholastic Athletic Conference AVOID AWKWARD CONSTRUCTIONS: Do not follow an organization's full name with an abbreviation or acronym in parentheses or set off by dashes. If an abbreviation or acronym would not be clear on second reference without this arrangement, do not use it. Names not commonly before the public should not be reduced to acronyms solely to save a few words. (The Future Business Leaders of America met in rm. 602). This also holds true for subsequent mentions in the article. FBI, for example is well known. FBLA is not. Generally, omit periods in acronyms unless the result would spell an unrelated word. But use periods in most two-letter abbreviations: U.S., U.N., U.K., B.A., B.C. MPH: mph is acceptable: the speed limit has been raised to 65 mph. No periods are used. SUPERINTENDENT: Do not abbreviate. Capitalize when used as a formal title before a name: Superintendent Elliot Landon UNITED STATES: Spell out on first mention, and then use U.S. on subsequent mentions. UNITED NATIONS: Spell out on first mention, and then use U.N. on subsequent mentions. Generally spell out the names of countries and cities.

Acad. depts.

Use lowercase except for words that are proper nouns or adjectives: i.e. the social studies department, the English department.

Acad. Titles

Capitalize and spell out formal titles such as chancellor, chairman, etc. when they precede a name (Chairman Swanson). Lowercase elsewhere. Lowercase modifiers such as department in department Chair Lisbeth Comm.


Acad. Degrees If mention of degrees is necessary to establish someone's credentials, the preferred form is to avoid an abbreviation and use instead a phrase such as: John Jones, who has a doctorate in psychology. Use an apostrophe in bachelor's degree, a master's, etc., but there is no possessive in Bachelor of Arts or Master of Science. Also: an associate degree (no possessive). Use such abbreviations as B.A., M.A., LL.D. and Ph.D. only when the need to identify many individuals by degree on first reference would make the preferred form cumbersome. Use these abbreviations only after a full name â&#x20AC;&#x201C; never after just a last name. When used after a name, an academic abbreviation is set off by commas: John Snow, Ph.D., spoke. Do not precede a name with a courtesy title for an academic degree and follow it with the abbreviation for the degree in the same reference. Addresses

Use the abbreviation Ave., Blvd. and St. only with a numbered address: 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. All similar words (alley, drive, road, terrace, etc.) always are spelled out. Capitalize them when part of a formal name without a number; lowercase when used alone or with two or more names. Spell them out and capitalize when part of a formal street name without a number: Pennsylvania Avenue. Always use figures for an address number: 70 North Ave. Spell out and capitalize First through Ninth when used as street names; use figures with two letters for 10th and above: 7 Fifth Ave., 100 21st St.


Always use figures. a 5 year-old boy, the boy is 5 years old, the boy, 5, has a sister.

A.M and P.M Use lowercase with periods: 5 a.m. is early, Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ll see you in the a.m. Businesses Incorporated and Corporation are abbreviated as in Time Warner Inc. and News Corp. Do not set off abbreviation with a comma. Capitalization In general avoid unnecessary capitals. Use a capital only if you can justify its use by using one of the rules below: PROPER NOUNS: Capitalize nouns that constitute the unique identification for a specific person, place or thing. John, Mary, America, Westport. PROPER NAMES: Capitalize common noun such as party, river, street, west, when they are an integral part of the full name for a person place or thing: Democratic Party, Mississippi River. Lowercase when the stand alone in subsequent references: the party, the river. Lowercase when used in conjunction with two rivers: the Ohio and Mississippi rivers. COMPOSITIONS: Capitalize the principal words in the names of books, movies, plays, poems, operas, songs, radio and television programs, works of art, etc.


SEASONS: Do not capitalize the four seasons unless used in a composition title. The winter was a long one, the summer is almost her. OTHER EXAMPLES:  He’s on JV  He’s on the junior varsity  In the varsity game, the Varsity Club  the Chess Club PLANETS AND HEAVENLY BODIES: when referring to name of planets capitalize, but use lowercase when referring to sun and moon: Mercury, Saturn, Earth, Mars, the sun, the moon, and the stars. POLITICAL PARTIES AND PHILOSOPHIES Capitalize both the name of the party and the word party if it is customarily used as part of the organization’s proper name: the Democratic Party, the Republican Party. Capitalize Communist, Conservative, Democrat, Liberal, Republican, Socialist, etc., when they refer to a specific party or its members. Lowercase these words when they refer to political philosophy (see examples below). Lowercase the name of a philosophy in noun and adjective forms unless it is the derivative of a proper name: communism, communist; fascism, fascist. But: Marxism, Marxist; Nazism, Nazi. EXAMPLES: John Adams was a Federalist, but a man who subscribed to his philosophy today would be described as a federalist. The liberal Republican senator and his Conservative Party colleague said they believe that democracy and communism are incompatible. The Communist said he is basically a socialist who has reservations about Marxism. NATIONIONALITIES AND RACES Capitalize the proper names of nationalities, peoples, races, tribes, etc.: Arab, Arabic, African, American, Caucasian, Cherokee, Chinese (both singular and plural), Eskimo (plural Eskimos), French Canadian, Japanese (singular and plural), Jew, Jewish, Nordic, Sioux, Swede, etc. Comp. Titles Inklings does not italicize the names of books, movie titles, play titles, record titles, newspapers, electronic game titles. The paper capitalizes these names and puts them in quotes. “Caddyshack,” Coldplay’s “A Rush of Blood to the Head,” “Doom IX..” DO NOT put newspaper or news outlets names in quotation marks: the New York Times Dates

Abbreviate long months and use number only. For short months, spell out.: Jan. 1, Feb. 2, March 3, April 4, May 5, June 6, July 7, Aug. 8, Sep. 9, Oct. 10, Nov. 11, Dec. 12 If you are using only the month, spell it out: vacation ended in August


Always lowercase. Use figures and the $ sign in all except casual



references or amounts without a figure: The book cost $4. Dad, please give me a dollar. Dollars are flowing overseas. For specified amounts, the word takes a singular verb: He said $500,000 is what they want. For amounts of more than $1 million, use up to two decimal places. Do not link the numerals and the word by a hyphen: He is worth $4.35 million. He is worth exactly $4,351,242. He proposed a $300 billion budget. The form for amounts less than $1 million: $4, $25, $500, $1,000, $650,000. CENTS Spell out the word cents and lowercase, using numerals for amounts less than a dollar: 5 cents, 12 cents. Use the $ sign and decimal system for larger amounts: $1.01, $2.50. Numerals alone, with or without a decimal point as appropriate, may be used in tabular matter.


On a singular first mention of name, include the grade by using numbers Joe Schmo ’O2. On subsequent mention of the same name, no mention of the class is needed.


Use “Staples” and the mascot name “Wrecker” sparingly.

Measurements Spell out all measurements: inches, feet, centimeters, pounds, ect. Names

For students, teachers, parents, coaches (everyone) use full name on first mention in article and then only last on subsequent mentions. For sources that are doctors or have doctorates, use the Dr. on the first mention of the name and then just use last name on subsequent mentions. It may be pertinent for the reader to understand what kind of “Dr.” degree the source has because most of the public assumes “Dr.” means medical doctor. DO NOT USE COURTESY TITLES Ms., Mrs., Mr. in the article.


Spell out numbers one through nine and use numerals for 10 and above. One, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, 10, 11 . . .This includes fractions below one (a fourth of the class). Spell out any number that begins a sentence (Thirty-two shopping days are left.). Spell out casual references to numbers (I have thousands of ideas, he’s on second base). Spell out the word percent, but use the Arabic numerals (4 percent). In a table, one may use the % sign. Use numbers for weights and spell out appropriate units (16 pounds). Some Common Examples of Number Usage:  Act 1, Scene 2  a 5 year-old  a 5-4 court decision  2nd District Court  the 1980s, the ’80s


 

he’s the No. 3 choice a 12 percent increase


Do not use obscenities, profanities or vulgarities in stories unless they are part of a direct quotation and there is a compelling reason for them.


Use figures: 1 percent, 2.5 percent (use decimals, not fractions). For amounts less than 1 percent, precede the decimal with zero 0.3 percent. Repeat percent with each individual figure.

p.m., a.m.

Use lowercase with periods. Avoid redundancies 10 p.m. tonight.


Identification by race is pertinent: –In biographical and announcement stories that involve a feat or appointment not routinely associated with members of a particular race. –When it provides the reader with a substantial insight into conflicting emotions known or likely to be involved in a demonstration or similar event. In some stories that involve a conflict, it is equally important to specify that an issue cuts across racial lines. If, for example, a demonstration by supporters of busing to achieve racial balance in schools includes a substantial number of whites, that fact should be noted. Do not use racially derogatory terms unless they are part of a quotation that is essential to the story.

School Name Leave out the words “high school” whenever mentioning the school name. Also question whether you need to mention “Staples” at all. Staples teachers fought the decision could simply be written Teachers fought the decision. State Names: STANDING ALONE: Spell out the names of 50 U.S. States when they stand alone in textual material. Any name can be condensed if needed for a table. EIGHT STATE NOT ABBREVIATAED in datelines and text. Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah. USE THESE ABBREVIATIONS: Ala. Ariz. Ark. Calif. Colo. Conn. Del. Fla. Ga. Ill. Ind. Kan. Ky. La. Mass. Md. Mich. Minn. Miss. Mo. Mont. Neb. Nev. N.H. N.J. N.M. N.Y. N.C. N.D. Okla. Ore. Pa. R.I. S.C. S.D. Tenn. Va. Vt. Wash. W.Va. Wis. Wyo. Punctuation: Put one comma between the city and the state name, and another comma after the state name unless ends a sentence or indicating a date line: He was traveling from Nashville, Tenn., to Albuquerque, N.M. Titles

Lowercase all titles not used before a name (Bob Garvin, principal, was) Lowercase all titles that are primarily job descriptions (teacher, coach, movie star) Capitalize all formal titles (president, senator, general, principal ) when used before a name (President Bush, Principal Dodig).


On first mention of names, include the formal title of the person and then just use last name on subsequent mentions: Superintendent Elliot Landon was there. Landon spoke of the need . . .


Job Descriptions The purpose of job descriptions is to clarify the work each position does in order for the paper to run smoothly. When accepting a position on the staff, that person assumes the responsibility of fulfilling his or her position to the satisfaction of the editors-in-chief and the newspaper advisers. Dismissal from a position will be made by advisers only with, but not subject to, input form the editors-in-chief. Editors-in-Chief Chiefs are ultimately responsible for the newspaper following and upholding the code of ethics, school rules, and Inklings guidelines under which the student paper operates. They will act as the direct liaison officer between the administration and the newspaper and its writers and editors. Along with these responsibilities, the editors must do the following: 1) In conjunction with the recommendations of the managing editors and advisers, set publication dates and deadlines, and communicate to the staff and the school, when appropriate, all those dates and deadlines. 2) Write the newspaper’s editorial in conjunction with the input of the editorial board (comprised of page editors and invited staff). 3) Publicize, hold, and be present at all editorial and general meetings. 4) Read every article in the paper, bringing to either the managing and/or page editor’s attention material that is libelous, obscene, and/or poorly written. 5) In charge of overseeing overall morale of the staff and assuring that writers be treated with respect and professionalism. 6) Be in charge of public relations, notifying the local press regarding awards, successes, fundraisers, etc. Also oversee the application to various professional organizations and contests. 7) Coordinate staffs so that business runs smoothly and material is being published on the web. 8) Set the paper’s goals for the upcoming year and publishing those goals in the Inklings handbook. 9) Reviewing and amending the Inklings handbook. 10) Guide the staff in finding interesting story ideas. Managing Editors Managing editors are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the paper’s issues. This includes tracking the stories for their respective issues, packaging stories, editing for content and style and overseeing the layout and design of the page editors of their section. The managing editor understands how copy flows, how pictures and stories should be arranged in an effective manner, and how information on the page should best be presented for clarity and readability. 1) Assist page editors in keeping track of writers and the progress of individual departments. 2) Make sure all page editors have turned in photo requests to photography editor. 3) Assist in layout so that the newspaper meets publication deadline. 4) Maintain the story board to insure all articles have been placed. 5) Check off that all pages have been proofed and cleared for publication by chiefs and advisers.


6) Make sure page editors have included all the parts of the story (byline, staff positions, captions, headlines.) 7) Help page editors design sections using good layout designs. Design/Graphics Editor Layout editors are responsible for the look of the paper. This includes developing the fonts and styles associated with the layout of the paper and overseeing the packaged designs of the paper with an eye for aesthetic appearance and consistency of design. 1) As layout of the issue finishes, the layout editor checks to make sure each page follows the layout style of the paper (consistent folio lines, bylines, white space, headline fonts, and sidebar appearance). 2) Layout editor offers suggestions on dominant graphics and front-page appearance. Business Manager The business manager and his or her assistants are responsible for providing the revenue to print the paper. The editor must maintain all monetary accounts and maintain customer relations with businesses that place advertisements. A good business editor is one who is highly organized, polite and personable, and is an effective communicator. The business manager is also an excellent salesperson who can sell the paper and its product to businesses that need to sell products to the Westport community. Along with these responsibilities and abilities, the editor must do the following: 1) Oversee subscription checks and subscription processing 2) Keep track of accounts on Excel / Quicken 3) Make all purchases and track purchases of equipment with help of advisers. 4) Be responsible for placement of ads and check to ensure quality. 5) Sit down with advisers and set the printing costs for the coming year. Page Editors The page editors run their respective section of Inklings: news, sports, opinions, features, and arts and entertainment. They are responsible for ensuring their pages follow and uphold the code of ethics, school rules, and Inklingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; guidelines under which the paper operates. They are directly responsible for writers turning in articles, graphics and photographs, and proofing their sections along the AP stylebook guidelines. Along with these responsibilities, the editors must do the following: 1) Decide which stories to cover. 2) Attend all editorial and general meetings. 3) Fill out and distribute story sheets to guide writers at general meetings. 4) Turn picture and graphic requests into the photography and graphics editors. 5) Layout headlines, stories, photographs and graphics. 6) Working with managing editor and writer, determine how to package stories. 7) Know and follow the AP stylebook when proofing stories. Photography and Graphics Editors Photography and graphics editors are in charge of taking, processing and placing the images used in the paper. These editors possess an artistic ability and communicate their ideas to the various editors and writers who rely on their visuals. These editors must also possess technical


knowledge in the form of knowing how to use Photoshop and Illustrator to aid in producing graphics for the web and the paper. The photography and graphics editors make assignments and works with page editors to determine content and desired photographs to be taken and graphics to be created. Along with these responsibilities the editor must do the following: 1) Act as a resource in getting high quality images. 2) Oversee the photographs and graphics proper scanning and placement into computer files. 3) Maintain image files in the Inklings room. Web Editor in Chief The web editor-in-chief is charged with the job of ensuring that the web and its writers and editors follow and uphold the Inklings code of ethics, all school rules, and Inklings guidelines outlined in the handbook under which the student paper operates. He or she will act as the direct liaison officer between the administration and the web and its writers and editors. Along with these responsibilities, the editors must do the following: 1) In conjunction with the recommendations of the editors-in-chief for the print editions, set publication dates and deadlines and communicate to the staff and the school, when appropriate, all those dates and deadlines. 2) Work with the editor-in-chiefs of the paper and the web are working well together in terms of content and formatting for web. 3) Publicize, hold, and be present at all editorial, brainstorming and general meetings when story assignments are made. 4) Read every article on the web, pointing out to writers and the editors-in-chief, the material that is libelous, obscene, and/or poorly written. 5) In charge of motivating staff and overseeing overall morale of the web staff and assuring that writers be treated with respect and professionalism. 6) Be in charge of public relations for the web, which includes the following: a. Promoting the webâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s awards and accomplishments via Cable 12, Patch, Westport Now, the Minuteman and Westport News, and Good Morning Staples b. Working responsible to increase traffic to the website and its journalism. c. Entering CSPA and NSPA web oriented-contests. 7) Work in conjunction Business Manager to get advertising on the web. 8) Must collaborate well with the Web Managing Editor.

Web Managing Editor Web managing editors are responsible for the day-to-day operations of the webâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s production. His or her job is to aid and ensure that web section editors are doing the following: tracking and providing guidance for stories for web publication, editing for content and style, and uploading newspaper stories for the webâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s variety of sections. The managing editor understands how copy flows, how pictures and stories should be arranged in an effective manner, and how information on the page should best be presented for clarity and readability. 1) In conjunction with the recommendations of the editors-in-chief for the print editions, set publication dates and deadlines and communicate to the staff and the school, when appropriate, all those dates and deadlines.


2) Assist section editors in keeping track of writers and the progress of individual departments. 3) Make sure all section editors have turned in photo and graphic requests to photography/graphics editors. 4) Assist in uploading stories to the web so that newspaper meets publication deadlines. 5) Maintain the story board. 6) Make sure the sections of the web have included all the parts of the story (byline, staff positions, captions, headlines.) 7) Enforce deadlines and communicate to advisers when those deadlines have not been met. Web Section Editors The page editors run their respective sections of news, sports, opinions, features, and arts and entertainment. The web editors are in charge of maintaining and updating Inklings on the Web. Web editors make sure that all stories published in the paper are placed on the web and indexed correctly. They are responsible for ensuring their web sections follow and uphold the Inklings code of ethics, school rules, and Inklingsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; guidelines under which the paper operates. They are directly responsible for writers turning in articles, graphics and photographs, and the are responsible for proofing their sections using the AP stylebook guidelines. Along with these responsibilities, the editors must do the following: 1) Decide which stories to cover. 2) Attend all editorial meetings. 3) Fill out and distribute story sheets to guide writers. 4) Turn picture and graphic requests into the photography and graphics editors. 5) Layout stories, photographs and graphics. 6) Know and follow the AP stylebook when proofing stories. 7) Read and approve comments following editorial policy. Web Master The web master is charged with ensuring that meets the needs of the writers and editors of the web staff. He or she has the responsibility to alter the page, but those alterations must be in accordance with the web managing editor and the advisers. The web master is also in charge of placing advertising on the site and monitoring links. Inklings on the Web is the intellectual property of Inklings and subject to all of its guidelines, policies and rules. Copy Editors Copy editors proofread the paper making corrections to the final copy so that the pages of Inklings follow the AP stylebook and Inklings conventions outlined in this staff book. 1) Study and become familiar with the AP style. 2) Learn copyediting symbols to help the staff understand all changes that need to be made. 3) Double check to make sure all corrections made are actually made by the page editors. 4) Sign off on pages before pdfs are made and sent to the printer.


Writers Writers compose all of the articles for Inklings. As the journalism program currently operates, writers may be either in the Journalism for Publication class or a part of the general student body or in the Advanced Journalism class. Anyone may write for Inklings; however, if articles assigned are late or are of poor quality, the staff and advisers reserve the right to not publish the article or assign future stories to that writer. Along with these responsibilities the writer must do the following: 1) Follow all the guidelines for writing stories stated in the section “Guidelines for Writing” on pages 12 - 15 2) Follow all the protocol for reporters stated in section “Protocol for Reporters” on pages 711. Advisers Advisers guide the editors-in-chief and the staff in the paper’s direction and content. As a guide the advisers have an extensive knowledge and working experience with matters involving censorship and content appropriateness along the guidelines outlined in Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeier, 1988—the latest and most comprehensive Supreme Court ruling on rights of students under the Constitution. Concerning issues of censorship, the advisers reserve the right to have final say whether an article or part of an article is published. Advisers in conjunction with the editors-in-chief will give out editorial positions for the following year’s editorial board in May of the current staff’s academic year. All members of the staff serve under the permission of advisers and will be released by them if job descriptions are not being fulfilled in a satisfactory manner.


Checklists To help editors know what they are supposed to be doing in the course of one issue of Inklings and throughout the year, what follows is a series of checklists that break down the various jobs on the paper. While these lists define jobs, they are provided as guides in the recognition that staffs different from year to year and may choose to divide work differently. These checklists are also a good source of information when deciding what future jobs for which you would like to apply. Checklist for Editor in Chiefs Editors-in-chief oversee all functions and departments of the newspaper. To ensure that the paper is of the highest quality possible and meeting all the ethical and legal standards the paper must follow, below is a checklist of reminders to help chiefs run the paper efficiently. Before the year begins □ Aid in planning the end of the year party celebrating the achievements of the outgoing staff members. □ Come back early by August 15th of the ensuing year to organize the year, the staffs and the handbooks. □ Develop format and oversee the collection of the staff bios for the coming year. □ Set the publication dates for the entire year and publish those dates in the handbook. □ Read, review and update staff handbook. □ Develop staff goals for the year and communicate those goals to staff in the opening letter of the handbook and in staff meetings. □ Collect and distribute staff emails and cell phone contact information. □ Design and order staff apparel. □ Meet with principal and establish prior review policy and scope. During the year □ Supervise all aspects of the papers and staff. □ Resolve staff conflicts as they arise. □ Deliver the final paper in pdf format to the printer. □ Print out and show appropriate pages to the principal. □ Plan fun events for the staff to boost morale. □ Hold all editorial meetings and write the editorials for the opinion pages. □ Act as the public face of the paper submitting the papers and stories to contests to be judged, writing press releases for local media, and meet with concerned citizens about the role and quality of the paper. □ In conjunction with the advisers, aid in the selection of next year’s staff by publicizing and distributing the application to the interested public, setting up and conducting interviews of those applying for editor in chief and managing editors. Chiefs should also aid advisers in selecting all remaining staff positions.


Checklist for Managing Editors As the issue’s writing and layout come together, the managing editor ensures that the work goes well, that the paper is up to Inklings standards and that it conforms to the code of ethics agreed upon by the staff. Because it is such a challenge, below is a checklist to help guide the completion of the paper. Pre Layout □ I know who my writers are for the issue. □ Writers know what they are writing. □ I have written the story slugs on the whiteboard. □ Writers know who is responsible for taking photos with their stories. □ Deadlines have been set and communicated to the staff via the whiteboards in the room and on Blackboard with the help of advisers □ All articles in the paper have been read. □ Section editors have returned articles to the writers. □ Section editors have completed their dummy sheets. □ I have a vision and communicated that vision for the front page, special graphics, spreads and packaged articles. □ Section editors have communicated to graphics editors their needs. Layout □ All articles are in or if not in know when they are coming in. □ Advisers and chiefs know which articles are not in. □ Section editors are getting guidance on layout. □ Folio lines and page numbering are accurate. □ Typography is consistent throughout issue. □ There are creative packages and design being employed in some of the pages. □ Headlines are varied and follow good headline writing guidelines. □ Advertising is on the correct page and is of high quality. □ All photos and graphics are well sized, not too dark and include captions and credits. □ The chiefs and advisers have a copy of the paper for their OK and to show principal. Post Layout □ Whiteboard has been erased. □ I have met with advisers and chiefs about what went well and what needs improvement □ I have added comments to the snap box. □ I have already begun thinking about what spread and special features for next issue. □ I know next set of deadlines, and have, in conjunction with the chiefs, called a general meeting through communication sheets. □ I have collected Beat Reports and assigned articles to writers. □ I have praised members of my staff and given constructive feedback on the issue.


Section Editor Checklist Section editors have a tremendous job to do. As the issue’s writing and layout come together, the section editors ensure that the reader gets a professional, entertaining, informative and legible section to help him or her make sense of the school and the paper’s work. Below is a checklist to help guide the completion of the paper. Pre Layout and Writing □ I am in touch with interesting article ideas for my section. o News knows meetings, events, important occurrences in school and town. o A and E knows artists, shows, trends, movies, books, coming out. o Features knows people doing interesting things, and trends o Sports knows teams having success or struggling and athletes and issues worthy of coverage. o Opinions know about issues school might want to rant or rave about. □ I know the layout dates for my section and have cleared after school time with parents so there are no conflicts. □ I know who my writers are for the issue. □ Writers know their angle and length of stories. □ My sluglines on the whiteboard are accurate for my section. □ I have made it clear to writers and photographers who is taking the photo for the story. □ The graphic artists understand the graphics they are composing for my section. □ All articles in my section have been read and edits added. o The point of the story is clear. o There is an effective lead that captures interest. o Short paragraphs and subheads keep text flowing. □ I drafted dummy sheets and have a vision for the section and how it will flow. □ I have communicated that vision to the managing editor. □ I have met with the writers about their rough drafts and provided constructive criticism. Layout □ All articles are in, or if not in, I and the managing editors know when they are coming in. □ I have a visual plan that will engage the reader. □ Each page has dominant graphic. □ Headlines are larger at top of the page. □ Folio lines and page numbering are accurate, and all rules are .5 □ Typography is consistent throughout section, and follows the papers standards □ Headlines are varied and follow good headline writing guidelines. □ Advertising is on the correct page and is of high quality. □ All photos and graphics are well sized, do not look off the page, are not too dark and include captions and credits. □ Each story’s headlines, photos and graphics present a consistent message for the reader. □ White space properly sets off rules, stories, and boxes in a consistent manner. Post Layout □ I have praised writers and artists who deserve it.


Web Editors Checklist Web editors have the challenging job of both editing and guiding content for the web and posting material from the paper. This makes the job of web editor dynamic and vital. He or she is often the last set of eyes looking over material before it is posted for public consumption. The web, with its ability to broadcast to the world, is vital to the paper in its mission to be an effective voice for the students of the school. Below is a checklist to help editors: □ I am in touch with interesting article ideas for my section. o News knows meetings, events, important occurrences in school and town. o A and E knows artists, shows, trends, movies, books, coming out. o Features knows people doing interesting things, and trends o Sports knows teams having success or struggling and athletes and issues worthy of coverage. o Opinions know about issues school might want to rant or rave about. □ I know the rough draft and final due dates for my section and have cleared after school time with parents so there are no conflicts in getting articles posted. □ I know who my writers are for the web. □ Writers know their angle and length of stories. □ My sluglines on the whiteboard are accurate for my section. □ I have made it clear to writers if they are getting photo or graphic for the story. □ I have met with the writers about their rough drafts and provided constructive criticism. □ The graphic artists understand the graphics they are composing for my section. □ All articles in my section have been read and edits added. o The point of the story is clear. o Good lead that captures interest. o Short paragraphs and subheads keep text flowing. □ Proper CATEGORIES of the story have been checked checked. The reader will be confused if opinion pieces appear on news page. □ Stories all have full excerpts to help get the reader into reading the story. □ Every story posted in my section has a graphic, and if missing a graphic have used a free graphic from the following: (has lots and lots of photos) www.newsco (has news and celebrity shots, but requires attribution) (some are free, some must be bought) (not the easiest to navigate, requires attribution) □ Every story in my section has at least one link. □ Have looked at my page(s) like a new reader would and have organized for clarity and interest. (most important story, clear graphics) □ Have checked and approved daily any COMMENTS for the articles on my pages.


Staff Writers Checklist Writers exercising their First Amendment right to free speech, writing news, features, opinions and reviews, is what the paper and the web are all about. Without writers following the guidelines listed below, the paper cannot complete its mission of being an important voice in the Staples community and serving as a news service for the student body. Below is a list of what every staff member should do when he or she decides to take a story and write a piece of journalism. Before writing and while gathering information □ I know my rough draft and the final deadlines. □ I understand the angle of my story and what the focus of the article is. □ I know the word count the page editors are expecting. □ I have interviewed all appropriate sources. □ I have avoided interviewing friends and only members of my own grade. □ I have recorded interviews on paper and saved the notes. □ I have avoided using anonymous sources, and if I have used them, the managing editors have allowed their use. □ I have taken a photo or created a graphic if so directed by the editors While writing □ I have an interesting lead that is appropriate for the kind of article I am writing. □ I have attributed at the end of quotations or in the case of long quotations, in the middle of the quotation. □ I have attributed using “said” and the attribution appears as “Swanson said.” □ I have avoided editorializing in news and feature articles. □ If I have used research from other sources, I have attributed the name of the paper and the writer of the article if appropriate before or after the material used. □ If a long article, I have added subheads to break up the text and make the reading easier for the reader. □ I have given the article a headline following the guidelines of good headline writing. □ I have avoided the first and second person. □ I have varied the length of my paragraphs. □ I have paraphrased more than I have quoted. □ I have met with my editor and received useful feedback and direction. After writing □ I have double checked the lead to make sure that it is interesting and I have avoided burying the lead (hiding the point of the article in the middle or at the end).I have proofread the article, following the AP Stylebook conventions that we follow. □ I have read back quotations to sources that have requested the material or I want to verify material about which I am unsure. □ I have double checked my information for accuracy. □ I have named the story properly (Slugline Writer RD) □ I have uploaded the story to the y-drive in the appropriate folder.


Business Manager Checklist

Before the year begins □ Based upon the editors-in-chief publication dates, I have set the advertising deadlines for all the issues and changed them in the staff handbook. □ I have reviewed last year’s budget and determined the amount of money the paper will require to produce its issues. □ I have made new subscription ads for distribution at Back-to-School nights. □ I have set the per page advertising rates in conjunction with the chiefs and the advisers. □ I have communicated with past advertisers and re-established relationship with long time advertisers. □ I have created new subscription sheets in Excel in order to make mailing labels. □ I have introduced myself to the bursars in the main office in charge of town and student accounts. □ I have made business cards for the entire staff to use when selling ads for the paper. □ I have reviewed the business section of the handbook. During the year □ I have sold ads and helped others sell ads to local businesses. □ I have kept in contact with past and potential advertisers. □ I have encouraged and recognized students who have worked hard to bring in money through subscriptions and advertising. □ I have maintained an Excel budget sheet that keeps track of the revenue and the expenses. □ I have made sure that all advertising is in good taste and conforms to Inklings Code of Ethics. □ I have checked regularly the Inklings emails and phone line so that I stay in communication with advertisers. □ I have thanked advertisers for their patronage. For each issue □ I have made sure that ads are planned for on the white board in the initial stages of dummy sheet creation so that editors can plan accordingly. □ I have checked placement of the ads to make sure they are placed appropriately and are of high quality: o Graphics are not digitized o Text is clean and legible o It is clear to reader what is advertisement and what is the paper’s content (use of 2 point rule). Ad is size ordered by the customer. □ Once issue is out, I have sent copies of the paper with bill to advertisers. □ When ad revenue comes in, I have noted the amount on the spread sheet and delivered the check to the bursar’s office.


Inklings Flow Chart of Responsibility.

WRITERS REPSONSIBILTIES:  Write stories and determine their angles (with direction from section editors)   Meet with section editors to discuss articles    Take photographs to accompany articles (as needed)   Follow Inklings Handbook guidelines (including policies and AP stylebook)    Provide section editors with story ideas   Submit stories on deadline by uploading to Dropbox 

SECTION EDITORS REPSONSIBILTIES:  Make and design pages in InDesign, make dummy sheets    Participate in brainstorming sessions of assigned beats   Determine content of section in conjunction with managing editor   Address writers’ immediate concerns regarding content and style   Account for all art and any other content in their section (meet with graphics editors)   Aid in coordination of content w/other medium (i.e. print or web)   Copy edit sections for content, design and style 

MANAGING EDITORS REPSONSIBILTIES:  Run brainstorming sessions   Address concerns of writers that section editors can not address   Select content with input of section editors    Edit sections for content, design and style   Assign pages and page numbers for sections (N/A to Web   Make sure ads are placed in conjunction with business staff   Maintain story board   Set production calendar in conjunction with editors‐in‐chief   

EDITOR-IN-CHIEFS REPSONSIBILTIES:  Oversee operations of the organization, including business, public relations and coordination of the  three staffs   Run general meetings with respective managing editor and web staff   Run editorial board meetings and write editorials in conjunction with managing editors   Look over articles (as needed) and pages in final form and handle relations with printer   Set publication dates and deadlines   Responsible for the public relations and teasing articles on TVs   Final voice in ethical issues   Submit paper and articles to contests 


Editorial Policies LETTERS TO THE EDITOR The paper encourages the public to write letters to the editor in order to help it fill its role of being a vehicle for the free exchange of ideas. All letters to the editor must be signed. As tempting as it may be to include letters from anonymous writers, the paper believes that submitters of letters should put their names to their ideas and opinions. The editors reserve the write to edit pieces for clarity and length without changing the meaning or tone of the letter. The staff also reserves the right not to publish any letter or part of a letter due to content, accuracy, libel and poor taste. The paper will print letters without reply or rebuttal. The paper will publish at least one unsigned editorial an issue that represents the position of the majority of editors chosen to participate on the board. The board shall be comprised of at least one page editor from each of the sections of the paper and other invited guests. COMMENTS ON THE WEB PAGE The web encourages the public to comment on its stories that appear on the web. Unlike the paper, however, readers may do so anonymously or by leaving their name. In accordance with guidelines from the Student Press Law Center, web editors may not alter or add to a comment that appears on the web. Editors may either accept or deny the comment in full. Altering a comment then makes the comment the property of the website and subjects the paper to any libel, invasion of privacy or charges that may come with it. Comments that are later run in the print edition of Inklings should have a name in full, as keeping with the Letter to the editor policy. IN THE ADVENT OF ERRORS It is the policy of the paper to correct wrong information as quickly as possible after its publication. When warranted, the editors-in-chief may reserve space in the opinions section to respond to issues or criticism of the paper. The paper encourages the public to hold it accountable when there is a grievance with its journalism and work. AVOID CONFLICTS OF INTEREST Whenever possible, editors should avoid conflicts of interest with regards to students writing about teachers, coaches or clubs in or with which the reporter has a relationship or interest. The paper recognizes that objectivity in such situations is difficult to maintain.


ADVERTISING The editors control the advertising space of the paper. They have the right to run or not run any advertisement submitted to them due to content, taste, or political affiliation. Inklings will not run advertisements that promote products harmful to teens. Inklings also recognizes the wall that exists between its advertisers and the editorial freedom of its writers. Inklings will not use its power of publication to further its advertising income. CENSORSHIP The editorial staff understands and operates under the Hazelwood vs. Kuhlmeir, 1988, decision. In short, a schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s principal can censor an article under the following terms set down by the Supreme Court in the decision. The conditions are as follows: 1) The article is obscene or vulgar. 2) The articleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s content invades personal privacy of student or students. 3) The content is poorly written and grammatically incorrect. 4) The content is libelous. 5) The content is not consistent with the general educational mission of the school. Although the paper operates under Hazelwood, the paper has been a recognized public forum for the expression of student thought. The staff will work hard to represent the thoughts of its readers and writers while following the guidelines set forth by Hazelwood. PHOTOGRAPHY Inklings recognizes that photographers are journalists and add an important dimension to the newspaper and its mission of being a reliable, independent news source. Photographers must adhere to the following tenets from the Society of Professional Photographers code of ethics: 1. Maintain a high quality of service and a reputation for honesty and fairness. 2. Oppose censorship and protect the copyrights and moral rights of other creators. 3. Respect the privacy of one's subjects. 4. Photograph as honestly as possible, provide accurate captions, and never intentionally distort the truth in news photographs. 5. Never alter the content or meaning of a news photograph, and prohibit subsequent alteration. 6. Disclose any alteration and manipulation of content or meaning in editorial feature or illustrative photographs and require the publisher to disclose that distortion or any further alteration. INTERNET Inklings maintains a web site. All materials published in the newspaper can be subject to printing on the internet. All policies and guidelines that apply to the paper apply to the internet.


PRIOR REVIEW The principal has the right to prior review of the finished paper before it is sent to the printer. Currently, the principal has asked for prior review of articles dealing with the police and when the assistant principals are quoted. STUDENT DEATH POLICY Should a student or faculty member die at any time during the current coverage period, the staff will treat the death in a tasteful manner. A short obituary with the individualâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name, school activities, date of birth, date and manner of death (if appropriate) and any other information shall appear in the news section. This treatment will provide an adequate testimonial to the individual for those closely associated while not overemphasizing the death for other readers. In the case of a suicide, the article will not mention how the student committed suicide but will only say "took his or her life" and will refrain from material that memorializes the individual.

SURVEYS AND POLLS Numbers are powerful pieces of information, and they are no different than quotations or paraphrased research gathered by a reporter. Numbers, like quotes, must attributed and placed into appropriate context for the reader. Inklings does conduct surveys and polls of the student body. When doing so, the paper must be careful to follow sound rules and guidelines to assure the reader understands the reliability of the numbers. POLLS For a poll to be conducted and labeled as such, reporters must do the following: 1) Get a fair sample. â&#x20AC;&#x153;For a poll to have a statistically high chance of representing not just those surveyed but the population at large, every member of the group to be surveyed must have an equal possibility of being included in the survey sample,â&#x20AC;? according to Journalism Today. This creates a random sample. Only when a sample is large and random will the paper be able to represent facts and figures with a 95 percent reliability confidence. i. Conducting a poll during the three lunch waves of the school does not qualify as a random sample. The population is not random. The pollster gathered the answers of students willing to leave their lunch to answer questions. What of students who do not eat in the cafeteria or were not in school that day?


2) Follow these sample sizes for 95 percent reliability: Population Sample size Infinite . . . . . . 384 500,000 . . . . . 384 100,000 . . . . . .383 50,000 . . . . . . .381 5,000 . . . . . . . .357 3,000 . . . . . . . .341 2,000 . . . . . . . . 322 1,000 . . . . . . . . 278 500 . . . . . . . . . 100


Business Practices Inklings believes that the school paper should operate as an independent and interest free voice in the school community. Part of maintaining editorial independence comes through raising funds through subscription and ad sales. Furthermore, if Inklings is to remain a viable vehicle for teaching its writers and editors how media operates in a free society, the paper and its staff must engage in the same kinds of practices as professional media. Producing a viable product supported by business is one of those important practices. In order to sell ads and subscriptions, one has to understand the valuable role Inklings and all school newspapers play in the lives and education of students. Ten reasons school news papers are important: 1. Provides a reliable and independent source of information for and by students about school and other events of direct concern to them. 2. Develops the habit of looking forward and reading a newspaper, an important characteristic of concerned citizens. 3. Underscores the importance of the press as an essential element in maintaining a free and democratic nation. 4. Serves as a practical example of the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s belief in the value of becoming a habitual reader, inside and outside of the classroom. 5. Promotes a sense of school unity and belonging at a time when many students feel estranged from schools as communities. 6. Demonstrates the level of journalistic writing and ethics that readers should expect and student writers can attain. 7. Broadens studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; interest in and awareness of the multiple curricular and extracurricular activities the school offers. 8. Encourages students to appreciate balanced, objective reporting through reading of issues close to them. 9. Offers a forum in which students may express their opinions and learn the responsibilities and rights of the American press. 10. Helps prepare students for their future roles and the part newspapers play in helping become and keep informed.

Top 10 reasons why advertisers should advertise with Inklings 1.

Inklings is a nationally recognized scholastic news paper, winning numerous awards for its writing, layout, editing, and coverage. The paper has received goal medals for ten years in a row from the Columbia Scholastic Press Association and has been names the best newspaper in the State of Connecticut by the Hartford Courant. 2. Westport teenagers, the paperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s primary audience, come from homes with household incomes of $170,000 on average. 3. Inklings distributes to nearly two thousand students in school and mails home the paper to over 400 household subscribers


4. Good will is generated by businesses that support the local school and its activities. 5. The paper strives to remain as editorially independent from the school as possible. Ad sales go a long way to maintaining the integrity of the student voice. 6. The paper is distributed to a captive audience of teenagers who enjoy the paperâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s articles and coverage. 7. The paper is available on the web thereby broadening the audience for advertisers. 8. The advertising staff can tailor advertising messages to target timely events and local interests. 9. In a recent survey, 80 percent of the student body said that they â&#x20AC;&#x153;regularly readâ&#x20AC;? the paper when it comes out. Teachers complain that they have to continually ask students to put the paper away in class. 10. The paper has competitive advertising rates that provide an economically effective advertising tool to reach an important local demographic.

Advertising Sales leads Armed with the philosophical underpinnings of why scholastic journalism is important and why businesses should advertise within in the school community, below are businesses which commonly advertise in scholastic papers: Animal hospitals Athletic stores Attorneys Banks Beauty salons Bike stores Bookstores Bowling Lanes Camera stores Car care facilities Car dealers Chiropractors Churches with teen programs Cleaners Clothing stores Coffee houses Community colleges Computer stores Dance studios Dentists / orthodontists Driving Schools Drugstores

Family planning services Florists Frame shops Grocery stores Gyms Ice skating rinks Insurance companies Jewelry stores Lawn services Local newspapers Modeling schools Phone centers Pizza places Printing stores Realtors Restaurants Sandwich shops Shoe stores Stationary stores Tuxedo rentals Vision centers


What Inklings advertising can offer, what it cannot offer, and how reps should act When going out into the business world to sell Inklings advertising, each staff member needs to understand what the paper can offer advertisers and what they cannot. Staff members selling ads are the first primary contact businesses have with the paper, so to ensure a smooth business advertising contract, this information should be at the ready if questions arise: What you can promise advertisers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Guaranteed placement of advertisement in specific issues. Guaranteed size of ads (full, half, quarter 1/8 and business card) Excellent graphic and typography quality of ads 10 percent discount for year-long ad campaigns Prompt billing Effective communication with business department Student models

What you can not offer advertisers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

A promise to exclude competing businesses if an ad is taken Naming rights or labels like “the Official Pizza of Staples High School” Placement of an ad in certain sections or next to specific articles To become the subject of a future story if an ad is taken Four-color printing or spot-color printing

How you should act 1. Dress well, look put together. Businesses will immediately judge the paper on how you present yourself. Dress as if you were on a college interview. 2. Have copies of the latest Inklings with you to show businesses the quality of the paper and examples of businesses already advertising with the paper. 3. Be sensitive to when you ask for an ad. If you go to a “Robecks” after school when half of Westport is in line for its product, you might end up angering the manager. If busy, ask if this is a good time to talk about advertising or when a good time would be. 4. Avoid calling. You know how you feel about tele-marketers? You just became one when you call a business to take out an advertisement. 5. When you arrive, say “Hello” and tell them your name. At the end, whether they take an ad out or not, say “Thank you.” 6. STRANGER DANGER: Never agree to come back to sell an ad after business hours. REMEMBER: Advertisements must adhere to the journalistic ethics of the paper. The staff reserves the right not to run advertising products or services that may harm students. 54

Form Letters and Business forms (cut, paste and edit into new document accordingly)

Inklings Staples High School • 70 North Avenue • Westport, Conn. 06880 • Phone (203) 341-1449 •


Business Person, Title Name of Company Street Address City, State, Zip Code Dear Mr./ Mrs. / Ms. / Miss Name: With another school year just begun, we want to thank you again for your support of Inklings, Staples High School’s scholastic newspaper. We hope you will chose to advertise again during the coming year and perhaps decide to increase the amount of advertising you choose to place in our pages. Enclosed is a copy of our current space rates, along with this year’s scheduled publication dates. One of our staff sale representatives will be calling on you soon. Sincerely,

Advertising Manager Enclosure


Inklings Ad Rates 70 North Avenue Westport, CT 06880 Tel: (203) 341-1994

Circle desired size: Full page 1/2 page 1/4 page Card

Full page $300 9” × 14” 9” × 14”

9” × 14” 9” × 7” 4.5” × 7” <2.5” × <4.5”

Name of business:

Contact person:

Mailing address:

1/2 page $150 1/4 page $90 9” × 7” 4.5” × 7” Phone:


Needs custom design ($10 one-time charge)? Yes


Card $30

Total Cost:

Issues ad will run (circle all that apply): Individual - in one issue (full price) Seasonal - in 5 issues (10% off listed price) Annual – in all 12 issues (20% off listed price)

E-mail your ad in JPEG, TIFF, or PDF format to: Thank you for supporting scholastic press! Visit our website at


Inklings Staples High School • 70 North Avenue • Westport, Conn. 06880 • Phone (203) 341-1449 •

Advertising Contract Date: __________________________ Business or Organization: ________________________ Name of Purchaser _________________________________ Street Address ___________________________________________________________________________________ City _________________________

Advertising Deadlines Issue Deadline 1 *** 2 Sep. 23 3 Oct. 21 4 Nov. 11 5 Dec. 2 6 Dec. 16 7 Jan. 20 8 Feb. 10 9 March 9 10 April 5 11 April 27 12 May 25 13 June 15

State ____ Zip _______________________ Phone _____________________

Publication Date Aug 30 Sep. 30 Oct. 28 Nov. 18 Dec. 9 Dec 23. Jan. 27 Feb. 17 March 16 April 13 May 4 June 1 June 22

Ad material due on or before deadline date for each issue

Terms Prepaid ads running every issue receive a 10 percent discount. Payment is due within 30 days of billing. Notification of changes, cancellation should be made within at least a month before date scheduled for insertion. Advertisements must conform to the standards of ethical journalism. Advertisers will receive a copy of the issue containing each insertion of their ad upon publication. We do not guarantee position placement of the ad, only that it will run in the issue contracted.

Advertising Agreement: The above named advertiser wishes to insert the following ads in the issue(s) indicated: Size of Ad


On of Insertions

Date of 1st Insertion

Total Price

Applicable one-time Charge: Applicable Discount: Price to be billed: ______________________ Frequency of Insertion:

Preparation of Ad:

Method of Payment:

____ In successive issues

____ every other issue

____ quarterly

____ one issue only

____ advertiser furnishes camera=ready copy

____ repeat ad each issue per this contract

____ newspaper staff to design, prepare ad.*

____ phone each issue re possible changes

____ prepaid; check received before date of publication ____ to be billed after publication

Signed: Business Rep _________________________________________________ Title: ____________________ Newspaper Bus. Manager: _______________________________________ 

Title: ____________________

Please provide description of ad desired on back of this page or on separate sheet.


Inklings Staples High School • 70 North Avenue • Westport, Conn. 06880 • Phone (203) 341-1994 •

Invoice Date ___________________________________ To: Business or Organization ________________________________________________________________________ Street Address ___________________________________________________________________________________ City ________________________________ State __________________ Zip Code __________________________ Billing / Payment Record of Advertising Placed in School Paper Date of Insertion

Description: Ad size of type of charge

Amount Due

To our advertiser: Payment is due within 30 days of receipt of your bill. If you wish to purchase additional space or make changes in copy scheduled for future issues, please contact the newspaper advertising manager. Thank you for your support of newspaper and our school. _______________________________________________ Business Manager _ _ _

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _

PLEASE CUT OUT AND RETURN WITH PAYMENT Mail Payment to: Inklings 70 North Ave. Westport, CT 06880

Company Name _________________________________________ Address ________________________________________________ City _________________ State _____________ ZIP Code _______

Issue Date _________________

Amount Enclosed ______________


Inklings Staples High School • 70 North Avenue • Westport, Conn. 06880 • Phone (203) 341-1449 •

Model Release In exchange for consideration received, I hereby give permission to Inklings to use my name and photographic likeness in all forms and media for advertising trade, and any other lawful purposes.

Print Name: ___________________________________________

Signatures: ____________________________________________

If model is under 18: I, _______________________________, am the parent/guardian of the individual named above, and I have read this release and approve of its terms.

Print Name: ____________________________________________

Signature: ______________________________________________ Date: ____________________________________________________



Inklings Handbook  

Inklings Handbook