Page 1



INDEX Unit – I ................................................................... 3 Lesson 1: Introduction ........................................... 4 Lesson 2: Transferring and tracing designs .......... 17 Unit – II ............................................................... 28 Lesson 3: Applique Work ...................................... 29 Lesson 4: Quilting ................................................ 43 Unit-III ................................................................ 52 Lesson 5: Mirror Work .......................................... 53 Lesson 6: Bead Work ............................................ 61 Lesson 7: Metal Thread Embroidery ..................... 72 Lesson 8: Lace Work ............................................ 81 Lesson 9: White Work .......................................... 90 Lesson 10: Smocking............................................ 95 Unit - V ............................................................... 108 Lesson 11: Sewing Equipment and Supplies ....... 109 Lesson 12: Basic Hand Stitches .......................... 123 Lesson 13: Basic Seams ..................................... 135 Lesson 14: Tie and Dye along with Practical Exercises ............................................................ 145 Lesson 15: Batik ................................................. 164 Lesson 16: Stencil, Screen and Block Printing .... 175



Books for Further Reference .............................. 208

Unit – I

Lesson 1: Introduction- Embroidery



Lesson 2: Transferring and tracing designs

Lesson 1: Introduction Objectives: In this lesson, we learn that: Why fabric decoration has become important for our lives. Some basic embroidery stitches. Kinds of machines used for machine embroidery.

Structure 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Embroidery 1.3 Machine Embroidery

1.1 Introduction


Fabric decoration like any other craft is the outcome of the burning hunger latent in human beings for beauty and for introducing grace and elegance into the ordinary objects of every day use. The history of fabric decoration takes us to the prehistoric times. Felting, knotting, braiding, were the very first techniques of decoration used by man followed by applique, embroidery, interlacing to weave, and resist dyeing. As technology expanded,


Colour, form, movement and sounds have been universally recognized as media for the expression of art. What ever be the medium, the purpose of all art two-fold, self-expression and communication of values.

machines were invented for stitching and embroidery. With the inventions of computer variety of decorated fabrics have flooded the market but no piece holds so much value as a hand executed piece does. Various creative techniques of fabric artistry like applique work, metal thread work, bead work, mirror work, smocking, cut work and embroidery have been explained in this book.

1.2 Embroidery



Embroidery is the embellishment of fabric enriching it with a needle and thread. It has also been referred to as “painting with the needle�. Gaining an understanding of the overall historical development is not an easy task, but understanding the origins perhaps makes it easier to see why there are many and varied techniques which come under the general heading of embroidery. Some embroidery stitches undoubtedly have their foundation in early textile, basketry, mat-making and weaving; others have developed from early sewing where stitches were used for joining pieces of fabric or skins together for specific ornamental purposes.




Techniques to embroider some basic stitches have been shown below.





Running Stitch Running stitch is made up of short even stitches. It can be worked in straight lines for seams or in curves for linear motifs and lettering. Backstitch & Whipped Back Stitch Backstitch & Whipped Back Stitch is perfect precise line embroidery worked without piercing the fabric, whipping the stitch gives it a bolder appearance. Split Stitch Split stitch can be used for both lines and fillings. As each following stitch is made, the needle pierces and splits the previous stitch. Simple Couching A linear stitch, simple couching is useful for applying threads that are too thick to pass easily through closely woven fabrics. Stem Stitch Stem stitch is used for line motif and script lettering. The stitches can be worked at more of an angle to the line for a wider line Satin Stitch Closely worked parallel satin stitches are popular for solid motifs and fancy monograms. Cross Stitch Cross-stitch can be completed singly, or worked in a row in two journeys. They can also be worked on even weave fabric or freehand.


Also called buttonhole stitch, blanket stitch has many variations including the crossed version shown here next to it.


Blanket Stitch & Crossed Button Hole Stitch

Closed Buttonhole Stitch These two variations of closed buttonhole stitch make good patchwork seam decoration when worked large and in a thick thread. Fanned Buttonhole Stitch



The first long, straight buttonhole stitch on each of the fans of this ornate seam embellishment should be placed close to the seam line.



Chain Stitch and Open Chain Stitch The line of stitches is worked away from the embroiderer. Using both types of stitch makes lines.

Feather Stitch



This stitch is similar to buttonhole stitch bad open chain stitch. It is worked in any direction, depending on where the stitches are being embroidered.

Fly Stitch The stitch holding the „Vâ€&#x; shape in place can be made longer. The stitch can be used singly, or in rows to make patterns. It is also used to hold down strips of fabric and baids.

Herringbone Stitch This is a very versatile stitch. The diagram shown is being worked in the usual way, but the stitches only have to be worked closer together another row worked on top, o the row interlaced and the effect changes. If the stitches are worked close together (close herringbone stitch), the small amount of thread on the reverse of the fabric will appear as a double back-stitch.



When close herringbone stitch is worked on a semitransparent fabric the reverse is used as the face of the embroidery, and the result is called shadow work.

French Knots Bring the thread out at the required position, hold the thread down with the left thumb and encircle the thread twice with the needle as at A. still holding the thread firmly, twist the needle back to the starting point and insert it close to where the thread first emerged (see arrow). Pull thread through to the back and secure for a single French Knot or pass on to the position of the next stitch as at B.


Pick up a back stitch, the size of the Bullion stitch required bringing the needle point out where it first emerged, do not pull the needle right through the fabric. Twist the thread round the needlepoint as many times as required at equal the space of the back stitch. Hold the left thumb on the coiled thread and pull the needle through; still holding the thread, turn the needle back to where it was inserted (see arrow) and insert in same place (A). Pull thread through until the bullion stitch lies flat. Use a needle with a small eye to allow the thread to pass through the coils easily.


Bullion Stitch

1.3 Machine Embroidery Machine embroidery uses compact zigzag stitches of various lengths. Two kinds of machines used for machine embroidery.


b) Multithread embroidery creates flat embroidery are pile embroidery. They are called multithread because several machines are operated by the same computer system simultaneously Multithread machines are extremely versatile and can work with a variety of threads, ribbons, or bead/sequin strands. They can incorporate one or more colors of threads to create elaborate or simple designs in small or large scale. They create designs and emblems that are sewn to products such as letter


a) The shuttle embroidery machine is computer controlled and produces all over embroidered fabrics such as eyelet. Eyelet is an embroidered fabric with small round hole cut in the fabric, with stitching completely around the holes. The closures and the amount of stitching as well as the quality of the background fabric vary tremendously.



jackets, hats, and shirts or they are used to stitch crests, logos and other designs on finished items.

Lesson 2: Transferring and

tracing designs Objectives: This lesson tells us about-The different methods of tracing a design on the fabric.

Structure 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

Transfers Single impression transfer instructions Multi-print Transfer Instructions Tracing Methods Practical Exercise

2.1 Transfers There are two types of transfer the single impression and the multiprint. As the name implies, the single impression may only be used once. The multi-print can give up to eight impressions, depending upon the type and weight of fabric used. Generally on fine fabric the maximum number of impressions is obtained, on heavier fabric fewer, as thicker fabric absorbs the transfer ink. An iron heated to the required temperature and applied on to the wrong side of a transfer design for a few seconds, release the ink.


Cut away all lettering from the transfer. Heat the iron to a fairly hot temperature –„woolâ€&#x;. It is important to test the heat of the iron first with the cut-out lettering on a piece of fabric the same as, or


2.2 Single impression transfer instructions

similar to that being used fir the embroidery. When satisfied with the result, proceed by placing the transfer sheet face downwards on the fabric in required position and secure with steel dressmaking pins. Apply iron for a few seconds and remove. Carefully lift a corner of the transfer paper to check that the design has come off satisfactorily; if not re-apply iron. If the transfer paper sticks slightly to the fabric. Gently run the iron over the paper and peel off, removing pins gradually. Take care not to move either the transfer or the fabric. Otherwise the impression will smudge.

2.3 Multi-print Transfer Instructions Cut away all lettering from transfer. Heat iron to a hot temperature -"Cotton". Repeat from to Single Impression Institutions. To help protect the fabric from the direct heat of the iron, tissue paper may be placed round the transfer. Apply iron for a few seconds and remove. Carefully lift a corner of the transfer paper to check that a satisfactory impression has been obtained. If not, allow transfer to cool for a few minutes and re-apply iron. Take care to move the transfer or fabric, otherwise a double impression will be obtained.



Always embroider to the outside edge of a transfer line, so that the embroidery stitches cover the transfer ink.

2.4 Tracing Methods An embroiders who has created her own design will require to trace it on to a selected fabric. Many embroidery designs are produced in such a way that the embroiders either has to follow a large tracing sheet or make a tracing from an actual size reproduction of the design. We give four methods and the embroiders may select the one she prefers. 1. The simplest method is with the use of carbon paper. Yellow or light blue carbon paper may be used on dark colored fabric, black or dark blue carbon on light colored fabric. Place the carbon paper in position face downwards on the fabric, then place the drawing or tracing of the design on top. Draw over all the lines with a sharp pointed pencil. Care must be taken to press only on the lines of the design, otherwise the carbon may smudge the fabric.


3. The design can be traced directly on to fine transparent fabric such as organdie, nylon or fine silk, by placing the design underneath the fabric and painting over the lines with water color paints or tracing with a soft pencil.


2. Trace the design on to firm tracing paper, then with a needle, prick small holes over all the lines, spacing the holes evenly about 1/6th inch apart. Rub the back of the pricked with fine sandpaper to remove the roughness. Place the pricked design on to the fabric and keep in position with weights. Rub powdered charcoal (for the light colored fabric) or powdered chalk (for dark colored fabric) through the holes. Remove the tracing paper and blow off the surplus powder from the fabric. Paint over the dotted lines of powder with water-color paint, using a fine brush and not too much water. Use the dark or light colored paint depending upon the color of the fabric.

4. On very coarse or textured fabric, the pile makes it difficult to trace or paint a design. In the case, trace the drawing on to fine tracing paper baste the paper in position on the fabric, then carefully mark over all the lines of the design with small Running stitches. The drawing can be torn away before the embroidery is commenced. Remove all basting stitches after the completion of the embroidery.

2.5 Practical Exercise 1. Each student is required to execute each of these stitches on fine casement of white color (size 18 30 ). The stitches can be worked in rows using different colors. This embroidered casement has to be window mounted on A3 size black sheet and labelled as shown. The window mounting has to be double so that the wrong side of the embroidered fabric can be seen.



2. Using a cartridge sheet of size 18 30 (same size as fabric), paint the way each stitch looks. The color used to paint can be the same as that used to embroider that particular stitch [see the example].



Embroidered Stitches









Painted Stitches

Summary: Fabrics are decorated to enhance their beauty, grace and elegance. The different techniques of fabric decoration are embroidery, appliquĂŠ work, quilting, mirror, bead and lace work, etc. Embroidery can be done by hand using basic embroidery stitches or by machines for shuttle embroidery or multithread embroidery.

Revision Points: 1. Embroidery is done to decorate the fabric or garment to enhance its beauty and introduce grace and elegance. 2. There are innumerable techniques of embroidery. 3. Some stitches of embroidery are- chain, stem, satin, herring-bone, fly, feather, etc. 4. Machine-embroidery uses stitches of various lengths.



5. Two kinds of machine embroidery are shuttleembroidery and multi-thread embroidery.

Intext Questions: 1. Write a short note on the history and use of embroidery.



2. What are the two kinds of machine-embroidery? Explain.

Key Words: 1. Embroidery- It is the embellishment of fabric enriching it with a needle and thread. 2. Machine embroidery - Embroidery done with machines. It uses compact zig-zag stitches of various lengths. 3. Transfers - The designs that is traced on the fabric. 4. Single impression transfer - When the paper from which the design is transferred can be used only once.



5. Multi print transfer - When the paper from which the design is transferred can be used for a number of times.

Unit – II

Lesson 3 - Applique work



Lesson 4 - Quilting

Lesson 3: Applique Work Objectives: The objective of this lesson is to increase our knowledge in: Area in India where this work in specific to. Significance of appliqué work. Different methods of doing appliqué work. Difference between appliqué work, patch, and patch work.

Structure: 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Introduction Traditional Applique Work of India Patch Work Practical Exercises

3.1 Introduction:


Fabrics with various surface textures, prints, checks, stripes can be used to make cut outs that are arranged in a creative way on the base fabric to give rise to an interesting end product.


Appliqué is a fabric cut out attached to the surface of a larger piece of fabric. There are various ways in which an applique or cut out can be attached to the fabric surface. Embroidery stitches such as buttonhole, satin, couching, running and machine stitching can be used to attach the appliques. This adds color and texture to the fabric surface.

The appliques are usually named after the treatment given to their raw edges – for example. 1. Raw edge applique Edges of the cutout are not finished or turned under. The cutout may be secured with straight stitches, multi stitch –zig zag or free motion stitching. Because the edges are not emphasized the cutout seems to merge with the background fabric. 2. Satin –stitched applique Tightly spaced zigzag stitches form a small ridge around the cut out accenting the edges and giving the applique prominence. 3. Couched applique Cutouts are secured by couching a decorative cord around the outer edge, creating a ridge and finishing the cut edges. 4. Button hole appliques are the ones where the raw edges are finished using button hole stitch. 5. Chain stitched applique is where the raw edges are finished by using chain stitch. Beads, sequins and different colors of embroidery threads enhance the look of applique work.



6. Lined applique. Each cutout is lined to the edge. Pieces can be applied to lie flat on the surface or secured with internal stitches that allow the edges to rise, revealing the lining and creating a three dimensional effect.



How to Sew a Lined Applique 1. Trace desired shape onto wrong side of lining fabric. Place lining fabric over applique fabric, right sides together; pin stitch all around design, using short stitches. Stitch again just outside first row of stitches.



2. Trim close to second stitching line. Cut small slit in lining, away from outer edge. If applique is dimensional, slit lining in area that will not be exposed.

3. Turn applique right side out through slit. Push out any curves or points, using narrow, blunt tool, such as a cuticle stick; press



4. Blind Stitch Method-Stitch any internal design lines. Pin applique to background fabric. Thread machine with invisible nylon thread; blindstitch on back-ground fabric as close to applique as possible , just catching edge with left hand swing of needle.

5. Dimensional Method-Stitch any internal design lines not intended to decure applique. Secure applique to background fabric along remaining internal design lines, hiding slit in lining.



6. Sculpted Method-Stitch any internal design lines not intended to secure applique. Manipulate applique as desired secure to background fabric with additional stitching on internal design lines.

7. Negative Applique also called reverse applique. Unlike other methods in which appliques sewn on top of the surface fabric, negative applique methods involve the removal of surface fabric to reveal applique fabric layered underneath, the technique may be as simple as cutting opening in the top fabric and treating the cut edges in a manner similar to raw edge applique.

How to Sew Negative Applique a) Cut openings in surface fabric discard cutouts. Spray wrong side of surface fabric with temporary fabric adhesive. Place applique fabrics facedown over openings on wrong side of surface fabric.



b) Stitch over openings from right side using desired stitching techniques such as free motion stippling or thread sketching or machine guided decorative stitches.

8. Roped or Striped Applique: Strips of fabric, decorative yarns, ropes, cords can be secured forming various designs to the fabric surface producing interesting effects. Invisible hemming or slip stitch is used to secure the strips to the fabric.


Sample showing how strips of triangles are made.


3.2 Traditional Applique Work of India

Various ways to different shapes






Many fabrics are constructed through cut and fold methods and the shapes produced are then appliqued to a cloth using invisible hemming. Different shapes made to link other fabric pieces together. Shapes and motifs can be held down with an ordinary sewing thread, or by some type of embroidery stitch that is both functional and decorative.


The art of applique work has been practised in India for a very long time. Gujarat, Rajasthan and Orissa are famous for traditional applique work, where banners, cannopies, bags, quilts, and long friezes are made using this technique.

Part of Cover, Rajasthan, 1980s



Sample showing the process used to achieve the border



Traditional applique' work cover from Rajasthan where the Borders and corners are worked with negative applique.

Traditional Applique work from Orissa (Pipli) where the cut-outs are attached to the base fabric using chain stitch in white colour thread. This gives white outline to the design.

3.3 Patch Work



Applique is the technique of applying one piece of fabric to another by means of stitchery. Patchwork is sometimes not easy to distinguish from applique, both being put on to the ground cloth. However, a patch is normally used to mend a worn fabric or to cover a hole and this can be done in a decorative way. Patchwork consists of small pieces of cut fabric joined together side by side to make a larger piece of fabric. This technique is found in many parts of the world, and is a delightful way to create decorative fabrics.



A decorative heart shaped cushion is made by joining small pieces of fabric side by side. Beads have been attached with hand on the seams to give an interesting effect.

3.4 Practical Exercises 1. Each student is required to cut out different shapes out of waste fabrics (of same or different print checks/strips/plain) and applique them on a casement fabric of size 10 10 (any color). The shapes can be geometrical or floral. The size of the shapes should such that they are accommodated on 10 10 of the fabric . The appliques have to be finished in all different ways as explained in the chapter for example.



2. This applique fabric has to be double window mounted on an A3 size sheet. The wrong side of the sample should be visible labeling is not required to be done on the sample.

Lesson 4: Quilting Objectives: Objectives of this lesson are: To know what is quilting and where is it done. Where is it traditionally done.

Structure 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Practical Exercise

4.1 Introduction:



Quilting is an embroidery technique in which two or three fabrics are sewn together to make a warm and also often decorative, fabric. The process makes a whole from pieces of discarded fabric and rags, and is a very effective way of recycling old and worn fabrics.

Layers of fabrics in quilting are secured to each other by creating various designs by hand or machine embroidery. Traditionally, quilting is done in Gujarat West Bengal and Bihar, where discarded and worn out fabrics are used to make decorative bed spreads and quilts. Kantha the traditional embroidery of West Bengal is executed on a quilted base. This gives a rippled effect to the base. The sujani quilt from Bihar also uses a quilted base.



Kantha Embroidery from Bengal done on quilted base


embroidery is


Sujani quilt from Bihar where done on a quilted base



Creative designs formed during quilting using the simple running stitch



Various designs in which running stitch is executed during quilting

4.1 Practical Exercise 1. Each student is required to make 10 10 sample of using the quilting technique. 2. Taking a piece of ½ meter white muslin cloth, fold it into 8 folds. At this stage the size of the folded fabric should be 12 12 . The fabric size always reduces to some extent on quilting the reason why the initial size should be bigger by 2 on either side.

3. Using a contrasting color anchor thread (2 strands) execute running stitch on the folds, making sure that some design is formed. All the 8 folds should be picked up by the needle at one time.



4. Double window mount this sample on an A3 size sheet.

Summary: Appliqué is a fabric cut-out attached to the surface of another fabric. There are various methods of doing appliqué workRaw-edge appliqué Satin-stitched Couched Button-hole Chained stitched Lined Negative Roped/Striped Quilting is a technique where old and discarded fabrics are sewn together and embroidered and made re-usable.

Revision Points 1. Applique is a fabric cut-out attached to the surface of a larger piece of fabric. 2. Fabrics of various textures, prints, checks, stripes can be used to make the cut-outs in a creative way. 3. Different techniques of appliqué work are rawedge, satin-stitched, couched, buttonholed, chain-stitched, lined, negative and roped/striped appliqué.


5. Quilting is a fabric decoration technique in which two or more fabrics are sewn together to make a warm and decorative fabric


4. Traditionally the art of appliqué work is practiced in Gujrat, Rajasthan & Orissa.

6. Traditionally it is done in Gujrat, West Bengal, and Bihar.

Intext questions: I Fill in the blanks: a) Traditionally appliqué work is famous _________, _________ & ________. b) Negative appliqué is also as_________________ appliqué.



c) The technique of sewing 2 or 3 fabrics together is called____________. d) Traditionally quilting is done in __________, __________ & ____________ states of India. II Write short notes on: a) Patch b) Patchwork c) Sujani



d) Kantha-work

Key words: AppliquĂŠ: a fabric cut-out attached to the surface of a longer piece of fabric. Patch: a piece of fabric normally used to mend a torn fabric. Patchwork: small pieces of cut fabrics joined together side-by-side to make a longer piece of fabric. Kantha: traditional embroidery of West Bengal with a quilted base.



Sujani quilt: traditional quilted base from Bihar.


Lesson 5: Mirror work Lesson 6: Bead Work



Lesson 7: Metal thread embroidery

Lesson 5: Mirror Work Objectives: From this lesson we learn: Area in India where this work is specific to. Technique for attaching a mirror. The use of mirrors and embroidery together for fabric decoration.

Structure 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4

Introduction Mirror Work Mirror Case Practical Exercise

5.1 Introduction:



This embroidery technique is particular to India. Mirror work is also called shisha (glass) work is thought to have been developed by the wife of Shah Jahan, who built the Taj Mahal at Agra in her honour. This technique gained popularity in the seventeenth century. It may have come to India from Baluchistan (now part of Pakistan), or it may have originated in the Gujarat and spread to Rajasthan and the Deccan.

5.2 Mirror Work



Five bands of embroidery using mirror work: (a) belt, Banjara, Central India; (b) belt, Southern India; (c) wedding scarf, Kutch, Gujarat; (d) border of a shawl, Kutch, Gujarat; (e) border of a skirt, Kutch, Gujarat

During the Mughal Empire, a process was developed for making glass from sand, lime and soda in a small furnace. From this, glass mirror was produced for all kinds of uses, one of these being in embroidery. Today, brown glass is silvered and the spheres broken into a few curved pieces and these in turn are cut with a small, pointed implement into long, thin, oblong pieces. The pieces are then cut into squares and triangles by hand, using the same implement. Scissors are used to make circles and to trim other shapes. The blades of the scissors are loosely hinged so that the inner edges form „Vâ€&#x; shape.



In Gujarat it is mainly the women, living in the kutch and Saurashtra areas who use mirrors in their embroideries. Today they are used in many parts of India. Nomads, who still travel through Rajasthan, Gujarat and the Deccan plateau, use mirrors and the , women embroider the fabric densely round these mirror so that virtually nothing of the background fabric is visible.



The mirror comes in several sizes and shapesround, square, triangular, large, small and minute. The mirrors have no holes with which to sew them down, so the surrounding threads, usually with a form of herringbone stitch.

5.3 Mirror Case a) The base stitch b) The first top stitch c) The top stitch used to pull the base threads out to form a neat center. Top stitches could be any of the above. Round mirrors are the most commonly used. The mirror is normally first held in place with two vertical and two horizontal threads, fairly close together; these base threads can be developed as a decorative form in themselves. The tension of the base stitches is important as they get pulled out towards the edges of the mirrors by the top stitching: too loose and the mirror falls out; too tight and the stitching is very difficult to pull out from the center to create a circle of stitches.


Very often mirror work is used with combination of bright colours. Mirrors are also used in the conjunction with a variety of other stitches, seen in the figure. Figure B shows a worked sample of some of the stitches used in this piece. A running stitch worked in a circular manner is seen at (a) The outer circle at (b) is chain stitch and other stitching is


Figure A

buttonhole (c) The circular motif, shown at (d) is all made in chain stitch, with the exception of the central circle which is produced by using both a chain stitch and a buttonhole stitch, as worked at (e)



Figure B: Sample showing some of the embroidery stitches surrounding the mirror work in Figure A.



5.4 Practical Exercise a) Each student is required to make a sample of different attachment methods of mirrors on fabric and also execute the stitches done around the mirrors. b) White casement of 10" x 10" is taken as the base fabric and mirrors are attached to it using different colours of embroidery threads or same colour, as desired by the student. c) The arrangement of mirrors on fabric is totally up to the student, herringbone, chain, cretan, button hole, pulled up method and ring attached method have to be executed.



d) The finished sample has to be double window mounted on an A3 size sheet.

Lesson 6: Bead Work

Objectives: This lesson teaches usArea in India where this work is famous for. Different kinds of beads. The techniques of attaching beads and sequins onto a fabric.

Structure 6.1 Introduction 6.2 How to Hand- Stitch Beads to Fabric

6.1 Introduction:



Beadwork punctuates the surface of a fabric with texture and dazzling color. Heavily beaded designs create a focal point on garment or quilt, while beads dispersed broadly over the fabric surface serve as a subtle accent. Beaded patterns may follow a transferred design of your choice or be incorporated into the fabric print.

62 Page

Sample of techniques: (a) cowrie shells; (b) beading, as seen in the beaded, (c) beading and buttons.

63 Page

Like mirror work, the tribes wandering through Rajasthan, Gujarat and Deccan plateau have spread the use of beads and cowrie shells in embroidery. Cowrie shells are sewn on to the main fabric in the center or in the corners or edges. Beetle wings have

been used as a form of sequin to create small shiny areas. Now sequins are made of metals, silver paper and more recently plastic. Cowrie shells, sequins, coins and buttons are used along with beads.

Beads can be made of almost any material, including glass, plastic, polymer clay, shell, bone,


The skill of bead work lies in grading of size and the use of colour.


Originally beads were of European origin. The bead industry in Venice exported articles with beads and then later beads them selves were exported.

wood, ceramic, metal, precious and semiprecious stone and paper. The appropriateness of the beads for any project depends not only on their size, shape and colour, but also their weight and cleaning methods. For instance, while glass beads are the most common, they also are much heavier than plastic, paper, or wood, which is something to consider for heavily beaded garment. Beads are categorized according to their shape. Seed beads (1) are small and round, with a center hole. They are sold loose or on cotton strings, intended to sewn separately or transferred to stronger beading thread for couching onto fabric Bugle bead. (2) are tubular, ranging in length from 2 to 4 mm. Drops (3) are pear-shaped, with a bole at the narrow end or lengthwise through the bead. Faceted beads (4), often transparent have flat surfaces that are cut or molded. Roundels (5) are flat, doughnut-shaped beads. Fancy beads (6) of various shapes, size, materials and hole placements have a wide range of decorative used. Strung beads, for couching onto fabric, include rhinestones (7), molded plastic pearls. (8), and cross-locked glass beads. (9). The methods used for stringing them vary, but all are intended to keep the beads from coming apart when the string is cut.


Stop stitch, Bring needle up through primary bead and seed bead on right side of fabric seed bead is called the „stopâ€&#x;. Bring needle back through primary bead then down through fabric to wrong side. The stitch is frequently used for attaching single large beads, or a bugle bead that stands on end, or a roundel.


6.2 How to Hand- Stitch Beads to Fabric



Dangle stitch, bring needle up through several beads on right side of fabric; the last bead, or the stop, is usually a small seed bead. Bring needle back through all beads except the stop bead, then down through fabric to wrong side. Knot thread on wrong side after each dangle stitch. This stitch is frequently used to create tassel.

Fence stitch, Bring needle up through a bugle bead, seed bead, and a second bugle bead take a short stitch so bugle beads stand on end. Repeat the stitch, creating the fence effect.


Backstitch, Bring needle up through three seed beads; slide beads down thread to fabric surface. Insert needle through fabric at end of third bead; bring needle back up through fabric between first and second beads, running needle also through second and third beads. Add three beads to needle


Edging stitch, Bring needle up through three seed beads. Take a short stitch so first and last beads rest next to each other; middle bead is suspended between them.

and repeat stitches. This is a secure stitch for sewing beads in a continuous line.



Filling stitch, Bring needle up through several beads actual number determined by width of space to fill in. Slide beads down the thread to fabric surface; insert needle back through fabric at end of last bead. Bring needle back up through fabric next to last bead; add several beads to needle and insert needle back through fabric next to first bead of previous row. Repeat, working closely spaced rows to fill in an area.

Net-Weaving on Fabric


Work the grid back and forth in zigzagging rows that run horizontally or vertically. Each row must have


Stitch a grid of beadwork on fabric to create an interesting border, fill in an isolated area, or accent the lines of a printed or woven check. To develop the rhythm of the stitch, it is easiest to work on an evenly spaced grid, either transferred to fabric or innate in the fabricâ€&#x;s weave or print. The beaded lines of the grid float on the fabrics surface, so it is recommended that, if the finished project will be handled or worn, the lines include no more than ten seed beads each. At each intersecting corner, a „point beadâ€&#x; is secured to the fabric, holding the entire grid in place.

the same even number of point beads; the last point bead in each row becomes the first point bead in the next row. For additional accents, secure unique beads in some of the squares of the grid.


2. Thread same number of seed beads as in step1; end with third point bead. Lay beads along next grid line in zigzag pattern. Secure point bead. Repeat to end of grid row. Begin second row, angling back in opposite direction, and securing point bead at fourth corner of Last square.


1. Secure thread at upper corner of grid; bring to the right side. Secure single seed bead (first point bead). Thread desired number of seed beads, ending with second point bead. Lay beads along diagonal grid line; secure second point bead at second corner.



3. Thread same number of seed beads as between all other point beads. Lay beads on grid line, closing square. Secure to fabric, running needle through point bead and fabric. Continue second row, adding new point beads only to corners that do not join first row. Continue net weaving until desired grid is complete.

Lesson 7: Metal Thread

Embroidery Objectives: Objectives of this lesson are: To learn about the kinds of thread used for metal thread embroidery and the fabrics which can be embellished by this method. The different techniques thread embroidery.



Structure 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Practical Exercise


Gold, Silver and other metals have been used to enrich embroideries in all parts of India for many years, and these are, perhaps, some of the oldest of all embroidery materials to have been used. In the tenth century, for instance, gold and silver embroidered slippers were exported to Babylon. Some of the processes are thought to have been introduced by the Portuguese. Fabrics which have been embellished by this method include velvet, satin, delicate silk, cotton and muslin, and metal work has been used to enrich trappings, umbrellas, hangings, floor pieces, clothing and other small articles.


7.1 Introduction:



Sample of metal-work techniques. The face of the embroidery is on the right, the reverse on the left.

All the techniques described are best worked on frame, as the fabric must be kept taut, and both hands need to be free to embroider. Purl is threaded through the needle while attaching to the fabric.

In the past, the gold and silver threads used were drawn gold and silver of a mixture of the two, or metal foil wrapped over a core of silk (today this is more likely to be cotton core). Originally the gold and silver wires and spangles would be just that; today they are imitated in other metals. Metallic ribbons are often used, giving broader lines and sympathetic finish to edges.


Purls are sometimes used with sequins, which can be slipped on to the pearl if the hole in the sequin in large enough. When sequins with small holes are used, only the fine sewing thread in the center of


Purls are used on their own in several ways; small lines can be created which twist round each other; a longer line can be put down with couching. Small pieces of purl can be made to stand up off the surface of the fabric in an arch; or the arch can be held down with another small piece or purl to create a chain stitch effect.

the purl goes through the sequin. These purl techniques are used in metal work today. Flat length of silver of gold plate is also couched down, sometimes over a shape made from card of parchment to give a crisp edge to the shape.

7.2 Practical Exercise 1. Each student is required to make a combined sample of bead work along with metal thread embroidery.


3. The design has to be approved by the teacher before execution, to make sure that maximum variety of material and stitches are used to make an


2. White or black casement of size 10" x 10" is to be used as the base fabric. The students are required to attach three different kinds of beads. For example tubular beads, small round beads and flat beads. Sequins, purl, gold thread, crystal and kundan can be used along with beads to make rich textured design of the student's choice.

innovative design. No labeling is required to be done.



4. Double window mounting is not required to be done as the edging will be hidden. Here the student will cut a 9"x9" window on an A3 size sheet and paste the finished sample over it so that the edge on the right side and the embroidery on the wrong side are both visible.

Summary: Mirror work, bead work and metal thread embroidery are very famous and loved fabric decoration techniques. They punctuate the surface of a fabric with texture and dazzling colour. These traditional are very traditional and have always been used in all kinds of fashion and formal garments extensively.

Revision points: 1. Mirror work is also called shisha/glass work. 2. This technique gained popularity in the 17th century. 3. Very often mirror work is used in combination with different embroidery techniques of different colours. 4. Bead work punctuates the surface of the fabric with texture and dazzling colour. 5. Traditionally both mirror and bead works were done by Nomads who travel through Rajasthan, Gujrat & the Deccan plateau. 6. Beads are of different shapes, sizes & colour. 7. There are different techniques to stitch beads on fabric like stop stitch, dangle stitch, fence, edging,net-weaving, etc. 8. Gold, silver and other metals have been used to enrich embroideries in all parts of India for many years.



9. Fabrics like velvet, satin,silk, cotton & muslin are embellished with metal work.

Intext questions: Fill in the blanks: 1. Mirror work is traditionally done in _________, _____________ &_____________. 2. Mirror work technically gained popularity in _____________ century. 3. ___________ beads are small round beads. 4. __________ & ____________ metals can be used for metal thread embroidery.

Key words: Mirror work- is also called shisha work. Nomads-The tribal people who travel from one place to another. Bead work-The technique of embellishing the fabric using beads etc.



Metal thread- Embroidery done with gold or silver thread.



Lesson 8:- Lace work Lesson 9:- White Works



Lesson 10:- Smocking

Lesson 8: Lace Work Objectives: This lesson gives us information about: What a lace is. Different kinds of hand-made machine-made laces.


Parts of as lace. Maintenance and care of laces. How to attach laces to the fabric.

Structure 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Attaching Lace of Fabric

8.1 Introduction:



Lace is basic fabric made from yarns, using several different fabrication methods. Yarns may be twisted around each other to create open areas. Lace is an open work fabric with complex patterns or figures, handmade or machine made on special lace machines or on raschel knitting machine. Lace is classified according to the way it is made and the way it appears.


It is difficult to determine the machine used to make a fine lace fabric without the aid of a microscope. However, it is a fairly simple matter to determine the origin of many laces. Some imitation lacelike fabrics are made by printing or flocking. The quality of lace is based on the fineness of yarns, number of yarns per square inch or closeness of background net, and intricacy of the design.


Lace and lacelike fabrics: Cordon net or re embroidered lace made on leavers lace machine (upper left); raschel-wrap-knit lace (upper right); purl knit lace (center left); woven lace (center right); and imitation lace (cotton percale printed with a lacelike design) (bottom right).

Lace was important in fashion between the 16 th and 19th centuries, and all countries in Europe developed lace industries. Lace remains important today as a trim or accessory in apparel and furnishings. Lace names often reflect the town in which the lace was originally made. For example, the best quality needlepoint lace made in Venice in the 16 th centuryhence the name Venetian lace. Alencon and Valenciennes laces are made in French towns. Handmade lace Handmade lace remains a prestige textile. With the contemporary interest in crafts, many of the old lace making techniques are experiencing renewed interest. Handmade lace is used for wall hangings, belts, bags, shawls, afghans, bedspreads and tablecloths. Handmade laces include needlepoint, bobbin, crochet and battenberg. Needlepoint lace is made by drawing a pattern on paper, laying down yarns over the pattern, and stitching over the yarns with a needle and thread. The thread network forming the ground is called reseau or brides. The solid part of the pattern is called toile. Needlepoint designs may include birds, flowers and vases. Bobbin lace is made on a pillow. The pattern is drawn on paper and pins are inserted at various points. Yarns on bobbins are plaited around the pins to form the lace.


Batten berg lace is a handmade lace with loops of woven tape caught together by yarn brides in patterns. Making Batten berg lace was a common hobby in the United States in the early part of the 20th century. Contemporary pieces are imported from Asia, especially, China, for apparel and furnishing accessories.


Crocheted lace is done by hand with a crochet hook. Example are Irish lace and Syrian lace.

Machine made lace In 1802 in England, Robert Brown perfected a machine that made nets on which lace motifs could be worked by hand. 1808 John Heathcoat made the first true lace machine by developing brass bobbins to make bobbinet. In 1813, John Leavers developed a machine that made patterns and background simultaneously. Leaver lace is fairly expensive depending on the quality of yarns used and the intricacy of the design on some fabrics a yarn or cord outlines and design. These are called Cordonnet or reembroidered lace. Raschel knitting machine make patterned laces that resemble. Leavers lace. RASCHEL LACES are produced at much higher speeds and thus are less expensive. Filament yarns are commonly used to make coarser laces that are used as tablecloths, draperies and casement fabrics.



Care of Lace because lace has open spaces, it can easily snag and tear. Fragile laces should be washed by hand squeezing suds through the fabric rather than rubbing. Some laces can be put into a protective bag and machine-washed or dry-cleaned.


Bobbin lace; handmade machine made


Close-up view of Battenberg Lace tablecloth

8.2 Attaching Lace of Fabric Hold the lace 1/16 of inch from the raw edge of undergarment; use very fine thread and overhand stitch done closely; it is a durable finish when carefully done.



Lace over handed to Edge

Lace Insertion Baste insertion to garment; sew with fine hemming stitches on right side; trim material away on wrong side, leaving a very narrow edge which rolls, and whip carefully [refer to hand stitches].


Best way is to whip over the edge with a fine thread taking short spaces at a time and drawing up the whipping thread. Sometimes gathered by drawing up a thread in lace; this may weaken lace unless thread is perfectly loose.


Gathering lace

Joining lace Overlap ends so design is completely matched; then sew which all buttonhole stitches in very fine thread or with hemming stitches and frequent button hole stitches; cut material away beyond the sewing on both side; a durable join.

Embroidered edging Set in using edge for a facing or gather and set in as a ruffle.


Lace; match the design if possible; if not cut out a motif of design and lap and join; if this is not practical, join is seam, trim and whip edges closely Embroidery:- Miter corner as you would a band of them.


Corners Embroidery



Lesson 9: White Work Objectives: This lesson teaches usTo discuss the European influence on white-work as embroidery. Kinds of white-work done in India. The main techniques used in whitework.

Structure 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Practical Exercise


White work is a general term covering a variety of techniques. The unifying factor is that. The techniques can all be worked on white fabric with white thread. These techniques can be used independently or in combination with each other. White work may be carried out on all opaque surface, such as linen or cotton or on sheer fabrics like muslin or net. White work has been produced for hundreds of years all over the world and has developed many distinctive style using different combinations of techniques. Styles of white work sewn on net or gauze include the Scottish Ayrshire, Irish carrikmacross, Dresden from Germany and


9.1 Introduction:

chikan from the Indian city of Lucknow. It has been popular for decorating cuffs, collars and bonnets. There are two main techniques used in white work. 1. Open work relies on drawn or pulled threads to create holes that appear dark in contrast to the white ground e.g. the Jali work in chikankari.



2. In cutwork, shapes are actually cut into the ground with buttonhole stitch to prevent fraying. Some times various stitches are used to fill up spaces left by cutwork. Calcutta and surrounding areas are famous for carrying out white work. Cut work style range from dainty holes to large cut out patterns, worked so finely that they can be mistaken for lace.

9.2 Practical Exercise 1. Each student is required to make a sample using lace and cut work techniques. 2. White cambric size 10"x10" is required for the exercise along with a broad white lace with scalloped edge 2 meters, 1/2 meter plain edge lace for insertion, white anchor thread and a fine needle. 3. Lace edging, insertion and joining have to be shown along with a design of cutwork. Work the sample in the following sequence. a) Cut the fabric sample into Ÿ and ž parts. Join the 2 pieces by inserting lace as explained in the chapter. b) Neatly hem the sample from all around and attach the lace on the edges taking special care at the corners, as explained in the chapter. c) Cut the remaining lace into two parts and rejoin as shown. With this join in the center, attach the lace any where on the fabric either flat of gathered. d) Neatly cut out a simple design for cutwork on the same fabric sample and finish it with tiny buttonhole stitches in white.



e) Cut out a 9" x 9" window on a black A3 size sheet and paste the finished sample on the window, so that the edge on the right side and the embroidery from the wrong side are both visible.

Sample Showing Lace and Cut Work Joint on place Lace insertion Edging



Cut work – (cut outs finished with button hole with hollow centre)



Lesson 10: Smocking Objectives: What is smocking? How and why is it done? What are the different stitches used for smocking?

Structure 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Outline stitch 10.3 The herring bone stitch or Simple cable stitch 10.4 Double cable stitch 10.5 Wave stitch 10.6 The Diamond stitch 10.7 Honeycomb smocking 10.8 Practical Exercise

10.1 Introduction:


Most stitches is done over gathered or shirred material, though some kinds, such as honeycomb smocking can be done without previously gathering


The decorative work known as smocking particularly valued because of its beauty on childrenâ€&#x;s clothes and on some garments for grownups, such as smocks, maternity jackets etc, it consists of simple embroidery stitches taken over the pleats or folds of shirred material for the embroidery purpose of holding the fullness and decorating the garment. Though the stitches are few in number, unlimited variety is possible by combining different stitches.

the material. Because of the fullness required materials of light or medium weight, such as voiles, linen, georgette, organdie, lawn, crepes are best suited for smocking. The thread used, whether cotton, linen or silk smocked must be marked with a series of dots as illustrated. Transfer patterns may be purchase for these, or the dots may be made by a ruler and pencil. They should be evenly spaced. One eight inch apart being the best spacing for most materials. They may be quarter of an inch apart for heavier materials. Usually the horizontal rows of dots are the same distance apart as the dots in the rows, but in some cases it is necessary on striped or checked material.


For most smocking gather the material as shown. Machine shirring can also be done where deep gathers are not required. Starting at the right hand corner pick up each dot or each alternate dot and continue thus for the entire row. Break off the


Smoking done over machined gathers

thread but do not draw it up until all the rows are ready. Have the stitches of each succeeding row go in and out on corresponding dots. When all the rows are gathered draw up the material on threads, and fasten the thread ends by winding them two together in the figure of eight round pins to hold them securely.

10.2 Outline stitch:



The simplest smocking stitch is the outline stitch. This is very much like the stem stitch. Work each row over a row of gathering stitches; using them as a guide to keep the lines straight. Bring the needle up on the first pleat on the extreme left, and take a small back stitch over the pleat. Take care to keep the thread under the needle all the time. Draw up each pleat quite firmly each stitch.

10.3 The herring bone stitch or Simple cable stitch: The cable stitch is another type of the variation of the outline stitch. Start it in the same way as the outline stitch, but instead of keeping the thread under the needle all the time, in this case keep the thread above the needle for the first stitch and below the needle for the second. The third stitch has the thread above the needle and the fourth below. Alternate them in this manner throughout the length of the row.

10.4 Double cable stitch It consist of two rows of herring-bone stitches taken very close together and so arranged that a stitch on a given pleat in the first row is made with the thread above the needle, and the stitch on the same pleat in the second row is made with the thread below the needle. This gives the effect of links.


This is a very popular smocking stitch. It consist of four or five outline stitches done diagonally upwards, and then the same number done diagonally downwards. This can be repeated over as great a distance and in as many lines as desired. For the upward row keep the thread below the


10.5 Wave stitch:

needle and row the downward row keep the thread above the needle.


This stitch is worked form left to right. Take a stitch on the first pleat at the left over a row of gathering stitches; pass the needle down to the next row of gathering thread. Take a stitch in the second pleat, inserting the needle at the right, bringing it sown between the first and second pleats, and keeping the thread below the needle, draw this stitch up firmly so that the two pleats are held together. Then pass the needle up to the first row, take a stitch over the third pleat, bringing the needle out between the second and third pleats and drawing the stitch tight. Continue in this way to the second and third pleats and drawing the stitch tight. Continue in this way to the end of the row. Make the second row so that its points meet the points of the first row to form diamonds as shown. Each row must be worked from left to right.


10.6 The Diamond stitch:



10.7 Honeycomb smocking:



This can be done directly over the dots, it preferred. Since the work progresses from left to right, begin by bringing the needle up on the dot at the extreme left of the first row and taking a small back stitch stay the thread. Then take a tiny stitch under the next dot to the right in the same row, and with it still on the needle, take a similar stitch under the first dot, as shown, and draw the needle through bringing the two dots together. Then insert the needle to the right of the second dot, very close to where it went in before, and second row. Next take up the third dot in the second row and draw it up to the second dot. Inset the needle in the same place alongside the third stitch and slip it under the material again bringing it out this time directly above in the third dot of the first row. Draw the forth dot up to the third and continue in this way, alternating between two rows of dots until one line of smoking is completed. Then begin at the left again and work on the third and fourth rows in the same way.





10.8 Practical Exercise 1. Each student is required to make a sample of honeycomb smocking. 2. White cambric of size 20" wide x 10" and a contrasting embroidery thread is required for the exercise. 3. Work out the sample as explained in the chapter. 4. Double window amount the finished sample on an as size sheet.

Summary Europe has influenced a lot towards fabric decoration in form of lace-work and white-work. White-work is an embroidery done with white threads on a white fabric, and is also known as „Broiderie anglaisâ€&#x;. Chickenkari is a kind of whitework done in India. It is the famous traditional embroidery of Lucknow.



Smocking is a fabric decoration technique famous for its beauty and to hold the fullness to the garment.

Revision points: 1. Lace is an open work fabric made of yarns. 2. Laces can be hand made or machine made. 3. Quality of lace is based on fineness of yarns, number of yarns per square inch or closeness of background net and intricacy of design. 4. Hand made laces include needle point, crochet, bobbin & battenburg laces. 5. Machine laces are Leaverâ€&#x;s lace and Raschel lace. 6. Laces need great care while washing and ironing because of open spaces between them. 7. White work is the embroidery technique worked on a white fabric with a white thread. 8. Chikankari of Lucknow is a style of white work. 9. Two main techniques used in white work are cutwork and open-work. 10.Smocking is a decorative work where simple embroidery stitches are taken over the pleats or folds of shirred material. 11.Smocking helps in decorating the fabric.





12.Gathers for smocking can be hand made or machine made.



13.Embroidery on smocking can be done by various stitches like cable, double cable, herringbone, wave, diamond & honeycomb, etc.

In text questions: Fill in the blanks1. Lace is a fabric made from __________. 2. Raschel knitting machines are used to make __________. 3. Chikankari of Lucknow is a form of ___________ work. 4. The two main techniques of white work are ___________ & _______________.

Write short notes onNeedle point lace Bobbin lace Crochet lace



Battenberg lace

Key words: Lace- It is an open work fabric made of yarns. Bride / Reseau- The thread network forming the ground of lace. Toile- The solid part of the pattern of lace. Insertions- Laces that are used in between two pieces of fabrics. White work- Embroidery done with a white thread on a white fabric. Chikankari- The traditional white work embroidery of Lucknow. Cut-work- Shapes are cut on the fabric and finished with buttonhole stitch. Open work- The threads are pulled to create holes in the design.



Smocking- Embroidery is done on shurred material to create fullness & to decorate.

Unit - V Lesson 11: Sewing Equipments and Supplies Lesson 12: Hand stitches used in garment construction Lesson 13: Basic seams Lesson 14: Tie and Dye along with Practical Exercises Lesson 15: Batik



Lesson 16: Stencil, Screen and Block printing

Lesson 11: Sewing

Equipment and Supplies Objectives: To understand1. What is a sewing machine? 2. Parts of a sewing machine. 3. The different equipments used for constructing a garment. 4. Care and upkeep of sewing machine.

Structure 11.1 Sewing Equipments 11.2 Sewing Machine 11.3 Parts of the Machine



Sewing equipment includes items which are aids to construction of clothing and household articles. Some equipment is more essential than others, some being almost a necessity while others are merely useful. In considering those items which are not essential, the individual decides whether or not they are more important than other items needed or desired ones in relationship to available money, space allotment, possible use made of them and care they would require.


11.1 Sewing Equipments

When making decisions about equipment, one decides that is the purpose of each and how each may add to the ease of construction of an article of clothing or household item. There is equipment for use in the various processes of clothing construction- marking, pinning, cutting, measuring, stitching are some of the processes for which equipment has been developed. Some items are essential for all types of clothing construction such as: pins, measuring tape, shears and thimble. There are other types, which are useful in all or only some of the types of items constructed. The different type of equipment for use for clothing construction is:


Shears: Shears are more heavily constructed than are scissors and are shaped so that they can be used for cutting the garment with ease and as little lifting of the fabric form the surface, where the cutting is taking place as possible. The handles are so constructed that the thumb fits singly, in one and 2-3 fingers in the other. The bent handle shears are especially convenient for garment cutting. They may be used on all weight of fabric. They are made in


Scissors: Scissors are designed for use in light sewing-cutting, clipping and trimming delicate fabrics. They are lightly constructed and have straight slender cutting blades. There are different sizes some are as long as 7 inches but most are 4 to 6 inches in length, scissors should not be used for cutting other than light weight materials, as when used on heavier fabrics the blades are likely to become sprung. Scissors should be kept clean, sharp and the pointed ends of the blades protected from becoming broken or otherwise damages. When selecting scissors it is well to test by cutting several types of fabrics and noting whether or not the entire blade cuts the fabric easily leaving a smooth edge.

sizes 6-12 inches in Length. They should be kept of scissors or shears need sharpening, they should be taken to competent person as they can easily be damaged during the sharpening process. Embroidery Scissors: Embroidery scissors are used for fine needlework and are of short, delicate construction. They are 31/2-4 inches long. Pinking shears: Pinking shears are designed with blades, which have notched edges. They are quite heavy in construction and come in rather short, to quite long lengths. They are used for the finishing of seams. These should receive the care suggested for other shears; when they need to be sharpened, they should be sent to the factory.


Some general comments on the care of scissors and shears: Avoid cutting very heavy fabric such as heavy canvas and a number of thickness at one time. Lay them down, never drop them. It is well not to use scissors and shears, which are purchased for clothing construction for cutting paper or for use in activities other than those connected with clothing construction. Clean them before and after use. Put them in a container when not in use and sure the points are protected. Apply a top of oil occasionally to the part where the


Buttonhole Scissors: Buttonhole scissors are lightweight and so designed that they can be adjusted for the cutting of various length of cut for the buttonhole and portion of the blade so designed that it can be slipped over the fabric to the desired place for the buttonhole and will not cut the fabric except at the desired location. These are convenient articles but also essential.

blades are fastened together. When they sharpening do not give them to other than a competent person. Measuring Tape: A measuring tape is an essential in clothing construction as accurate measurement are required. A 60 inch long measuring tape with even metres and 1/3 inch divisions is desirable, the material of which it is made should be of firm and good quality so that it does not stretch or shrink. Numbering from opposite ends on reverse side is desirable. Ruler: A 12 inch ruler is a very convenient item for measuring small distances. It should be marked clearly. A flexible one is a bit more convenient than the rigid type. Hem marker: A hem marker is convenient but not an essential item, there are 2 types-pin marker and chalk marker. The pin marker usually is the most accurate of the two types. The chalk marker is convenient for those who do their own hem marking; a pin marker has to be used by an addition personal than the one whose hem is being marked.


Thimble: A thimble is an aid when doing hand sewing. It is used for directing the needle through the fabric and for protecting the finger. One should select one made of some hard, light weight material


Tracing wheel: A tracing wheel is used with or without the chalk board in marketing construction features from the pattern to the fabric. Since there are other way of transferring such marketing. This is not an essential item. When buying such wheels it is important to check to be sure one is purchasing one with fine and sharp points.

and of size to properly fit the finger so that it will be comfortable, yet not slip when being used. Thread: Threads come in different kinds and sizes. There are kinds of threads in terms of use such as sewing, embroidery, and tacking thread. Sewing thread comes in different sizes from 20 to 100 size; the larger the number the finer the thread. Thread made of cotton is the most commonly used type. The section of thread depends upon the type of fabric being used, finer fabrics require fine thread. Mercerized thread, No.50 is also available in the market, mercerized thread has a luster and is usually more fast in colour and stronger than other cotton thread. There is also a special button holethread No.8 available in the market for buttonholes. Unless the thread is used, as part of the decoration is should blend with the colour of the fabric upon which it is being used. Usually the thread appear lighter after it is stitched, therefore, it is desirable to select thread of a shade darker than the fabric. One way to check the colour of the thread in relation to the fabric is to lay a single strand of the thread over the fabric and check it in a good light. Needles: Needles come in packages of different sizes as well as of the same size. There are several types of needles but sharps and Crewel needles are commonly used for general sewing. In selecting needles one should keep in mind the a) Type of fabric

have long eyes which are easily threaded. Long needles are convenient for long stitches. Small fine


c) The type of stitch. Sharp needles have small round eyes; crewel needles


b) Thread size and

(thin) needles are better than the larger ones for small stitches such as in hems, hand gathering, and the like. The coarse threads require the use of large needles‌that is, the size of needles should be such that it is possible to thread it. The needle size also should be related to type of fabric. It is desirable to use fine needles for sewing on shear, delicate fabrics, somewhat coarser needles for heavier fabrics. Needles come in sizes from 1-12, the higher the number the finer the needle.


Ironing Boards: Ironing boards are useful in clothing construction. They should be of convenient height (there are adjustable ones-adjustable to height) for the worker. The ironing board should be sturdy and should not slip on the floor as it is being used. It should be carefully padded so that there are no wrinkles. Cotton padding or a folded woolen blanket are desirable types of padding; it, too, should be so fitted that there are no wrinkles. It is important that the covers be kept clean. Sleeves boards are a type of ironing boards which is useful for ironing sleeves or other small areas. They should be padded and cared for as other ironing boards.


Iron: Irons are used for pressing and ironing. One can have better finished clothing if pressing is done during the process of construction. Irons of 3 or more pounds are satisfactory for pressing most fabrics. An automatically heat-controlled one is desirable, however, if card is taken those without this convenience may be used with satisfaction. Irons which steam the fabrics as it is being pressed (called steam irons) are of a great convenience but they are more expensive than other irons.

Relation of Needles, threads and fabrics

11.2 Sewing Machine In every household today the sewing machine is very necessary piece of equipment. There are many good machine in the market, each with its own desirable features and advantages. It is better to buy from a well known reliable firm as they have their reputation to live up to. The accessibility of repair service and the availability of spare parts should be taken into consideration. The choice between a portable and a table model is a matter of space available in the house. Portable electric machines are very effective and simple to use. A modern machine is such a blessing that not only does it do plain sewing but it can also do piping, binding, ruffles, pleats darning and even making buttonholes and attaching fasteners. Some of these come as a regular box of attachments with the machine, other have to be bought separately. sewing



Arm: the curved part of the head containing the mechanism for driving the needles and handling the upper thread.


Head: The complete cabinet or stand.


11.3 Parts of the Machine

The Spool Pin: is the upright metal rod fitted on the top of the arm to hold the thread reel. Bed: the flat portion of the head, under which is mounted the shuttle, feed and lower threadhandling mechanism. Hand Wheel: the wheel at the right of the head driven by a belt or a handle. The Tension Regulator: this is a mechanism fixed to the face plate for controlling the quality of the stitches. The greater the pressure, the lighter the stitch. It is a simple mechanism where two concave discs are put together facing the convex ends of each other. The thread is made to pass between these two. The tension of the thread is adjusted by a spring and a nut which increases or decreases the pressure on the discs. The Thread Take-Up Bar: it is a lever fitted to the body of the arm located above the tension regulator. It receives its up and down motion from the front axle. At the outside end of the lever there is a small hole through which the thread passes. There are two functions of this lever:a) To feed the thread to the needle. b) To tighten the loop formed by the shuttle. As the lever moves down it releases the thread to interlock with the bobbin thread, hen as it rises it tightens the threads to form a firm stitch.

The presser foot lifter: is the lever attached to the presser bar to control the up and down


The Presser Foot: is a detachable device for holding the material in place on the feed while stitching. This device is not used when attachments such as tucker, ruffler of binder are used.


The Needle Bar: is the upright bar at the lower end of which the needle is attached.

movement of the presser foot. It must always be lifted to take out the material from the machine. The Thread Cutter: is the blade fastened to the side of the presser foot bar. It is more convenient to use this cutter than scissors. The face or Throat plate: this is semi-circular disc with a highly, polished surface and a hole to allow the needle to pass through it. The fundamental purpose of this plate is to provide a leveled surface for the cloth and to prevent dust from entering the inner mechanism of the sewing machine. The Feed Dog or Feed: is a small, oblong, metal device with teeth which carries the material along as it is stitched. When the machine is in motion the feed moves upwards, thus advancing the material as each stitch is made. The Bobbin Winder: it is a simple mechanism for winding thread on the bobbin and is located at the right hand side near the wheel. The stop-motion Screw or Clamp: is located near the center of the balance wheel. The screw is released or unscrewed while the bobbin is being wound, so that the bobbin winder will operate without running the stitching mechanism. The Stitch Regulator: The length of the stitches have to regulated according to type of cloth. This is done with the help of the regulating screw. The length of the stitches is determined by the action marks.


The Drive wheel: is the large wheel used under the board of the machine. It is connected to the balance wheel by leather and thus transmitting the power, which rotates the machine.


Bobbins case or Shuttle: hold the bobbin. It fits into place either the feed or to its left.

The Treadle: is the footrest at the base of the machine in a handle machine. Rotary or Oscillating Hook: the part, which enters a loop or needle threads and carries it around the bobbin case to form the lack stitch. The Pitman Rod: connect the treadle and drive wheel, so that as the treadle is operated the drive wheel revolves. Handle Driver: is attached to the handle attachment of the machine and helps to drive it with the hand. Rubber Ring: this is on the bobbin winder and makes contact with the nut of the balance wheel. If this is allowed to become oily, it will fail to have a proper contact and should be replaced. Special attachments: every machine has separate attachments for different processed such a tucking, binding, hemming, gathering etc., but they operate differently on various makes of machines.

Causes Wrong threading of upper thread More tension on the discs of the tension regulator Incorrect setting of the needle

Adjustments The thread is passed through all the different parts of the upper thread mechanism The tension is loosened by moving the screw in outward direction of tension regulator


Defects 1.Upper thread tension


Table Defects, Causes and Adjustments of Sewing Machine

3.Breaking the needle

Flat side of the needle is not set properly in the needle bar Thumb screw of the needle bar is not lightened up properly When needle is too long Incorrect setting of presser food and throat plate


Needle is not inserted fully in needle bar Heavy material is stitched with a fine needle bar Heavy material is stitched with a fine needle Too long needle strikes against the bobbins case and breaks Needle strikes against fastenerâ€&#x;s


Bobbin wound fully or unevenly


2.Lower thread tension

Properly set the flat end of the needle Turning small screw of the bobbin case to loosen it Set the needle properly Tighten the thumb screw of needle bar with a screw driver Too long needle should be exchanged with correct needle Set the presser foot and throat plate properly Correctly insert the needle Replace needle with the one with the lower number Exchange the needle with another of short length Slightly raise the needle bar

6. Looping

Loose tension of upper or lower or both the threads Incorrect upper and lower threading Bobbin is unevenly wound Thread take up lever is not functioning Improper setting of the

Loosens the upper tension spring slightly Use good quality thread only Set the needle correctly Open the reel tube with a pencil or thick wire Avoid this habit

The needle and pressure foot should be set properly in the needle bar Replace the blunt needle with new one Tighten it with a screw driver Replace with a new one Tighten the upper and lower thread mechanism Check both the threading and correct the same Rewind the bobbin evenly Clean the bobbin case and feed dog Correct the same Occasionally clean the two


5.Stitch missing

pins Upper tension of thread is tight Thread being too thin or of bad quality Needle is not set properly The thread reel is not moving properly on spool pin Hand wheel moved in the opposite direction Needle is blunt of incorrectly set Pressure foot is loosely attached Shuttle is damaged


4.Upper thread breaking

9.Machine working heavily

brush in

Correctly set a new needle Correct the tension Correct upper and lower threading Correct the same Clean the bobbin case and upper tension discs Right size of needle to be used

Loose or tight the thread mechanism accordingly Replace with a new needle Use proper and thick thread Clean the shuttle feed dog and other parts with brush soaked in petrol Oil the different parts of sewing machine regularly Open the shuttle and


8.Irregular stitching

Tension of thread is too tight Incorrect upper and lower threading Too much or little pressure on presser foot The upper tension discs and bobbin case are dirty Right size of needle is not used Upper and lower threads tension is too tight or loose Needle being blunt or bent Thin thread is used for heavy materials Feed dog and shuttle are clogged with fibres, lint, dust etc. Insufficient oiling of different parts Thread caught in the shuttle Belt of the

with a soaked petrol


7.Material puckering

needle Bobbin case and feed dog is not clean Needle is blunt or bent

treadle machine is being too tight Bobbin winder interferes with the working of balance wheel When machine is not used for too long

remove the thread Loosen the belt Correctly set the rubber of the bobbin winder Clean the machine and oil all the specific parts

Care and upkeep of the sewing machine: 1. It should be kept in sewing box after use 2. It should be dusted properly before and after using it. 3. The lubrication of different of different parts should be done with a machine oil, to avoid friction between different parts. 4. It should never be handled with dirty hands. 5. It should never be mishandled. 6. Instructions should be followed before using special attachments.



7. The upper thread regulator discs and lower thread mechanism should be cleaned properly.

Lesson 12: Basic Hand

Stitches Objectives To understand how the basic hand stitches like fagoting and slot seams can be used decoratively and functionally on the garment.

Structure 12.1 Basic Hand Stitches

12.1Basic Hand Stitches 1. Running stitch The simplest form of stitch used in hand sewing. It is used for various processes-basting, seaming, tucking, gathering, shirring, gauging, slip-stitching. To make:- take up on the needle, a few threads of the cloth; then pass the needle, 2. Basting



A process in which running stitches are used to hold two pieces of cloth together while they are permanently sewed.

a) Even basting Used where there may be some strain on the seam before sewing. Pass the needle over and under an equal number of threads of the cloth; make a longer stitch than for seaming. b) Uneven basting An excellent guide for stitching seams. Use a ling stitch on the upper side of the cloth and a short stitch on the under side.


Holds cloth firmly; also fine guide for stitching. Take a long stitch and two or three shorter stitches on the upper side of the cloth.


c) Dressmaker basting

d) Diagonal basting



Appropriate for basting linings and interlinings to outer cloth. Take a short vertical stitch on the under side of the cloth and then a long stitch diagonally on the upper side of the cloth.

3. Gathering Used to draw a larger piece of cloth in to fit a smaller area. Running stitch is even when gathers are pulled; uneven if gathers are stroked. Double thread is used for one row; and single thread for two rows. Do not remove needle from cloth while gathering; push cloth off the eye of needle when crowded.


Draw the thread up until folds of cloth are close together; place a pin on which wind the thread; hold cloth between the thumb and finger of left hand; with the eye of the needle, or a blunt pointed needle, stroke each gather to place; continue until all are stroked. This helps to keep gathers smartly in line.


Stroking gathers:

4. Backstitching Strongest stitch used in hand sewing. Baste seam carefully; use small knot; slip needle between two thickness of cloth, and through upper side; take a small running stitch; pass needle back over running stitch, down through cloth and over twice as much space as running stitch; bring needle to upper side and down through cloth at end of running stitch; repeat.

5. Half Backstitching Stitches appear like running stitches on right side. Same principle as backstitching; pass needle under three times as much cloth on wrong side and come only half way to end of last stitch on right side.



Fasten and join thread same as in backstitching.

6. Combination stitch Used where not as much strength is required as in backstitching, as fells or French seams. Appears on right side like three stitches together, a space, three stitches again and space; on wrong side appears like running stitches. Begin and fasten same as backstitching; take two running stitches; bring needle to right side of cloth as if to take another; pass needle back to last running stitch and through to wrong side of cloth and up through the same hole through which needle passed last. Take two running stitches and repeat.


Diagonal stitches over raw edges of seams to prevent raveling of threads. Trim the edges; conceal knot between edges, one under one thickness of cloth; hold seam over first finger, use thumb to push it along as work proceed; point needle toward left shoulder and make diagonal stitches. Be sure


7 a) Overcasting

the stitches are not tight and keep them twice as far apart as they are deep. b) Over handing Makes flat, strong, invisible seam on undergarments, bed linen, hems on table linen. Fold edges of cloth; baste folded edges together; hold between first finger and thumb; point needle toward chest; take straight stitches right side cloth, slanting stitches on wrong side. Do not use a knot; sew over end of thread.

8. Hemming

Sometimes used in sewing gathers to a band, the stitch is taken perpendicularly; put needle


a) Vertical Hemming


Folded edges, such as hems, facings and fells are held in place by hemming. Baste folded edges carefully; conceal knot under fold; take up threads in cloth and also in fold, use a slanting stitch; fasten thread, one or two stitches under side fold.

into cloth directly under the point in fold in which it was brought out. b) Blind Hemming Used where an invisible finish is desired on silks, rayon, or wool. Take up thread of cloth on under side, (not to show through on right side), and then few threads in the fold.


A running stitch; used where an absolutely invisible sewing is desirable; use a running stitch; take up a few threads in the fold of the hem and only a portion of thread in the cloth. It is not a strong sewing, but for exquisitely fine work, it is desirable.


c) Slipstitching

9. Blanket Stitch Used to finish edges of blankets or other woolen edges which do not fray, but which would make thick edge if folded.



At left hand end of cloth, pass needle up through cloth Âź inch from edge, hold thread under thumb; form a loop and pass the needle down through cloth again and up from under cloth and over thread; repeat.

10. Buttonhole Stitch Let needle come but 1/8 inch below the edge of cloth; leave needle in cloth and pass the double

strand of thread around point of needle (from right to left). Draw needle through cloth and the thread up close as to form purl or twist right on the edge of cloth. Repeat stitches rather close together. 11. Catch stitch or Herringbone Stitch



Used to hold raw edges of flannel or other woolen hem or seam. Work from left to right, between two imaginary guidelines; let needle come out at the left hand end of cloth upper line and pass to right on under line enough to give slant to stitch. Pass from right to left on upper line and take stitch from right to left on lower line at correct distance to give proper slant; repeat until the end of the work.

12. Fagoting



Baste folded, straight or bias strips of material or ribbon to paper, then interlacing them with thread, which may be of same or other color. Pass needle up from under side of the left hand strip of material or ribbon to paper, then interlacing them with thread, which may be of same or other colour. Pass needle up from under side of the left hand strip and moving forward diagonally, bring it through edge of right hand strip; pass needle back of thread in taking stitch in left hand edge. Continue.

Ladder Fagoting



Worked same way, except needle must be passed under cloth to keep lines of fagoting straight.

Lesson 13: Basic Seams Objectives To understand how the basic seams like fagoting and slot seams can be used decoratively and functionally on the garment.

Structure 13.1 Types of Seams 13.2 Practical Exercises

13.1 Types of Seams 1. Plain Seam Pinked Used where material is firm and not sheer. Press seam together or open. Pink edges before pressing, with pinking shears, pinking machine or by hand with plain shears. a) Finishes of plain seam Plain Seam Overcast



Use where material not sheer enough for seam to be visible on right side, and where edges of seam fray easily.

Bound Seam



Use- When silk or wool material frays, seams may be bound (either open and pressed, or together) with the taffeta ribbon called „seam bindingâ€&#x;; this should match in color the material of the garment. Heavy cloth seams may be bound with silk bias binding, which comes ready folded.

b) Plain Seam Edges Turned Silk seams are often pressed open and the edges folded back and sewn with running stitches.

2. French Seam A seam within a seam. Used on undergarments, dresses, bags. Place wrong sides of cloth together matching seam marking; baste; stitch 1/8 – Ÿ inch outside tracing according to thickness of cloth; sew with a running combination or machine stitching, remove basting; trim seam to 1/8 inch or less; turn to wrong side, crease seam flat; baste and stitch so as to cover raw edge of seam. False French seam



Used in lingerie and silk blouse and dresses stitches as plain seam; trim edges and turn them in to each other and sew with running stitch or by machine.

3. Run and fell Used where flat finish is desired -- skirts, middy blouses, children's clothing, undergarments. Stitch a plain seam on right side of garments if desired for decoration; trim away one thickness of seam; fold in edge of other thickness of seam and stitch to garment, having a smooth narrow seam.

a) Hemmed fell Same principle as the stitched fell, except the folded edge is hemmed by hand. This seam may be placed on either the upper side of garment.


Same as hemmed fell except the cloth of the garment folded back in line with the fold of the fell; then the edges are over handed together.


b) Over handed fell

4. Welt seam Same principle as cord seem; stitch right side of seam any desired width; trim under side of seam narrower than top side to reduce thickness and prevent mark on right side of garment when pressing. 5. Curved seams



Sleeve seams which curve at the elbow, kimono or other, should be clipped and raw edges overcast or pinked; they may be pressed open or together.

6. Crossed seams



Stitch and press first seams; stitch seam which will cross these and before pressing trim away first seems at corner so as to reduce the thickness of seam to avoid clumsinessâ€&#x;.

7. Lapped seam Lay one piece of garment directly on top of the other, wrong side to right side and sewing lines directly on top of each other; turn edge of seam on right side and basic carefully; turn and basic seam on wrong side. Stitch both edges of seams. A seam has somewhat same appearance as the stitched fell.

8. Slot seam



Fold the edges of both pieces on the sewing lines; have these edges come together; place a lengthwise or crosswise strip of material on the underside; stitch any desired distance from the edge as in a tucked seam.

13.2 Practical Exercises 1. Each student is required to prepare samples of all hand stitches and basic seams on 8� x 8� of white muslin fabric with a contrasting thread. 2. Each sample has to be mounted neatly on a black or any dark coloured sheet of size A3.



3. Samples on 8" x 8"of white muslin have to be made for each of the basic hand stitches i.e. running stitch, Basting, Overcasting, fagoting, hemming, back stich. Each student is required to spiral bind or neatly keep in the folder - the following sheets - applique work, mirror work quilting, Bead and metal thread work, lace & white work, smocking, samples of hand stitches, machine seans and embroidery stitches.

Summary: Knowledge of sewing machine, its different parts, and the use and proper care of sewing machine is essential since sewing machines are very important for sewing construction. Different kind of basic hand stitches and machine seams can be used for decoration purpose and according to the suitability of the fabric that is to be made into a garment.

Revision points: 1. Sewing equipments include items which are aids to construction of clothing and house-hold articles. 2. Some items essential for all types of clothing consruction are pins, measuring tape, shears, iron, thread, etc. 3. Sewing machine is the equipment used for sewing of fabrics. 4. Knowledge of defects,causes and adjustments of sewing machine is very essential for its proper usage. 5. It is very important to take good care and maintenance of your sewing machine.



6. Different basic hand stitches and seams like fagoting or slot seams can be used decoratively and functionally on the garment.

In text questions: 1. Write short notes oni.)

Tracing wheel


Pinking shears


Feed dog


Pressure foot




Lap seam


Slip stitch


Slot seam


French seam


Catch stitch

Key words: 1. Scissors- Equipment used for cutting of the garment. 2. Shears- Heavily constructed scissors are called shears. 3. Pinking shears- They are designed with blades that have notched edges. 4. Measuring tapeTo take the accurate measurements of the person for whom the garment is to be constructed.

7. Seam- Any kind of machine stitch done to join two pieces of fabrics together.


6. Basting- A process in which running stitches are used to hold two pieces of fabrics together.


5. Tracing wheel- Helps in the marking of different lines on the cloth.

Lesson 14: Tie and Dye

along with Practical Exercises Objective: To understand- That tie and dye is a form of resist dyeing. - The different techniques of tie and dye. - To carry out practical exercises related to tie and dye techniques.

Structure: 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Techniques of tying fabric 14.3 Practical exercise

14.1 Introduction:


The earliest records, from India and Japan, date back to the sixth and seventh centuries A.D. Chinese tie and dye silks of this period were found


Tie and dye or tie窶電yeing is a resist窶電yeing process. It consists of knotting, binding, folding or sewing certain parts of the cloth in such a way that when it is dyed the dye cannot penetrate into these areas, which are resisted.

in the burial grounds at Astana and at Khotan in Sinkiong, East Turkestan. In India tie and dye was known as „bandhana‟ work. This has become associated with the small resist or coloured spots, which are arranged to form patterns on a dyed ground. In Japan, the spot technique of „shi bori‟ was widely used, for a variety of cotton and silk fabrics dyed with indigo, Later on folding, rope and sewing methods were developed. During the middle ages, China exported many tie and dye wares to the neighbouring countries. The spot, folding and sewing (known as triktik) methods were employed to decorate these clothes. The cottons were indigo dyed, but the silks were of many colours.

14.2 Techniques of Tying Fabric: 1. Marbelling: The fabric is bunched up into a ball and tied with a thread or string to prevent it from opening up. [Fig. 1]

3. Knotting: This is one of the easiest and quickest ways of producing a design while dyeing. A knot can be tied in several ways, depending upon the shape,


2. Twisting and coiling: The design produced by twisting and coiling shows a more definite character than marbelling and is more evenly spaced over the cloth. The whole length of the cloth must be immersed in the dye, when making a design by the twisting and coiling technique. [Fig. 2, 2.1]


This bunch of fabric is then dyed. Marbelling produces variegated and irregular cloud like pattern. It produces a rich and unusual background printing and embroidery. After one dyeing, the fabric sample can be opened up and retied in a bunch and dyed in a darker colour. This produces a cloud like pattern in two colours.

size and the grain of the cloth. Fine fabrics such as muslin, lawn, cambric, voil, silk and nylon are ideal for this technique. Knotting can be done in 3 ways : (i) A length of cloth tied into knots. (ii) A square, rectangle or triangle of cloth knotted. (iii) Knots tied in a length of cloth to form an all over pattern. [Fig. 3, 3.1] A strip of fine cloth is best; the wider and coarser it is, the fewer the knots will be formed. Fine patterns are produced by smaller knots. 4. Binding: is one of the most important processes in tie and dye, used either alone or as a supplement with other methods. Binding applied before the second dying reserves the first colour. Binding applied before the third dying reserves the second colour. Linen thread Nos. 18, 35 and 45 are excellent for binding, but cotton, cord, tape, rubber rings can also be used. It is absolutely essential that the binding should remain firm and taut, and that not blackening off should occur during the dyeing operation. Binding is ineffective if the fastening off is not absolutely secure. Types of binding are: a) A “Band� of a very close, solid binding in a single or double layer, should give a complete resist over the area.

The amount of dye allowed to penetrate the cloth is controlled by the tightness or slackness of the bindings and length of dyeing time.


c) A line or tight narrow binding gives a very thin resist stripe.


b) Criss–Cross, lattice, spiral or open binding gives a partial resist, with a design that echos the mesh work of the binding threads.

Patterns made with binding [Fig. 4 to Fig 4.4] (a) Strips or Bands (b) Circles (c) A double, treble or multi “spot” can be achieved by picking up the appropriate number of centers on the needle and binding them together as a single unit. (d) Large spot with criss–cross marking can be done by picking up a point of cloth on a needle and making a lattice binding starting half and inch below and taking up to the needle. (e) Irregular spot can be formed by binding a little bunch of cloth. Clump tying: This method derives its name from the little bunches or clumps that are formed by tying up the material. The cloth itself is bunched, or arranged in various ways and bound, or small objects such as beads, peas, beans, corn seeds, pebbles shells, buttons or beads are tyed in the fabric. This technique is widely practiced in West Africa where seeds are commonly used. Large rectangular clothes are elaborately decorated, often with designs which have a religious significance. 5. Folding: Many striking patterns and effects, especially stripes are produced by the folding technique combined with binding. Cotton thread can be used for binding fine fabrics but stronger threads are used for bulky fabrics. Four main categories are :

(c) Folded Square [Fig. 5.2 – 5.5] (d) Rope Tying [Fig. 5.6]


(b) Individual Stripe or edge Stripe [Fig. 5.1]


(a) Simple Stripes [Fig. 5]

A simple stripe is the easiest and quickest way to get dyed stripes on a length of fabric. It is done by folding the fabric into accordian pleats (fan like) and binding it. Individual Stripe is made by folding the fabric at the edge and making small zig–zag pleats with the thumb and forefingers. This is then tyed securely and dyed at the edge only. Folded Squares can be achieved by folding the fabric in various ways and binding. The different ways of folding are shown in the diagrams. [Fig. 5.2–5.5] Rope tying or the trellis effect: Here the accordian pleats are made diagonally, from one corner to the other and tyed securely at regular intervals. 6. Sewing technique or Tritik : In this method the material is sewn and tightly gathered up. Any design like leaves, animals, figures, geometrical shapes can be drawn on the fabric. The outline of these designs is done in a single or a double row of running stitch. A large knot of the thread is made before sewing and another one as soon as the needle is taken out.


7. Ruching : As the name suggests, is a means of obtaining patterns by gathering fabric compactly around pieces of wood or any other suitable object. Binding can be added to give stability to the gathers. The cross–section of the base, whether circular, triangular or rectangular affects the pattern. [Fig. 7]


All the sewing should be done before the threads are pulled. All threads need not be pulled together. For example, areas to be kept white are drawn first; to be kept red are drawn before the second dying; to be kept brown are drawn before the third dying and finally the fabric is dyed in black, to give white, red and brown pattern on brown.



Fig. 1: Marbelling

Fig. 2: Twisting and Coiling



Fig. 2.1



Fig. 3

Fig. 3.1



Fig. 4

Fig. 4.1



Fig. 4.2

Fig. 4.3



Fig. 4.4



Fig. 5



Fig. 5.1

Fig. 5.2



Fig. 5.3



Fig. 5.4



Fig. 5.5

Fig. 5.6



Fig. 7

14.3 Practical Exercises 1. The students are required to make 2 samples each for all the methods of tying, knotting, stitching and foldings described. Out of these 1 sample is to be in a single colour and the other to be in two or three colours. 2. The students can use seeds, dals, buttons, coins, cola lids for tying, while using the clumping technique. Clips can be used to give different effects. 3. Two or more techniques can be used together to create interesting effects. 4. The students can use cambric or mulmul fabrics for the above exercises. 5. Total number of samples have to be 25–30 with each sample being 8” x 8”. 6. These samples have to be window mounted on 10” x 10” of cartridge or handmade paper. The technique used has to be mentioned under each sample. 7. All the ready sheets can be spiral bound or kept neatly in a folder. 8. The procedure of dyeing is as following:


b. Heat gradually until almost boiling. Wet the sample and dye at this temperature for 30 minutes to 1 hour, stirring occasionally. A longer dyeing time gives a deeper colour. The fabric should be in the dye bath till exhaustion takes place, i.e., the dye solution turns lighter or almost colourless.


a. Make a paste of ½ teaspoon of dye powder (Direct Dyes) with some water. Add into 1 pint of hot water and 2 tablespoons of salt, then stir.

c. Remove the fabric and rinse well till the colour stops bleeding. Retire the article and repeat for 2nd dyeing.



9. Each student is required to create an end product using the tie and die technique. The students can use embellishments like beads, sequence, embroidery, beading, zigzag, tassels, satin ribbon to enhance their work. The placements, technique and colour combination have to be approved by the teacher before the execution on the end product.

Lesson 15: Batik Objectives: To be able to discuss-

What is batik? Its origin & historical review. Batik is a resist form of dyeing. Types of wax & tools used. To carry out practical exercises.

Structure 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Fabric used 15.3 Tools used for Batik 15.4 Practical

15.1 Introduction:


Batik is the word used to denote a particular method of applying coloured designs to fabric. This method involves covering certain sections of the design with a substance, usually liquid wax, so that fabric underneath retains its original colour, while the material is subjected to the action of dyes. The covering substance, whether wax, rice paste or mud is referred to as the resist. Fabrics thus treated may


The word „batik‟ is of Javanese origin. The word „ambatik‟, derived from „tik‟ means to mark with spots or dots and in wider sense, signifies drawing, painting or writing. It is recorded for the first time in Dutch texts of the 19th century in a reference to the ship load of fabrics which coloured designs.

be of one colour (monochrome) or 2 or more colours (polychrome), depending upon the number of resist applications and the number of times it is dyed. The origins of batik are disputed by scholars. The earliest evidence has been found in five separate regions; the far east, the middle east, central Asia, India and Peru. Indonesia, however and most particularly the island of Java is the area where batik has reached the greatest peak of accomplishment.

15.2 Fabric used Cotton, wool, silk, linen – the natural fibres produce best results with batik. Viscous Rayon is the only man made fibre suitable for batik. Preparation of Fabrics Today most commercially available fabrics have already been scomed to remove the foreign matter and bleached to be as white as possible. A good soak in warm water followed by thorough rinsing, may be sufficient. The fabric must be ironed while still damp. A fabric softener is a good addition and renders the fabric more receptive to the dyes. Types of wax used The quality of resist depends primarily on the composition and nature of the waxes available.


2. Micro–crystalline Wax, is a synthetic wax with properties similar to beeswax. It is flexible and penetrates the fabric easily. It is resistant to dye penetration and does not crack easily. An inexpensive substitute for beeswax.


1. Beeswax, traditionally used, is strong and durable but is not resistant to alkaline and can cause unresolved breaks when dyed.

3. Paraffin wax has a lower melting point than micro–crystalline wax. It is thin and tends to crack and flake off the material. 4. Resin used in resist dyeing comes from the pine tree and is hard and sticky, and cracks easily. It has a high melting point and is often added to other waxes to increase viscosity. 5. Fat has a very low melting point, is greasy and contributes a greater flexibility to the recepie. 6. Stearin wax is sold in white flake form and usually has a low melting point. Its ability to resist dye is weak and does not adhere to the cloth well, so it is rarely used on its own. Excellent for mixing with sticker wax for fluidity. 7. Damor gum is not a wax but a gum suspended in a volatile oil, used in conjuction with the basic formula to obtain half–resist effects. One can make different formulas by adding different proportions of different waxes. Preparation of the recipes is crucial to the result. A commercial, readymade batik wax is available consists of paraffin and micro–crystalline waxes in the ratio of 2:1. This usually comes in a granulated form and is recommended for general use.

Canting: Canting is a small, spouted metal cup for applying wax. It comes in many sizes and may have upto seven spouts. The cantings are used for drawing lines or dots. A canting is like a pen and


There are a number of tools used for applying molten wax to the cloth. The canting and brush are the traditional tools associated with batik. Block stamps called tjap and rollers with surfaces adapted for the retention of wax are also used. It is important to keep the tools in working order.


15.2 Tools used for Batik

may be employed to create the most intricate and refined designs. Brushes: Adaptable heat resistant natural hair brushes enable the artist to handle the medium of hot wax. For filling in large patterned areas, a broad brush of good quality natural hair is recommended. A stiff brush is made of hog hair. The temperature of the wax is crucial. Safety Precautions: 1. Wax temperature should be maintained at about 120O C. 2. If fire occurs, cover the wax pot with a lid or sprinkle with bicarbonate of soda. 3. The wax should be kept away from open flame. be







4. Exhaust fan ventilation.

15.3 Practical Exercise 1. The students are required to make an inspiration board of A3 or A4 size. This board has to have one or many pictures of the inspiration, put together in a creative way on an appropriate sheet (usually handmade). Examples – “Leaves” is the inspiration of the student. 2. The student have to row make 25 to 30 different motifs of leaves in pencil only on a cartridge sheet, of same size as the inspiration board. The motifs of leaves can be of different sizes; there can be border designs, corner designs or central designs. 3. Using these motifs the students have to make 4 design compositions. The motifs and the placement of motifs have to be different in each composition. The teacher will select one out of the four compositions. This selected one has to be traced on to the end product. The design composition has to be made on cartridge sheets of size 8” x 8”. 4. While placing the design composition on the end product, the student can enlarge it, reduce it or repeat it in any form. 5. The fabric to be used for the end product can be cambric or mulmul. Once the design is traced on the fabric melted wax can be applied using a brush. Wax applied on areas which are supposed to resist colour. Bees wax and paraffin wax are used in 1:2 proportion. Soften the water by boiling it.


Proportion of dye Fabric = 1 Metre Napthol AT or BS = 1/8 tola (1 tola = 10 gms.) Salt (e.g., Red B Salt) = ¼ tola




6. The fabric is dyed using the following steps :

Common Salt = 2 Tablespoons Caustic Soda = 5 to 6 (Small Grains)

15.4 Methods: – Soak the waxed fabric in very cold water, for a few minutes. This will harden the wax further. In the meantime prepare the dye solution, for example, take Napthol 1/8 tola and add to it 3 to 4 tablespoons of soft water. Make a fine paste. – Add 1 cup of soft water and boil it for 10 minutes. Then add caustic soda. – The solution becomes clear. Remove from fire and cool it. – Take ¼ bucket of soft water and add the above solution to it and stir well. – Remove the fabric from water, press well to remove the extra water. Open up the fabric well and dip in the prepared solution. Turn it upside down so that the dye can spread evenly, leave the fabric in the solution for 5 to 8 minutes. – In the meantime, prepare the salt solution, e.g. yellow GL salt. Add ¼ tola of salt with a little soft water and made on paste. – To this add ¼ bucket of soft water and 2 table spoons of common salt and stir well. – Remove the fabric from the napthol solution and dip it in the salt solution. Move the fabric up and down and so that the color spread evenly.

– The following are some dye mixtures used–:


– Dewaxing – Wash the fabric in hot water and detergent. Once dry, place it between 2 sheets of newspaper or blotting paper and iron with a very hot iron. The paper will absorb the wax.


– Rinse the fabric in plain cold water to remove excess color. Remove from water, press and dry.

Napthol AT + Black K Salt – Magenta Napthol AT + Yellow GL Salt – Yellow Napthol AT + Red B Salt – Orange Napthol AT +Blue B Salt – Brown Napthol BS + Voilet B Salt – Royal purple Napthol BS + Blue B Salt – Navy blue Napthol BS + R Salt – Red Napthol BS + GP Salt – Maroon Napthol AGGR +Blue B Salt – Dark Blue Green Napthol AGGR + Black K Salt – Navy blue Napthol AS + GP Salt – Light violet



Napthol AS + Blue BB Slat – Bottle green



Batik Patterns



Batik Patterns



Batik Patterns



Batik Patterns

Lesson 16: Stencil, Screen

and Block Printing Objectives In this lesson we learn-


What is stencil? Its origin? Carry out stencil printing exercises. Thorough understanding of the process of screen printing. Types of binders used for screen printing. What is block printing? Block printing is a form of direct printing. Making creative blocks out of various materials.

Structure 16.1 Stencil Printing 16.2 Screen Printing 16.3 Block Printing 16.3.1 Mounting Items for Stamping 16.3.2 How to make a Printing Block from Artist‟s Eraser Material


The word stencil is derived from the medieval word “stanselon” which means to decorate with bright colours, which in turn come from the old French word “estencele” which means to sparkle.


16.1 Stencil Printing

Stenciling has been used over the centuries by many different cultures for a wide variety of functional and decorative purposes and some of the earliest examples date back to 30,000 BC. During the Paleolithic times, prints were made by people who used their hands as stencil when splattering pigments patterns onto the caves walls. The Chinese developed stencil printing in about AD 1000 for the mass production of religious images .The Japanese decorated interiors ceramics and fabrics with stencils and by the 18th C they had solved the problem of printing intricate images which incorporated floating shapes by weaving these into position by with human hair and silk. Wall paper, playing cards and other items decorated with stencil work were very popular in France up till the 19th C. Stencil printing is the precursor of the modern day screen printing. Today it is considered as a handcraft.


A difficulty with stencil printing is that the design areas must be connected to prevent the parts of the stencil from falling out. To offset this problem Japanese stencil articles developed a method of tying the various sections with silk filament or human hair. In producing stencil prints today, one can apply the color by hand brush, airbrush, or spray gun. The technique is necessarily limited to small amount of yardage.


In stencil printing design areas are cut from sheets of paper coated with oil, wax or varnish or from sheets of metal. A separate stencil is prepared for each color .The stencil must be planned so that they fit together properly to result in a perfect print.

Practical Exercises Stencil Printing  The students can carry out their first exercise for a simple start.  Draw out any simple floral motif on a thick sheet with pencil and cut it out neatly.  Place this stencil on a fresh sheet using different repeats.  Using water colors and an old tooth brush spray or three different colors on the stencils.  The cut out areas will get the colors and the rest will be resisted.  Students can also use the cut out and the stencil together to produce interesting effects.  The above exercise can carry out in the sketch file.  Trace the stencil designs given,on talc sheet, and cut them out. Use them to decorate furniture, walls, and tiles, T-Shirts, Towels, sheets, cushion covers.  Fabric colors are to be used on fabric. Paint brush can be used to paint or a both brush can be used to spray.  The sizes of the stencils can be increased or reduced depending on the area to be decorated.



 If a design or motif has three colors, there will be three stencils for that design/motif; as shown in design 1 & 2.

Country Cupboards



Rossini Frieze and Leafy Twist

16.2 Screen Printing Development of screen printing



Hand made stencil work was expensive and there was a desire for cheaper and factor production methods. Towards in end of the 19th C, a stenciling technique which used a printing frame was patented in Michigan, USA. In 1907 a patent was granted in Manchester, England, for a printing press using a wooden frame stretched with silk on which a stencil was hand printed with screen filler. The ink could not pass through the resulting stencil but was squeezed through silk onto the paper below, making a print .This process of a fixed stencil on the mesh allowed intricate patterns to be printed and came to be known as silk screen printing or screen printing.

Process of Screen Printing The screen is made by covering a frame with a fine mesh fabric of silk, metal, nylon, or polyester This fabric mesh is then covered with a fiber The design areas are cut out of the fiber leaving the fine mesh open for the dye stuff to pass through and print the fabric. A squeegee is used to move the dye across the screen and force the color through the open areas on to the fabric. One screen is prepared for each color. The size of the screen must be large enough to include at least one respect pattern. All screens necessary for a design are arranged to register or fit together accurately for production of a complete design. Screen printing is desirable for the production of large patterns and for fabric that require considerable dye, such as uncut pile. Before the introduction of automatic screen printing the amount of yardage that could be printed at one time was limited because of the length of the printing table, he speed of the operator and the number of colors and screen used.



Now flat bed screen printing machine and rotating screen printers are used.

Practical Exercises Screen Printing 1. Each student is required to make motifs and designs for the stencil printing end products. 2. The students can choose any end product for example cushions covers (for chairs and floor), sheets, towels, table sheets napkins, Dupattas, or any thing else that the student can think of. 3. The students are required to place the motifs in creative way and get the layout approved by the teacher. 4. Screen can be made out of approved motifs and printing can be done according to the layout. 5. The printing paste is made by adding pigment dyes to a binder. The consistency should be such that it doesnâ€&#x;t drop from the spoon. There are three kinds of binders available in the market. Normal binder which gives a plain smooth paste and is used for printing dark designs on lighter back ground. Dhari binder is used for mixing in the gold, silver, or bronze dust and is used for printing light/metallic colors on dark background.

From an equipment point of view, screen printing is the „do-it-yourselfâ€&#x; form of print making. Whereas most others forms of printing rely on heavy,


1. A Simple Start


Pearl binder gives a pearly effect to the design when mixed with any color. It can be used both on light and dark base fabrics.

specialized and often expensive equipment such as presses, everything required for starting in screen printing can be packed into a couple of lightweight cardboard boxes. The few simple items needed to begin with can easily be home-made, or adapted from common place odds and ends. For those of you with little time, or inclination, to adapt equipment, a complete range of products is readily available, both as single items or as packaged systems. In addition to these favourable economic and practical considerations, the medium is also very flexible, and it is possible to device a system to work in almost any space available. Whereas the smallest area can be used for producing card-sized prints, large screens can just as readily be made up for coping with oversize images. Simple Equipment One most important requirement is the need for a good secure working and printing surface of a workable height. The surface of this needs to be perfectly flat. A sturdy kitchens table, covered with newspaper, makes an ideal surface. Most laminated kitchens working tops can just as easily be used. In both cases, you will find that having a water supply and sink close to hand can be very useful.

As well as holding the stencil in place, the screen acts as a reservoir for the ink during printing. Ample


The purpose of the frame is to act as a support, over which the (mesh) is stretched. To be serviceable, the frame needs to be sturdy and of a rigid construction. Any flexing would result in poorquality printing and hopeless registration of colors. A good test of a frame is that it should rest evenly on a flat surface. If one or two of the corners appear raised in this position, it is doubtful whether the screen will print evenly.


The frame

space on either side of the stencil is needed during in order to retain the ink. The following is a list of the equipment you will need to start screen printing Cotton rags


Newsprint paper




Pegs of paper clips

Palette knife

Cartridge paper


Paper parcel tape




Wooden frame

Making the frame For the purpose of explaining the printing process, I have taken a particular frame size as my example throughout this description. A frame of 60 60cm (24 24 ) would provide a useful average size proportions to start with. For this, use planned timber of 5 2.5cm (2 1 ) dimensions, obtainable from any wood yard. The 5cm (2 ) measurement represents the height of the frame section, ensuring rigidity. When selecting the wood, look for knot free lengths and reject any appearing warped through poor storage. After cutting the four sides, join the corners adequately to prevent movement. a) The easiest way of joining the corners is with straight cuts, glues and nailed together and further reinforced with angle irons screwed to the top. Make sure the butt end of the joint has been cut square; otherwise the frame may go out of alignment. b) A simple, yet more robust joint allows the wood to be glued and nailed on two edges.


Finally apply a liberal coat of varnish to the finished frame. This will prevent the wood from getting wet when washing out the screen, and ensure against future warping.


c) A strong and easy alternative for joining corners is to use meter cuts, similar to those used in picture framing. These can be reinforced with angle irons after gluing and nailing. Nail and glue the frame together on a flat surface. This will ensure that it does not end up askew and out of alignment. The finished frame will need to be sandpapered for easy handling, and the outside bottom edges slightly levelled so as not to snag the organise as it is stretched over the frame.

The Screen fabric The screen fabric needs to be of a fine, open weave to allow ink to be squeezed through the mesh to the underlying print surface. The over strength of the fabric must by such that it stands up to being stretched totally over the frame and does not sag when wet. Silk was originally used for this purpose, but these days silk has largely been replaced by a number of synthetic fabrics which offer greater resilience and improved properties. For our purpose cotton organdie provides a cheap, serviceable material with which to make a start. Make sure you buy cotton organdie and not nylon, which stretches and sags when wet. Stretching the Screen Fabric



Unrail the organdie on a tabletop and place the frame upon it. The weave of the material should run parallel to the sides of the frame. Cut a square of material, allowing approximately 7.5cm (3 inches) on all sides. The material can now be fastened to the frame by using drawing pins or a staple gun. It is important that the organdie should be stretched evenly over the frame. To ensure you get an even tension follow the procedure below.

Place the frame over the organdie, adjusting to ensure that there is about the same amount of overlapping organdie on each side. Turn up one edge of organdie and drawing pin it to the center of one side of the frame. Place two further pins on either side of the first one, about 7.5cm (3 inches) apart. As you do this, pull gently towards the corners for tension.


With about the same 7.5 cm (3 inches) between pins, secure the remaining material by working towards the corners. As you do so, pull firmly towards the corner you are working to. This should create an even tension across the screen.


Now fasten the center of the opposite side, pulling the organdie tightly across the frame as you do so. It is important to pull the material really tight, but to do so steadily so as not to tear it. Fasten the other two pins as before, and then secure the centers of the other two sides in a similar fashion.

Although the organdie is now fully stretched, you may possibly have to improve the tension at this stage. By working from the center outwards, on opposite sides, pull the organdie tighter between the pins, securing with new pins, or staples, as you do so. The finished result should be tight and even, like a drum skin. Any slackness would result in the stencil moving during printing, spoiling the printed result. If the surface is not tight on completion, it may be possible by removing some of the pins ,to retighten and secure the areas affected. Falling this, remove the pins and start afresh. Never make do with a poorly stretched screen. Masking the Edges and Making a Waterproof Border Once the screen is stretched, the inside edges will need to be masked. This is done to prevent ink seeping underneath during printing and masking the results. At the same time, a waterproof border around the edges is needed to act as an ink reservoir late on. Brown gummed paper tape, is ideal for both purposes.

Squeegee (Printing Blade)


Turn the frame over and apply overlapping strips of tape on the back to form a masked border at 10cm (4 ) width all round. Smooth these flat with a damp sponge. When dry, waterproof both sides of the taped off margins and taped inside edges by applying two coats of varnish.


Cut four 56cm (22 ) strips (the internal size of the frame). Fold these in half along the length and wet them under a tap. Then secure them to the inside edges of the frame, half on the wood half against the organdie (fig 6). Carefully dab a sponge along the inner edges to remove air bubbles and wrinkles.

The only specialized piece of equipment you may need to buy to start with is the blade (squeegee). A squeegee consists of a strip of rubber or polythene, usually 5cm (2 ) wide and 1cm (3/8 ) thick, set in wood, or metal, holder. It can be purchased complete from screen printing suppliers and is usually priced by the inch. A cheaper solution is to buy a length of rubber strip from the supplier and make your own wooden holder. The easiest way of doing this is by using three separate length of wood. As a third, even cheaper, alternative items such as rubber window cleaning wipers or plastic draught excluder strips can be used effectively for simple printing. These can also prove useful when printing an isolated part of a design in a particular color and a smaller blade is needed. The size of the blade has to be shorter than the inside measurement of the frame with added space allowed for manoeuvring. Finding the cause of problem

Colors print with double image or gaps appear between different colors.


Problem: Registration out of alignment


Finding the exact cause of a problem is not always easy. At times, a number of quite different factors can accumulatively cause a mistake. If for instance, small errors of register have been made in the cutting of stencils, a loose screen fabric, or loose hinges, would tend to magnify the discrepancy during printing. Once a problem has arisen, it is a question of looking at all the possible causes and identifying those responsible. Knowing what to look for when sorting out problems comes with experience. In the meantime, the following fault finding and remedial suggestion should help you to overcome the most usual problems.

a) Screen fabric too loose: Always check the screen tension before use. If it is loose, tighten it by using a staple gun or drawing pins. b) Loose screen hinges: Check movement hinges. Tighten screws if necessary.


c) Poorly cut or designed stencils: If sufficient care has not been taken in the design and making of the stencils, the print will not work. If this occurs, the only remedy is to start again. d) Sharp change of atmosphere affecting printing stock: If the atmosphere of the printing area radically changes during printing the effect could cause the printing stock to swell or shrink. Either way would affect the registration. Using fan heaters to hasten drying between printing could cause this. For the same reason, stock paper for printing in the area to be used for a few days to printing to acclimatize it to the atmosphere. e) Loose register tabs: If the register tabs becomes loose, they will need to be retapped down. Always ensure that paper is placed full against register guides. Problem: Uneven Color Colors appear weaker on certain parts of the print. a) Uneven pressure on the squeegee. Apply even pressure to squeegee when printing.

Problem: Pinheads of unwanted color


After periods of disuse, or in cold weather, polyurethane squeegee blades tend to harden. To counteract this, hold the blade in front of a fan heater, or run hot water over the blade. Then carefully massage the side of the blade to make it more flexible.


b) Squeegee blades has become rigid.

Small breaks in stencil. Raise the screen and patch the affected area with tape. Problem: Ink seeps past the stencil edge during printing. This is more likely to happen when using paper stencils. In all cases, carefully wipe the overlapping ink from the back of the stencil. a) Ink too thin: Thicken mixture by adding more binder and pigments. b) Screen fabric too loose: Paper stencils may not stick evenly to mesh, causing the stencil to ripple. Remove the stencil and thicken the screen fabric. c) Damp paper stencil: Damp stencils may cause ink to seep through and overrun. Cut a new stencil. d) Torn stencil: Mend small tears with tape. Failing this, cut a new stencil. Problem: Paper stencil becomes unattached during printing. a) Printing on damp ink If the print is still tacky when overprinting, the stencil may stick to the print, pulling away from the screen. Ensure that prints are dry before overprinting.


If the surround on the paper stencil overlaps the taped border by too much, the edges of the stencil will flop down, pulling the stencil away from the screen. If this happens, cut back the overlapping stencil.


b) Too large a surround on paper stencils

c) Too slight, or uneven pressure put on squeegee during the first pull Carefully peel off the part of the stencil that has stuck down and reposition it on a fresh sheet of paper. Take another pull, this time using more, allover, pressure. Problem: The screen clogs during printing Printing becomes lighter and parts of the stencil cease to print. Details become lost and blurred and the problem usually gets worse. a) Too little pressure on the squeegee. Harder pressure on the squeegee should be tried and will work provided that the ink has not dried in. b) Ink is too thick Clean the screen and add the appropriate thinner to the ink and stir well. c) Ink dries in screen Small areas of drying-in can often be cleared by rubbing the area with a cloth soaked in the appropriate thinner. For large areas, especially when paper stencils are used, cut a new stencil, clean and start afresh. To deter ink from drying in, always reflood the screen once a print has been taken. Problem: blended colors appear streaky a) Colours insufficiently mixed on the screen. Clean the screen and, with the edges of the blades, blend the colors in the more fully. consist



It is important that colors used in a blend are thinned by the same amount. If this is not done,




b) Colors in the thicknesses.

colors may not blend evenly. To remedy this, clean the screen and remix colors, thinning to equal consistency.

16.3 Block Printing



It is one of the oldest arts of fabric decoration. Actual samples of fabric stamped with block prints and dated about 1600 BC have been discovered by archeologists. Wall printing indicating the possible application of pattern by block stamping appear to have been made as far back as 2100 BC. Some of the early blocks were up to eighteen inches square and more than three inches thick.

In block printing, a separate block is required for each color as seen in the design. On the block the design area is raised, where as the back ground area is carved away. Block printing is a form of direct printing where the fabric is laid flat on a smooth padded surface and anchored securely. Next the edge is applied in a uniform layer to the raised portion of the block. The block is then transferred on to the fabric so that the dye is transferred to the fabric. Extra pressure is exerted on the block to exert clear color. Block printing is both a handcraft and an art form. It can be done on paper as well as fabric. In India block printing is done widely as a form of fabric decoration where sanganer, bhagm in Rajasthan; Bhuj and Anjar in Gujarat and Srikalnhasti in Andhra Pradesh are famous. Blocks of various designs are available in the market and can also be made on order.


With a little imagination, many household items become tools for stamping designs on fabric. Try a wooden spaghetti lifter, flat metal hardware items, plastic bubble wrap, or a ball of string. Small objects, such as buttons, coins, or keys can be glued to the end of the wooden dowel, empty film container, or large cork for easy stamping. In fact cork itself can be cut into interesting shapes for printing fabric. Some items are more easily used for stamping if they are not mounted to a surface. Cellulose sponges cut into shapes produce wonderful textured effects. Leaves, flowers petals, or gresses may be used to produce whispy, nature prints. And donâ€&#x;t forget your vegetables!


Creative Block Printing


The weave structure of the fabric plays a large part in the clarity of the printing. Obviously, the clearest


Purchased stamps, particularly those with less fine detail work, are also useful for stamping on fabric. Printing blocks can be cut from a number of materials, including white artistâ€&#x;s erasers or larger blocks made of the same material, available at art supply stores. These blocks are easily cut with a mat knife or linoleum block cutters. Any closed cell foam materials, including neoprene sheets insulation tapes or computer mouse pads can be cut into shapes with scissors and attached to a block of printing. Art supply stores also carry adhesivebacked sheets of closed cell foam, designed for this purpose.

results are obtained on tightly woven fabric with fine yarns. The looser the weave and the larger the yarns, the more distorted the stamped image will be. Use any fabric paints, inks, or dyes to stamp the image and fabric. Also, use this stamping technique for applying resists (page 50) or for discharging dye (page 67) to create a stamped image. Follow the manufacturersâ€&#x; directions for using the product and for setting the stamped image permanently in the fabric.

16.3.1 Mounting Items for Stamping Secure small items such as coins, buttons, or metal washers to dowel ends, bottle corks, or empty film containers, using silicone glue. Spread wood glue on the block, arrange uniform layer of rope, cording or string in desired design in wet glue; allow to dry. Or secure ribbed fabric, corrugated cardboard, or other textual material. Print design on paper; adhere to top of block, to aid in positioning stamp.



Cut clear 1/4 (6mm) acrylic sheet into shapes or use empty clear plastic boxes in assorted sizes for see-through printing blocks. Cut layered selfadhesive foam into desired shapes amount to blocks. Mount other items using silicone glue.



16.3.2 How to Make a Printing Block from Artist’s Eraser Material 1. Draw design on surface of block material or transfer design to surface using transfer paper. Cut about 1/4 (6mm) deep into block along outer design lines, using mat knife. 2. Remove large background area around design by cutting horizontally through of block up to cuts made for design outline.



3. Cut and remove negative areas within design, cutting at an angle along each edge.





Linoleum cutter method Carve away negative areas of design using linoleum cutting tools. Follow manufacturerâ€&#x;s direction for using tools. Some styles are pushed to cut; others are pulled.



Place fabric to be stamped over smooth, padded surface, such as muslin layered over foam-core board. Stretch taut, and secure with masking tape around edges. Apply thin layer of fabric paint to smooth surface, such as sheet of glass. Press stamping material onto surface to pick up paint for stamping. Recoat surface as needed. Apply paint or ink directly onto stamping surface, using foam applicator. This allows you to print multicolored designs.


Reapply dye, ink or paint after each stamp for design of relatively same intensity.


Make a stamp pad by placing several layers of felt on a smooth, flat surface thoroughly wet, but do not saturate, felt with fabric dye, ink or thinned paint( four parts paint to one part extender). Press printing block into felt pad, lightly coating surface Stamp fabric.



Brush paint onto uncut surface of artists eraser or printing block. Remove paint to create a negative design, using a wipe out tool, pencil eraser, or corner of another artistâ€&#x;s eraser. Print design onto fabric. Stamp two or three times before reapplying paint or ink for designs with varying intensities, depth, and shading.



ďƒź The students can carry out the above listed activities in their sketch files.

Summary: A dye is a compound that can be fixed on the surface of the fabric in a more or less permanent state that evokes the visual sensation of a specific colour. Dyes can be applied to a yarn or the fabric. Tie-dyeing is a process of resist dyeing. Printing can be defined as the application of designs to the fabrics. Application of dyeing and printing produces luring fabrics with better consumer appeal.

Revision points: 1. Tye-dyeing is a resist dyeing process 2. It is done by different techniques like marbling, twisting, knotting, binding, tritik & ruching. 3. Printing can be defined as the application of designs to the fabric. 4. Batik is a resist printing technique because no dye can penetrate the parts of fabric covered with wax. 5. Block printing, resist printing, stencil & screen printing are the different methods of printing. 6. In stencil printing design areas are cut from sheets of paper coated with oil, wax or varnish or from sheets of metal. 7. Stencil printing led to development of screen printing.



8. Block printing is the oldest & simplest method of applying design to the fabric.

Intext Questions: 1. What is tie and dye process? 2. Differentiate between block printing & resist printing. 3. What are the different techniques of tying fabric? 4. What are tritik and ruching? 5. What is stencil printing? 6. What is screen printing? prepared for printing?






7. What is block printing? Explain in detail.

Review Questions Q.1 What is „Shiboriâ€&#x;? Q.2 Tie and dye is a Resist-dyeing process Explain. Q.3 Write short notes on: -






Q.4. Write a short note on the origin of batik? Q.5 Name the different types of wax used for batik? Q.6 How is the fabric prepared for batik? Q.7 What are the kinds of waxes used for batik? Q.8 What is the canting tool? Q.9 What precautions handling wax?





Q.10 Where did batik originate? Q.11What is the process of screen printing? Q.12 What is a squeegee? Q.13 How did stencil printing give rise to screen printing?



Q.14 What are the steps involved in executing a design on a fabric using a block?

Key words: Shibori: The spot technique of dyeing in Japan. Dye: Dye is a compound that can be fixed on the surface of the fabric in a more or less permanent state, that evokes the visual sensation of a specific colour. Resist-dyeing: When some area of fabric resisted such that it does not accept the colour.


Marbling: The fabric is bunched into a ball and tiedyed. Tritik: The sewing technique of tie-dyeing. Ruching: Gathering fabric compactly around pieces of wood or any suitable object and then tie-dyeing. Batik: It is a resist printing technique with wax. Stencil printing: In this the design areas are cut from sheets of paper coated with oil, wax or varnish. Screen printing: Screens are prepared for printing the design onto the fabric. Squeegee: It is used to move the colour on the screen and force the colour through open areas on the fabric. Binder: A binder is used to make a paste with the dye.



Block printing: It is a direct style of printing where a block is used to print a design on the fabric.

Books for Further Reference

1. Colour and Design on Fabric (singer design), 2000, Creative Publishing, Minnesota. 2. Buttericks Dressmaking Book, Butterick Company, N.Y, U.S.A.



3. Janet Haigh 1998, Crazy Patch work, Collins and Brown London 4. Morrel Anna, 1994, Techniques of embroidery, BT Bats ford ltd, London 5. Lemon Jane, 1987, The Metal Embroidery, BT Bats ford ltd, London





6. Langesford A, Kadolph S, 1998, Textile, Printice Hall, N.J. Ohio

Fashion Design (351-3,352-3 Fabric Artistry and Embroidery)  

351-3,352-3 Fabric Artistry and Embroidery