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COLOR THEORY INGRID PIEDRAHITA 1165-IND5325 Professor Darci Pappano Summer 2016


TABLE OF CONTENT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13

YOU + COLOR Theory + COLOR Designers + COLOR Film + COLOR Balance + COLOR Photography + COLOR Rhythm + COLOR Retail + COLOR P/S and U/H + COLOR Rendering + COLOR Hospitality + COLOR Workplace + COLOR Culture + COLOR CONCLUSION

3 8 9 21 28 29 37 38 46 47 52 59 65 73

M.1 You



HELLO Ingrid Piedrahita Architecture Florida International University


I born in Barranquilla, Colombia Lived in Miami, Florida Speaks English and Spanish

Have two girls

Married to Alexis Piedrahita


Youngest of two sisters


DESIGN INTEREST Architecture Art Design Psychology Pedagogy

Design 5 Library

Design 6 Artist Housing



Blue and green

Black, gray and white



Theory + Color COLOR THEORY is the study and practice of a set of principles used to understand the relationships among colors. Color theory has been studied for decades and new ideas and practices are continuously unraveled. The role color plays in art, design, and other allied professions is important to using color successfully. COLOR is the result of light reflected off the surface of objects into the eye, resulting in color vision. ADDITIVE COLOR the primary-light colors red, green, and blue are mixed. SUBTRACTIVE COLOR applies to paint, dyes, colorant, and inks, where blue, red, and yellow are identified as the primary colors; in printing and photography: cyan, magenta, and yellow (CMYK)

M.3 Designers • Understand the relationship between design concept and the use of color. • Analyze Qiora Store and Spa in New York.


Qiora Store and Spa New York, NY

Aro Architecture Research office

Art Director: Aoshi Kudo Architects: Steven Cassell, Adam Yarinsky and Scott Abrahams By: Ingrid Piedrahita

Qiora Store and Spa The ARO goal was to create a sensual environment with lighting and materials to disengage the guests from the fast pace on the Madison Avenue. Some people in charge were Stephen Cassell and Adam Yarinsky, partners in charge; Scott Abrahams, project architect; and Aoshi Kudo, art director Architect; among others. They created a sensory experience that unites the product with the space and the curvilinear shapes encourage exploration.

Architects Adam Yarinsky, FAIA LEED AP holds an undergraduate degree in Architecture from the University of Virginia and a Master of Architecture from Princeton University. He has served as the Eliel Saarinen Professor and as the Sanders Teaching Fellow at the University of Michigan, and as the Shure Professor at the University of Virginia. He has also taught at Harvard University, Princeton University, Yale University, Syracuse University, Parsons/The New School and Washington University in St. Louis. Adam has lectured widely throughout the United States and abroad. Recent articles by Adam have appeared in A+U, 306090, Dimensions, and Places Journal. Adam is a board member of Places Journal.

Stephen Cassell, AIA LEED AP holds an undergraduate degree in architecture from Princeton University and received his Master of Architecture from the Harvard Graduate School of Design. He has twice served as the Shure Professor at the University of Virginia and as the Friedman Professor at the University of California at Berkeley, and has also taught at Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Syracuse and the Rhode Island School of Design. He has lectured widely throughout the United States and abroad. In 2008, Stephen was a member of the New York City Green Codes Task Force. He is Chair of the Van Alen Institute and a member of the Leadership Committee of the Lower Mississippi River Delta Design Initiative.

Architects Scott Abrahams completed his architectural studies at RISD in 1996. Scott then worked at Architecture Research Office (ARO) where he became a project architect and worked on numerous award-winning projects including the Qiora Store and Spa, Colorado House, Armed Forces Recruiting Station, Paper Wall and the Prada Epicenter NY with Rem Koolhaas' Office for Metropolitan Architecture (OMA). Scott then had a private practice where he designed the Opaque Loft residence and an entry for the WTC Memorial Competition. Later, Scott worked on the Museum Plaza project at REX as a Senior Architect. Scott is licensed in NY state and has also taught architectural studios at RISD.

Materials • Massive glass windows at the entrance give passersby clear sightlines into the space.

Fluorescent lighting modulates between warm and cool shades to create a sense of daylight and a radiant glow on the skin.


Blue organza fabric veils are suspended from double height ceiling that mark an informal division between the retail zone at the front and spa at the back setting the visual and tactile boundaries.

White, aqua, and darker blues layered veils dissipate the solid surfaces of the round spa cabins. The different hue of blue colors are carefully calibrated by overlapping layers of fabric and placement of illumination.


• The intention of the designers was to create a harmonious space where people could feel relaxed. One of the primary hues used was the blue color. • The use of this

monocromathic color reduces stress, creating a sense of both physical and mental calmness and relaxation.


White is the other color used in this space, which was the perfect combination to fulfill the purpose of creating a pleasant space. White color is the most complete and pure, the color of perfection. The white color reflect purity and offering a sense of peace and calm, comfort and hope.


The design of Qiora Store and Spa is a combination of beauty

and calm. The curvilinear shape welcomes people to feel free to explore the place. The materials used such as glass panels ,

transparent veils and lights play an important role because it determines the spaces but lets see through them creating a sense of spaciousness. The use of a cool color like blue allows the place has an atmosphere of relaxation and calm.

Conclusion ARO was commissioned to design a day spa which would also serve as the brand’s flagship store. The architects expressed their creativity of materials and light through clear simple forms and blurring boundaries that are created by the continual play between translucent and opaque, and between light and shadow. Everything is curved to make space flow within the lofty wedgeshaped interior.

Blue veils of stretched organza are used throughout the interior to form delicate collages of light and color.

Lighting has been considered an intrinsic part of design, as substantial an element as the materials. The guest becomes distracted by the natural and relaxing feel of daylight and forgets the chaos on the street.

References hnson_Thermal.pdf?sequence=1

M.4 Film


• Analyze how color is used in the different scenes of the film. • The director use color to show the mood of the characters and reflect what is happening in the movie. • Help me to analyze what is happening in the film through the color.


Piedrahita Color + Environment_FILM ANALYSIS_M.4

FILM SUMMARY The film Amélie, directed by Jean-Pierre Jeunet is the story of a French girl. Amélie grew up with lack of love and comfort especially from her parents. Her cold hearted father and her stressed mother due to a mistake of her father's evaluation of her heart conditions. For this reason her parents did not allow her to have contact with other people. This led Amélie to resort to her own fantastical world and dreams of love and beauty. After her mother died, Amélie stayed living with her father. Once she became a young woman, she moved alone to central part of Paris as a waitress. Through the film, Amélie is described as a unique and innocent girl, who faces her own isolation through the good deed she offers to the world. As Amélie noticed that she takes a great joy in changing the lives of people around her for the better, she spends most of her time doing so. Throughout her journey, she exposed to the love which she has never experienced before. The director Jean-Pierre Jeunet used a color palette through the movie that helps us understand the emotions that felt the main character Amélie Poulain. The most dominant colors used throughout the film are yellow, red and green.

SCENE ANALYSIS At the beginning of the film, one of the first scenes show when AmÊlie was a child. There, the color red is introduced through Amelie’s childhood imagination. This color is continued throughout the film representing her childhood which is very important of the development of the character. Yellow tone is used to represent liveliness, happiness, joy, and excitement.

Red cherries and raspberries symbolize her passion and love.

Green is represented as a color of peace, nature, relaxation, and calmness.

Color palette

SCENE ANALYSIS These scenes show when Amélie found a child treasure hidden behind the wall and she decided to anonymously return it to the owner. When she observed his happiness, she decided to became the "godmother of the rejected", anonymously helped people that are her acquaintances using her fantasy and little tricks. Green is used in this scene to create vitality and to contrast with the warmer and more saturated colors mainly seen through the film. Brown is used to create a confort and security environment. This color works perfectly when combined with hues red, yellow, green, among others. Light yellow acts as a metaphor for Amélie’s current peaceful state of mind. Furthermore, yellow also creates an unreal and almost surreal feel to the film, which mainly stands for Amélie’s fantasy carried out throughout the storyline. Color palette

This scene shows one of the things that Amélie enjoyed doing that was throwing stones in the river and even though the childhood Amélie had, she enjoyed the most simple and small things in life. Color palette


White tone expresses goodness , purity and innocence. It is the most complete and pure, the color of perfection.

Green is used commonly throughout Amélie because green symbolizes hope and nature, which often brings comfort to the viewer’s eyes.

Light Green is a relaxing and refreshing color which induces feelings of serenity and harmony. Also symbolize life , fertility and good health .

Red represent warmth, energy, passion and love and is often used to reflect Amélie’s life and mood. This color brings visual intensity to the screen.

SCENE ANALYSIS While the color blue is not extremely common in the film, in Amélie’s apartment there are two bright blue lamps with bright blue lampshades. In the film Amélie, color is very important. The color blue is used to punctuate those events where characters are happy, or making decisions that are moving them towards happiness. Amelie’s whole apartment has one major use of color that it is red, it is as though the film lies out and presents Amelie’s feelings. Blue represent the happiness that Amélie gave to other people. Blue also appears when the main characters are looking for love, which theoretically, leads to happiness. Light yellow represent cheerful, hope, optimism and self-steem. Color palette

M.5 Balance

+ COLOR BALANCE is the striving to achieve the point of equilibrium between two or more forces. Balance is a means whereby harmony, peace, and connection can be made between the observer and that which is observed. VALUE CONTRAST is opposition in order to show or emphasize differences between two objects. HUE BALANCE complementary colors are those colors that when placed next to one another intensify the other hue, making each to appear brighter. INTENSITY CONTRAST the relative brightness or dullness of color is established by adding the complementary color to a particular hue or with the addition of gray. SIZE OF COLOR AREA the larger the amount of color used, the lighter it will appears; the smaller the amount of color used, the darker it appears.

M.6 Photography


• Take amazing pictures help me to reflect my experience through my eyes.

Nature through the lens It was a wonderful experience to interact with nature through a more sensitive way and to perceive small details that commonly overlooked

M.7 Rhythm

+ COLOR RHYTHM is movement. Is a natural evolutionary trait in nature that can be transferred to interior spaces and can be further emphasized with color. REPETITION is the systematic orderly succession of identical design elements along a define path in space. ALTERNATION occurs when two design elements are repeated in sequence similar to repetition; however, the difference is that the pattern includes two distinctly different elements as opposed to one element repeating. PROGRESSION involves the repetition of similar elements with a continuous change. CONTINUATION refers to the placement of one or more colors throughout an interior to create a continuous movement of the eye through the space. RADIATION uses a concentric color arrangement instead of object to unify design elements and create visual movement versus the traditional sense where it is an arrangement of objects in a radical pattern.

M.8 Retail • This section explores how color is used in retail environment. This is done by analyze one retail environment. The purpose is to understand how color can create contrast of hue, contrast of value, contrast of design feature, contrast of texture, and focal point.


Retail Store

M.8 COLOR + EMPHASIS Piedrahita


The Garage Store was founded in 1975 in Montreal, Canada. Currently they have 300 stores in Canada . In the United States have approximately 100 stores and most are located on the East Coast . This store is located at the Dolphin Mall , in front of the food court. The store design concept is to use dark features. Their target audience is between the ages of 15 and 30 years old and they attract them by the store promotions and window display.


In this store the contrast of hue between the dark environment and the bright colors of the merchandise help to highlight different areas in the store. Dark color is related with sophistication and is use in the whole store. This contrast called the attention of customers allowing them to be attracted by the fashion clothes. Piedrahita

Garage uses contrast of value between the dark walls and the light color of the metal beams and columns. The lights are used to focus the merchandise and add a sense of importance to the product.


In this store is easily identify the contrast of a design feature by the use of dark color. The dark walls and features as well as metal trusses and air ducts emphasize the bright colors of clothes creating a focal point for a design elements. The designer use this color concept to call the costumers attention. They use color and shape to highlight areas in the store.


The designer uses color and texture contrast to create emphasis. The contrast of texture between the smooth dark walls, wood pallets and bricks wall brings more attention to the costumers. In this store, texture highlight the space and elevate the experience of the design. Also, texture gives balance and visual interest. Piedrahita

Garage uses the store front as a focal point displaying their best merchandise that capture and hold the viewer’s attention. They change their merchandise based on the latest trend and season. Also the play of light , colors and store front set up influence to highlight the products and attract audience.


M.9 P/S

and U/H + COLOR

Proportion is defined as the size relationship between elements and the visual composition or space. Proportion and scale are much the same, are often confused with one another, and inevitably are used interchangeably. Scale refers to the size of a shape in relation to a given known, in most cases, the human body and its position within space. Unity is defined as the repetition of color to achieve a unified whole. Harmony is the result of a perfect balance between individual color relationship.

M.10 Rendering • After choose an image and its palette, rendering the image and describe the color palette • The combination of all color palette create harmony and unity throughout the space.






Secondary 2

Accent 1

Accent 2

Accent 3

Secondary 1

I chose this image because when I saw it reminded me the sea, fishes and coral. It gave me the feeling of a cold, depth and ancient atmosphere. This color palette called my attention because I love nature and like the combination of green colors with soft ones. It is mainly composed of green and brown tones. In general the palette is very cool, but those that are more tinted will be used for accents. In the exploration of this tones I maintained a harmony in the design by using the 60-3010 rule which helped me to achieve a great result.

Color + Balance

COLOR SCHEME BROWN is associated with stability, reliability, dependability, and approachability. It is the color of growth, fertility, and earth, and it is associated the concepts of “all natural” and “organic.” Brown is the color of the Earth and is comforting and nurturing. BEIGE is dependable, conservative, and flexible. The color beige is neutral, calm, and relaxing. The attributes and meanings associated with beige change based on the colors it accompanies. The color beige offers some of the warmth of the color brown and the some of the crisp and coolness of the color white. GREEN is soothing, relaxing, and youthful and affects us physically and mentally in several different ways. Green is a color that helps alleviate anxiety, depression, and nervousness. Green also brings with it a sense of hope, health, adventure, and renewal, as well as self-control, compassion, and harmony. Piedrahita

Color + Balance


Color + Balance

EXPERIENCE AND RESULTS This assignment was a great experience because it allowed me to learn new concepts and combined a color palette creating my own space. I wanted to reflect through the tones and colors an environment very quiet, placid and relaxing. To achieve this I looked for colors and cool tones but among them could handle some contrasts combining the color palette of the image I chose. I acclimate the space with decorative elements such as plants, cushions, lamp and the human figure which gives us the dimension and proportion within the space.


Color + Balance


Hospitality + COLOR Variety is the principle of design that is concerned with the combination of one or more color elements with shape, form, pattern and texture to create diversity and contrast in an interior space. • Select one hotel and study the line, shape, texture, form, and pattern design. • Write a critique and document how all this elements influence to create a great spaces.

COLOR + VARIETY Commercial Design Analysis Hospitality

1 HOTEL Designer: Meyer Davis Studio Location: Miami Beach

VARIETY is a principle of design that is concerned with the combination of one or more color elements that use line, shape, texture, and/or pattern to create diversity and contrast in an interior space.




ANALYSIS In the 1 Hotel the designer made sure every space was used to incorporate lines, shapes, texture and patterns. What caught my attention while watching the different spaces of the hotel was how the ceiling was never left behind when designing. I could see a flow starting on the floor and escalating all the way to the top.

COLOR AND LINE The use of lines are very significant in this project. Lines are used very carefully with light and dark colors creating contrast and communicating action in the entire room. In addition, light color lines help to look the space bigger. Piedrahita

COLOR AND SHAPE The use of round lamps represent a fluid movement in the design and enable the eye to travel around the space freely. The use of soft color in the lamp give us a sense of calm.

COLOR AND TEXTURE Texture is the surface quality or feel of an object. It is visual and tactile. The designer used a rough surface with light color creating a contrast with the wooden wall and floor.


COLOR AND PATTERN Pattern relates to the repetition of a graphic motif on a material. The color and pattern used in the chair fabric works in conjunction with the entire elements in the space.





COLOR AND LINE In this space the vertical lines represent strength and stability. The use of vertical lines help us perceive a bigger and higher space. Also the designer used white lines to give us a sense of harmony and calm. Piedrahita


COLOR AND SHAPE The designer use circular shape in the lights to create movement and depth, emphasize and create areas of interest. Also used a variation of circles size adding rhythm in the design.

COLOR AND TEXTURE Texture is the aspect of harmony that relates to the sense of touch. The used of the stone add a variety in the design and give us a visual contrast making the space more interesting. This surface used a light color combined with the rest of the design.

COLOR AND PATTERN In this space the color and pattern are emphasized by the use of horizontal lines and the combination of colors oscillating from white through gray tones. This pattern create movement from side to side.


REFERENCES,36086 Reed, Ron. (2010). Color + Variety. Color + Design: Transforming interior space. Pp. 130-141

M.12 Workplace • Analyzing and studying the variety of architectural details coupled with color effect, point, line, plane, shapes, and textures integrated and how the design intention enhance my visual and physical experience.



COLOR + VARIETY Workplace Design Analysis





Line is the connection between two points in the space. The lines used in the office run from the ceiling to the floor creating the perception of a large space. Lines create a long vertical movement accentuated by repetition creating a human figure.

Shape is one or more lines connecting to form a two dimensional image. Pandora Media Office has a circular shape design in some walls allowing the eye to travel around the space freely and giving a sense of calmness.

Texture is the visual and tactile quality of materials. It is the sense of touch and it stimulates either physical and visual. This texture generates a natural environment simulating a rough tree cortex and creates a visual interest into the space.

Pattern is the repetition of shapes and colors. The designer in Pandora office creates crystal cabinet of different colors giving a contrast to the rest of the color palette. In addition, The glass has dots pattern that helps define the surface of the volume and also provides different degrees of visual privacy.


DETAILS CONCLUSION | EXPERIENCE VARIETY is a principle of design that is concerned with the combination of one or more color elements that use line, shape, texture, and/or pattern to create diversity and contrast in an interior space. Lines, shape, texture, and pattern used in Pandora Media Office produce a specific movement into the space generating harmony, calmness and a good working environment suitable for both employees and customers feel comfortable being in this place.




REFERENCES Reed, Ron. (2010). Color + Variety. Color + Design: Transforming interior space. Pp. 130-141


M.13 Culture

+ COLOR COLOR symbolism in art, anthropology, and society refers to the use of color as a symbol in various cultures. There is great diversity in the use of colors and their associations between cultures and even within the same culture in different time periods. The same color may have very different associations within the same culture at any time. • Research and analyze color use in two cultures, my culture and one other culture as Japan.

COLOR + CULTURE My CULTURE and country is Colombia and I have chosen Japan to learn about their culture and how they use color. The culture of Japan is a country that has always called my attention. Appreciating their clothing, architecture and craftsmanship is something that I have always enjoy and admire.




COLOR Palette

COLOMBIA symbolism and meanings Yellow represents the wealth of Colombian soil and the sun, light source, and sovereignty , harmony and justice. Blue represents the sky covering the country, rivers and two oceans that bathe the Colombian territory.

Red represents the blood shed by the patriots in the battlefields for freedom, which means love, power , strength and progress. Orange represents joy and happiness in people life. In addition, this color means enthusiasm , excitement , warmth and care. Green represents hope and wellness. Also represents nature , prosperity , abundance and beautiful Colombian landscapes.

Colombia is the country which is recognized in the lovely planet for its diversified geography specifically the Andes and the Amazon. This Latin American country is connected to the Central America by the Isthmus of Panama. The country has overall mixed demo-graphical trend in the population and the official language of the country is Spanish. Colombia's diverse culture is a product of its unique history. Colombians show their culture through the colors of the flag, music , crafts , colorful costumes, among others. The traditional dress of Colombia is iconic in Latin America being diversified in nature and having bright and colorful tendencies. During national festivals like the Carnaval de Barranquilla however, Colombia's traditional fashions take center stage. La Pollera Colora ("brightly colored skirt") is probably Colombia's most well-known national costume for women. It consists of a vividly colored skirt. We are proud of our country and for that reason we bring our flag color every where we go. Walking through my country streets is a unique experience full of color markets and many events that take place at different times of the year to celebrate our culture. We use light colors as the dominant and intense colors as a focal point.



COLOR Palette

JAPAN symbolism and meanings Light pink represents kindness , positive ,childhood and innocence. In addition, this color is in the typical flower of Japan (Sakuma), blooming in spring. Red represents power, strength, love and dynamism. Also in the Japanese flag represents the sun. Blue is also a color which represents purity and cleanliness in traditional Japanese culture, largely because of the vast stretches of blue water that surrounds the Japanese islands. Yellow is one of the three primary colors and is the lightest and brightest hue. In Japan Yellow means courage and nobility. Green represents life, wisdom, and good health. Also this color signifies prosperity and nature represented in the patterns of kimonos.

Japan has a fascinating and multifaceted culture. This is part of what makes it such a fascinating country to visit. Colors have symbolic associations that appear in Japanese art, dress and rituals, and many have maintained those meanings even as Japanese society rapidly changes. Drawing inspiration from nature and historical texts, Japanese color symbolism helps others identify the emotional state or desires of those wearing certain colors. White has been an auspicious color in Japan for much of its history. White represents purity and cleanliness in traditional Japanese society, and is seen as a blessed color. Because of the sacred nature of the color, white is the color of joyful life events, and appears on the Japanese flag. Red is a powerful color in traditional Japanese society, representing strong emotions rather than ideas. Sakura is the Japanese word for cherry blossom, which blooms across Japan between March and May each year. The season is eagerly anticipated during the winter months, and while the blossom is out crowds of people flock to parks, gardens and riversides.

COLOR + CULTURE References • m/culture-traditions/nationaltraditions/colombiantradition3.htm • t/traditional-dress-ofcolombia-so-iconic-in-latinamerica/ • https://www.insidejapantours. com/japanese-culture/ • 6658499_meaning-colorjapanese-culture_.html •

Ingrid Piedrahita

CONCLUSION Through this class I could study the colors in all its forms of expression. This helped me to perceive small details that create big impact on the design of a space. In addition, I studied how color, textures , shapes, patterns, and lines work together to create harmony. Overall this class was very interesting because it helps me analyze more colors when choosing them to design spaces and impact people who are around.

Piedrahita color theory book  
Piedrahita color theory book