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for ages 6 and up

July/August 2013

INGREDIENT a magazine for kids curious about food

GET IN TOUch witH Nature Food Photography Kitchen Remedies for Bug Bites Dining Al Fresco

Let's GO! Geocaching, Camping and more! ALL ABOUT: ZUCCHINI Visit a Living History Farm

Cotton Candy, Chemistr y & Physics $5.50 U.S.


INGREDIENT a magazine for kids curious about food

Volume IV, Issue 4 July/August 2013 Founder & CEO Jill Colella Bloomfield Editor Elizabeth Frank Art Director Jim Thompson Designer Vil Couels Consulting Editor Natalie Timmons IN GRE D IENT maga zin e is p u b l i s h ed b i monthly by Te a ch Kid s to C o o k LLC, Maga zin e Gro u p , 1 6 0 3 Jeffers on Avenue, S aint Pa u l, M i n n e s o ta 5 5105. Fo r cu sto me r ser vi c e i s s u e s s uch as su bscript io n s, a d d res s c h anges, ren ewa ls o r p u rc h a s i n g b ack issu es, p lea se v isit : w w w. i ng redient m ag. co m , em a i l h el l o @ i ng redient m ag. co m , wri te to I N G R ED IE NT, 1603 J effe rso n Aven u e, S aint Pau l, M in n eso ta 5 5 1 0 5 . Postmaste r: S e n d ch a n ge s o f a d d ress to I NGR E D I E NT, 16 0 3 Jeffe rs on Avenue, S aint Pa u l, M i n n e s o ta 5 5105. Š 2013 INGR E D I E N T/Tea c h Ki d s to Cook, all right s rese r ved , i n c l u d i n g th e r ig ht o f re p ro d u ct io n i n w h o l e o r in par t , in a ny fo rm. E m a i l q uer ies to h e llo @ in gredi ent m a g . com. We are n o t resp on s i b l e fo r u nsolicited man u script s o r o th e r m ater ial. A ll re a d e r co ntr i b u t i o n s , i ncluding o rigin a l a rt wo r k , a re a s s umed for p u b licat io n a n d b eco m e th e propert y o f I NGR E DI E NT/ Tea c h Kids to C o o k , LLC . Rea d er co nt r i b u ti ons may b e e d ited fo r l e n gth a n d c l arity. P r inted in t h e Un ite d S tates o f A merica.

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CONTENTS in every issue 3 THE DISH: Explore your world 4 HEY, JILL!: Reader questions 5 IN SEASON: Eat this now

cook 7 RECIPE: Zucchini bread 9 RECIPE: Crab cakes 11 RECIPE: Campfire beans 14 RECIPE: Jam muffins

learn 10 TECHNIQUE: Soaking beans 16 PHOTOGRAPHY: Photo safari 18 HISTORY: Ice pops 19 FOOD SCIENCE: Cotton candy

do 12 LET'S GO: Geocaching 20 FUN FOOD FIELD TRIP: Farms 22 CUISINE QUIZ: Blueberries 23 PUZZLES & MORE: Food vocabulary

A n o te for a d u lt s : T h i s m a ga zi n e i s m ea nt to i n s p i re c u r i o s i t y a bout food in bot h c h i l d re n a n d a d u l t s . Ever y fa m i l y h a s i t s own i d e a s a b o u t fo o d a n d cook ing , includi n g wh at fo o d s a re a p p ro p r i ate to eat a n d wh o i s a l l owed to c re ate in t he k itchen. A s i n m o st e n d e avo rs , c h i l d ren a re m o st s u c c e s sf u l wh en p a rental/adult guidance a n d s u p p o r t m e et t h e i r i n q u i s i t i ve n es s a n d e nt h u s i a s m . As yo u use t his magaz ine, p l ea s e b e m i n d f u l t h at co o k i n g wi t h k i d s i s m o st f u n a n d m o st successful when it h a s c l ea r r u l es a n d d i v i s i o n o f res p o n s i b i l i t y. C h i l d ren a s yo u n g as t wo years old ca n p a r t i c i p ate i n s o m e h a n d s - o n co o k i n g a c t i v i t i e s wi t h ca ref ul adult direct ion; a d u l t s m u st a l ways c re ate a s afe , s u p er v i s ed env i ro n m e nt wh en children cook . A l s o i m p o r ta nt i s co nveyi n g to c h i l d ren wh at t h ey m ay a n d m ay not do independ ent l y wh en i t co m e s to p rep a r i n g , s er v i n g o r eat i n g fo o d . W i t h c lear expectat ions i n yo u r h o u s e h o l d , t h i s m a ga zi n e ca n b e co m e a n a m a zi n g to o l to help children b eco m e ea ge r l e a r n ers a b o u t a l l a s p e c t s o f fo o d .


features 6 ALL ABOUT Zucchini

It's green and good to eat, and will grow all summer long. Turn it into delicious bread and savor the taste of summer.

8 ALL ABOUT Blue Crabs Funky looking and delicious tasting, get cracking with Chesapeake Bay crabs.

10 LEARN ABOUT Dried Beans

Learn this basic technique for rehydrating and cooking beans, and you will always be able to cook up something good and good for you.

Much of this issue is dedicated to the idea of exploration. One article is about a kind of high-tech treasure hunting called geocaching. A how-to piece coaches would-be photographers to discover food through a camera lens. Other articles mention inventors, whose innovative explorations we have all probably tasted at least once. Some people may believe that everything worth exploring has already been discovered. If you ask me, that is not true at all. Consider this: what if something new—to you—qualifies as an important discovery, too? Maybe you were not the first person to ever grow or taste a green pepper, but if you grew it in your garden and tried it for the first time, it is extremely relevant and exciting. An exploration for sure! Explorers are often celebrated, but we must remember that very rarely are “discoveries” truly firsts. Two very famous American explorers—both with birthdays in August—are studied at some point by nearly every student in school. Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were asked by President Thomas Jefferson to explore a large area of land that America bought from France called the Louisiana Purchase. Hoping to find a water route to the Pacific Ocean, in the summer of 1804, these two explorers set forth to survey and map the land. Had other people been in this wilderness before? Yes. Lewis and Clark were not the first people to traverse this terrain. But, they were the first to undertake a mapping project that would allow people to head west more easily. Like the maps Lewis and Clark produced, exploration is a gift of knowledge to people who come after you. What could you explore, and how can your discoveries benefit someone else? Blaze a trail this summer,


in every issue: HEY, JILL!


reader questions, feedback and a round-up of cool stuff Have a question, want to express yourself or share a food adventure? Got cool pictures of a recipe you made? Have ideas for topics you would like us to write about? You can drop Jill a line at Don't forget to ask an adult for permission. We can't wait to hear from you! Hey, Jill! Is there a difference between jam and jelly? Rachel, Age 10 Hey, Rachel! What they have in common is that they are both quite delicious. If you have an opportunity, take a look at the two side by side, maybe the next time you are at the grocery store. Jelly is transparent, which means it is see-through, because it is made from fruit juice. Jam is made using the flesh of fruit, sometimes including seeds, so it is chunky. I love grape jelly and strawberry jam—maybe equally! Which type is your favorite? Hey, Jill! Why do waffles have little squares on them? Jesse, Age 12 Hey, Jesse! I love waffles for breakfast, and, well, even sometimes for dinner. First, the practical answer: the indentations in waffles create areas for crispness while staying soft and tender inside. They also create wells where loose batter can sit in a waffle iron until it bakes and firms up. The indents



also allow melted butter and syrup to pool. Delicious! Now, the artistic answer: waffles used to look much fancier. First popular in the Netherlands in the 1300s, waffle irons had plates that baked pictures onto waffles. Sometimes the pictures were landscapes or scenes from literature or Bible stories. Hey, Jill! Is it true that you have to wait an hour after you eat before you go swimming? Melody, Age 9 Hey, Melody! Waiting an hour after you eat before going swimming is actually a myth, but it offers us a reason to be cautious. The reasoning behind the myth is that during digestion more blood is diverted to the stomach, which means less blood—and the oxygen it delivers—is available to sustain vigorous exercise. In short, the fear was that a swimmer would get tired, too tired to swim. Food is what gives us energy, which is needed for physical exertion. Eat a few hours before exercising. A combination of protein and carbohydrates is ideal, since it gives immediate energy and holds some in reserve for later, so you have lots of energy for spending the whole day splashing around in the pool.


Eat this


Why eat in season? Choosing foods that are grown as close to where you live as possible allows you to eat fresh food and minimize the energ y required to ship fruits and vegetables long distances.


In season during summer in places with cooler temperatures like Alaska, lingonberries typically are a fall crop, even in the Pacific Northwest. Sometimes called lowbush cranberries, lingonberries are round, quite firm and bright red. They are excellent for making jams, syrups and sauces.

Do You Sous Vide? If you love watching cooking competition shows on television, you have probably heard this word before. Associated with gourmet cooking, the technique’s name means “under vacuum” in French. Raw food is placed in a plastic bag and vacuum sealed and placed in a special container of water which is heated at a low cooking temperature. The food cooks very slowly over many hours in the water. Why bother cooking sous vide? The low and slow method prevents damage to the cell walls in the food. (Remember, all living things— plants and animals—are made of cells.) This keeps the food very moist and very tender, and allows chefs more control over the cooking process. Special machines (below) regulate cooking.


Peaking in the summertime, butter beans—also called lima beans—grow best in the South, in states like Alabama. The beans are the color of butter, and have a creamy texture. Some people even say the beans taste like butter. Boil fresh beans and top with a sprinkle of salt and just a touch of butter.

Dining Al Fresco

Al fresco is an Italian phrase that literally translates as “at a fresh temperature” and means to be outside. Dining al fresco means eating outdoors, like on a patio. Eating outside can be a fun way to make the most of nice weather and to turn a regular meal—maybe even just a bowl of cereal—into a memorable event.

Inventive Burgers for Everyone

Wicked Good Burgers is not about a simple beef patty topped with ketchup. A perfect cookbook for a family of adventurous eaters, the authors Andy Husbands, Chris Hart and Andrea Pyenson, reimagine burgers in a totally new way—whether it’s the Meatloaf Burger on Pretzel Bread with Cabernet Mustard or the Island Creek Burger with Oysters and homemade cocktail sauce, you have probably never made burgers like these before. You’ll learn the art and science of freshly grinding meats— from beef to lamb to goat—for the ultimate juicy burger as well as cooking methods such as smoking, grilling, griddling, and sous vide that impart distinctive flavor.

Rubberband Rescue Create handy hacks using everyday objects you probably already have on hand. Clever kitchen uses for rubberbands: Put rubberbands around both ends of a cutting board to stop it from slding. Can't open a jar? Put a rubberband around the edge of the lid to help you get a good grip. A tall glass always topples over in the dishwasher? Strap it securely to the rack with a rubberband.

Summer Hunger Many school-aged children eat their only meal of the day at school. When school is out, they can struggle with hunger. The Summer Food Service Program (SFSP) was established to ensure that children continue to receive nutritious meals when school is not in session. Free meals, that meet Federal nutrition guidelines, are provided to all children 18 years old and under at approved SFSP sites in areas with significant concentrations of low-income children. Need help? Call the National Hunger Hotline (1-866-3HUNGRY or 1-866-348-6479).



T h e f l o wer s o n a zucc hi n i p la n t ar e edi b l e. T h ey a r e s o m eti m es st u ff ed wi th c h ees e o r sausa g e an d th en batter ed a n d f r i ed .

Technically a zucchini is a fruit not a vegetable, since it is an offshoot of the plant's flower and encases seeds.

Sm a lle r is bette r w h e n i t com e s to zucchin i— t he f lavor is sw e et e r a nd more conce n t rat e d .

Z ucchin i is s o m etimes ca l led summer s quash.

T here are many diffe r e n t va rieti e s of zucchin i, ran gi n g f rom white to d ar k gr e e n , som e smooth and s o m e bumpy . S ome look lik e g o u r ds .

In Italian, zucca means squash. The suffix –ini means little. So, zucchini means little squash.


Z ucc hin i ca n g r o w u p to 3 f eet l o n g ! The largest zucchini ever recorded weighed 65 pounds.

D o n ’ t li k e zucchin i? Cut out th e s eeds . S o me p eop le do n o t li k e th e text ure.

Z ucc hin i can b e eaten ra w o r c o o k ed .

Z ucchini are e asy to gr o w an d t h e y a r e pr olific growe rs .


In F ran c e an d E n glan d, t h e w ord fo r zucc hin i is c o u r get t e. INGREDIENT

W as h zucc hi n i r i g ht b ef o r e y o u p la n to us e i t; o th er wi s e g etti n g i t wet ca n caus e i t to s p o i l . C o o k zucchin i ma n y wa y s : saut é, st eam, b o i l , f r y, a n d roast .

Zucchini Bread

Mak e s 2 loave s (8 in c h x 4 in c h pa n ) o r ab o u t 24 la r g e m u ffi n s W hat you ne e d : 2 cups whole w h e at fl o u r 1 cup all-pur po s e fl o u r 1 te asp oon sal t 1 te asp oon ba kin g s o d a 1 te asp oon ba kin g po w d e r 1 table sp oon gr o u n d c in n amo n 3 e g gs 3 te asp oons van il la e x t rac t 1 cup app le sauc e 1 cup w hite su gar 2 cups g rate d zucc hin i 1 cup chop ped pecan s ½ cup raisins , o ptio n al

A ug us t 8 is S ne ak S om e Z uc ch in i O nt o Y ou r N ei gh bo r’ P or ch D ay . M ay s be so m e zu cc hi ni br ea d, to o!

How you do it :

R eally lo ve zucc hi ni ? Vi si t t he annual Zucc hi ni F esti va l held i n Ob etz , Ohi o . Try zucc hi ni ic e c ream, c hi li , fri es and mo re!

Prepare loaf or muffin pans by greasing and flouring. An adult should preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit. In a bowl, sift together f l o u r s , s a l t , ba k i n g s o d a , ba k i n g p o w d e r, and cinnamon. In a different bowl, whisk together eggs, vanilla, and sugar. Gently stir in applesauce.

Add dry ingredients to the wet ingredients and mix until a batter is formed. Gently fold in zucchini and pecans, and raisins, if you wish. Scrape batter into prepared pans using a spatula, and ask an adult to put pans into the oven. For loaves, bake for 45 minutes and test for doneness. Bake until top is golden and a cake tester comes out clean. Muffins or smaller loaves will take less time to bake, about 20-25 minutes.

T r y i t to asted wit h a to uc h o f but t er! Yum!


FEATURE: REGIONAL SPECIALTIES C r a b s b elong to a g ro u p of anim als c a lle d c rustaceans. T he s e a n i m als have exos ke le ton s , whic h means th at a c r a b's skeleton i s the h a rd shell on the o u ts ide of its b ody. C r a b s a re dec apods, wh ic h me a ns they have te n leg s.

Let's Get Cracking 88


The Chesapeake Bay, whic h stretc hes from the coast of Maryland down to the coast of Virginia, is famous for its blue crabs. The level of salt in the water is a perfect environment for these special crabs to flourish. Sometimes called the Chesapeake blue crab or the Atlantic blue crab, the Maryland blue crab became the official crustacean of Maryland in 1989. The species’ scientific name tells a lot about why the crab is so beloved: it is called Callinectes sapidus, whic h means "beautiful swimmer that is savory." Crabs are big business in Maryland, and fishing for crabs is a multi-million dollar enterprise. With crabs in high demand by fishermen and hungry seafood lovers, scientists must monitor the crab population in the Bay, sometimes restricting crab fishing to make sure that crabs are not overfished and will never disappear from their home in the Bay. Re du ci ng po llu ti on in th e Ba y is ve ry im po rt an t.

Technically the Chesapeake Bay isn’t a bay, but an estuary. This is a body of water that has at least one river flowing into it and that also connects directly with the ocean. The Susquehanna River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, and the Atlantic Ocean connects to it. At about 200 miles long, the Chesapeake Bay is the largest estuary in the United States.

Marylanders love to get together for crab feasts. Usually held outdoors during the summer, bushels of crabs are steamed and seasoned with Old Bay. Newspaper is spread out on tables, and people sit together and visit while cracking crabs with mallets and picking them with crab forks. Getting to the sweet tasting meat takes work, but is worth all the effort for the reward.

Not a place or a body of water, but a flavorful blend of spices for topping crab! Created in 1939 by German immigrant Gustav Brunn, Old Bay is still produced in Maryland today. Loved by locals, this regional favorite combines mustard, paprika, celery salt, bay leaf, black pepper, crushed red pepper flakes, mace, cloves, allspice, nutmeg, cardamom, and ginger. If you ever get a chance, try it!

Cr ab ca ke s ar e a M ar yl an d sp ec ia lt y.

Crab Cakes Ser ves 3-4

M ak e th e re ci pe yo ur ow n by m ak in g su bs ti tu ti on s. Tr y ad di ng ho t sa uc e or gr ee n pe ppe rs . Sw ap cr us he d cr ac ke rs fo r br ea d cr um bs .

What you need: 1 pound crab meat 1 cup breadcrumbs 1 egg, beaten ¼ cup red bell pepper, minced 3 tablespoons scallions, c hopped finely 3 tablespoons mayonnaise 1 teaspoon Old Bay Seasoning ¼ teaspoon ground black pepper 1 tablespoon Worcestershire sauce 1 tablespoon lemon juice 1 teaspoon dry mustard 3 tablespoons flour Vegetable oil for frying How you do it: Put flour in a large shallow dish, and set aside. Gently mix crab meat, breadcr umbs, egg, bell pepper, scallions, mayonnaise, Old Bay Seasoning, ground black pepper, Worcestershire sauce, lemon juice and dry m ustard in a large bowl. For m into six cakes. Dredge cakes carefully in flour. With an adult's help, in a skillet over medium heat, add about two teaspoons of oil and cook for about 4 minutes on eac h side. Eat with a spritz of lemon juice and tar tar sauce.



BEANS, BEANS The More You Eat, The More You Toot How to Prepare Dried Beans Dump your beans into a large colander. Pick through the beans carefully, looking for little rocks, clumps of dirt, broken beans and sticks. Toss any of those if you find them! Give your beans a good rinse.

Just as much as staking a tent, a breeze off the lake, the challenge of a hike, or the brilliant green canopy of pine trees in the forest, the smoky, savory smell of a pot of beans bubbling away on a campfire grate is part of being in the great outdoors. So, too, is singing the famously cheeky campfire song while chowing down on beans and roasted weenies around the evening’s fire. Perfect for hungry campers, beans have more protein than most other plant-based foods, so they provide a lot of energy. Many cooks are intimidated by cooking with dried beans. Often these cooks who have tried to cook dried beans before had very bad results, like rockhard beans, even after hours of cooking. Not unlike becoming a skilled camper, with some know-how and a little practice, anybody can master the essential basic technique of cooking dried beans.

Put beans in a bowl and add hot water from your kitchen faucet to cover your beans completely. Let them soak in their bean bath at least two hours or as long as overnight.

Drain and rinse beans and add to a large pot. Cover the beans with fresh water. Cover with a lid, leaving it open a tiny crack. Bring beans to a boil, and then reduce heat to medium-low and cook for about an hour or until beans are soft. Drain beans and use them up!

Th e Bea ns Ca mpf ire Song : Bea ns, bea ns, t he m usica l fr uit . T he more you ea t, t he m ore you toot. The m ore you toot , t he bet ter you feel. So we have bea ns a t ever y m ea l!


Make it easier! Pick and soakd your beans, anand s then put beanwater enough fresh s in to cover bean on a slow cooker low for 6-8 hours.

Campfire Beans Ma k es 6-8 s e r vi ngs

Canned beans are already presoaked and pre-cooked.

W h a t yo u ne e d:

2 c u ps dr y navy be ans ½ p o und baco n, cho ppe d 1 wh i te o ni o n, fi ne l y di ced 3 t a bl e spo o ns mo l ass e s 1 t ea spo o n s al t ½ t easpo o n gr o und bl ack p ep p er 1 t a b le spo o n y e l l o w mus tard ½ c u p k e tchup o r s t e w e d tomatoes 1 t a b le spo o n W o r ce s t e r s h ire sau c e ¼ c u p mapl e syr up 2 ½ c ups w at e r H o w yo u do i t :

P r e p ar e be ans by pi ck i ng, soaking and c o o k ing.

P r e h eat o ve n to 3 50 de grees Fah renh eit. C o v e r the bo t to m o f a casserole d ish wit h a l ay e r o f be ans. Sprinkle layer wit h hal f o f the o ni o n and bac on. Ad d a n o t he r l ay e r o f be ans and th en onion a n d baco n.

C o m bi ne al l o the r i ngr e dients in a bowl a n d p o ur o ve r be ans. C o v e r cas s e r o l e di s h w i th f oil tigh tly.

B a k e fo r 3 ho ur s , che ck i ng every h ou r t o s ee i f mo r e w at e r ne e d s to be ad d ed . I f b eans l o o k dr y , add ½ c u p water, and c h eck agai n t o po ss i bl y a d d more. Th e s a u ce s ho ul d be so upy, bu t not watery.

Canned beans cost about four times as much as dried beans. Beans are edible seeds enclosed in pods. Taking beans out of their pods is called ‘shelling’ beans.

Dried beans that are cooked can be drained and frozen for future use. Just add them to whatever you are cooking—no need to soak and cook again!

Soaking Makes Beans Less...Um...Musical S o a kin g h elp s red u c e oligosa ccharide s, sug ars that are part of be a n s. T h is su bsta nc e is not dig e ste d in the human small inte stin e, bu t it is in t he la rge intestine . Whe n the bacte ria in our g uts g oes t o w o r k o n ol igosa cch a rid es in o ur larg e in te stine s, the y produce gas e s c a l l ed h yd rogen a nd methane . Gue ss what? The se g ase s are wh at giv e t h e be a n i ts rep u ta tion as a musical fruit that cause s the too t s . A l o n g e r so a k red u c es fla tu lence ( a fan cy word for farts) !



Let's Go Geocaching 11 2 2


Explore and use your problem solving skills while trekking the trails as summer is in full-bloom, making memories and building an appreciation for the outdoors and fellow hobbyists.

G e o ca c hi ng i s a hi gh-tech tre a s ure hu nt. Peopl e have al-

ways loved expl or i ng , but a bout twent y ye a rs ago, emerg i ng tec hnol og y called Gl o b a l Po s it i oni ng System ( GPS) gave p eo p le a n ew tool for expl orati on. GPS te c h n o lo g y u ses satel l i tes hi g h a bove th e Ear t h to pi npoi nt l ocati on. T he satel l i te s s en d ra di o si g na l s to Ea r th and a s p ec ia l d ev i c e rec ei ves a nd decodes th e ra d i o s i g na l s a nd ca l c ul ates w h ere a re c ei ve r is . A new a dventure a c tiv it y wa s b o r n : ge oca c hi ng ! Peopl e rea l ized th at t h ey co ul d hi de a ca c he a nd prov ide coo rd in ates for i ts l ocati on, a nd then o th er p e o p l e coul d use GPS devi c es to f i nd t h e h id d en ca c he.

Cac h e m eans hid i ng place,

a n d in geo ca c hi ng , a ca c he i s a hi dden contai n e r t h at i nc l udes a l og book for fi n d e rs to s i g n a nd som eti m es ga dget s a n d t r in ket s for tra di ng . Websi tes about geo cac h in g i nc l ude l i sti ng s of si tes wit h coo rd in ates for f i ndi ng ca c hes. L i sti n g s al s o i n c lude i nfor m ati on a bou t how d i ff ic u lt t h e ca c he i s to f i nd—som e are c l os e to e a sy tra i l s a nd others m i g ht re qu i re t raversi ng som e roug h ter rain. L i st in g s a l s o tel l a bout the si ze of a ca c h e— s o me onl y i nc l ude a l og book , s o i f yo u are i nterested i n tra di ng t reas u re s , l o o k for a ca c he that i s at l east re g u l a r s i ze .

Wh e n yo u f i nd a cac he, th e re a re some i mpor tant g u ide l i n es to reme mb er: Sign the log. Use your first name and initial or make up an alias. Le ave a m essa ge. You m i g ht wr ite a n o te ab o u t how m uc h f un i t was to f in d , o r j u st a si m pl e note of thanks. P u t t h e geoca c he ba c k exa c tl y where yo u fo u n d i t. Rem em ber, the coordin ate s are for that spec i f i c spot! C l ear away a ny tel l -ta l e si g ns that wo u l d s p oi l the f un for the nex t geocac h er, l i ke your foot pr i nts near t he h i d i n g s p ot! Tra d e u p . O nl y ta ke trea sure i f you l eave s o m ethi ng better.

Recipes and cooking gadgets are unique and fun to leave as swag. lists Be Nice Be Smart, Be Safe, coordinates for more

1 million caches! Alwaysthan geocache with an adult.

If hiking in a steep or rocky area feels too difficult, turn back. Safety first! On a trail, always stick with a buddy and never fall far behind your group. Watch where you step, and look up from your GPS device while walking. Brush up on your first aid, and bring a kit with you in your knapsack. Be careful of critters if you are reaching into a geocache hiding place. Instead, use a stick to explore hiding spots to avoid unpleasant surprises like animal bites. Dress comfortably and wear sturdy shoes. Wear sunscreen and a hat to protect yourself from the sun. Stay hydrated and fueled up with snacks to avoid dehydration and exhaustion. Remember, leave no trace. Never litter or destroy or damage the natural landscape.

Driving navigation systems and many mobile phones are equipped to receive GPS signals. Or, use a special GPS for geocaching like this one.

3 11 3


Geocaching Jam Muffins Makes 12 medium-sized muffins

Each muffin hides a sweetly delicious cache of fruity jam. Use your favorite kind.

What you need:

1 ⅓ cups whole wheat flour ⅓ cup wheat germ ¼ cup brown sugar 1 teaspoon baking powder ½ teaspoon baking soda ½ teaspoon salt ½ teaspoon cinnamon ⅓ cup butter, melted 1 egg 1 cup milk 1 teaspoon vanilla ¼ cup jam

How you do it:

Preheat oven to 350 degrees Fahrenheit. Put muffin liners in muffin pan. In a big mixing bowl, stir together flour, wheat germ, brown sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and cinnamon. In a different bowl, whisk together butter, egg, milk and vanilla. Add wet ingredients to dry ingredients and combine. Scoop enough batter into each muffin liner to fill halfway. Use the back of a teaspoon to make a crater and drop a heaping teaspoon of jam into the crater. Top with more batter. Bake for 20 to 25 minutes or until the muffins look golden, and a cake tester comes out clean. Add a yogurt and some cantaloupe, and you have a terrific breakfast for a morning of trekking. Or, pack for a snack, along with some almonds and some orange slices. Let's get going!

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Ways to Share Yo u r Love of Fo o d When Geo ca c hi n g Some geocachers create signature items to leave in caches like special cards or coins that are personalized. For a fun, food-related signature item, create a recipe card to leave for future explorers to find. Include a recipe for a food that you really enjoy or something easy to take as a geocaching snack. Since many people make a day trip out of geocaching, it is thoughtful to include in your logbook some recommendations for good local eateries. Even though you might love food, never leave anything edible in a cache. Food can attract unwelcome critters! Are you a trader and treasure hunter when it comes to geocaching? Stash your swag bag for treasure trading with inexpensive cookingrelated items like a cookie cutter or bottle opener. Some geocaches have a theme. Start your own cooking-themed geocache. Ask people to note their favorite food in the logbook. Learn how to create your own geocache at Make up your own geocaching alias ! Try your grandma’s middle n am e + your favorite food. Mine would be Rosalie Las agna!


THE GREAT OUTDOORS P es ky Pe s t s & Pan tr y Problem - S olvin g

In t he k it c he n ...


Vanilla is a flavoring created by soaking bean pods harvested from trees in liquid. The extracted flavor is a popular addition to baked goods.

In t he k it c he n ...

Pure vanilla dabbed on the pulse points (wrists, sides of neck, temples, and behind knees) keeps hungry mosquitos at bay.

C in n a mo n

Cinnamon is a spice made from the inner bark of a tropical tree. The bark is dried and is ground into a fine powder, which is added to sweet and savory foods.

In t he k it c he n ...

White vinegar is made with grain, corn and water, and a clear liquid is distilled after the mixture sits and ferments. Vinegar is used to pickle and preserve, and to give a tangy kick to sauces and dressings.

In t he k it c he n ... A hearty grain, oatmeal is most famous as a stick-to-your-ribs breakfast, though it can also be added to baked goods and even used like breadcrumbs in recipes like meatloaf.

Pr ob lem s o lver

Pr ob lem s o lver

Ants hate cinnamon. It doesn’t kill them, but it deters them. An ant will not cross cinnamon sprinkled across their path. Put some where ants are gathering.

Wh ite vin e ga r

Pr ob lem s o lver

Wasp sting venom is alkaline, so it can be counteracted by acid, like vinegar. Soak a cotton ball in white vinegar and hold over a wasp sting to reduce pain and inflammation.


Look in your pantry for allnatural solutions for buggy problems. Pesticides are a controversial topic—some people say that the chemicals in some bug sprays can be harmful to the environment. Keeping bugs at bay is important, especially if you are in the deep woods, and using commercial insect repellent is a must. Sometimes, though, when you are not in a heavily wooded place, d-i-y insect repellent will do the trick. Got bit? Soothe bug bites with pantry problem solvers.

M ar ig o l d s nat u rally re p el

mosquitos. Plant t h e s e b r ight orange flowers n e ar p at io s o r in pot s on a dec k.

Pr ob lem s o lver All bit up and feeling super scratchy? Make a soothing bath to stop the itch by adding a cup of finely ground oatmeal to your warm bath water. Grind oatmeal in a food processor.

Mi nt plant s nat u rally re p el ant s. Plant t hem n ear t h e foundat ion of th e h o u s e to keep ant s from gett in g in .

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Farmer's Market Photo Safari With the ability to take and share digital photos quickly and easily, food photography is more popular now than ever. Cooking and eating are not the only ways to be inspired by food. Scout some locations—like the farmer’s market, a vegetable garden or even your own backyard—and start practicing your photography skills.

You do not need an expensive camera to get going. Any camera, even a camera built into a mobile phone, will work for your photo safari. If you do not own a camera, you can borrow one. Always ask permission first! A camera is a piece of equipment that should be respected. Handle a camera carefully, and if there is a strap, be sure to wear it to prevent accidentally dropping it. Transport a camera carefully, and never just toss it in a backpack with other items,

Let 's le ar n f rom these image s : A


as a camera is easily damaged. For most people, holding a camera with the right hand on top is most stable. Even if you turn the camera sideways, keep your right hand on top. To hold a camera steady, rest your elbows on your sides and breathe in before you click. The three basic elements of beginner photography are contrast, composition, and lighting. Contrast means to show differences like light and dark, smooth and textured, and even large and small. Composition is a fancy way of saying where you place a subject in your frame. It is what you see when you look through a camera's viewfinder. Finally, a photographer must pay attention to where light is coming from. A camera uses light passing through a camera lens at the proper angle to produce a clear image.



u t th e m ? o b a e k li u o y o d t a h W


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The Rule of Thirds

Ph oto gr ap he rs ne ed lot s of pa tie nc e to ge t th e ve ry be st sh ot .

This is an idea to help create better composition. Generally, photos are better if the subject is not centered. Imagine a tic-tac-toe board. Now think about where the lines of that board cross. Those points are where you want to position the most important or interesting part of your shot. Look at the photo below. How is the girl's face positioned? What happens when you cover up the three boxes on the left? Where does your eye go? See if you can practice using the Rule of Thirds as you compose photographs.

3 Tips for Better Pics Pick One Subject Select one object that you see through your viewfinder and make that your subject. Photographs without a dominant subject are not as interesting as something that jumps out. If you are taking a photo of a bunch of tomatoes, select one and plan your composition around it, even if all the other tomatoes are in your picture.

Shift Perspectives

E Photo A shows contrasting textures and colors. Photo B uses light to highlight the raspberries’ color. Photo C has contrasting shapes and colors. Photo D uses the Rule of Thirds. Photo E uses an interesting angle. Photo F plays with the horizontal lines of the green beans. Photo G highlights the strawberries with light. Photo H is a unique perspective of lettuce. Photo I uses proximity—how close the photographer is to the subject. Photo J contrasts the bright, smooth sign with the dull, fuzzy peaches.



You are a human tripod, and you can move around. Try different camera angles. Try pointing your camera from above or below. Move closer to your subject—maybe really close. Experiment by taking multiple photographs of the same subject from different perspectives.

Pay Attention to Light When you take a picture, keep the sun behind you. Light rays from the sun should hit your subject. Your subject should be illuminated, even if other areas of a photograph are quite dark.



Sweet Serendipity How Popsicles® came to be is pretty funny. A summer time treat, they were invented on an unusually wintr y evening, as the positive result of a young boy not cleaning up af ter himself! Pop sicles® are a paradox.

Two billion Popsic le® ice pops are sold annual ly.

M ost pop ular flav or? Che r r y!

Popsicles® have been around for just over 100 years. I n 1905, eleven-year- old Frank Epperson was enjoying a flavored drink outside his house one evening. Back then, people would mix their soda pop flavoring into water with a wooden stick . Forgetting about his drink , it stayed on the porch all night. The weather happened to get unseasonably cold, and the drink froze. The nex t morning Frank found his cup still frozen, with the wooden stirring stick in it! He gave it a lick and realized he had accidentally created something good—a sweet icicle! Af ter his discover y, young Frank made his soda pop icicles—later to be called Popsicles®—for himself and for friends. Any time he shared his treat—which he

named Epsicles— A p a ra with people, they is a s ta ted o x th a t is s m e n t were ver y enthusie c o n tr a d e m in g ly ic to astic. As he grew opposed r y or up, Frank realized c o m m o n to s that people would and yet ense is p e rh a p s tr u e . buy his invention, and he eventually became a professional ice pop maker. Af ter successfully selling his frozen treats at Neptune Beach Amusement Park in California in 1923, he realized that he needed to get even more serious about his invention. I n June 1924, Frank applied for a patent on this “frozen confec tioner y.” His application describes the technology he designed to manufac ture the Epsicle. His application explained seven different specific aspec ts of his manufac turing pro cess, and included illustrations of his Epsicle molds. He had finally figured out how to make many ice pops at once! Due to the urging of his children, he later changed the name to Popsicles®—a name still synonymous with summer sweets almost a hundred years later!

What Do es Th at L it t l e Symb ol M e a n ? D i d you k now th at it is illegal to steal so m eo ne el s e’s idea? When Fra nk E ppe r s on created a sp ecial pro ce s s fo r m ak ing f rozen co nfec t i o ns, he a ppli e d to t h e U n ited St ates Patent and Tradem ar k O f f ice fo r a pate nt s o he alo n e co uld use t h is pro ces s fo r m ak ing f rozen t re at s. Whe n a n invento r creates a n ew pro du c t o r way o f m ak ing s o m ethi ng, ge ttin g a patent is a way to pro tec t their idea s o o ther s c a n n ot u s e i t wi t h o ut p er missio n . A p atent is a do c u m ent is s u ed by t he gove r nme nt t h at ex plain s t h e r ights that an invento r has over his o r h er i d e a , and p revent s anyo n e else fro m pro f iting f ro m it. Th e Uni te d States Patent an d Trademar k O f f ice al s o is s u es trade m a r ks. M ay be you h ave seen t iny circles w ith l etter s l ik e T M o r R in t he m? The s e are t rademar k s. Did yo u n o tice that there is a regis tered t ra d em ar k s y mb o l af ter t h e wo rd Po psic l e® ? This m eans that it a “R egis tered Tradem a r k ,” a n d i s p ro te c te d from o t h ers usin g t h e same or a ver y s im il ar nam e. I f yo u c reated a s ho p a n d wa nte d to se ll froze n treat s yo u made yo urself, yo u wo u l d no t be al l owed to c al l them Po ps ic l e s ®!

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COTTON CANDY Cotton can dy— o r a sweet va r iatio n c a lle d sp un sugar—st retch es bac k hund reds o f years to I t aly in the 1400s. Wealt hy p eo ple en joyed s pu n s uga r as a dramat ic desser t at feas ts. Ba ke r s wo uld create f in e, glas s -l ik e s trands by melt in g sugar an d then ge ntly f lin gin g it o nto wo o den rac k s. As the sugar st ran ds co o led, they we re pliab le (t h ey co uld be bent) and were sh ap ed into elab o rate c re ati ons. Sp un sugar is st ill use d to day, e s pe c ially as deco rat io n o n Eu ro pe an- s t yle cakes. B y comp ar iso n , to day ’s so f te r co tto n c a ndy is a recent invent io n . I n 1 89 7, t wo resident s o f Nashville, Te nnes s e e wo r k ed to get h er to design an e le c tr ic mach in e fo r spin n in g s u g ar. John C. Wh ar to n , a can dy mak er, and Wi lli am M o r r iso n , a dent ist, c reated the mach in e an d f iled fo r a p atent. I n 1904 at t h e Wo r ld ’s Fair in St. Lo u is, M i s s o ur i, t h e p ar t n ers so ld t h eir c a ndy creat io n — called Fair y Fl o s s — to tho usan ds an d t h o usan ds o f eag er fa i r- goers. The tech n o lo gy t h at Wh ar to n and M or r i so n develo ped is basical l y the

s am e u s ed in co tto n c andy m ac hine s to day. A co tto n c andy m ac hine bas i c al l y has t wo par ts, a m etal o r pl as tic bow l and a s pinning head in its center. Co l o red and f l avo red s u g ar c r ys tal s are po u red into an o pening o n the s pinning head. The s u g ar c r ys tal s are heated and m el ted. This pro ces s o f m el ting s u g a r is c al l ed c aram el izatio n. Then, as the head s pins aro u nd and aro u nd, a phys ic s pheno m eno n c al l ed centr if u g al fo rce f l ing s the ho t, m el ted s u g ar thro u g h tiny ho l es in the hea d toward the s ides o f the bow l. As th e s u g ar f l ies thro u g h the air, it co o l s and trans fo r m s into tiny threads. Why is the s u g ar— o nce hard— now s o s o f t? The s hif t f ro m a l iq u id (m e l ted s u g ar ) to a s o l id (co tto n c andy ) is a c hem ic al pro ces s. The pro ces s happens s o f as t that the s u g ar m o l ec u l es do no t have eno u g h tim e to rear rang e to fo r m c r ys tal s. I f the l iq u id s u g ar was po u red into a pan an d al l owed to co o l s l ow l y, it wo u l d not be co tto n c andy— ins tead it wo u l d be hard l ik e a l o l l ipo p.

A p aifu Centr ra dgoaxl is s taite rce s amne ninv is ible t th s efo e a m inal g lyphenomenon p hysic c o n tr a d t is ic to r y of o p t hat o cc ur s paso sthe res u lt or e d to c ot m an o b jec i nmrotation. o n s e n s e Even t ho ugh i t isa nadfa y elst eisor ps eu do rhin fo rce, t hepbera cena p sperceives tr u t r if ugal fo rce. Thinke .of g oing quic k ly aro und a cu r ve while r i ding i n a ca r. The feeling of sli ding towa rd the ou ter s ide o f t he c ar i s becau s e of cent r if ugal fo rce, even thou g h no t hing is a c tu a lly ap p ly ing force to yo u r body.



ST E P INTO H ISTORY T h i s S u m m e r L e a r n B y S e e i n g a n d D o i n g a t L i v i n g H i s t o r y Fa r m s

Ever wish you could take a time machine back in history to see what life was like years before you were born? While time machines may not be available, you can journey into the past by vising a living history farm. Sometimes called an agricultural museum, a living history farm is a special museum that teaches visitors about how people lived long ago. Many living history museums have docents and volunteers who reenact farm life from a different time. This means that they act just like a person would have during a historical period so visitors can observe and learn. Docents and volunteers wear clothes from a specific era. Many will talk as if they were from the past, and they will explain the chores they are doing and the tools they are using and what life in general was like in the past.

John Dickinson Plantation Dover, Delaware Step back into life in the late 1700s on this historic plantation in Delaware. Rich with history, the master house on the plantation was once owned by John Dickinson, an early leader of Delaware and Pennsylvania and signer of the Declaration of Independence. Tours are conducted by historic interpreters dressed in 18th century clothing. Visitors can watch and participate in various plantation activities like dyeing wool or preparing food. Once a tobacco plantation that employed slave labor, interpreters contrast lifestyles of the wealthy Dickinson family with those of tenants, poor whites, slaves, and free blacks residing in Kent County during the 1700s and early 1800s. A film and visitor center provide additional learning opportunities.

L iving H is tor y Far ms Urbandale, Iowa Visit this 500 acre farm to learn about how pioneering Americans transformed the prairies of the Midwest into thriving farmland in the 1850s. With three working farm sites on the property, visitors can also learn about how Native Americans grew crops in the 1700s. Featuring a blacksmith shop, general store, mansion and barn, visitors learn about how life was different for those who were wealthy and those who had to labor hard. Unique events—including old-fashioned, historic baseball game reenactments—are held all year round.

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C l a u d e M oore C olon i a l F arm McLean, Virginia What was life like for an everyday family living on a farm? Not a plantation with a mansion or bustling groups of servants, this small family farm shows how hard work and a sense of family duty were required for getting the many chores done by just a few people. Guides and volunteers dressed in period clothing portray the Thornton family and their neighbors who “live� in 1771, a time when Virginia was still a colony under British rule. Give them a hand with their planting, cooking, cleaning, hoeing and harvesting, and appreciate the ways that life for families in America has changed.

Pome roy Fa rm Yalcot, Washington Imagine life without electricity. Now imagine life without electricity on a farm. Life on this farmstead 100 years ago required endurance and muscle-power. Interpreters in period costumes show visitors how chores like grinding grain were done. Visitors can also view a blacksmith shop, barn, gardens and woodlot, as well as the Pomeroy log home, which is listed on the National Register of Historic Properties. One very special annual event is when volunteers demonstrate how steam-powered machines were used for logging.

Wessel s L iving H is tory Fa rm York, Nebraska What was farming like a hundred years ago? Look back at farming in the 1920s with a visit to Wessels Living History Farm. Capturing the spirit of American agriculture, this living history farm offers visitors a glimpse at the past with its red, timber-frame barn, corn crib, machine shed, chicken coop and windmill. Knowledgeable guides take tour groups through the property, including a meticulously restored farmhouse and garage with antique tools and tractors. Children are invited to help feed the farm animals.

C ar i n g A bou t Amer ic a's Agr icultu ral Her itage Li vi ng hi st o r y f ar m s ar e an i m po r t an t l i n k to American history. Learning by seeing people in action is very different than reading from books. Seeing people do tasks that we can easily take for granted helps us realize how much work was required not just to survive, but to make America a thriving breadbasket of the world. Imagine having to grind your own flour, weave and dye your own cloth, gather your own eggs and milk, and take care of many animals. Does the thought of this make your own chores seem easy by comparison?

Do you think you would like to volunte e r at a liv i n g history farm ? W hy or why n o t ?

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CUISINE QUIZ 1. Early American colonists made what by boiling blueberries in milk? a. Yogurt b. Paint c. Shampoo d. Cough Medicine 2. Which state grows the most blueberries? a. Michigan b. Minnesota c. Maine d. Maryland

Makes 4-6 Ser vi n g s Wh at yo u n eed : 8 cu p s b a by sp i n ac h 1 cu p bl u e b er ri es 1 cu p p ear, d i ced ¼ cu p sl i ced al mo n d s ¼ cu p bl u e c h eese, cr u mbl ed

3. Blueberries first grew on which continent? a. Asia b. South America c. Africa d. North America 4. Native Americans called blueberries: a. Star berries b. Ink berries c. Sky berries d. Sea berries 5. According to the Highbush Blueberry Council, the average American eats how much blueberies per year? a. About two pounds b. About six pounds c. About ten pounds d. About twenty pounds


N u tty Ba by Bl ue Sp i n ac h Sal ad

Fo r d r essi n g 3 ta bl esp o o n s r ed o n i o n , m i n c ed ½ cu p bl u e b er ri es, l i g h tly m as h ed 2 teasp o o n s su g ar ½ teasp o o n sal t ⅓ cu p b al sami c vi n e g ar ½ cu p ve geta bl e o i l o r l i gh t o l i v e o i l Ho w yo u d o i t: Pu t al l i n g r ed i en ts exce p t d r es s i n g i n g r ed i en ts i n a sal ad b o wl . Pu t d r es s i n g i n g r ed i en ts i n a j ar wi th a t i g h t f i t t i n g l i d . Sh ake j ar wel l . Po u r dr es s i n g o n ri g h t b efo r e ser vi n g.

Figuring out something new often involves asking questions: W hat do yo u no tice ? W hat can yo u discover? W hat m ate rials is it made f ro m ? W hat s hape is it? W hat m ig ht it do ? C an yo u think of more questio ns ? H ave a g ues s abo ut this to o l’s job, or do yo u know w hat it is ? S end yo ur guess to hello @ing redie ntm ag .co m .


Quiz Answers: 1.b 2.c 3.d 4.a 5.b


The gadget in the May/June issue is called a meat mallet. It is basically a metal hammer used for pounding and tenderizing raw meat. It works by breaking down the fibers in meat, which will make the meat softer and more tender when it is cooked and eaten. Usually used on chicken or beef, some cooks like to cover meat using sheets of plastic wrap before pounding it to minimize the mess.































































Directions: Find these different words that describe food hidden in the puzzle. Don't know what they mean? Look them up in a dictionary.

A cidic A ppetizing B land B uttery C halky C hewy C runchy F laky G ooey G reasy I nedible J ussulent L imp M oist M ushy P iquant P otent R are R ich S alty S izzling S our S tale T epid Toothsome


Why did the crab cross the road? To get away from the wooden mallet

Why won’t the crab share its toys?

What do you call a crab when it is in a bad mood?

It is shellfish


What does a crab eat on its birthday? Crab cake

What is a crab’s favorite fruit? Crabapple

2 23 3

INGREDIENT a magazine for kids curious about food

July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July July

1: National Gingersnap Day 3: Eat Beans Day 5: National Apple Turnover Day 6: National Fried Chicken Day 7: National Strawberr y Sundae Day 8: National Chocolate with Almonds Day 9: National Sugar Cookie Day 10: Pick Blueberries Day 11: National Blueberr y Muffin Day 12: National Pecan Pie Day 14: Macaroni Day 15: National Tapioca Pudding Day 16: National Corn Fritters Day 17: National Peach Ice Cream Day 20: National Hot Dog Day 21: National Ice Cream Day 22: National Penuche Fudge Day 25: National Hot Fudge Sundae Day 27: National Crème Brûlée Day 29: National Lasagna Day 30: National Cheesecake Day 31: Cotton Candy Day

August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August August

3: National Watermelon Day 5: National Oyster Day 6: National Root Beer Float Day 8: National Zucchini Day 9: National Rice Pudding Day 10: National S'mores Day 11: National Raspberr y Tart Day 13: National Filet Mignon Day 15: Lemon Meringue Pie Day 16: Bratwurst Day 18: National Soft Ice Cream Day 19: Potato Day 20: Lemonade Day 21: National Pecan Torte Day 22: National Spumoni Day 23: National Sponge Cake Day 24: National Peach Pie Day 27: Banana Lover's Day 28: National Cherr y Turnover Day 29: Chop Suey Day 29: Lemon Juice Day 30: National Toasted Marshmallow Day 31: National Trail Mix Day

IS S N 216 0 -5 3 2 7

Ingredient magazine - Jul/Aug 2013  

Sample issue of Ingredient, the magazine for kids curious about food. Order a print subscription at

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