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William Bramley

by a calamity visited upon the Egyptians by Jehovah. The calamities included vermin infestations, plagues, boils on the skin caused by a fine dust settling over the countryside, and finally the murder of each eldest son in Egypt during a night known as the "Passover." It was only after the Passover that Jehovah stopped "hardening the heart" of the pharaoh so that the Hebrew tribes could leave Egypt. Many scholars would argue that Biblical references to Jehovah "hardening the hearts" of Israel's enemies merely expresses the religious idea that all human thought and emotion come ultimately from "God," and therefore such writings should not be taken literally. In this case, we should take the Bible seriously because it has described a very real political phenomenon: two or more parties being manipulated into conflict with one another by an outside third party. One of the most famous philosophers to discuss thirdparty manipulation as a tool of social and political control was Niccolo Machiavelli, the sixteenth century philosopher. Although Machiavelli was not the first to write about these matters, his name has become synonymous with unscrupulous political cunning. Machiavelli authored several unsolicited "how-to" manuals for the benefit of a local prince. Those writings have become literary classics. In them, Machiavelli describes several of the techniques used by various Italian rulers to maintain control over a population. One method was to breed conflict. In his treatise, The Prince, Machiavelli wrote: Some princes, so as to hold securely the the state, have disarmed their subjects, others have kept their subject towns distracted by factions [disputes] .. .3 Machiavelli cited a specific example: Our forefathers, and those who were reckoned wise, were accustomed to say that it was necessary to hold Pistoia [an Italian city] by factions and Pisa by fortress;

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and with this idea they fostered quarrels in some of their tributary towns so as to keep possession of them the more easily.4 Human disunity was a valuable commodity to the princes because it made the people less able to mount a challenge. Machiavelli described the exact steps to be taken by anyone wishing to employ this tool: The way to set about this is to win the confidence of the city which is disunited; and, so long as they do not come to blows, to act as arbitrator between the parties, and, when they come to blows, to give tardy support to the weaker party, both with a view to keeping them at it and wearing them out; and, again because stronger measures would leave no room for any doubt that you were out to subjugate them and make yourself their ruler. When this scheme is carried out, it will happen, as always, that the end you have in view will be attained. The city of Pistoia, as I have said in another discourse and appropos of another topic, was acquired by the republic of Florence by just such an artifice; for it was divided and the Florentines supported now one, now the other, party and, without making themselves obnoxious to either, led them on until they got sick of their turbulent way of living and in the end came to throw themselves voluntarily into the arms of Florence.5 Despite the effectiveness of this technique, Machiavelli advised against using it because it can backfire on the perpetrator. The success of the technique depends upon at least one of the manipulated parties not being aware of the true source of the problem. If both parties should discover that they are being manipulated into hostilities by an outside third party, not only will those hostilities usually cease, but the parties will, more often than not, unite in a common dislike for the perpetrator. This phenomenon can be observed on a personal level when two friends discover

Bramley - The Gods of Eden - The Chilling Truth about Extraterrestrial Infiltration and the Conspira  

AVON BOOKS An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers TENTION: ORGANIZATIONS AND CORPORATIONS Most Avon Books paperbacks are available at special...

Bramley - The Gods of Eden - The Chilling Truth about Extraterrestrial Infiltration and the Conspira  

AVON BOOKS An Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers TENTION: ORGANIZATIONS AND CORPORATIONS Most Avon Books paperbacks are available at special...

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