THE GREEN ACCESSIBLE TECHNOLOGY MAGAZINE1 9
FEBRUARY 2017 | INFORMTOMORROWTECH.WORDPRESS.COM
WHY LED’S AREN'T WIDELY INCORPARATED WITH STREETLIGHTING
THE INCREASING USAGE OF CLOUD SERVERS
About storing your files, info and websites in the cloud
PRINTING YOUR OWN PLASTIC OR WOODEN TOOLS The future of 3-dimensional printing on a small scale
CLEARING THE FOG ABOUT WHAT NANO-SCIENCE ENTALES Thousands of modified everyday products are on the consumers market now
THE UPRISING OF WINDPOWER AGAINST FOSSIL FUELS This renewable energy can now compete on a commercial level in more than 30 countries
CONTENT FEBRUARY 2017
MODIFYING YOUR OWN 3DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS
The future of 3-Dimensional printing on a small scale
BRIGHT LED’S NOT AVAILABLE YET FOR STREET-LIGHTING
Thousands of daily life modified products are on today's mass market
Can the Nobel prize winning invention harmful for your health?
WHY MOST CLOUD COMPUTING ISN’T GREEN About storing your files, info and website in the cloud
NANO-SCIENCE: INCREASING USE IN EVERYDAY APPLICATIONS
WIND POWER CAN BECOME THE MAIN ELECTRIC PROVIDER This renewable energy can now compete on a commercial level in more than 30 countries
SOURCES ISSUE 01 All article sources with the publication dates of ISSUE 01
FROM THE EDITOR From building large wind power farms, using daily products such as suncream adhanched with nanoscience and testing LED lighting on the streets: to making use of the cloud. Technology developments won’t slow down. We live in an exciting time with allot of real time practical testing and ABOUT INFORMTOMORROWTECH
research. This doesn’t always mean we’re
ready for it . Some of us have cable and still
that technology can be a solution
use conventional old yellow bulbs. As
for a greener earth. Writing
consumers we became more sceptical:
accessible articles 1-2 times a
checking product and service reviews and
month about current major technological developments.
there prices. There is allot of information available and excessible, but some of us have made ideas into a reality through international crowdfunding website such as Kickstarter. I founded Informtomorrowtech blog to give you an overview and background to ‘’new’’ and important future technology, which can be benificial for planet earth. In issue 01 we explore familiar sounding technological developments, that are already mass produced and in daily use. BY RENEE VAN WESEP
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 6
OWN 3DIMENSIONAL OBJECTS
One of the trends at this moment is the 3D printing technique. This is also called Additive Manufacturing, Rapid Prototyping or Rapid Manufacturing. In ”Modifying your own 3dimensional objects” we’re going to look at the 101 on 3D printing. BY RENEE VAN WESEP
This work as follows: you design a 3D digital
from plastic, metal, nylon, paper chocolate,
design file called .STL, this file you sent to the 3D
ceramic and even wood and glass.
printer and the printer prints this file out. The 3D
And because of this variety many industries make
printer divides the .STL file into layers and those
use of this ‘’new’’ found invention. On one hand
layers are stacked upon each other.
we have the artists, designers, small business
If this production technique sounds familiar
owners and of course the individual consumer aka
you’re right, because digital printing exist for over
twenty five years. Manufactures already make
It makes a great way for current small startups.
use of digital printing on a large scale. From car
Because you can print for low cost a Marquette,
manufactures to custom marketing printing.
model, gadget etc. Services like Shapeways,
However, digital 3D printing is now more
Materialise or Sculpteo offer you possibility to
available for the ‘’average’’ consumer, because the
make your design a reality. For example
quality of machines and services are risen, the
Shapeways has halls with 3D printers in New York
software is more developed and more importantly
city and can produce five million 3D objects.
the average costs are lower.
On the other hand you have the professionals,
This development got their kick start with the
scientists and medical world for experimenting.
growing community of DIYers and MIYers, the
Scientist of the American based NASA space
rise of IT specialists and the injection of daily
station are experimenting with the possibility of
technology in our lives.
3D printers in space. Because objects can then be
Because we can choose where our attention goes,
created in space. Meaning that objects can be
we now can develop our own customized design
created for emergency purposes , experiments
for not only our presentations and marketing, but
etc. One of the biggest challenges is that the
now also our personalized objects like bubble-
machine airtight is.
heads etc. See Full Printed by nueveojos.
The company Airbus is working on a complete 3D
In the professional creative business, like: artists,
printed airplane, that will be completed around
architects, fashion designers and product
designers, people experiment with a wide range of
These small individualist 3D printers are ideal for
materials and sizes to produce an original series of
(luxurious) brands, because they can personalize
products/prototypes or other objects.
their product and objects. Designers can shape
This requires specialist- software and/or 3D
their work in a accurate way for a specific
printer. For example architects and designers use
specialized 3D printing software solutions like:
In the medical field scientist experiment with skin
Rhinoceros, AutoCAD of SolidWorks.
tissue, blood vessels and plastic bones for
At the moment this industry is still in
reconstruction. This means that average costs for
development, but there are already a wide range
a replacement arm or hip can lowered.
of available 3D printing materials. This list goes
With the 3D printer comes plusses for the
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 6
environment, because physical objects can
exists of minuscule drips and this becomes with
printed on demand with the transportable digital
UV light hard directly when it comes on the other
.STL files. These objects will be printed locally
and thus no object transport costs and storage
-Color Jet Printer uses a powder material that is
can be minimized with printed on demand.
being glued together with a binding material. The
Meaning a lowered waste and surplus with those
result is that object a softer is like a plaster.
objects and that is good for our planet. Hopefully,
-Stereolithografic uses liquid plastic and were the
if we’re going to 3D print massively scientist
laser beam hits the surface this liquid plastic
develop environmental friendly or recyclable
becomes hard. This works layer on layer and the
object and the platform lowers itself in a basin.
With those diverse materials and printed objects
-Fused Deposition Modeling uses thermoplastic
you have different 3D print techniques. At the
material in a thin, long wire. The 3D object is being
moment there are 9 known techniques. Keep in
created layer on layer. Most desktop 3D printers
mind that not all of them are widely available as a
desktop 3D printer. Even available printers can
-Selective Laser Sintering uses a thermo- metal or
between a couple of hundreds to thousands of
plastic powder and puts layer on layer. A laser
dollars. The more known are listed below.
melts the powder on place, this becomes hard and
-Multi Jet Printer prints layer on layer with
gets stuck to the other previous layers.
polymer material on a platform. The material 7
NANO-SCIENCE: INCREASING USE IN EVERYDAY APPLICATIONS In some conversations today you hear a term called ”nanotechnology”. Also casually translated as a dense technology on a very small scale. But allot of people nowadays aren’t aware that this technology is already on the current market. Let alone that it’s listed in more than 2000 commercially available consumer products. In this article we’re looking at the 101 on nano-science and answering questions such as: what scientist mean by the term”nano”, what kind of
When we pick up a dictionary like for example Oxford Dictionary the explanation is very general: The branch of technology that deals with dimensions and tolerances of less than 100 nanometers, especially the manipulation of individual atoms and molecules. By oxforddictionaries.com
average home products have this
So we start by explaining what the field at nano-
technology and why is this
science revolves around. Nano-science or
specialized science branch important
nanotechnology involves the ability to see, understand, manipulate, mix and control
for future adaptations on products
individual atoms and molecules, at dimensions of
roughly 1 to 100 nano-meters in a useful way.
BY RENEE VAN WESEP
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 8
This new broad science can be used across other diverse scientific fields, such as physics,
engineering, chemistry, material science and
meters. The prefix ‘nano’ means a billionth of a
biology. Nano-scientists have tools like
meter (10-9). Here are other examples of how
specialized microscopes in order to measure,
small a nano-meter is:
image, model and manipulate the matter.
◊ In one inch there are 24.400.000 nano-meters.
For starters atoms and molecules are the building
◊ Your fingernail grows one nano-meter per
blocks of the matter you see in the world. Which
means that everything you see on planet earth is
◊ A strand of human DNA is 2,5 nano-meters in
made up of atoms, such as the plants we see, the
cars we drive, the houses and our own body.
◊ If the diameter of Earth was one meter, then the
One atom alone can’t be seen by the naked eye,
diameter of a marble would be about one nano-
because this matter can have a dimension of
about 1 to 100 nano-meters in size. To put this in
Not only are nano-materials minuscule they come
perspective an average human hair has a
also in their individual shapes, such as particles,
thickness around 80.000 and 100 000 nano-
tubes, wires, films, flakes or shells.
It all started with physicist Richard Feynman, who
photosynthesis with plants and smoke from a fire.
gave a lecture in 1959 at California Institute of
Over millennia these natural processes are nearly
Technology, called ”There’s plenty room at the
perfected. Others occurs as a byproduct like
bottom”, in which he described a process were
exhausting fumes and smoke of manufactures and
scientist would be able to manipulate and control
individual molecules and atoms.
When we take a look at in which products
In 1981 Feymans exploration became true with
nanotechnology or nano science plays a role,
the development of the scanning tunneling
there’s a long list. Because our current market has
microscope (STM). You could now ”see” individual
products and applications that are relied or
atoms. With the help from the invention of the
advanced by nano-science. It is estimated that 60
right tools, like the STM and AFM (Atome Force
billion dollar worth of products were sold in 2007
microscope) scientists could step into the modern
with nano-science and this number will rise. We
nanotechnology, that we know today. Only with
give you a couple of examples below:
these powerful specialized microscopes nano
Firstly, tennis rackets and bicycle frames are
particles can be seen.
lighter and stronger with the help from carbon
Microscopes are being used and it revolves
nano-tubes. And in order to block UV radiation
around the thought that nano-materials have a
during your outdoor activities sunscreens have
bigger surface, because the surface area per mass
particles of titanium dioxide and zicoxide of nano
increases. For example if you have two same sized
size in order to block rays more efficiently while
cubicles. One is one whole piece and another is
giving you still that suntan.
made out of ten cubicles. The surface volume area
If you are getting a snack after sport, notice that
of the last named cubical is bigger, than the first
nano-scale silver is being used for kitchen applies,
the sink, refrigerator handles and other surfaces
Because researchers have a larger surface area to
that need to be antimicrobial and prevents food
work with, a greater amount of atoms or
from going bad.
molecules can come in contact with other
Next, some clothing is nano engineered, these
surrounding matter. As a result of that the matter
have coatings, making them static free and stain
is more chemically reactive and scientists of
proof.And nano-scale components are a standard
different fields take advantage of their enhanced
when we look at computer-chips. Meaning
properties, such as lighter weight, better strength
consumer electronic devices are enhanced or
and color control. This gives them more
dependent on nano science.
possibilities to construct and image new
And in the solar power technology industry
processes, alter their size, chance the internal
researchers are investigating nano systems in
structure of the compound or organize matter at
order to optimize electronic storage in a
the nano scale.
nonpolluting and inexpensive way. Drawing from
Nano-materials are not created by humans, but
the photosynthetic model, which occurs naturally
occurs in nature: volcanic ash, sea foam,
in plants. Quantum mechanical processes set
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 10
sunlight into energy with minimal waste in energy
the USA alone their is a budget for tens of
millions of dollars. And it is predicted that in the
On the other hand we have the medical branch,
next decade seven million jobs are being
where researches are developing more
generated globally by nano-technology.
personalized and precise tools, therapies and
Organisations and groups are created to exchange
treatments on the natural nano scale side of
knowledge and stimulate collaborations, like the
NNN (National Nano fracturing Network) in USA.
An example is a prostate cancer bio-marker
This is a community of government, academic and
following prostatectomy, developed at
industry partners, that cooperate to advance
Northwestern University, which basically
nano-manufacturing. They have InterNano, this is
”recognize” disease particle and DNA ”amplifiers”
a digital resource of up-to-date archive on nano-
with the help from gold nano-particles.
manufacturing information, tools, environmental
Bio-bar code assay detects these disease-specific
health and safety, standards, events, processes
bio-markers in the blood more efficiently than
conventional treatments. On top of that it is
In the end is nano-technology still in rapid
relatively a more low cost method and
development in order to create lighter, durable
considerably more sensitive for picking up the
energy efficient solar panels, better tasting
same molecule target, even if the sample is small.
durable and nutritional value in foods, increasing
In order to fabricate nano materials in a cost
storage capacity in computer driven devices and
efficient reliable mass-productive way there’re
lighter, more powerful and longer lasting
nano-manufactures, which revolves around
batteries. It will nearly effect all products,
research and development of nano-materials.
materials and devices for everyday use.
Here, properties and structures are being improved with processes like molecular beam epitaxy, dip pen lithography, self-assembly, atomic layer epitaxy, chemical vapor deposition and rollto-roll processing. Next, there’re two main approaches for nanomanufacturing: on one hand you have the topdown processes, where a large piece is reduced to nano-scale materials. And on the other hand you have the bottom-up approach, which involves creating products by building with atoms and molecules.This is a more time consuming method, than the first mentioned. Manufactures in the nano-industry relies often on expensive facilities, personal and equipment. In
BRIGHT LED’S NOT AVAILABLE YET FOR STREET-LIGHTING
Nowadays we don’t stand still with the development of LED lighting, because it’s in allot of daily applications such as the back-lighting in many laptops, tablets and naturally smartphones. This widely popular invention got the 2014 Nobel prize in physics awarded to Japanese
In the last few years LED’s are widely being used
scientists; I. Akasaki, H. Amano and S.
in our daily applications, such as the flickering
Nakamura. LED lighting is durable
Christmas decoration, in the back-light for LCD’s in smartphones, laptops and other gadgets. You
and energy efficient. However why is
can use them for car lighting an conventional
it that people haven’t switched from
conventional lighting to LED’s? In this article we answers this and what possibilities lies ahead for future LED applications. BY RENEE VAN WESEP
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 12
Also, with blue-ray players they use a blue LED laser instead of an infrared laser which is used in regular DVD players. This blue laser makes it possible to store 5 to 10 times more data according to C. Wetzel, a physicist at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, New York. LED’s could have a positive effect on the
society, because people of third
within this solid piece the LED lights up. You see
world countries can have lighting off the grid with
the semi-conductor is made of a positive charged
a LED light combined with a rechargeable battery
layer with holes and a negative charged electrons
and a solar cell. Another important factor is that
which floats around. When you put on the
LED’s purify water directly at the faucet, turn
electricity it activates the negative charged
on/off, which results in lower costs. At this
electrons flow, which go through the positive
moment only a few companies are working on
holes and then you get light. Some of the light is
LED water purification, but in a few years it could
trapped inside causing the bright light.
be everywhere according to physicist C. Wetzel.
In agriculture scientist are experimenting with
The LED is a solid-state technology (ssc), which
LED-colors to make their crops grow faster and
emits light from a piece of solid matter. That solid
healthy. Plessey is a UK leading expert in the
piece is the semi-conductor with LED’s and when
manufacturing of lighting and sensing products
electrons move around
and components and they
developed Hyperion. Which will grow crops with
efficient. For example a 60 watt incandescent bulb
a LED grow light and it’s available for all
uses 525 kWh a year. Not only saves it energy,
commercially grown plant varieties. Universities,
time is also an important factor. Incandescent
research organizations and commercial growers
bulbs last 750 hours and their Geobulb
work close with Plessey in the 60 UK based
counterpart lasts about 30.000 hours.
Technological development in this field made it
On 6 July 2015 the GrowWise Center from
possible to crick LED’s efficiency up to 50.000
Philips opened her doors on the High Tech
Campus in Eindhoven (Netherlands). This indoor
Lastly LED’s doesn’t make use of toxic mercury
farm facility uses LED lighting in order to do
and other toxic material with a blue tooth
research on optimal growing conditions for fruit,
connection lights can be customized and you can
vegetables and herbs. Some farmers are already
uses them to transfer data through LiFi. You can
commercially experimenting with LED lighting.
incorporate sensors with LED’s in order to switch
Such as Koppert Cress in Monster (Netherlands)
on/off the lights when someone enters or leaves
installed 16.000 squares of LED lamps in his
the room. Scientists are now exploring the
greenhouse. Depending on what you plant the
potential to transmit data from the internet
LED colors are suited to optimize the result.
across an open space with LED’s . Because of the
With led lighting you have pro’s and con’s and
speed of light they will be able to transmit data
through recent development in costs, efficiency
faster than WiFi.
and output it opens up the market for large scale
With the many pro’s you also have a few big con’s.
production. The costs per light bulb goes down.
The first one is high upfront costs, which aren’t
For example at the University of Cambridge in
always available for the masses. One LED bulb
England they use silicon wafers to grown
costs can be equivalent to ten’s of incandescent
semiconductors which resulted in a dramatic
light fixtures. However, it’s an investment in the
manufacturing cost reduction. They hope to
long-run, because you save energy and time.
reduce the future price with 50%.
And although the picture looks pretty rosy about
First, you have the advantages of LED’s. Which
what scientists say about LED’s research indicates
are: they are instant on, unlike compact
that some wavelengths may damage the eyes over
florescent bulbs, you have a wide variety of
a period of time. According to a recent study by
colors available and cooler in operation. But the
Complutense University of Madrid LED’s emit
most important advantage is that LED lighting
high levels of blue radiation. And according to Dr.
can be used to battle environmental issues,
M. Babu, an American medical Association board
because compared to an incandescent s lamps
member;”Despite the energy efficiency benefits,
they reduce Co2 output with hundreds of
some LED lights are harmful when used as street-
It’s all because LED’s are time and energy
The AMA gives the guidance about potential
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 14
harmful health effects from ”improper” LED
York and Seattle have street lighting of 4.000 or
lighting. This helps local US governments to
choose LED street lighting. According to the
On the flip side B. Qureshi a London Eye Hospital
organization medical experts LED’s emit too much
consultant ophthalmologist it takes a huge
blue light, which may cause the disruption of
increase in LED use to cause permanent damage,
sleep, the suppression of melatonin and
such as is concluded according to the Madrid
intervening with the body’s circadian rhythm.
study, which tested a person with a 1000 watt
Researchers of the Mid Sweden University
light bulb for 12 hours a day at a distance of 12
compared the effects of caffeine and blue light on
the brain. They found out that blue light ex posers
If we would replace conventional yellow bulbs on
performed better and positively influence us such
the street for LED's, it's possible that allot of
as on alertness. According to professor R. Stevens
drivers and locals could complain about dizziness
from the University of Connecticut the color
or even a lack of sleep. At this stage these blue
temperature of lights at night must be no more
LED's are too bright, but not harmful for the
than 3.000 Kelvin. LED’s produce light at the same
human eye. It takes a huge increase in order to
frequency as sun light and the brightener the LED
develop eye related symptoms. For now we can
lights the more blue it emits. Incandescent lights
use these efficient clean lights for small objects:
are 2.400 Kelvin and some cities such as New
tablet back-lighting or Christmas decor.
WIND POWER CAN BECOME THE MAIN ELECTRICITY PROVIDER Last year the total installed wind capacity was 54.6 gigawatts globally. And according to the Global Wind Energy Council today’s total installed windmills produce circa 487 gigawatts.The first place goes to the Chinese market with a total share of 42.7%. In order to meet their increasing electronic needs the country installed 23.3 gigawatts of new wind mill farms and if the growth stays at the same pace they can provide 26% of their own market supply by the end of 2030, says a study of the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) USA. On the second place you have USA, where less than 8.3 gigawatts windmill power was installed, supplying 4.7 % of the entire electricity in the country. In this article we”re going to look at which modern windmills are mainly used on today’s market and what the (dis)advantages are from this ”new” invention. And lastly, why their is a big spurt in investments and growth in the industry. BY RENEE VAN WESEP
A wind electric turbine captures kinetic energy
it's around 976 million in the USA. Another
when the wind particles are moving quickly. Just
important fact is that wind energy can't be stored
as a hydroelectric dam, but instead of liquid
and it's unpredictable. On 7 August 2016 Scotland
particles that drives this motion it's gas particles.
wind power plants produced free energy for a
The turbines blades capture wind energy and
entire day overriding the quota of 106%. The
this is transferred to a generator. Which turns
predicted strong wind of that week resulted in a
this into energy. It all starts with how the wind is
record-breaking result in this area.
being transferred: the sun heats up a land area it
On the other hand prices are decreasing since the
absorbs the heat. That hot air comes free and
1980's with 80%. At this moment some countries
stats to rise quickly when a certain temperature
can effort to make wind and solar energy cheaper
is being reached. Because hot air travels faster,
than fossil fuels, according to Lazard's 2016
lighter and exerts more pressure than their
''Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis 10.0 ''report.
cooler counterpart the cool air flows fast to fill
The operational costs are low and horizontal
the gap that the hotter air has left behind. It's
turbines are space efficient, but can't be placed
being picked up with the sail of a sailboat. The
too close to each other. According to M.
same happens with a wind turbine. Which is
Liebreich, chairman of the advisory board for
placed where hot&cool air meet each other in
Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF)
order to capture this motion. Modern wind mills
renewable energy is becoming cheaper to
basically exits of rotor blades, a shaft and a
produce. Because their is twice as much clean
energy global funding investment being made
The invention of the windmill dates back 200
than fossil fuels. In the beginning government
B.C., but the modern variant was already
subsidies made wind and solar power accessible
widespread throughout America by the 1930's,
for the mass market, but now economies of scale
with a estimation of 600.000. These were placed
are investing in these projects. Which means
in rural areas for water pluming and electricity.
falling prices. And the oil/gas industry face
After all these years there are advantages and
declining investment and prices have tumbled.
disadvantages to windmills. We start with the
Currently, wind power prices are either the same
ladder. Some people don't like the appearance of
or cheaper in more than 30 countries according to
windmills and find them to make allot of noise.
the World Economic Forum 2016 report called:
While new designs show significant
Renewable Infrastructure Investment Handbook:
improvements with noise and looks are a
A Guide for Institutional Investors. “Renewable
question of taste. Furthermore, wind-turbines
energy has reached a tipping point–it now
pose a threat to flying wildlife: such as bats and
constitutes the best chance to reverse global
birds. Compared to collisions with buildings
warming. . It is not only a commercially viable
chances are slim. The annual fatalities of flying
option, but an outright compelling investment
wildlife is less than 500.000 and for buildings
opportunity with long-term, stable, inflation-
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 18
protected returns,” said M. Drexler, who leads
make use of a natural abundance source: wind. It
infrastructure and development investing at the
doesn’t involve harmful greenhouse gases or
World Economic Forum. However BNEF says that
this renewable energy happens not fast enough to reverse the impact that fossil fuel dependency left
At this moment you can divide wind power in
behind. And according to the Paris Agreement of
three main technologies. First we have the
UNFCCC global investors lack the drive toe invest
modern wind power technology where you have
in renewable energy. The worldwide investment is
two primary designs. These are vertical axis
only 25% of the total $1 trillion goal.
turbines (VAWT’s) and the horizontal axis wind
And although it can't be stored wind energy is
turbines (HAWT’s). The VAWT’s also known as
renewable and occurs naturally. If we could
the egg beater are pretty rare from a commercial
harness the maximum power according
perspective. Because VAWT’s are typically
researchers the potential annual wind electric
mounted to the ground, which means easy
power could be 400 Terrawats (TW) worldwide.
installation and maintenance, but it can intervene
Lastly, wind-turbines slightly contributes to global
with the daily lives from for example farmers and
warming, because it’s manufactured, transported
there is less wind. Unlike popular commercial
and installed. However, they are durable and
HAWT’s VAWT’s are always aligned with the
daily lives from for example farmers and there is less wind. Unlike popular commercial HAWT’s VAWT’s are always aligned with the wind, but can’t start by themselves. Next up we have HAWT’s , which are horizontally parallel to the ground. Because of the height engineers use a tower in order to lift turbine components, this is a laborious task. However, they take little ground space and won’t interfere with human life. HAWT’s make use of a yaw system, that usually consists of
MidAmerican Energy (USA) plans to install 1.000
gearboxes and electric motors, which moves
wind-turbines for an estimated project costs over
them little by little in the optimal wind direction.
3 billion dollar in the next year.
This automatic process is done by the turbine’s
In the Netherlands Eneco has partnered up with
electronic controller, which reads the position of
NS Dutch railway company in order to make
public train transportation run 100% on wind
Lastly, we have the turbine Aerodynamics
power. They hoped to achieve this millstone by
design. This is an aerodynamic upgrade from the
2018, but made it already possible on first of
Dutch windmill HAWT’s in order to capture the
winds energy as best as possible. The turbine
Also, MidAmerican Energy builds a 2.5 megawatt
blades use an airfoil design, which looks allot like
turbine at 379 foot. In the UK they made 8.0
airplane wings: one surface is rounded and the
megawatt turbines, which are 370 feet tall. Which
other one is flat. These blades are being twisted
means that in a 24 hour span circa 18 American-
fro the ideal aerodynamic lift to drag force ratio.
sized homes can be lighted for an entire year.
With the aerodynamic turbine design engineers
With this invention MHI Vestas holds the world
look for the most efficient blade size: generally
record for wind energy in 24 hours. As of now the
longer blades catch more wind-energy. However
company has commercial offers, such as
in a lower-wind-speed-area smaller blades can
delivering a 258 megawatt project that only needs
capture more wind and are consistently running.
Another important factor is tower height: the
In conclusion wind energy can compete with fossil
height the tower is the more wind it catches.
fuels on the current market. Their prices are in the same range or are cheaper in more than 30
Their is good news for environmentalists there
countries. And more innovation is being done to
are tons of projects that focus on making wind
produce more wind power per turbine. It makes a
turbines a practical solution for our energy
profitable investment on a commercial and
needs. A handful of these are listed:
INFORM TOMORROW TECH | FEBRUARY 2017 | 20
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WHY MOST CLOUD
purposes. However, do you know as active user where your files are
parked? Which types of cloud
know that organisations like
In the first quarter of 2016 Dropbox has about 500 million active users. Meaning, that almost every household in the USA could have a big file cabbed in the sky, which is accessible at any moment of the day on the internet. One big
services there are? And do you Greenpeace are actively protesting for greener cloud option? In this article we answer these questions and define the meaning of ‘storing in the cloud’. BY RENEE VAN WESEP Just because you don’t know where your cloud service is provided, doesn’t mean your cloud
file cabbed with your vacation
computing is actually environmentally friendly
photo’s, work presentations and
It looks like this service uses fewer resources,
word documents or your
like servers, cooling systems and is efficiently centralized than each of them individually ran in
instructions for your daily game-
a inefficient local system.
play on Wow. And active internet
So in theory, cloud computing saves equipment,
users make (often) frequent use of these seemly free cloud computer services. This is without a single
energy and maintenance costs. You may think it isn’t employer friendly but it’s environmental friendly. However this is a hasty conclusion, because it works differently in practice. The debate of about the energy slurping huge
other thought. The reason it’s free,
data centers sparked by Greenpeace report in
accessible almost everywhere,
2011 called: ”How dirty is your data center: a
flexible, burn and waterproof and
look at the energy choices that power cloud computering.” In this report they ranked cloud
more importantly it won’t clog up
computing providers. Concluding that Amazon
your basic PC hard-drive, so you
and Akamai providers are Eco-friendly. Today
can fill it with other useful
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it’s relatively easy to find out if your data center is powered through green energy or
conventional energy if it’s an important factor in
,more time online. All of them are web-hosted
the business. However it depends on where the
based and stored in the cloud. It’s expected that
data center and company is located.
the rise of these cloud data plants aren’t slowing
First we have the increasing need for information
down in the near future. Analysts at Gartner
data and other online services. In return the cloud
estimates that it will be a 67 billion business by
data servers need more space and even more
electricity in order to adept to their current
The current global energy usage is gigawatts
(GW), this was in 2007 12GW and 24GW in 2011
Next you are actually merely transfer your
according to a study by DatacenterDynamics
environmental impact elsewhere in the world. You
Intelligence, the Britisch Computer Society and
use energy and they use energy in another part of
the world providing your needs. It’s efficiently but
However their are multiple solutions to reduce
not necessarily Eco- friendly.
the high energy costs of huge data centers, like by
Also, allot of internet served services are
using smart load balancing algorithms to spread
encouraging users to use products and spending
out data processing between different data 23
broadband internet connection. This isn’t always
Reducing the cloud emissions by over 20
accessible in developing countries or in rural
percent, according to researched at Trinity
College Dublin and IBM in 2013.
Next, these services are restricted to what they after, thus not all businesses benefit from this one
Advantages and disadvantages
cutting service. And if their service is stopped you
With cloud computer services you have
might not know when. For example Google Docs
drawbacks as advantages. We’re going to look
stopped with their support at one week notice for
why you should consider or avoid cloud
their customers in September 2012.
computing. Starting with the pro’s: your
If this happens you need to migrate your numbers,
equipment software is up-to-date reliable and
data and files to another service and you better
secure, because you outsource another
hope that this merge with their software. Or you
company for your website hosting or storage,
probably have to crunch your data all over again.
you can take up extra service or take them away
Another con can be that your companies security
and even leave it.
and privacy could be compromised if you need to
Also you don’t have to wait months for the
have a reliable security measures in place.
software or PC to arrive. You don’t have to deal
The last point is the rise of cloud computer
with updates, crashes and run anti-virus
services can mean a loss of jobs in this technology
software. And you will cut down on capital costs,
branch. At the back end of the cloud computer
such as electricity, buying and maintaining the
business you have a loss of possible IT
complex PC system.
maintenance personal, because of the future
Local PC’s don’t have to run heavy applications.
potential usage of automatic computing systems
You can buy a software licence for all your PC’s
that are self managing.
without installation. You can simply load one application which hosts all the programs which
How it works
the job acquires. It decreases the costs for
Your can divide the cloud computer system in two
hardware and software.
main parts: the front end and the back end. The
Lastly, cloud computing services enables the
first one is the service that the clients sees,
dependence of location and device as long as
experience and users. Then you have the back end
you have a connection to a network. And you
of the system: these are storage systems, various
don’t have to learn allot of code or require a long
computers and servers. You have a central server
learned PC skills.
that administers the system, meet client demands
On the other hand your convenience means you
and monitoring traffic. They follow protocols and
buy a dependable permanent service, which
might work out more expensive in the long run.
The last mentioned allows that the PC’s are
And it comes with a requisite you need a high
connected to each other. All PC’s aren’t running
constantly, because each runs it’s own
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independent operating system. This process
and are stored in the cloud, thus you have more
called servers virtualization and it reduces the
installation PC space.
need for more physical machines.
At last you have Iaas (Infrastructure as a Service)
In order to prevent that data centers are breaking
also known as utility computing. This means you
down cloud computer systems have at at least
buy storage space, thus buying raw computer
twice as much storage than they have clients.
hardware. For example putting up a website ore
Making a back-up to retrieve data that usually
making use of Dropbox for your album pictures.
What you do is you (pay) for megabytes/gigabytes to have your files on a hosting company services.
Current cloud computer market
When you are searching online for a new phone in
In order to understand what cloud computing is
a search engine like Google, your words go
we’re going to look what kind of cloud services are
through hundreds of thousands of clustered
being offered at the current market. Because
chained PC’s. These are digging in their systems
there’s a quite of vagueness about this subject.
for your search results. Google provides a
First I lift the fog about what this cloud entails:you
computer cloud service, which is actually being
have three kinds of cloud services called: Iaas,
done in Dublin, California or Beijing.
Saas and Paas. Keep in mind that some services
These three main services often offer their
can cross with one and another.
services for free. For example search engines are
Starting off you have Saas (Software as a Service).
free and have mostly have custom advertisement.
This is a complete application running on someone
Using your data, analyse this and providing
else’s system. Examples are web-based email from
services for businesses, like Google Analytics or
Hotmail,outlook and gmail. But you can also think
payment to get you higher int the search list. On
of web-hosed office applications like Microsoft
the other coin Google optimize their software,
word and exel. Where emails are being stored and
keeping them up-to-date. So you still make use of
processed through a service in another part of the
outsourcing them for your need of information.
Other cloud services are private or public using
Secondly, you have Paas (Platform as a Service).
the pay-as-you-go model or on a subscription
This means you develop applications like an e-
basis. For example Dropbox and Netflix. Currently
commerce website including a shopping cart and
Amazon Web services is the largest public cloud
payment mechanism. Other examples are
computer provider since 2006.
developing mobile,tablet applications like Google
In conclusion cloud computing is a computer
App Engine ore App Cloud. This developing
service that makes use of a network like the
software is web-based and is provided with their
internet, And it can be called information
software system and hardware.
technology (IT) outsourcing through a computer
One of the newer services in the cloud is making
service like a search-engine or storing files on
documents, presentations, excel-sheet etc. using
Dropbox and many more. We enable our local and
web-based technology instead of desktop install
information usage making us more in-dependable
software. You got to have a internet connection
but not necessarily Eco-friendly. 25
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