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Informative Mayrem Vargas Araya

diciembre 2012


How to overcome obstacles?


What do you know about death rate?


Migrant children’s rights


Are animals intelligent



Newsletter 1

What Can I Do to Overcome Obstacles? In life we can face a lot of obstacles that we must overcome. There are many kinds of obstacles, for example illness, injury, discrimination, lack of money, physical or mental disability, family problems, etc. All of them can be a problem, or can create a prejudice in society, but everything depends on the way you see it and the way that you face it. If you are having a bad time with any obstacle, first you can try to focus on something else. Try to find a new activity that helps you to concentrate your energy and intelligence. Try to do something different that does not remind the bad situation that you are in. You can start to practice a sport, try to learn to play an instrument, go back to school, or try to learn a new language. Second, try to find support in your family. Most of the time they love you and they will not leave you alone. Family is the core of society. They are the most important people

who are around you, so if you are facing an obstacle, be honest with them, and try to find their support. Do not be alone, because it could depress you, and this is worse for you. Finally, try to be objective with the situation or the obstacle, put it in a balance and check if it is important or not, or if it can make you stop or not. An obstacle or disability are not the end of life, you always can find a solution if you really want. Give yourself a prudence time to think in your priorities and focus on the importance of they have for you. There are many things that could make you think that nothing has sense, or life is not important, but everything has a solution. You can always find people who are in better or worse condition than you. Obstacles are just in your mind and you should face them. The most important action that you can do is get out of bed, focus on something else, and find the real importance of life.

Newsletter 2

What Do You Know About Death Rate? Death rate refers to the number of people who die out of one thousand persons in determined regions or countries. In Costa Rica, the death rate is very low and the statistics describe the mortality profile is characterized by circulatory system diseases (34%), followed by tumors (22%), external causes (11%), as well as diseases in the respiratory tract (11%) and gastrointestinal diseases (7%). However, Costa Rica is famous for its longevity. Next, we are going to explain two reasons that make us understand why Costa Rica has a long life expectancy and how it could affect us. The first quality that Costa Rica has is the social security system. According to the population census, conducted in 2000, 82% of the population was covered by some type of insurance. The state is obligated to provide a medical assistance to everybody, without any distinction of gender, age, or culture. The National Health System is one of the best in Latin America, despite the appointments that make people wait for a long time. The technology is another point that contributes to the health system, because Costa Rica is developing in this field. The second aspect is the education system. According to the statistics, 90% of the population has finished school, and 36% has finished high school. The importance of education in the death rate is that when people study, It has more opportunities to get a good job and earn money. It is an important factor because working is a way to be self-sufficient and it

helps in being more productive and healthy. Another aspect is that education helps people to be far away to drugs, or delinquency. These factors destroy some people’s lives. But the question is why the longevity in Costa Rica could be a problem? In the future, there is going to be a lot of seniors, because the mortality rate is low, but the birth rate too. The problem is that in twenty years the State has to pay too many pensions and health care for a lot of seniors that will be the economically inactive population, and there will not be as many people working for the State as there will be seniors. This situation could be a problem, because the State’s economy is not prepared to face more economically inactive people. Costa Rica has a good death rate; the social security system and the education are aspects that we must highlight. That is why the ONU said that we are one of the happiest countries in the world, and we should be proud and take advantage of those benefits. The future for us is going to be a challenge, but with the State’s organization and good administration, there will not be problems with the economy, although we need to be aware, and think more about the future and children who will represent it.

Newsletter 3

Migrant Children’s Rights Many people do not know that migrant children have rights in our country. Human rights, UNICEF and the ONU have different laws and articles specialized in defending migrant children’s rights. Costa Rica has signed and accepted those articles, because of that we must defend this rights. But the problem is that many people are uninformed and they do not know how to protect them and protect the children who are facing some kind of migrant problem. I am going to talk about three important human rights articles to be more informed and fight against this huge problem in society. First, I will cite the article 2 of the migration and foreigner’s law: “Costa Rican children have the right to stay in the country, for that reason, the State shall ensure the growth of econom y and educatio n (…)”. It refers to the fact that the State is going to work to have the adequate system to raise the children in the best conditions. Doing it, we will have in the future more professional people and less crime and poverty. The government must invest in children to keep them safe and inside the country with the best conditions. Second, according to the agreement that Costa Rica has with the UNICEF, we are in the

obligation to promote the best conditions to migrant children, especially Nicaraguans. They focus the document on health and education rights, and it forces the State to give those services to any migrant child without any distention. Another point is the importance of their identity and image’s right. Finally, the document says that every school must implement activities that help to avoid discrimination in the classrooms. Finally, following the Universal Rights of the ONU, children are the future of the world. For that reason each country that belongs to this organization must ensure for the fulfillment of each article. Few of them emphasize the children´s rights, and how the State has to keep them in the best conditions that they can. Another article talks about the migrant problems and discrimination, trying to avoid them totally. Until now, Costa Rica is one of the principal places that have a high migrant percentage, because it is considered one of the most important countries in Central America. The challenge now is to create awareness and education about this topic. Costa Rica is an important place that concentrates many migrant people. But I think that with organization and intelligence we could see migration like a big opportunity to grow up. If we learn to treat well every migrant person and being aware of the education, especially for children, Costa Rica could become a developed country. The first step is being informed and knowing the human rights to fight against discrimination an unequal society. Migrant children or national children are exactly the same. They are children and they are the future.

Newsletter 4

Are Animals Intelligent? Throughout the years many scientist have been trying to figure out if animals are intelligent or not, or if it is just their behavior. Darwin developed a theory that explains some animals´ brains, but it was not important until many years later when other scientists were interested in Darwin’s research. After many investigations with different kinds of experiments in animals, they could accept that animals are very intelligent. In the next paragraphs, we are going to explain three different experiments that were done with parrots, dolphins and gorillas. First, we are going to start introducing an experiment with different parrots to you. The experiment focused on figuring out how they solved problems to get food. The researchers put them different kind of “puzzles” with food inside. The parrots solved them so fast, they opened the boxes really quickly and they were so nippy in each trap they faced. Another behavior that got investigators’ attentions was that depending on the puzzle, the parrots were helped by other parrots. They worked in team to get food and shared it. The second experiment was made with a dolphin named Milo. It aimed at knowing more about echolocation. Echolocation is the way that dolphins can find objects or persons by the sound that they emit. The sound produces an eco and they can find any object by bouncing a sound in the object. The experiment consisted in comparing the dolphins’ echolocation with a blind

guy who has developed this ability. They put a mask on Milo, and then they collocated different kinds of objects around the pool. The same objects were put to Daniel (the blind boy) in a room. Milo was really fast finding the objects, just seen through the sound. Daniel did it too, but it was more difficult for him. The third experiment consisted in figuring out if animals can recognize themselves in a mirror. The researchers put a mirror in front of the gorilla. It started to behave strangely, as if it did not know what was there. After that, they painted the gorilla`s face and put the mirror in front of it again. It tried to take off the paint. The result was that they recognize themselves in front of the mirror. The gorilla knew where its face was, and noticed that there was something not common and different. The experiment was made with three different gorillas after that, and the result was the same. Animal brains are a completely different field that some researchers are trying to discover. The results of all of the investigations are the same; animals are very intelligent. Many investigators believe that animals are more intelligent than people. It is a discussion that has not finished, because until now, we cannot say if animals have feelings, or if they can think. It is a fact that they cannot talk, but it is also a fact that they can express themselves by signals. For that reason it is a discussion, because the researchers contradict themselves in each result. In the last three examples, we can judge by ourselves if animals are intelligent or not.

Newsletter 5


Newsletter 6

Newsletter 7

Ley de migración y extranjería de Costa Rica. INEC (Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Censo.

Newsletter 8

Newsletter 9