Information Science and Social Media ISSOME 2011

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Foreword

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CONFERENCE PAPERS AND EXTENDED ABSTRACTS



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Data Collection and Analysis HH i?2 i?`22 `2T`2b2Mi iBp2b Q7 i?2 +QKKmMBiv ;`QmTb +?Qb2 iQ T `iB+BT i2 BM i?2 bim/vX h?2v r2`2 BMi2`pB2r2/ #Qmi i?2B` 2tT2`@ B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? i?2 bim/2Mi ;`QmTbX 1B;?i bim/2Mib +?Qb2 iQ T `iB+BT i2 BM i?2 bim/vX 6Qm` Q7 i?2K +?Qb2 iQ #2 BMi2`pB2r2/ #Qmi i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? `2 H mb2` BM i?2 T`QD2+i M/ i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? i?2 Qi?2` bim/2Mib BM i?2 ;`QmTX h?`22 BMi2`pB2r22b r2`2 7`QK i?2 b K2 ;`QmTX h?2 BMi2`@ pB2rb r2`2 b2KB@ bi`m+im`2/X HH BMi2`pB2rb r2`2 +QM/m+i2/ +HQb2 iQ i?2 2M/ Q7 i?2 ;`QmT T`QD2+iX h?2v r2`2 +QM/m+i2/ BM 7 +2@iQ@7 +2 b2iiBM; M/ H bi2/ #2ir22M k8 M/ 98 KBMmi2bX h?2 BMi2`pB2rb r2`2 `2+Q`/2/ M/ i` Mb+`B#2/X


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h?2 T `iB+BT iBM; bim/2MibǶ +Qm`b2rQ`F r b HbQ +QHH2+i2/ b T `i Q7 i?2 `2b2 `+? / i X h?Bb BM+Hm/2b i?2B` # +F;`QmM/ bm`p2v mb2/ 7Q` 7Q`KBM; i?2 ;`QmTb M/ i?2B` `2~2+iBp2 DQm`M HbX

Findings h?2 BMi2`pB2r / i bm;;2bi i? i i?2 bim/2Mib MQi QMHv H2 `M2/ #Qmi / i # b2 +QM+2Tib M/ / i # b2 i2+?MQHQ;v #mi HbQ TT`2@ +B i2/ i?2 QTTQ`imMBiv Q7 rQ`FBM; rBi? `2 H mb2`b M/ ; BM2/ 2tT2`@ B2M+2b Q7 ?Qr iQ i F2 i?2B` T2`bT2+iBp2b BMiQ ++QmMi M/ BMi2;` i2 i?2K BMiQ i?2 / i # b2 /2bB;MX PM2 ;`QmT r b bbB;M2/ iQ +`2 i2 i?2 +QHH2+iBQM / i # b2X h?2 +QHH2+iBQM BM+Hm/2/ Tm#HBb?2/ `iB+H2b#QQFb- 2i+X i i?2 #2;BMMBM; Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i- i?2 bim/2Mib i?Qm;?i i?2v rQmH/ /2p2HQT HB#` `v + i HQ;m2 7Q` i?2 +QHH2+iBQM rBi? #B#@ HBQ;` T?B+ / i HBF2 mi?Q`b- Tm#HB+ iBQM v2 `- Tm#HBb?2`- 2i+X M BMi2`pB2r rBi? i?2 `2T`2b2Mi iBp2 iQi HHv +? M;2/ i?2 ;`QmTǶb pB2rX PM2 K2K#2` `2~2+i2/ QM i?Bb M/ b B/- dzqQ`FBM; rBi? +HB2Mi Bb `2 HHv BMi2`2biBM;- M/ i?2 T`QD2+i i? i r2 ;Qi- i?2 + i HQ;mBM; Q7 `2bQm`+2bXXXr2 ? p2 iQ #2 HBiiH2 #Bi +`2 iBp2 BM ?Qr r2 TT`Q +? i?2 T`QD2+i #2+ mb2XXX?2 r Mib Bi iQ #2 TH +2 r?2`2 T2QTH2 + M +QK2 M/ [mB+FHv }M/ `2bQm`+2b rBi?Qmi ? pBM; iQ ivT2 BM b2 `+? rQ`/bXǴ h?2 +QKKmMBiv T `iM2`b HbQ TT`2+B i2/ i?2 +iBp2 T `iB+BT @ iBQM T`Q+2bbX h?2v r2`2 TH2 b2/ i? i i?2 bim/2Mib iQQF i?2 Q`; M@ Bx iBQMǶb T2`bT2+iBp2 b2`BQmbHv BM i?2 /2bB;M T`Q+2bbX PM2 `2T`2b2Mi@ iBp2 b B/, dzh?2v /Q MQi +QK2 BM rBi? T`2+QM+2Bp2/ B/2 b Q7 r? i b?QmH/ #2 /QM2- r? i M22/b iQ #2 /QM2X h?2v HBbi2M iQ r? i A ? p2 iQ b vXXX M/ A i?BMF i? iǶb i?2 `B;?i r v iQ /Q Bi- BiǶb MQi #2BM; `2 +iBp2XXXAǶp2 b22M bQK2 T`Q72bbBQM H +QMbmHi Mib i? i `2MǶi b r2HH T`2T `2/ M/ b i?Q`Qm;? b i?Bb ;`QmT Bb- bQ i?2vǶp2 #22M p2`v ;QQ/ǴX >2 7m`i?2` +QKK2Mi2/ i? i- dzXXX h?2v /Q + `2 #Qmi M Q`; MBx iBQM i?2vǶp2 ? / MQ +QMM2+iBQM iQX h? iǶbXXXbQK2i?BM; i? i /QMǶi Hr vb ;2i rBi? i?2 +QMbmHi Mi i? i HQQFb i Bi vQm FMQr- i?Bb Bb #mbBM2bb T`QD2+i QM2 Qz i?2M AǶHH KQp2 QM iQ bQK2i?BM; 2Hb2XXXǴ PM2 `2T`2b2Mi iBp2 r b ? TTBHv bm`T`Bb2/ r?2M ?2 7QmM/ ?2 r b 2KTQr2`2/ iQ Qz2` 722/# +F /m`BM; i?2 /2bB;M T`Q+2bbX _2~2+iBM; mTQM ?Bb dzH2 `MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2Ǵ- ?2 b B/- dzA ? /MǶi `2 HBx2/XXXi? i vQm /QMǶi Dmbi im`M bQK2i?BM; Qp2` iQ T2QTH2 M/ b v /Q BiX h?2vǶ`2


7RZDUGV 7UDLQLQJ /LEUDULDQ

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Bibliography

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Freedom of Information q?2M *?v/2MBmb UG K#H2 kyykV BM i?2 R3i? +2Mim`v T`QTQb2/ ?Bb ` /B+ H pBbBQM Q7 6`22/QK Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM UQz2MiHB;?2ibT`BM+BT2M Q` 6QAV ?2 r b `;mBM; 7Q` M mM?2 `/ Q7 H2p2H Q7 QT2MM2bb M/ i` Mb@ T `2M+v BM ;Qp2`MK2MiX >2 `;m2/ i? i 6QA rQmH/ T`Q/m+2 bi #BHBiv M/ T`2/B+i #BHBiv BM ;Qp2`MK2Mi b i?2 +ib Q7 TQHBiB+B Mb M/ Tm#@ HB+ b2`p Mib +QmH/ #2 Q#b2`p2/ M/ i` +2/X AM+`2 b2/ ++QmMi #BHBiv H2 /b iQ BM+`2 b2/ +QMi`QHX >Bb `;mK2Mib + M #2 b22M iQ #2 6Qm@


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(R) "QHH +F2`- Em`i .X- G r`2M+2- ai2p2- :BH2b- *X G22X URNN3VX *Bi2a22`, M miQMQKQmb q2# ;2Mi 7Q` miQK iB+ _2@ i`B2p H M/ A/2MiB}+ iBQM Q7 AMi2`2biBM; Sm#HB+ iBQMbX kM/ AM@ i2`M iBQM H *J *QM72`2M+2 QM miQMQKQmb ;2MibX RRe@ RkjX (k) : Hp2x- * `K2Mc JQv @ M2;QM- 6ûHBt UkyydV dz TT`QtBK@ i2 S2`bQM H L K2@J i+?BM; h?`Qm;? 6BMBi2@ai i2 :` T?bǴX C aAah 83URjV,R@RdX (j) h?QK b :m`M2v- 1/rBM >Q`HBM;b S2i2` p M /2M "2bb2H ` UkyRRVX dz mi?Q` /Bb K#B;m iBQM mbBM; KmHiB@ bT2+i bBKBH `@ Biv BM/B+ iQ`bXǴ AM, S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 AaaA kyRR, .m`# M- aQmi? 7`B+ X CmHv 9@d- kyRRX (9) E M;- AM@amc L - a2mM;@>QQMc G22- a2mM;rQQc CmM;- > M@ KBMc EBK- SvmM;c amM;- qQM@EvmM;c G22- CQM;@>v2QF UkyyNV dzPM +Q@ mi?Q`b?BT 7Q` mi?Q` /Bb K#B;m iBQMǴX AM7Q`K@ iBQM S`Q+2bbBM; M/ J M ;2K2Mi 98,39@NdX (8) G r`2M+2- ai2p2c :BH2b- *X G22c "QHH +F2`- Em`i .X URNNNV dz miQMQKQmb *Bi iBQM J i+?BM;ǴX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 h?B`/ AMi2`M iBQM H *QM72`2M+2 QM miQMQKQmb ;2Mib- a2 iiH2q b?BM;iQM- J v R@8- *J S`2bb- L2r uQ`F- Lu- RNNNX (e) G2vJB+? 2HX UkyyNVX ."GS Ĝ aQK2 G2bbQMb G2 `M2/X S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 oG." 1M/QrK2Mi kUkVX ?iiT,ffrrrXpH/#XQ`;fTpH/#fkfpH/#yN@N3XT/7


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(d) J ii?2rb- "XqX URNd8VX dz*QKT `BbQM Q7 i?2 T`2/B+i2/ M/ Q#b2`p2/ b2+QM/ `v bi`m+im`2 Q7 h9 T? ;2 HvbQxvK2XǴ "BQ+?BKX "BQT?vbX +i 9y8- 99kĜ98RX (3) aK HH?2Bb2`- L2BH _Xc hQ`pBF- o2iH2 AX UkyyNV dz mi?Q` L K2 .Bb K#B;m iBQMǴX MMm H _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v U _AahVU"X *`QMBM- 1/XV 9j (N) aQH2`- CQbû JX UkyydV dza2T ` iBM; i?2 `iB+H2b Q7 mi?Q`b rBi? i?2 b K2 M K2ǴX a+B2MiQK2i`B+bX dkUkV,k3R@kNyX (Ry) h M;- GBc q Hb?- CQ?M SX UkyRyV dz"B#HBQK2i`B+ }M;2`T`BMib, M K2 /Bb K#B;m iBQM # b2/ QM TT`QtBK i2 bi`m+im`2 2[mB@ p H2M+2 Q7 +Q;MBiBp2 K TbǴX a+B2MiQK2i`B+b 39,dej@d39X (RR) h M;- CB2c w? M;- CBM;c w? M;- .mQc M/ GB- Cm MxBX Ukyy3VX dz mMB}2/ 7` K2rQ`F 7Q` M K2 /Bb K#B;m iBQMXǴ AM S`Q@ +22/BM; Q7 i?2 Rdi? BMi2`M iBQM H +QM72`2M+2 QM qQ`H/ qB/2 q2# Uqqq Ƕy3VX *J- L2r uQ`F- Lu- la - Rky8@RkyeX .PA4RyXRR98fRjed9NdXRjeddk3 (Rk) qQQ/BM;- ai2p2Mc qBH+Qt@C v- E i2c G2rBbQM- :` Mic :` MiCQM i?QMX UkyyeV dz*Q@ mi?Q` BM+HmbBQM, MQp2H `2+m`bBp2 H@ ;Q`Bi?KB+ K2i?Q/ 7Q` /2 HBM; rBi? ?QKQMvKb BM #B#HBQK2i`B+ M HvbBbXǴ a+B2MiQK2i`B+b eeURV,RR@kRX (Rj) w? M;- .mQc h M;- CB2c GB- Cm MxBc M/ q M;- E2@ ?QM;X UkyydVX dz +QMbi` BMi@# b2/ T`Q# #BHBbiB+ 7` K2@ rQ`F 7Q` M K2 /Bb K#B;m iBQMXǴ AM S`Q+X bBti22Mi? *J +QM72`2M+2 QM *QM72`2M+2 QM BM7Q`K iBQM M/ FMQrH2/;2 K M ;2K2Mi U*AEJ ǶydVX *J- L2r uQ`FLu- la - RyRN@RykkX .PA4RyXRR98fRjkR99yXRjkReyy ?iiT,ff/QBX +KXQ`;fRyXRR98fRjkR99yXRjkReyy


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Discussion: The next stage? h?2 T`Q+2bb Q7 /2p2HQTBM; H #Q` iQ`v ; K2b ? b QMHv #2;mMX h?2b2 `2 iQQHb i? i 2M; ;2 i?2 KBM/ BM bT2+B H 7 b?BQM UGB2#2`Qi? > `pB BM2M- BM T`2bbVX h? i i?2v KQiBp i2 T2QTH2 iQ +QMiBMm2 TH vBM; UG BM2K - kyyjc hbm+?Bv hbm+?Bv - RNNNV Bb #mi i?2 bi `iX h?2v HbQ BMbTB`2 TH v2`b iQ #Qi? b22F 2ti` BM7Q`K iBQM `2@ H iBM; iQ i?2 +iBpBiv #27Q`2? M/ Uo `iB BM2M- kyRyV M/ iQ F22T T`Q+2bbBM; i?2 ; K2Ƕb i` Bib M/ +QMi2Mi 7i2`r `/b UG BM2K a `BM2M- kyyNVX PM2 +m``2Mi 2tT2`BK2Mi Bb b h?2v a?QmH/ "2- #2M2pQH2Mi / i KBMBM; ; K2 /2p2HQT2/ #v i?2 mi?Q` 7Q` +Q`TQ` i2 mb2- # b2/ QM i?2 }M/BM;b Q7 *`BiB+ b `iBbiX Ai Bb M Q`; MBx iBQM H BM[mB`v iQQH U b T2` `;v`Bb a+?ƺM- RNNeV- r?B+? TTHB2b i?2 H #Q` iQ`v T@ T`Q +? 7Q` M HvxBM; BM7Q`K iBQM 2MpB`QMK2Mib #v r v Q7- MQi BMH `T TH v- 7Q` i?2 Tm`TQb2 Q7 b2`pB+2 BKT`Qp2K2MiX h?2 HQ;B+ H M2ti bi2T rQmH/ #2 iQ +`2 i2 bBKBH ` 2tT2`BK2Mib mb@ BM; +`QbbK2/B M/ T2`p bBp2 ; K2b- b i?Qb2 #H2M/ rBi? KmM/ M2 +iBpBiB2b M/ H`2 /v +QMi BM mb27mH ii +?K2Mi TQBMib 7Q` i?2 bim/v Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` Ub22 EQ+?2`- .2Mr `/ q 2`M- kyyN- M/ JQMiQH - ai2M`Qb q 2`M- kyyN- `2bT2+iBp2Hv- 7Q` 2t KTH2bVX h?2v HbQ +QMi BM i?2 2K#Q/BK2Mi 2H2K2Mi Q7 H `T- bQK2i?BM; r?B+? QM@ HBM2 ; K2b @ b mb27mH b BM7Q`K iBQM H #Q` iQ`B2b i?Qb2 + M #2 @ /Q MQiX PTiBK HHv- H #Q` iQ`v H `Tb +QmH/ 2p2Mim HHv #2 +QK#BM2/ rBi? 2/m+ iBQM H H `T /2bB;M- +`2 iBM; H2 `MBM; ; K2b rBi? #2ii2` i? M +m``2Mi bb2bbK2Mi bvbi2KX h?Bb rQmH/ #2 bi2T iQr `/b K FBM; i?2K KQ`2 +2`i BMHv i2 +? 2H2K2Mib iQ H2p2Hb #2vQM/ bBim iBQM H Q` 7` ;K2Mi2/ H2 `MBM; U b T2` EBK- RNNjVX M/- i bQK2 TQBMi- iQ@ r `/b 7mHHv BM+Q`TQ` iBM; i?2 H #Q` iQ`v TT`Q +? rBi? bBKmH iBQMb Q7 i?2 FBM/ /2b+`B#2/ #v EH ##2`b UkyyyV b dzKQ/2 AAAǴ- BX2X dzH2 `M@ BM; 2MpB`QMK2Mib BM r?B+? i?2 H2 `M2`b `2 ;Bp2M i?2 QTTQ`imMBiv iQ BMi2` +iBp2Hv #mBH/ i?2B` QrM bvbi2K Q7 `2bQm`+2b M/ `mH2b(- M/


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Conclusions aQ- r? i /Q r2 2bb2MiB HHv ? p2 ?2`2\ 1 bBHv /2bB;M2/- ?B;?Hv +QMi`QHH2/ bQ+B H BM7Q`K iBQM 2MpB`QMK2Mib- BMiQ r?B+? i?2 Q`; M@ Bx2` + M BMTmi / i r?BH2 FMQrBM; i?2 F2v p `B #H2bX h?2v `2 Q#b2`p #H2 /m`BM; i?2B` `mM@iBK2- M/ + M B7 M2+2bb `v #2 `2+Q`/2/ b + M i?2B` /2#`B2}M;bX "v +? M;BM; BM+2MiBp2b- M/ BM+2MiBp2 BM@ i2MbBiv H2p2Hb- i?2 /2bB;M2` + M HbQ Q#b2`p2 +? M;2b BM BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` T ii2`MbX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- B7 i?2 ; K2 Bb ;QQ/- i?2 TH v2`b rBHH r Mi iQ bT2 F #Qmi Bi iQ ;`2 i 2ti2Mi 7i2`r `/b- b r2HH b bT`2 / i?2 ; K2 iQ M2r m/B2M+2bX q?BH2 MQi `2HB #H2 b 2tT2`@ BK2Mib iQ ;`2 i 2ti2Mi- i?2 M2r `mMb iQQ T`QpB/2 / i QM ?Qr i? i T `iB+mH ` bvbi2K b22Kb iQ rQ`F- M/ ?Qr `2HB #H2 i?2 BMBiB H }M/BM;b `2X h?Bb Bb #mi T`2HBKBM `v bi ;2X 1tT2`BK2Mib rBi? bm+? ; K2b b22K iQ TQBMi iQr `/b i?2`2 #2BM; /2}MBi2 i2KTH i2b- Q` T ii2`MbQ7 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ`- ;Qp2`M2/ #v bQ+B H +QMi` +ib M/ 2tT2+i@ iBQMbX h?`Qm;? `iB}+B H `2bi`B+iBQMb- r2 #`BM; #Qi? i?2 T ii2`Mb M/ i?2 `mH2b ;Qp2`MBM; i?2K iQ i?2 7Q`2X h?2v + M i?2M #2 +QK@ T `2/ iQ KQ`2 +HBMB+ H / i - b r2HH b 2 `HB2` 2tT2`BK2Mib rBi? bBKBH ` ; K2bX GBF2 Qi?2` H #Q` iQ`v 2tT2`BK2Mib- i?2b2 ; K2@i2bib

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Funding h?Bb T T2` r b r`Bii2M rBi? i?2 ?2HT Q7 ;` Mi 7`QK i?2 lMB@ p2`bBiv Q7 h KT2`2X


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General outline of the study h?2`2 Bb ;`QrBM; #Q/v Q7 `2b2 `+? i? i ++2Mim i2b i?2 BK@ TQ`i M+2 Q7 2KTHQvBM; bQ+B HHv- +mHim` HHv- M/ HBM;mBbiB+ HHv Q`B@ 2Mi2/ M HviB+ 7` K2rQ`F r?2M bim/vBM; BM7Q`K iBQM M/ FMQr@ H2/;2 U.m;mB/ "`QrM- kyyyc h HD 2i H- RNNNc >DКа`H M/ H@ #`2+?ib2M- RNN8c 6`Q?K MM- kyy9 c >DКа`H M/- kyRRVX rB/2 p `B@ 2iv Q7 +QMi2tim HHv Q`B2Mi2/ TT`Q +?2b ? p2 #22M 2KTHQv2/ BM i?2 bim/v Q7 2[m HHv /Bp2`b2 bm#D2+i /QK BMb- BM+Hm/BM; b+?QH `Hv +QK@ KmMB+ iBQM UED2HH#2`;- kyRyV- i?2 T`Q/m+iBQM Q7 b+B2MiB}+ FMQrH2/;2 UEMQ`` *2iBM - RNNNc " x2`K M- RN38V- T`Q72bbBQM H BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; UCQ? MMBbbQM amM/BM- kyydV- M/ BM7Q`K iBQM `2i`B2p H U>DКа`H M/- kyykVX h?2`2 `2- ?Qr2p2`- 72r +QM+2Tim H M/ 2KTB`@ B+ H BM[mB`B2b BM GB#` `v M/ AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 UGAaV i? i K MB@ 72bi bm+? +QMi2tim H +`2/Q BM i?2 bim/v Q7 i?2 `2H iBQMb?BT #2ir22M BM7Q`K iBQM H bT2+ib Q7 bQ+B H K2/B M/ i?2 +QM/BiBQMb Q7 /Q+m@ K2Mi iBQM- `+?BpBM;- M/ +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2X h?2 ;Q H Q7 i?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v Bb iQ +QMi`B#mi2 iQ +QMi2tim HHv Q`B2Mi2/ bQ+B H K2/B `2b2 `+? #v /Bb+mbbBM; ?Qr #HQ;b #Qmi i?`22@ /BK2MbBQM H pB`im H rQ`H/b- 7`QK /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v T2`bT2+iBp2+ M #2 +QM+2Tim HBx2/ b /Q+mK2Mi iBQM Q7 i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/b iQ r?B+? i?2v T2`i BMX h?2 /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`2iB+ H pB2r Q7 #HQ;b Bb 7m`i?2` M Hvx2/ 7`QK DQBMi GAa M/ TQbiKQ/2`M `+?Bp H b+B2M+2 T2`bT2+iBp2- r?2`2 i?2 `+?Bp H MQiBQM Q7 `2+Q`/ Bb mb2/ iQ 2tTHQ`2 pB`im H rQ`H/ #HQ;b b TQi2MiB H BM7Q`K iBQM bQm`+2 BM `+?BpBM; 2zQ`ib /B`2+i2/ iQr `/b pB`im H rQ`H/bX


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A short introduction to document theory, the concept of record, and the theory of remediation .Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v Äœ TBQM22`2/ #v PiH2i UR3e3@RN99V M/ "`B2i UR3N9@RN3NVc KQ/B}2/ M/ `2BMi`Q/m+2/ BMiQ GAa `2b2 `+? #v b+?QH@ `b bm+? b 6`Q?K MM Ukyy9#V- 6` M+F2 Ukyy3V- M/ qBM/72H/ GmM/ UkyyN- kyRyV Äœ Bb +QMi2tim HHv +Q;MBx Mi TT`Q +? i? i ++2Mim@ i2b i?2 K i2`B H- M/ +QMb2[m2MiHv i?2 +QMi2tim H M/ T`Q+2bbm HM im`2 Q7 i?2 /Q+mK2Mi UqBM/72H/ GmM/- kyyN- kyRyVX q? i b?QmH/ #2 +QMbB/2`2/ /Q+mK2Mi Bb iQTB+ i? i ? b #22M /Bb+mbb2/ 2ti2Mb@ Bp2Hv BM #Qi? ?BbiQ`B+ H M/ +QMi2KTQ` `v + /2KB U+7X "m+FH M/RNNd- RNN3c 6` M+F2- kyy8c 6`Q?K MM- kyyNVX >Qr2p2`- bi`QM; `2 b@ QMb iQ /2}M2 i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 /Q+mK2Mi mbBM; ?2m`BbiB+ TT`Q +? ? b #22M Tmi 7Q`r `/ #v- KQM; Qi?2`b- 6` M+F2 Ukyy8V M/ 6`Q?K MM UkyyNVX 6Q` i?2 Tm`TQb2 Q7 i?Bb bim/v- qBM72H/ GmM/Çśb /2}MBiBQM Q7 /Q+mK2Mib b Çł Mv `2bmHib Q7 ?mK M 2zQ`ib iQ i2HH- BMbi`m+i- /2KQM@ bi` i2- i2 +? Q` T`Q/m+2 TH v (XXX) #v mbBM; bQK2 K2 Mb BM bQK2 r vbÇł rBHH #2 2KTHQv2/ UqBM72H/ GmM/- kyRy- TX d9jVX AM i?Bb pB2rBi Bb TH mbB#H2 iQ +QM+2Tim HBx2 #HQ;b b /Q+mK2MibX 6`QK /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v T2`bT2+iBp2- #HQ;b `2 i?mb 2bb2MiB HHv +mHim` H- bQ+B H- M/ ?BbiQ`B+ H +QMbi`m+ib i? i `2 b? T2/ #v i?2 bBim i2/ /Q+mK2Mi T` +iB+2b i? i +`2 i2 i?2K U6` M+F2- kyy3c qBM/@ 72H/ GmM/- kyyN- kyRyVX *QmTH2/ rBi? pB2r Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM b 7mM/ K2Mi HHv bQ+B H T?2MQK2MQM- K2/B i2/ i?`Qm;? T2QTH2- `i2@ 7 +ib- M/ i2+?MQHQ;B2b U6` M+F2- kyy3V- i?2 bim/v Q7 #HQ;b- 7`QK /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v TQBMi Q7 pB2r- #2+QK2b `2 bQM #H2 r v Q7 BMp2bi@ B; iBM; ?Qr pB`im H rQ`H/ #HQ;b `2K2/B i2 M/ `2T`2b2Mi i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/b i? i i?2v `2 #QmiX h?2 i?2Q`v Q7 `2K2/B iBQM rBHH #2 mb2/ b bmTTH2K2Mi `v i?2Q`2iB+ H iQQH iQ mM/2`bi M/ M/ M Hvx2 i?2


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`2H iBQM #2ir22M i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/ M/ #HQ;b #Qmi Bi- M/ ?Qr QM2 `2T`2b2Mib- `2K2/B i2b- M/ `27Q`Kb- i?2 Qi?2` U"QHi2` :`mbBMRNNNVX h?2 ii2KTi iQ mM/2`bi M/ M/ 2tTHQ`2 i?2 bQ+B H M im`2 Q7 /Q+@ mK2Mib Ĝ +2Mi` H i2M2i Q7 /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v Ĝ `2bQM i2 rBi? i?2 MQiBQM Q7 `2+Q`/- 7mM/ K2Mi H +QM+2Ti BM `+?Bp H b+B2M+2 b r2HH b QM2 Q7 i?2 KQbi # bB+ mMBib Q7 i?2 `+?Bp2X AM i` /BiBQM H `+?Bp H i?Qm;?i- i?2 `2+Q`/ Bb M2mi` H Q#D2+i i? i T`QpB/2b mi?2MiB+ BM@ 7Q`K iBQM #Qmi i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 Bib +`2 iBQM Uh?QK bb2M- kyyRVX >Qr2p2`- TQbiKQ/2`M `+?Bp H b+B2M+2 bb2`ib i? i i?2 `2+Q`/ Bb bQ+B HHv +QMbi`m+i2/ M/- 7m`i?2`KQ`2- ++2Mim i2b i?2 M22/ iQ /2@ p2HQT M2r `+?Bp H 7` K2rQ`Fb M/ T` +iB+2b QM i?2 # bBb Q7 i?Bb pB2rTQBMi U*QQF- kyyRc h` +2- kyykVX

Case study – methods and materials h?2 /Q+mK2Mi@+2Mi2`2/ i?2Q`2iB+ H 7` K2rQ`F /2b+`B#2/ #Qp2 r b QT2` iBQM HBx2/ BM + b2 bim/v Q7 ?Qr i?2 H M/b+ T2 Hi2`M @ iBQMb Q7 i?2 Q`B;BM H +QMiBM2Mib Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7iǶb ; K2 rQ`H/ Ĝ #`Qm;?i #Qmi #v i?2 `2H2 b2 Q7 i?2 2tT MbBQM T +F * i +HvbK BM .2+2K#2` kyRR Ĝ r2`2 `2T`2b2Mi2/ BM 9y qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i #HQ;bX >Qr r2`2 i?2 /` biB+ +? M;2b iQ i?2 7 KBHB ` bm``QmM/BM;b Q7 i?2 ; K2 rQ`H/- ?Bi?2`iQ mM+? M;2/ bBM+2 i?2 `2H2 b2 Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q `@ +` 7i BM kyy9- `2T`2b2Mi2/ BM i?2 #HQ;b\ q?B+? `2T`2b2Mi iBQMb Q7 i?2 H M/b+ T2 K2i KQ`T?QbBb r2`2 7`2[m2Mi BM i?2 qQ`H/ Q7 q `@ +` 7i #HQ;QbT?2`2- M/ r?B+? r2`2 mM+QKKQM\ >Qr r2`2 i?2 `2T@ `2b2Mi iBQMb BMi2``2H i2/\ h?2 + b2 bim/v r b ;mB/2/ #v i?2 7QHHQrBM; `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb, UBV r? i `2 i?2 +? ` +i2`BbiB+b Q7 M/ p `B iBQMb BM i?2 `2K2/B iBQM M/ `2T`2b2Mi iBQM Q7 i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/ qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i BM i?2 bim/B2/ qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i@`2H i2/ #HQ;b\ UBBV >Qr /Q2b `2b2 `+?@ # b2/ FMQrH2/;2 Q7 i?2 `2K2/B iBQM M/ `2T`2b2Mi iBQM Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i BM i?2 bim/B2/ #HQ;b BM7Q`K rQ`FBM; TT`Q +? iQ ?Qr pB`im H rQ`H/b +QmH/ #2 `+?Bp2/\ h?2 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i #HQ;b i? i 7Q`K i?2 2KTB`B+ H # bBb Q7 i?2 T`2b2Mi + b2 bim/v r2`2 7QmM/ mbBM; i?2 #HQ; b2 `+? 2M;BM2b h2+?MQ` iB M/ "HQ;TmHb2- M/ i?2 #HQ;`QHHb Q7 i?2 #HQ;b B/2MiB}2/


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i?Bb r vX HH Q7 i?2 #HQ;b r2`2 r`Bii2M BM 1M;HBb? M/ +iBp2 i i?2 iBK2 Q7 / i +QHH2+iBQMX _2H2p Mi #HQ; TQbib r2`2 B/2MiB}2/ mbBM; i?2 #HQ;bÇś #mBHi@BM b2 `+? iQQHb M/ 7QHFbQMQKB+ i ;b- M/ b2@ H2+i2/ 7Q` M HvbBb mbBM; Tm`TQbBp2 b KTHBM; UqBH/2Kmi?- kyyNVX h?2 / i r b M Hvx2/ mbBM; +Q@rQ`/ M HvbBb- +QMi2Mi M HvbBb@ K2i?Q/ /2bB;M2/ iQ K2 bm`2 i?2 7`2[m2M+v M/ +Q@Q++m``2M+2 Q7 HBM;mBbiB+ mMBib UrQ`/b- T B`b Q7 rQ`/b- T?` b2bV BM #Q/v Q7 i2ti U*Qm`iB H- RNN9c * HHQM- 2i HX- RN3jc >2- RNNNVX JmHiB/BK2MbBQM H b+ HBM; UJ.aV r b mb2/ iQ pBbm HBx2 i?2 BMi2``2H iBQMb #2ir22M i?2 BM/2t2/ i2`Kb BM irQ@/BK2MbBQM H M2irQ`F K Tb bmBi #H2 7Q` [m H@ Bi iBp2 BMi2`T`2i iBQM U>QHK#2`;- 2i HX- kyyNVX h?2 M HvbBb r b T2`7Q`K2/ mbBM; "B#1t+2H- M BM7QK2i`B+ +QKTmi2` bQ7ir `2 iQQH r`Bii2M 2bT2+B HHv 7Q` i?Bb Tm`TQb2 US2`bbQM- kyyeVX *Q@rQ`/ M @ HvbBb r b +?Qb2M b i?2 K2i?Q/ Q7 / i M HvbBb #2+ mb2 Bi HHQrb 7Q` 2{+B2Mi B/2MiB}+ iBQM- [m MiB}+ iBQM- M/ BMi2`HBMF ;2 Q7 i?2 /QKBM Mi KQ/2b Q7 HBM;mBbiB+ 2tT`2bbBQMb Äœ `2T`2b2Mi iBQMb Äœ BM H `;2 b2i Q7 i2tib- b r2HH b M 2 bBHv ++2bbB#H2 r v iQ bvMi?2bBx2 M/ T`2b2Mi i?2b2 `2bmHib BM ;` T?B+ H `2T`2b2Mi iBQM r2HH@bmBi2/ 7Q` [m HBi iBp2 M HvbBbX

Findings and contributions h?2 T`2b2Mi BM[mB`v- +QMbBbiBM; Q7 + b2 bim/v M/ }`bi ii2KTi iQ 2bi #HBb? /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v@+2Mi2`2/ M HviB+ H 7` K2rQ`F 7Q` bQ+B H K2/B `2b2 `+?- vB2H/b #Qi? +QM+2Tim H +QMi`B#miBQMb M/ 2K@ TB`B+ H }M/BM;bX *QM+2Tim HHv- i?2 bim/v +QMi`B#mi2b iQ i?2 /Bb+mb@ bBQM Q7 ?Qr pB`im H rQ`H/ #HQ;b Ĝ 2KTHQvBM; /Q+mK2Mi i?2Q`v M/ TQbiKQ/2`M `+?Bp H b+B2M+2 pB2r Q7 i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 `2+Q`/b Ĝ + M #2 +QM+2Tim HBx2/ b /Q+mK2Mi iBQM Q7 i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/b iQ r?B+? i?2v T2`i BMX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- i?2 bim/v bi`2bb2b i?2 BKTQ`i M+2 Q7 7mim`2 `2b2 `+? i? i +QMiBMm2b iQ 2tTHQ`2 ?Qr BM7Q`K iBQM H /BK2MbBQMb Q7 bQ+B H K2/B `2H i2 iQ [m2biBQMb Q7 /Q+mK2Mi iBQM- `+?BpBM;- M/ +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2X //BiBQM HHv- Bi rQmH/ #2 Q7 ;`2 i BMi2`2bi iQ BM@ p2biB; i2 ?Qr #bi` +i- `2b2 `+?@# b2/- BMbB;?ib Q7 i?Bb FBM/ + M #2 QT2` iBQM HBx2/ BM Q`/2` iQ /2p2HQT iQQHb M/ 7` K2rQ`Fb iQ #2 mb2/ BM i?2 `+?BpBM; Q7 pB`im H rQ`H/bX


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1KTB`B+ HHv- i?2 `2bmHib Q7 i?2 + b2 bim/v Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i #HQ;b BM/B+ i2 i? i i?2`2 `2 /BbiBM+i `2;mH `BiB2b BM i?2 7`2[m2M@ +B2b M/ `2H iBQMb?BTb Q7 i?2 +QM+2Tib mb2/ iQ `2T`2b2Mi i?2 +? M;2b K /2 iQ i?2 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i ; K2 rQ`H/X h?2b2 `2bmHib bmTTQ`i 2 `HB2` Q#b2`p iBQMb Uu2Q- kyyd- kyy3- kyRRV Q7 i?2 ?B;?Hv ?2i2`Q@ ;2M2Qmb /Q+mK2Mi `v [m HBiB2b Q7 BM7Q`K H 7Q`Kb Q7 +QKKmMB+ iBQM bm+? b #HQ;bX h?2 + b2 bim/v /Q2b- ?Qr2p2`- b?Qr i? i i?2 /QK@ BM Mi KQ/2 Q7 `2T`2b2Mi iBQM Q7 qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i@`2H i2/ iQTB+bb2MiBK2Mib- 72 im`2b- +iBpBiB2b- M/ 2p2Mib BM i?2 bim/B2/ #HQ;b Bb M BMi2`M H- M `` iBp2- T2`bT2+iBp2 r?2`2 i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 T `iB+BT iBM; BM- BMi2` +iBM; rBi?- M/ Dmbi #2BM; BM i?2 ; K2 rQ`H/ Äœ pB i?2B` +? ` +i2`b Äœ `2 ;Bp2M M +2Mi` H TQbBiBQMX h?2 /QKBM@ Mi KQ/2 Q7 `2T`2b2Mi iBQM- /BbiBM;mBb?2/ #v 7Q+mb QM ÇłBMi2`M HÇ´ 72 im`2b- bm+? b M `` iBp2 M/ 2tT2`B2M+2- + M #2 +QMi` bi2/ rBi? i?2 Çł2ti2`M HÇ´ +? ` +i2` Q7 KQ`2 T2`BT?2` H `2T`2b2Mi iBQMb- r?2`2 2H2K2Mib bm+? b ;` T?B+b- ; K2 /2bB;M- M/ i bF@Q`B2Mi2/ qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i ; K2TH v `2 BKTQ`i MiX h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v Bb T `i Q7 /Q+iQ` H `2b2 `+? 2zQ`iX AM 7m@ im`2 BM[mB`B2b- A rBHH b22F iQ BHHmKBM i2 i?2 mM/2`HvBM; bQ+B H 7 +iQ`b i? i /B`2+iHv BM~m2M+2 M/ b? T2 i?2 +`2 iBQM Q7 #HQ;bX HbQ- A rBb? iQ 2tTHQ`2 ?Qr i?2b2 bQ+B H 7 +iQ`b K MB72bi i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2 +QMbi`m+iBQM Q7 #HQ;bX



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(R) " x2`K M- *X URN38VX S?vbB+Bbib `2 /BM; T?vbB+b, b+?2K @ H /2M Tm`TQb2b M/ Tm`TQb2@H /2M b+?2K X q`Bii2M *QKKm@ MB+ iBQM- kURV,j@kj (k) "QHi2`- CX.X :`mbBM- _X UkyyyV- _2K2/B iBQM, mM/2`bi M/@ BM; M2r K2/B - JAh S`2bb- * K#`B/;2- J (j) "m+FH M/- JX URNNdVX q? i Bb dz/Q+mK2MiǴ\X CQm`M H Q7 i?2 K2`B+ M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2- 93UNV,3y9@3yN (9) "m+FH M/- JX URNN3VX q? i Bb dz/B;Bi H /Q+mK2MiǴ\X .Q+m@ K2Mi LmKû`B[m2- kUkV,kkR@jy (8) * HHQM- JX- *Qm`iB H- CX@SX- hm`M2`- qX X " mBM- aX URN3jVX 6`QK i` MbH iBQMb iQ T`Q#H2K iB+ M2irQ`Fb, M BMi`Q/m+iBQM iQ +Q@rQ`/ M HvbBbX aQ+B H a+B2M+2 AM7Q`K iBQM- kkURNRV (e) *QQF- hX UkyyRVX `+?Bp H b+B2M+2 M/ TQbiKQ/2`MBbK, M2r 7Q`KmH iBQMb 7Q` QH/ +QM+2TibX `+?Bp H a+B2M+2- RURV,j@k9 (d) *Qm`iB H- CXSX URNN9VX +Q@rQ`/ M HvbBb Q7 b+B2MiQK2i@ `B+bX a+B2MiQK2i`B+b- jRUjV,k8R@ey .m;mB/- SX "`QrM- CXaX UkyyyVX h?2 bQ+B H HB72 Q7 BM7Q`K iBQMX "QbiQM- J bbX, > `p `/ "mbBM2bb a+?QQH (3) 6` M+F2- >X Ukyy8VX q? iǶb BM M K2\ *QMi2tim HBxBM; i?2 /Q+mK2Mi +QM+2TiX GBi2` `v M /GBM;mBbiB+ *QKTmiBM;kyURV,eR@eN


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` v Q7 bT +2b iQ;2i?2`X b QM2 Q7 Kv BM7Q`K Mib /2b+`B#2/ i?2B` rQ`F, q2Çś`2 i?BMFBM; Q7 Bi b biQ`vi2HHBM;X AiÇśb TQr2`7mH biQ`v Q7 i?2 HB#` `vXXX M/ r2 r Mi T2QTH2 iQ T `iB+BT i2 BM Qm` rQ`FX h? iÇśb Qm` K BM Tm`TQb2 7Q` mbBM; bQ+B H K2/B X h?Bb T` +iB+2 Q7 biQ`vi2HHBM;- A `2 HBx2/- TH v2/ M BKTQ`i Mi `QH2 Q7 #BM/BM; /Bz2`2Mi HB#` `v bT +2b iQ;2i?2`X AM Qi?2` rQ`/b- M `` i@ BM; T` +iB+2 T`Q/m+2/ bQ`i Q7 +QMp2`;2M+2X h?Bb + M #2 `2H i2/ iQ i?2 MQiBQM Q7 *QMp2`;2M+2 *mHim`2 Tmi 7Q`r `/ #v K2/B `2b2 `+?2` >2M`v C2MFBMb Ukyy3VX >2 /2b+`B#2b +QMi2KTQ` `v K2/B H M/b+ T2b #v mbBM; i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 +QMp2`;2M+2K2 MBM; fXXXfi?2 ~Qr Q7 +QMi2Mi +`Qbb KmHiBTH2 K2/B TH i7Q`Kb- i?2 +Q@ QT2` iBQM #2ir22M KmHiBTH2 K2/B BM/mbi`B2b- M/ i?2 KB;` iQ`v #2@ ? pBQm` Q7 K2/B m/B2M+2b r?Q rBHH ;Q HKQbi Mvr?2`2 BM b2 `+? Q7 i?2 FBM/b Q7 2Mi2`i BMK2Mi 2tT2`B2M+2b i?2v r Mi fXXXf AM i?2 rQ`H/ Q7 K2/B +QMp2`;2M+2- 2p2`v biQ`v ;2ib iQH/- 2p2`v #` M/ ;2ib bQH/- M/ 2p2`v +QMbmK2` ;2ib +Qm`i2/ +`Qbb KmHiBTH2 K2/B TH i@ 7Q`Kb fXXXf h?Bb +B`+mH iBQM Q7 K2/B +QMi2Mi Äœ +`Qbb /Bz2`2Mi K2@ /B bvbi2K fXXXf /2T2M/b ?2 pBHv QM +QMbmK2`b +iBp2 T `iB+BT iBQMX C2MFBMb kyy3- TTX k@j h?2 biQ`vi2HHBM; #v Kv BM7Q`K Mib +QmH/- 7`QK i?Bb T2`bT2+iBp2#2 BMi2`T`2i2/ b M 2M +iK2Mi Q7 K2/B +mHim`2 Q7 +QMp2`;2M+2 7` K2/ #v i?2 T `iB+mH ` bQ+BQ@K i2`B H b2iiBM; Q7 i?2 HB#` `vX h?2 2i?MQ;` T?B+ TT`Q +? Äœ /2bB;M2/ iQ bim/v bQ+B H M/ +mHim` H T?2@ MQK2M BM 2p2`v/ v +iBQM UJm`+?BbQM kyRyV Äœ T`QpB/2/ K2 rBi? i?2 # bB+ iQQHb i? i 2M #H2/ K2 iQ ;2i +HQb2 iQ i?2b2 2p2MibX >Qr@ 2p2`- Bi `2[mB`2/ `2M2;QiB iBQM Q7 i` /BiBQM H 2i?MQ;` T?B+ mM/2`@ bi M/BM;b Q7 Kv `2b2 `+? }2H/- Kv ++2bb iQ Bi- b r2HH b Kv `QH2 b `2b2 `+?2` rBi?BM BiX

Ethnography and convergence h?2 }`bi iBK2 A ++2bb2/ Kv `2b2 `+? }2H/ A bT2M/ +QmTH2 Q7 ?Qm`b QM Kv HBpBM; `QQK bQ7 `2 /BM; i?`Qm;? i?2 HQ;@ `+?Bp2 QM i?2 HB#` `vÇśb 6 +2#QQF T ;2X h?2 r22Fb i? i 7QHHQr2/ A K /2 Bi Kv / BHv ? #Bi iQ +?2+F M/ `2bTQM/ iQ i?2 HB#` `vÇśb hrBii2` 722/b- i?2B`


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From co-location to co-presence A 7QmM/ Kv bi` i2;v BM `2+2Mi TT`Q +?2b ++2Mim iBM; ÇłM2i@ rQ`FbÇ´- Çł~QrbÇ´ Q` Çłbi`2 Kb Q7 T` +iB+2bÇ´ b Q#D2+ib Q7 2i?MQ;` T?B+ bim/v U+X7X JQH G r RNN9- .2 G 2i JQH kyyy- "2 mHB2m kyRyVX LQi 2[m iBM; }2H/ rBi? T?vbB+ H TH +2 T2`KBii2/ K2 iQ bim/v T` +@ iBb2b M/ 2M; ;2 rBi? BM7Q`K Mib BM KmHiBTH2 b2iiBM;b- MQi ;BpBM; T`BQ`Biv iQ Mv QM2 b2iiBM; BM T `iB+mH `X .2bB;MBM; Kv bim/v BM i?Bb r v im`M2/ Qmi iQ #2 #Qi? T`272` #H2 M/ M2+2bb `v iQ ;2i +HQb2 iQ i?2 2p2`v/ v rQ`F@`2H i2/ T` +iB+2b A BK2/ iQ bim/vX h?mb- 7Q` bim/v Q7 HB#` `v Q7 +QMp2`;BM; bT +2b- i?BMFBM; +Q@T`2b2M+2 ` i?2` i? M +Q@HQ+ iBQM T`Qp2/ iQ #2 M BKTQ`i Mi KQp2X "2 mHB2m UkyRyTX 989V /2b+`B#2b i?2 2TBbi2KB+ bi` i2;v b 7QHHQrb, *Q@T`2b2M+2 /2+2Mi` HBx2b i?2 MQiBQM Q7 bT +2 rBi?Qmi 2t+Hm/BM; BiX Ai QT2Mb mT i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv i? i +Q@T`2b2M+2 KB;?i #2 2bi #HBb?2/ i?`Qm;? p `B2iv Q7 KQ/2b- T?vbB+ H +Q@HQ+ iBQM #2BM; QM2 KQM; Qi?2`bX LQi QMHv /Q2b Bi 2M #H2 i?2 `2b2 `+?2` iQ i F2 K2/B i2/ b2i@


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iBM;b p2`v b2`BQmbHv UBMbQ7 ` b i?2v `2 K2 Mb Q` `2bQm`+2 7Q` #2BM; +Q@T`2b2MiV- #mi Bi HbQ /Q2b MQi 2t+Hm/2 7 +2@iQ 7 +2 bBim iBQMbX *Q@ T`2b2M+2 b bi `iBM; TQBMi 2M #H2b KQ`2 bvKK2i`B+ H i`2 iK2Mi Q7 7Q`Kb Q7 BMi2` +iBQMX .2THQvBM; i?2 2TBbi2KB+ bi` i2;v Q7 +Q@T`2b2M+2 M/ 7Q+mb QM Çłbi`2 Kb Q7 T` +iB+2bÇ´ ` i?2` i? M bBM;H2 T?vbB+ H TH +2- HHQr2/ K2 iQ +HQb2Hv 7QHHQr i?2 +iBQMb Q7 BM7Q`K Mib i?`Qm;? /Bz2`2Mi b2iiBM;b M/ TH +2bX JQ`2Qp2`- i?Bb 2M? M+2/ i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 mM@ /2`bi M/BM; i?2 +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M i?2 HB#` `v 2MpB`QMK2Mi M/ Qi?2` b2iiBM;b- i?mb 2bi #HBb?BM; i?2 HBMFb iQ KQ`2 rB/2Hv /BbT2`b2/ K2/B T` +iBb2b b A bm;;2bi2/ #Qp2X AM i?Bb r v +Q@T`2b2M+2 /` rb i?2 ii2MiBQM iQ r? i + M #2 b22M b BMi2`b2+iBM; rQ`H/b T`2b2Mi BM HB#` `B2b +QMbiBimi2/ #v +QMp2`;BM; bT +2bX

Concluding remarks M HvbBM; M/ +QKT`2?2M/BM; +QMb2[m2M+2b Q7 i?2 kXy@im`M BM Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b mbBM; 2i?MQ;` T?v T`QpB/2b Aa rBi? MQp2H TQbbB#BH@ BiB2b Q7 ; BMBM; Q`B;BM H BMbB;?ib BMiQ i?Bb b?B7i BM HB#` `v /2p2HQT@ K2MiX TTHvBM; `2+2Mi bi` i2;B2b- bm+? b i?2 MQiBQM Q7 +Q@T`2b2M+2? p2 i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 7m`i?2` 2M`B+?BM; i?2b2 BMbB;?ibX 6Q+mbBM; QM Çłbi`2 Kb Q7 T` +iB+2bÇ´- b r2HH b 7QHHQrBM; i?2 rQ`F Q7 BM7Q`K@ Mib i?`Qm;? /Bz2`2Mi bT +2b- T`QpB/2b i?2 7QmM/ iBQM 7Q` #2ii2` mM/2`bi M/BM; Q7 i?2 M2r bFBHHb `2[mB`2/ #v HB#` `B Mb r?2M i?2B` rQ`FTH +2 Bb MQi `2bi`B+i2/ iQ T?vbB+ H TH +2 #mi /BbT2`b2/ BM K Mv +QMp2`;BM; bT +2bX


Bibliography

(R) "2 mHB2m- MM2 UkyRyVX _2b2 `+? LQi2, 6`QK +Q@HQ+ iBQM iQ +Q@T`2b2M+2, a?B7ib BM i?2 mb2 Q7 2i?MQ;` T?v 7Q` i?2 bim/v Q7 FMQrH2/;2X aQ+B H aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2- oQHX 9y- MQX j- TTX 98j@9dyX (k) "2 mHB2m- MM2 Ukyy9VX J2/B iBM; 1i?MQ;` T?v, P#D2+iBpBiv M/ i?2 J FBM; Q7 1i?MQ;` T?B2b Q7 i?2 AMi2`M2iX aQ+B H 1TB@ bi2KQHQ;vX oQHX R3- MQX k@j- TTX RjN@RejX (j) .2 G 2i- J `B MM2 M/ JQH- MM2K `B2 UkyyyVX h?2 wBK#@ #r2 "mb? SmKT, J2+? MB+b Q7 6HmB/ h2+?MQHQ;vX aQ+B H aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2X oQHX jy- LQX k- TTX kk8@kejX (9) > KK2`bH2v- J `ivM iFBMbQM- S mH UkyydVX 1i?MQ;` T?v (1H2+i`QMB+ `2bQm`+2), T`BM+BTH2b BM T` +iB+2X j`/ 2/X GQM/QM, _QmiH2/;2X (8) C2MFBMb- >2M`v Ukyy3VX *QMp2`;2M+2 +mHim`2, r?2`2 QH/ M/ M2r K2/B +QHHB/2X (L2r 2/X) L2r uQ`F, L2r uQ`F lMBp2`bBiv S`2bbX (e) ED2HH#2`;- a ` UkyRyVX 6Q`bF `#HQ;; `, p2i2MbF THB; FQK@ KmMBF iBQM Q+? FmMbF TbT`Q/mFiBQM B #HQ;;Qb7 `2M- AMbiBim@ iBQM2M 7ƺ` FmHim`p2i2MbF T2`- GmM/b mMBp2`bBi2i- .BbbX GmM/, GmM/b mMBp2`bBi2i- kyRy- GmM/- kyRyX (d) J `+mb- :2Q`;2 1X URNN3VX 1i?MQ;` T?v i?`Qm;? i?B+F M/ i?BMX S`BM+2iQM- LXCX, S`BM+2iQM lMBp2`bBiv S`2bb


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(3) JQH- MM2K `B2 M/ G r- CQ?M URNN9VX _2;BQMb- L2irQ`Fb M/ 6HmB/b, M 2KB M/ aQ+B H hQTQHQ;vX aQ+B H aim/B2b Q7 a+B2M+2X oQHX k9- LQX 9- TTX e9R@edRX (N) Jm`+?BbQM- CmHB M JX UkyRyVX 1i?MQ;` T?v 2bb2MiB Hb (1H2+@ i`QMB+ `2bQm`+2), /2bB;MBM;- +QM/m+iBM;- M/ T`2b2MiBM; vQm` `2b2 `+?X >Q#QF2M, CQ?M qBH2v aQMb- AM+X (Ry) amM/BM- PHQ7 M/ 6` M+F2- >2H2M UkyyN V 6Q`K i ;MQbiB+b Q` 6Q`K i "2HB2p2`b\ >Qr bim/2Mib BM ?B;? b+?QQH mb2 ;2M`2 iQ bb2bb +`2/B#BHBivX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 K2`B+ M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;vX oQHX 9e- LQX R- TTX R@dX (RR) amM/BM- PHQ7 M/ 6` M+F2- >2H2M UkyyN#VX AM b2 `+? Q7 +`2/B#BHBiv, SmTBHbǶ BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2b BM H2 `M@ BM; 2MpB`QMK2MibX AM7Q`K iBQM _2b2 `+? R9U9V T T2` 9R3X ++2bb2/, ?iiT,ffAM7Q`K iBQM_XM2ifB`fR99fT T2`9R3X?iKH UkyRy@y8@yeVX


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h?2 T`2b2Mi iBQM /2b+`B#2b i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#` `v r2# b2`pB+2b #v M HvxBM; K T K b?@mT b2`pB+2 pB`im HBTQHFmX}UAM 6BMMBb?- l_G M K2 pB`im HBTQHFm 4 pB`im H T i?V /2p2HQT2/ #v >Â K22MHBMM Tm#HB+ HB#` `v BM 6BMH M/X h?2 }`bi BK Q7 i?2 T @ T2` Bb iQ /2KQMbi` i2 UZRV r? i Bb i?2 +QK#BM iBQM Q7 AMi2`M2i i2+?MQHQ;B2b i?2 b2`pB+2 TH i7Q`K TTHB2bX h?2 b2+QM/ [m2biBQM Bb iQ bb2bb UZkV ?Qr i?2 TTHB+ iBQM Q7 ;2Q@2M+Q/BM; i2+?MQHQ;B2b rBi?BM HB#` `v b2`pB+2 Hi2` HB#` `v mb2 KQM; +BiBx2Mb M/ pBb@ BiQ`bX * b2 pB`im HBTQHFmX} T`QpB/2b M 2t KTH2 #Qmi ?Qr i?2 HB#` `v r2# b2`pB+2 + M #2 /2bB;M2/ M/ T`QpB/2/ 7Q` i?2 mb2`b- `2b@ mHiBM; TH i7Q`K 7Q` +BiBx2Mb 7Q` +`2 iBM; M/ /Bbi`B#miBM; mb2`@ ;2M2` i2/ M/ ;2Q@2M+Q/2/ /B;Bi H +QMi2MiX JQ`2Qp2`- i?2 + b2 T`QpB/2b BM7Q`K iBQM #Qmi ?Qr i?2 +QMp2`;2M+2 Q7 AMi2`M2i i2+?@ MQHQ;B2b K v +? M;2 i?2 `QH2 Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b b b2`pB+2 T`QpB/2`b BM i?2 7mim`2X

Framework h?2 T T2` BKb iQ +QMi`B#mi2 i?2 2KTB`B+ H HBi2` im`2 QM GB#@ ` `v kXy /2p2HQTK2Mi U* b2v a p biBMmF kyye- >QHK#2`; 2i HX kyyN - kyyN#V #v M HvxBM; i?2 7mM+iBQM HBiB2b M/ mb2b Q7 M2r /B;Bi H Tm#HB+ HB#` `v b2`pB+2X :2Q@2M+Q/BM; Q7 HB#` `v b2`pB+2b ? b #22M T`2pBQmbHv bim/B2/ 2X;X #v *2`pQM2 Ukyy3V M/ SQr2HH 2i HX UkyRyVX h?2 7` K2rQ`F TTHB2/ QM i?2 2K2`;BM; T ii2`M Q7 BM7Q`K@


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Methods and materials h?2 `2b2 `+? TTHB2b +QMi2Mi M HvbBb UL2m2M/Q`7 kyykV- +Q/2 BMbT2+iBQM K2i?Q/ U: MbbH2 kyRyV M/ r2#QK2i`B+ K2i?Q/b Uh?2H@ r HH kyyNVX h?2 bQm`+2 +Q/2 M/ K T / i Ud9 K TbV 7Q` +Q/2 `2pB2r M/ +QMi2Mi M HvbBb r2`2 ; i?2`2/ 7`QK i?2 r2# bBi2 BM J `+? M/ m;mbi kyRRX . i 7Q` HQM;Bim/BM H BM@HBMFBM; M HvbBb r b ; i?2`2/ mbBM; #Qi? HBMF/QK BM b2 `+? +QKK M/ QM :QQ;H2Ƕb / i # b2 M/ a2 `+? h2KTQ GBMF M HvbBb hQQHR QM #BKQMi?Hv # bBb #2ir22M LQp2K#2` kyRy M/ m;mbi kyRRX h?`22 i` Mb+`B#2/ BM@ i2`pB2rb rBi? T`QD2+i T2`bQMM2H M/ T`QD2+i /Q+mK2Mi iBQM r2`2 ; i?2`2/ M/ M Hvx2/ iQ /2}M2 i?2 Q`B;BM H mb2b i?2 b2`pB+2 r b /2bB;M2/ 7Q`X

Results Technologies applied in the service :2Q;` T?B+ H 2M+Q/BM; Q7 /B;Bi H +QMi2Mi Bb M AMi2`M2i i2+?MQ@ HQ;v ; BMBM; TQTmH `Biv HbQ KQM; Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX USQr2HH 2i HX kyRyVX oB`im HBTQHFmX} Bb M AMi2`M2i K b?@mT b2`pB+2 miBHBxBM; :QQ;H2 J Tb TH i7Q`K- i?2 `2H i2/ SAk M/ EJG +Q/2j BMiQ M2r Q` 2tBbiBM; /B;Bi H +QMi2MibX h?2 ;2Q@2M+Q/BM; iQQHb HHQr mb2`b iQ HBMF ;2Q;` T?B+ H HQ+ iBQMb M/ `Qmi2 /2b+`BTiBQMb BMiQ M AMi2`M2i b2`pB+2- `2bmHiBM; HQ+ iBQM@ r `2 /B;Bi H +QHH2+iBQMb K BMi BM2/ #v i?2 HB#` `v bi zX h?2 b2`pB+2 Bb #mBHi QM M QT2M bQm`+2 +QMi2Mi K M ;2K2Mi bvbi2K U*JaV CQQKH BMbi HH iBQM- HHQrBM; i?2 ;2M@ 2` iBQM Q7 /vM KB+ r2# T ;2b M/ p `BQmb bQ+B H K2/B 7mM+iBQM HBi@ B2bX L2r +QMi2Mi + M #2 BM+Hm/2/ BMiQ b2`pB+2 rBi?Qmi T`Q;` KKBM;

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cultural events and significant historical locations around the town, the map themes are not limited to include cultural events and sites only. Instead, after the launch of the service, other activities have emerged to be included to the service. ,6620( The service provides currently7 74 entitled maps and/or routes featuring information about various sites, services and activities in Hämeenlinna town and the surrounding region. Information provided in the service ranges over the following themes: history (11), adventure (2), nature and environment (15), art (10), literature (7), events (1), public services (21) sports and recreational activities (7). The amount of maps has increases 246 % from 30 to 74 maps in eight months, app. one new map being published every week.

F igure 1. A mount of maps in Virtuaalipolku.fi

3.3. T he#v uses and the users of the *m``2MiHvservice 9yWe Q7 i?2K `2 ;2M2` i2/ 2ti2`M H +QMi`B#miQ`bX d BM/BpB/m Hb b i?2 K DQ`Biv eyW Q7 `2T`2b2Mib Q`; MBx iBQMb bm+? b KmMB+BT H mi?Q`BiB2bbQ+B2i H bbQ+B iBQMb Q` }`KX K DQ`Biv The local audiences have adopted the service. Forh?2 instance, a Q7 map i?2 +QMi2Mi +`2 i2/ #v i?2 HB#` `v bi z Bb # b2/ QM QMHBM2 `iB+H2b about local cross-country skiing routes has been viewed for 3 TH i7Q`K H`2 /v QM > K2@qBFB r?2`2 b i?2 +QMi2Mi ;2M2` i2/ over 100000 times by March 7th, 2011. Discussions related to the #vmost i?2 2ti2`M H mi?Q`b 2Bi?2` Q7 i?2B` QrM BM/BpB/m H +`2 iBQMpopular maps haveBbemerged. The proportion of user-generated is growing. While a Q` T`QpB/2/ #v i?2 Q`; MBx iBQMb i?2vcontent `2T`2b2MiX half of the included maps (25) were authored or ordered by the project staff during 2010, the other half a (25) of maps are now Conclusions generated by external contributors. Currently, 40%8 of them are h?2 +QK#BM iBQM Q7 AMi2`M2i BM pB`im HB@ individuals as the majority 60%9i2+?MQHQ;B2b of represents TTHB2/ organizations such TQHFmX} K v #2 authorities, +QM+2Bp2/ bsocietal M BMMQp iBp2 bQHmiBQM i?2 +QMi2ti as municipal associations or aBM firm. The of the content created T`QpB/2b by the library staff is M/ based on Q7 majority Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX h?2 TH i7Q`K #Qi? mb27mH p Hm #H2 online articles already on BM? #Bi Mib a Hä me-Wiki BM7Q`K iBQM M/ 7mM+iBQM HBiB2b 7Q` i?2 HQ+ H M/ pBbBiQ`b 10 platform, whereas the`2;BQMX contentlb2` generated by the external authorsi?2 Q7 > K22MHBMM +Biv M/ 722/# +F ?2HTb BM+`2 bBM; is either of their own individual creation, or provided the [m HBiv Q7 i?2 Tm#HB+ b2`pB+2X .BzmbBQM Q7 pB`im HBTQHFmX}Ƕbbyi2+?MQ@ organizations they represent. HQ;v +QK#BM iBQM M/ +`Qbb@ b2+iQ`B H b2`pB+2 KQ/2H iQ Qi?2` KmMB@ +BT HBiB2b M/ Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b rBi?BM 7Q`2b22 #H2 7mim`2 Bb HBF2Hv iQ 4.

C O N C L USI O NS

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Bibliography

(R) * b2v- JX M/ GX a p biBMmF UkyyeVX GB#` `v kXy, b2`pB+2 7Q` i?2 M2ti@;2M2` iBQM HB#` `vX GB#` `v CQm`M H- oQHX RjR Abbm2 R9- 9yX (k) *2`pQM2 6X Ukyy3VX h?BMFBM; QmibB/2 i?2 HB#` `v #Qt, +QM@ bB/2` iBQMb BM +QMi2tim HBxBM; /B;Bi H `2TQbBiQ`B2b 7Q` i?2 HQ+ H 2MpB`QMK2MiX P*G* avbi2Kb M/ a2`pB+2b- kyy3 oQHX k9- Abbm2 jX (j) : MbbH2- CX UkyRyVX :mB/2 iQ *Q/2 AMbT2+iBQMbX h?2 : MbbH2 :`QmTX _2i`B2p2/ 62#`m `v R8i?- kyRRX l_G, ?iiT,ffrrrX; MbbH2X+QKfBMbT2+iBQMbXT/7X (9) >QHK#2`;- EXc >mpBH - AXc E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JXc LBp FQbFB- PX qB/ûM@qmHz- :X UkyyN VX "B#HBQi2F kXy, .2Hi ; `FmHim` B 6ƺ` M/`BM; UEB`D biQ kXy, Jmmiimp Pb HHBbimKBb2M EmHi@ imm`BV >2HbBMFBX "hCX (8) >QHK#2`;- EXc >mpBH - AXc E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JX :X qB/ûM@ qmHz UkyyN#VX q? i Bb GB#` `v kXy\ CQm`M H Q7 .Q+mK2Mi @ iBQM- e8U9V, ee3@e3RX (e) AM;r2`b2M URNNNV *Q;MBiBp2 BM7Q`K iBQM `2i`B2p HǴ BM qBHHB@ Kb JX 1X U1/XV MMm H _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- oQHX j9X AM7Q`K iBQM hQ/ v- J2/7Q`/- LCX TTX jj@9NX (d) EQ`i2H BM2M- hX M/ aX _Q?FBK BM2M UkyRyVX q2#@# b2/ T `@ iB+BT iQ`v `2;BQM H K2KQ`v #mBH/BM; TH i7Q`K, * b2 > K2@


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&ULWLFDO DERXW FOXVWHULQJ RI WDJV

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Conclusions b +QM+HmbBQM r2 bm;;2bi i? i i?2`2 Bb ;2M2` H M22/ 7Q` +`BiB+ H T2`bT2+iBp2 iQ + i2;Q`Bb iBQMb bm+? b i ; +Hmbi2`b M/ i?2 +QMb2[m2M+2b Q7 i?2 +ib Q7 + i2;Q`Bb iBQM BM i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 7QHF@ bQMQKB2bX AM +QMi` bi iQ i?2 bbmKTiBQMb i? i 7QHFbQMQKB2b 2K@ TQr2` K `;BM HBb2/ pB2rTQBMib- i?2B` +`2 iQ`b M/ mb2`b b?QmH/ #2 BM+`2 bBM;Hv r `2 Q7 i?2B` TQi2MiB H iQ 2M7Q`+2 ?2;2KQMB+ + i2;Q`@ B2bX a2+QM/Hv- r2 bm;;2bi i? i 2tTHB+Bi K2 bm`2b UbBKBH ` iQ PHbQMǶb +QMb+BQmbM2bb` BbBM;V `2 M22/2/ BM /2bB;MBM; M/ mbBM; i ;;BM; bvb@ i2Kb iQ +QmMi2` i?2B` K `;BM HBbBM; i2M/2M+B2bX h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v + M #2 BKTHB+ iBQMb #Qi? 7Q` i ;;BM; bvbi2K +QMbi`m+iQ`b- mb2`b M/ BM `2b2 `+?X A7 mb2`b `2 ;Bp2M KQ`2 TQr2` iQ 2tT`2bb QTBMBQMb M/ + i2;Q`Bb2- QM2 [m2biBQM i? i `Bb2b 7`QK +`BiB+ H TQBMi Q7 pB2r Bb r?2i?2` i?Bb HbQ #`BM;b H `;2` `2bTQMb@ B#BHBiv 7Q` ?Qr + i2;Q`Bb iBQM Bb /QM2 U7Q` 7m`i?2` /Bb+mbbBQMb QM `2@ bTQMbB#BHBiv- i` MbT `2M+v M/ i`mbi- b22 7Q` 2t KTH2 62BM#2`; (8)VX *`2 iQ`b Q7 i ;;BM; bvbi2K KB;?i #2M2}i Q7 +QMbB/2`BM; i?2 +QM@ b2[m2M+2b Q7 i?2 /Bz2`2Mi 7mM+iBQMb Q7 i?2 bvbi2Kb- ?Qr iQ ;mB/2 mb2`b iQ mb2 Q` T`272` T `iB+mH ` 7mM+iBQM- ?Qr iQ T`2b2Mi b2 `+? `2bmHib U2X;X ?Qr iQ T`QpB/2 iQQHb 7Q` b2H2+iBM; T `iB+mH ` +`Bi2`B Q7 `2H2p M+2V b r2HH b ?Qr iQ +QMbi`m+i BMi2`b2+iBQM HHv `2T`2b2Mi@ iBp2 H;Q`Bi?Kb 7Q` +Hmbi2`BM; i ;bX hQ 2KT? bBb2 TQTmH `Biv M/ K DQ`Biv Bb QMHv QM2 Hi2`M iBp2 iQ T`2b2Mi b2H2+iBQM Q7 /Q+mK2Mib M/ 2p2M B7 Bi rQmH/ #2 T2`+2Bp2/ i?2 KQbi `2H2p Mi QM2- i?2`2 `2 TQbbB#BHBiB2b iQ 2tTQb2 H2bb TQTmH ` K `;BM H + i2;Q`B2b i? i KB;?i #2 `2H2p Mi 7Q` bT2+B}+ ;`QmTb Q7 mb2`bX



Bibliography

(R) J2HBbb /H2`X h` Mb+2M/BM; GB#` `v * i HQ;b, *QK@ T ` iBp2 aim/v Q7 *QMi`QHH2/ h2`Kb BM GB#` `v Q7 *QM;`2bb am#D2+i >2 /BM;b M/ lb2`@:2M2` i2/ h ;b BM GB#` `vh?BM; 7Q` h` Mb;2M/2` "QQFbX CQm`M H Q7 q2# GB#` `B Mb?BT- j U9V,jyNĜjjR- kyyNX l_G ?iiT,ffrrrXBM7Q`K rQ`H/X+QKfRyX Ry3yfRNjkkNyyNyjj9RyNNX (k) LB+?QH b m` vX 6QHFbQMQKv, i?2 L2r q v iQ a2`2M/BTBivX *QKKmMB+ iBQMb M/ ai` i2;B2b- Ue8V,edĜ3N- kyydX (j) / M ? #Qv/X [m2biBQMb Q7 +H bbB}+ iBQMX J Mv@iQ@J Mv- jy C M kyy8X l_G ?iiT,ffK MvX+Q` Mi2X+QKf `+?Bp2bfkyy8fyRf jyf[m2biBQMbnQ7n+H bbB7B+ iBQMn n`2bTQMb2niQn+H vX T?TX (9) CQ?M .2Q/ iQX .2+QMbi`m+iBM; i?2 HB#` `v rBi? D [m2b /2`@ `B/ X AM :HQ`B CX G2+FB2- GBb JX :Bp2M- M/ CQ?M "mb+?K M2/BiQ`b- *`BiB+ H i?2Q`v 7Q` HB#` `v M/ BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 , 2tTHQ`BM; i?2 bQ+B H 7`QK +`Qbb i?2 /Bb+BTHBM2b- T ;2b d8Ĝ3dX GB#` `B2b lMHBKBi2/- a Mi " `# ` - * - kyRyX (8) J2H MB2 62BM#2`;X >B//2M #B b iQ `2bTQMbB#H2 #B b, M T@ T`Q +? iQ BM7Q`K iBQM bvbi2Kb # b2/ QM > ` r v b bBim i2/ FMQrH2/;2bX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 *PGAae +QM72`2M+2 @ 62 @ im`BM; i?2 6mim`2- kyydX l_G ?iiT,ffBM7Q`K iBQM`XM2ifB`f Rk@9f+QHBbf+QHBbydX?iKHX (e) AbiQ >mpBH X 2bi?2iB+ Dm/;K2Mib BM 7QHFbQMQKB2b b +`Bi2`B 7Q` Q`; MBbBM; FMQrH2/;2X AM *H m/BQ :MQHB M/ 6mHpBQ J xxQ@


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++?B- 2/BiQ`b- S ` /B;Kb M/ +QM+2Tim H bvbi2Kb BM FMQrH2/;2 Q`; MBx iBQMX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 RRi? AMi2`M iBQM H AaEP *QM@ 72`2M+2 kj@ke 62#`m `v- _QK2- Ai Hv- pQHmK2 Rk Q7 /p M+2b BM EMQrH2/;2 P`; MBx iBQM- T ;2b jy3ĜjR8X 1`;QM o2`H ;- kyRyX (d) h?QK b C +Q#b2M- E i? `BM "m+?i - JB+? 2H Eƺ?H2`- M/ 1`B+? a+?`ƺ;2`X h?2 T`BK +v Q7 #2 miv BM Dm/;BM; i?2 2b@ i?2iB+b Q7 Q#D2+ibX Sbv+?QH _2T- N9Uj Si kV,Rk8jĜRkey- CmM kyy9X (3) C2Mb@1`BF J BX *H bbB}+ iBQM BM bQ+B H rQ`H/, #B b M/ i`mbiX CQm`M H Q7 .Q+mK2Mi iBQM- eeU8V,ekdĜe9k- kyRyX l_G ?iiT, ff/tX/QBXQ`;fRyXRRy3fyykky9RRyRRyeedejX (N) >QT2 X PHbQMX h?2 TQr2` iQ M K2, HQ+ iBM; i?2 HBKBib Q7 bm#@ D2+i `2T`2b2Mi iBQM BM HB#` `B2bX EHmr2`- .Q`/`2+?i M/ "QbiQMkyykX (Ry) >QT2 X PHbQM M/ J2HQ/B2 CX 6QtX : v i`B *? F` pQ`iv aTBp F, .2+QMbi`m+iBQMBbi- J `tBbi- 62KBMBbi- SQbi+QHQMB HBbiT ;2b kN8ĜjyNX GB#` `B2b lMHBKBi2/- a Mi " `# ` - * - kyRyX (RR) .Q`i?2 ai mM 2bX q?2`2 ? p2 HH i?2 bm#D2+ib ;QM2\ #`BM;BM; iQ;2i?2` i?2 +QM+2Tib Q7 BMi2`b2+iBQM HBiv M/ bm#D2+iB}+ iBQMX LP_ - RR,RyRĜRRy- kyyjX l_G ?iiT,ffrrrXBM;2Mi +QMM2+iX+QKf+QMi2Mif`QmiH2/;f brQKfkyyjfyyyyyyRRfyyyyyyykf `iyyyyeX


THE USE OF BLOGS IN LIS ONLINE COURSES $ &DVH 6WXG\ 'LDQH 1HDO DQG /X ;LDR 8QLYHUVLW\ RI :HVWHUQ 2QWDULR &DQDGD

Introduction "HQ;b `2 K DQ` TH v2` Q7 i?2 q2# kXy r p2X h?2v `2 dz2 bv@iQ@ mT/ i2 r2# bBi2 +? ` +i2`Bx2/ #v / i2/ 2Mi`B2b /BbTH v2/ BM `2p2`b2 +?`QMQHQ;B+ H Q`/2`Ǵ Uai27 M +- kyye- TX kjyV- 2M #HBM; T2QTH2 iQ [mB+FHv b? `2 rBi? i?2B` 7 KBHB2b- 7`B2M/b- Q` 2p2M i?2 2MiB`2 r2# TQTmH iBQM i?2B` i?Qm;?ib- `2~2+iBQMb- M/ 2KQiBQMb QMHBM2X h?2b2 +? ` +i2`BbiB+b ? p2 ; BM2/ #HQ;b TQTmH `Biv BM 2/m+ iBQM H b2iiBM;b U.BpBiBMB- > m; HQFF2M- JQ`F2M- kyy8c :HQ;Qz- kyydc >m+F- kyydc GBM 2i HX- kyyeVX S`2pBQmb bim/B2b ? p2 +FMQrH2/;2/ i? i #HQ;b 7mM+iBQM b `2~2+iBp2 /2pB+2b M/ BMi2` +iBp2 /2pB+2b rBi? `2bT2+i iQ i?2B` T2/ ;Q;B+ H #2M2}ib U.2M; um2M- kyyNVX 6Q` 2t KTH2"`2b+B M/ JBHH2` UkyyeV b 62`/B; M/ h` KK2HH Ukyy9V ? p2 7QmM/ i? i 2/m+ iBQM H #HQ;;BM; T`QpB/2b bim/2Mib QTTQ`imMBiB2b iQ 2M; ;2 BM `2~2+iBp2 i?BMFBM; T`Q+2bb M/ 2tT`2bb i?2Kb2Hp2b- r?B+? +QmH/ ?2HT `2HB2p2 2KQiBQM H bi`2bbX aiBH2` M/ S?BHH2Q UkyyjV 7QmM/ i? i r`BiBM; 2/m+ iBQM H #HQ;b 2M+Qm` ;2/ i?2 bim/2Mib iQ i?BMF /22T2` M/ `2~2+i QM KQ`2 Bbbm2bX _2+Q;MBxBM; #HQ;b b BMi2` +iBp2 /2pB+2b62`/B; UkyydV 7QmM/ #HQ;b iQ #2 b? `2/ bT +2 7Q` +QHH #Q` iBp2 M/ +QQT2` iBp2 H2 `MBM;X _2b2 `+?2`b 7QmM/ i? i #HQ;b zQ`/2/ bQ+B H `2~2+iBQM M/ ?2HT2/ +QMM2+i QMHBM2 H2 `M2`b #v 2M #HBM; i?2K iQ 2tT`2bb i?2B` 722HBM;b- bQ+B HBx2- M/ bmTTQ`i 2 +? Qi?2` BM H2 `MBM; +iBpBiB2b U.B+F2v- kyy9c 6 `K2`- kyy9VX


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J Mv `2b2 `+? bim/B2b ? p2 #22M +QM/m+i2/ iQ mM/2`bi M/ i?2 BKT +i Q7 #HQ;b BM i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 ?B;?2` 2/m+ iBQM BM p `BQmb + @ /2KB+ /Bb+BTHBM2b BM+Hm/BM; b+B2M+2 U"`QrMbi2BM EH2BM- kyyeV#mbBM2bb UqBHHB Kb C +Q#b- kyy9V- i2 +?2` 2/m+ iBQM UaiBH2` S?BHH2Q- kyyjV- T? `K +v U"QmH/BM- >QHK2b- 6Q`i2M#2``v- kyyeVMm`bBM; Ua? z2`- G +F2v- "QHHBM;- kyyeV- H M;m ;2 H2 `MBM; U.m+ i2 GQKB+F - kyy8V- M/ GB#` `v M/ AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 UoB`Fmbkyy3VX AM oB`FmbÇś Ukyy3V T T2`- i?2 mi?Q` /2b+`B#2/ i?2 2tT2`B@ 2M+2b Q7 i?2 AMbiBimi2 Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM aim/B2b Q7 h HHBMM lMBp2`bBiv BM BMi`Q/m+BM; A*h- BM+Hm/BM; q2# kXy i2+?MQHQ;B2b- BM GAa 2/m+ iBQM M/ +H BK2/ i? i BMi2;` iBQM Q7 q2# kXy i2+?MQHQ;B2b BMiQ GAa 2/m@ + iBQM Bb M BKTQ`i Mi +? HH2M;2 7Q` GAa 2/m+ iQ`bX AM i?Bb T T2`r2 rBHH /Bb+mbb + b2 bim/v i? i BMp2biB; i2b i?2 mb2 Q7 #HQ;b BM i2 +?BM; M GAa QMHBM2 +Qm`b2, aQ+B H aQ7ir `2 M/ GB#` `B2bX h?2 `2bi Q7 i?2 T T2` Bb Q`; MBx2/ b 7QHHQrb, r2 }`bi /2b+`B#2 i?2 +H bb +QMi2ti BM+Hm/BM; i?2 +H bb /2bB;M- i?2 bim/2MibÇś /2KQ;` T?B+b- M/ i?2 2p Hm iBQM K2+? M@ BbKbX h?2M r2 T`2b2Mi Qm` Q`B;BM H TH Mb 7Q` / i +QHH2+iBQM M/ M HvbBb- M/ +QMi` bi i?Qb2 TH Mb rBi? i?2 / i r2 +im HHv `2@ +2Bp2/ M/ M Hvx2/X q2 i?2M T`2b2Mi Qm` T`2HBKBM `v }M/BM;b7QHHQr2/ #v Qm` 7mim`2 `2b2 `+? TH MbX

Social Software and Libraries aQ+B H aQ7ir `2 M/ GB#` `B2b UaaGV Bb TQTmH ` i2+?MQHQ;v 2H2+i@ Bp2 +Qm`b2 BM J bi2` Q7 GB#` `v M/ AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 UJGAaV T`Q;` K i K DQ` * M /B M mMBp2`bBivX hQ / i2- i?2 +Qm`b2 ? b QMHv #22M Qz2`2/ QMHBM2X h?2 JGAa T`Q;` K Bb T`Q72bbBQM H T`Q@ ;` K r?B+? ;2M2` HHv 2Mi BHb i?`22 i2`Kb Q7 +Qm`b2rQ`F rBi? +Q@QT QTiBQMX aQK2 bim/2Mib `2 rQ`FBM; T`Q72bbBQM Hb BM i?2 }2H/X AM rBMi2` kyRR- i?2 aaG BMbi`m+iQ` mb2/ 1/KQ/Q U?iiT,ffrrrX2/KQ/QX+QKV b QM2 Q7 i?2 TH i7Q`Kb 7Q` i?2 +Qm`b2X .2bB;M2/ 7Q` 2/m+ iBQM H Tm`TQb2b- 1/KQ/Q Bb KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; bBi2 r?B+? 2M #H2b bim/2Mib M/ BMbi`m+iQ`b iQ b2M/ MQi2b- HBMFb- }H2b- H2`ib- bbB;MK2Mib- M/ 2p2Mib iQ 2 +? Qi?2`X qBi? M BMi2`7 +2 p2`v bBKBH ` iQ 6 +2#QQF1/KQ/Q 2 b2b i?2 bim/2Mib 7`QK H2 `MBM; M2r BM7Q`K iBQM bvbi2K


7KH 8VH RI %ORJV LQ /,6 2QOLQH &RXUVHV

Figure 1. A Screenshot of the Social Software and Libraries Class’ Edmodo Site There were 39 students enrolled. The students’ learning progress and learning outcomes were evaluated through three aspects: class participation, individual assignments, and group

BMassignments. i?2 +H bbX R b?Qrb M MQMvKBx2/ b+`22Mb?Qi i?2 +H bbÇś As a6B;m`2 form of class participation, the students were required to post a Q7 minimum of 1/KQ/Q bBi2Xentries throughout the term using WordPress. Although not required, the 10 personal blog h?2`2 r2`2 jN bim/2Mib 2M`QHH2/X h?2Students bim/2MibÇś H2 `MBM; T`Q;`2bb students were encouraged to post microblogs to Edmodo. completed two individual M/ H2 `MBM; Qmi+QK2b r2`2 2p Hm i2/ i?`Qm;? i?`22 bT2+ib, assignments as well as one group assignment: the final project. Each group consisted of four+H bb or T `iB+BT iBQMBM/BpB/m H bbB;MK2Mib M/ ;`QmT bbB;MK2MibX b five students, and there were eight groups in total. 7Q`K Q7 +H bb T `iB+BT iBQM- i?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 `2[mB`2/ iQ TQbi KBMBKmK Q7 Ry T2`bQM H #HQ; 2Mi`B2b i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`K mbBM; qQ`/S`2bbX Hi?Qm;? MQi `2[mB`2/- i?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 2M+Qm` ;2/ iQ TQbi KB+`Q#HQ;b iQ 1/KQ/QX aim/2Mib +QKTH2i2/ irQ BM/BpB/m H bbB;MK2Mib b r2HH b QM2 ;`QmT bbB;MK2Mi, i?2 }M H T`QD2+iX 1 +? ;`QmT +QMbBbi2/ Q7 7Qm` Q` }p2 bim/2Mib- M/ i?2`2 r2`2 2B;?i ;`QmTb BM iQi HX


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Data Collection and Data Analysis h?2 `2b2 `+? [m2biBQM i? i r2 Q`B;BM HHv bQm;?i iQ Mbr2` BM i?Bb + b2 bim/v Bb ?Qr /Q #HQ;;BM; M/ KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; BKT +i GAa bim@ /2MibÇś H2 `MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b BM M QMHBM2 +Qm`b2\ q2 /KBMBbi2`2/ bm`p2v i i?2 2M/ Q7 i?2 i2`K BM T`BH kyRR iQ mM/2`bi M/ i?2 T `@ iB+BT iBM; bim/2MibÇś H2 `MBM; M/ +QHH #Q` iBQM 2tT2`B2M+2b BM i?Bb QMHBM2 +Qm`b2- M/ i?2B` T2`+2Bp2/ mb2 Q7 r2#HQ;b M/ KB+`Q#HQ;bX q2 TH MM2/ iQ +QHH2+i i?2 bim/2MibÇś KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ r2#HQ;b M/ M Hvx2 i?2 mb ;2 T ii2`Mb- 2X;X- i?2 ivT2b Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b UHBMFb- M@ MQmM+2K2Mib- `2THB2b- 2i+XV- i?2 Tm`TQb2b Q7 r2#HQ;b U`2~2+iBQM QM +Qm`b2 K i2`B Hb- /Bb+mbbBQM QM ;`QmT T`QD2+i- 2i+XV- M/ bi iBbiB+b #Qmi KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; M/ #HQ;;BM; Ui?2 MmK#2` Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ r2#HQ;b T2` r22F- i?2 K tBKmKfKBMBKmK MmK#2` Q7 KB+`Q#HQ;b M/ ;`QmT TQbib- 2i+XV q2 TH MM2/ iQ BM+Hm/2 #Qi? BM/BpB/m H M/ ;`QmT H2p2H M HvbBb 7Q` mM/2`bi M/BM; i?2 2z2+ib Q7 #HQ;;BM; M/ KB+`Q#HQ;;BM; QM BM/BpB/m HbÇś H2 `MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b M/ i?2 ;`QmT +iBpBiB2bX q2 `2+2Bp2/ 2i?B+b TT`Qp H 7Q` i?2 bim/v- M/ r Bi2/ 7Q` i?2 +H bb iQ 2M/ iQ +QHH2+i / i X lM7Q`imM i2Hv- /m2 iQ HQr bm`p2v `2bTQMb2 ` i2 UM4RkV M/ bK HH MmK#2` Q7 bim/2Mib r?Q +QMb2Mi2/ iQ i?2 mb2 Q7 i?2B` KB+`Q#@ HQ;b M/ #HQ;b BM i?Bb bim/v UM48V- r2 r2`2 MQi #H2 iQ +QM/m+i i?2 bim/v b Q`B;BM HHv TH MM2/X >Qr2p2`- r2 7QmM/ i? i i?2 #HQ;b Q7 i?2 }p2 bim/2Mib r?Q +QMb2Mi2/ iQ i?2 mb2 Q7 i?2B` #HQ;b T`2b2Mi2/ M QTTQ`imMBiv 7Q` mbBM; SQii2`Çśb URNNeV /Bb+Qm`b2 M HviB+ TT`Q +? iQ mM/2`bi M/ ?Qr i?2b2 bim/2Mib 2tT2`B2M+2/ i?2 +Qm`b2 i?`Qm;? i?2 /Bb+Qm`b2 T`2b2Mi2/ BM i?2B` #HQ;bX h?Bb TT`Q +? iQ #HQ; M @ HvbBb ? b #22M mb2/ bm++2bb7mHHv BM i?2 T bi #v QM2 Q7 i?2 mi?Q`b UL2 H J+E2MxB2- kyRRVX "Qi? mi?Q`b `2 / i?2 T `iB+BT MibÇś #HQ;b b2p2` H iBK2b iQ ;2i T`2HBKBM `v mM/2`bi M/BM; Q7 i?2 +QMi2Mi M/ i?2 `QH2 Q7 #HQ;b BM i?2 +Qm`b2X PM2 mi?Q` +QKTH2i2/ i?2 M HvbBb BM b2p2` H Bi2` iBp2


7KH 8VH RI %ORJV LQ /,6 2QOLQH &RXUVHV

bi ;2bX AM F22TBM; rBi? SQii2`Çśb TT`Q +? iQ /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBb- b?2 TT`Q +?2/ i?2 #HQ;b b +QMbi`m+i2/ rBi?BM +QKKmMBiv Q7 H2 `M2`b r?Q r2`2 2M; ;2/ BM Tm#HB+Hv b? `BM; i?2B` +QHH2+iBp2 2/m+ iBQM H 2tT2`B2M+2bX a?2 HQQF2/ 7Q` H M;m ;2 i? i rQmH/- BM 2z2+i- /2b+`B#2 i?2B` +QKKmMBiv@b? `2/ H2 `MBM; DQm`M2vb rBi? bQ+B H K2/B i2+?MQHQ@ ;B2b M/ i?2B` TTHB+ iBQMb BM HB#` `v b2iiBM;bX b `2bmHi Q7 i?Bb M HvbBb- b?2 7QmM/ i?2 7QHHQrBM; BMi2`T`2i iBp2 `2T2`iQB`2b, R .2}MBiBp2 ;`Qri? Q++m``2/ BM i?2 bim/2MibÇś mM/2`bi M/BM; Q7 bQ+B H K2/B i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`KX k S bi 2tT2`B2M+2 BM~m2M+2/ bim/2MibÇś 2tT2`B2M+2b rBi? +H bb +iBpBiB2bX j Zm bB@Tm#HB+ BM7Q`K H b? `BM; Q7 T2`bQM H H2 `MBM; 2tT2`B2M+2b H2/ iQ b2Mb2 Q7 +QKKmMBiv KQM; i?2 bim/2MibX

Conclusion q2 ? p2 #22M BMp2biB; iBM; ?Qr bim/2Mib mb2 #HQ;;BM; BM + ``v@ BM; Qmi H2 `MBM; +iBpBiB2b Q7 M QMHBM2 GAa +Qm`b2, aQ+B H aQ7ir `2 M/ GB#` `B2bX Ai b22Kb i? i #HQ;;BM; Bb p Hm #H2 iQQH 7Q` bim@ /2Mib iQ `2~2+i QM i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2b M/ 7Q` BMbi`m+iQ`b iQ i` +F bim/2MibÇś /2p2HQTK2Mi i?`Qm;?Qmi i?2 i2`KX h?2 }M/BM;b Q7 i?Bb bim/v +QMi`B#mi2 iQ i?2 `2b2 `+? 2zQ`i Q7 2tTHQ`BM; #2bi i2 +?BM; T` +iB+2b #Qmi BMi2;` iBM; q2# kXy i2+?MQHQ;B2b BM QMHBM2 +H bb2bX 6mim`2 `2b2 `+? rBHH BM+Q`TQ` i2 //BiBQM H [m HBi iBp2 M HvbBb Q7 i?2b2 bim/2MibÇś #HQ;b M/ KB+`Q#HQ;bX aBM+2 i?2 BMbi`m+iQ` rBHH #2 i2 +?BM; i?Bb +Qm`b2 ; BM BM 7 HH kyRR M/ rBMi2` kyRk mbBM; bBKBH ` QMHBM2 KQ/ HBiB2b- //BiBQM H / i +QHH2+iBQM rBHH HbQ #2 TQbbB#H2X



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(R) "QmH/BM- XaX- >QHK2b- 1X_X- 6Q`i2M#2``v- JXGX UkyyeVX dz"HQ;;BM;Ǵ #Qmi +Qm`b2 +QM+2Tib, lbBM; i2+?MQHQ;v 7Q` `2~2+iBp2 DQm`M HBM; BM +QKKmMB+ iBQMb +H bbX K2`B+ M CQm`M H Q7 S? `K +2miB+ H 1/m+ iBQM- dyU9V- R@3X (k) "`2b+B - qX6XCX- JBHH2`- JXhX UkyyeVX q? iǶb Bi rQ`i?\ h?2 T2`+2Bp2/ #2M2}ib Q7 BMbi`m+iBQM H #HQ;;BM;X 1H2+i`QMB+ CQm`M H 7Q` i?2 AMi2;` iBQM Q7 h2+?MQHQ;v BM 1/m+ iBQM- 899Ĝ8kX (j) "`QrMbi2BM- 1X- EH2BM- _X UkyyeVX "HQ;b, TTHB+ iBQMb BM b+B2M+2 2/m+ iBQMX CQm`M H Q7 *QHH2;2 a+B2M+2 h2 +?BM; j8UeVR3ĜkkX (9) .2M;- GX- um2M- X>XEX UkyyNVX "HQ;b BM ?B;?2` 2/m+ iBQM, AKTH2K2Mi iBQM M/ Bbbm2bX h2+?h`2M/b- 8jUjV- N8ĜN3X (8) .B+F2v- JX.X Ukyy9VX h?2 BKT +i Q7 r2#@HQ;b U#HQ;bV QM bim/2Mi T2`+2TiBQMb Q7 BbQH iBQM M/ HB2M iBQM BM r2#@ # b2/ /Bbi M+2@H2 `MBM; 2MpB`QMK2MiX PT2M G2 `MBM;- RNUjVkdNĜkNRX (e) .BpBiBMB- JX- > m; HQFF2M- PX- JQ`F2M- 1X JX Ukyy8VX "HQ; iQ bmTTQ`i H2 `MBM; BM i?2 }2H/, G2bbQMb H2 `M2/ 7`QK } b+QX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 6B7i? A111 AMi2`M iBQM H *QM72`2M+2 QM /p M+2/ G2 `MBM; h2+?MQHQ;B2b UA* GhǶy8V UTTX kRN@kkRVX GQb H KBiQb- * , A111 S`2bbX


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A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT USERSIMILARITY MEASURES AS BASIS FOR RESEARCH AND SCIENTIFIC COOPERATION 7DPDUD +HFN +HLQULFK +HLQH 8QLYHUVLW\ *HUPDQ\

Introduction L2r r2#@i2+?MQHQ;B2b + M 7 +BHBi i2 b+B2MiB}+ M/ #mbBM2bb rQ`F M/ `2b2 `+? BM K Mv r vbX h?2 +`BiB+ H bT2+i Bb r?B+? bi`m+im`2b M/ K2i?Q/b `2 iQ #2 mb2/ iQ 2HB+Bi i?2 #2bi Qmi Q7 i?2 2tBbi@ 2Mi `2bQm`+2b\ h?2 BM7Q`K iBQM@Qp2`HQ / Bb T`2b2Mi BM HH@/ v HB72 M/ b+B2M+2bX _2+QKK2M/2` bvbi2Kb i`v iQ bQHp2 i?Bb T`Q#H2K M/ ? p2 MQi QMHv 2bi #HBb?2/ BM 2@+QKK2`+2- #mi HbQ BM i?2 +QHH #Q`@ iBp2 r2#- bm+? b QM aQ+B H@"QQFK `FBM; TH i7Q`Kb (>2+FfS2i2`b Ry)X AM i?Bb T T2`- r2 M Hvx2 / i # b2 Q7 `2+Q`/b 7QmM/ QM "B#@ bQMQKv- *Bi2lGBF2 M/ *QMMQi2 Ĝ i?`22 aQ+B H@"QQFK `FBM; avb@ i2Kb 7Q` b+B2MiB}+ `272`2M+2b Ĝ M/ 2tTHQ`2/ i?2 i`BT `iBi2 +QMM2+@ iBQM Q7 mb2`b- /Q+mK2Mib M/ i ;b #v i?`22 K2 bm`2K2Mi K2i?Q/bX q2 +QM+2Mi` i2/ QM irQ `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb +QM+2`MBM; i?2 `2+QK@ K2M/ iBQM Q7 bBKBH ` mb2`b, RV `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2b r?2M r2 TTHv /Bz2`2Mi +Q2{+B2Mib U.B+2- *QbBMmb- C ++ `/@aM2 i?V\- M/ kV `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2b r?2M r2 TTHv b? `2/ /Q+mK2Mib Q` b? `2/ i ;b\

Related work .Bz2`2Mi H;Q`Bi?Kb ? p2 #22M /2p2HQT2/ M/ M Hvx2/ iQ ;2i i?2 #2bi T2`7Q`K M+2 7Q` `2+QKK2M/ iBQMX q2 + M /2+B/2 #2ir22M i?`22 K2i?Q/b, +QMi2Mi@# b2/ M/ +QHH #Q` iBp2 }Hi2`BM; `2+QK@


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K2M/2` bvbi2Kb M/ ?v#`B/ 7Q`Kb Q7 i?2b2 irQ (S2i2`b yN- axQKbxQ` yd)X aQ+B H@"QQFK `FBM; avbi2Kb Ua"aV K BMHv +QM+2Mi` i2 QM i?2 mb2`bǶ +iBpBiB2b M/ i?2`27Q`2 QM +QHH #Q` iBp2 }Hi2`BM; U*6V- KQ`2 T`2+Bb2Hv 7QHFbQMQKv@# b2/ *6, AM a"a- r?2`2 mb2` #QQFK `F `2bQm`+2b M/ i ; i?2K #v F2vrQ`/b- i?2 i`BT `iBi2 mb2`@`2bQm`+2@ i ; +QMM2+iBQM + M #2 mb2/ iQ `2+QKK2M/ bBKBH ` `2bQm`+2b M/ HbQ bBKBH ` mb2`bX aQ 7 ` K Mv H;Q`Bi?Kb +QM+2Mi` i2 QM +Q+Bi @ iBQM M HvbBb (o M 1+Ffq HiK M y3) M/ `2bQm`+2 `2+QKK2M/ iBQM (2X;X GB M; y3- w M `/Bf* T` y3- w?2MfGBfu2mM; yN)- 72r QM mb2` `2+QKK2M/ iBQMb (GmQ 2i HX y3)X *QKT `BbQMb Q7 /Bz2`2Mi bBKBH `@ Biv K2 bm`2b M/ H;Q`Bi?Kb + M #2 7QmM/ BM (* +?2/ 2i HX RR)(1;;?2 yN) M/ (> K2`b 2i HX 3N)X (_Q`pB; NN) +QM+2Mi` i2b QM i?2 pBbm H 2tTHQ` iBQM Q7 K2 bm`2b # b2/ QM /Bz2`2Mi b+ HBM; K2i?@ Q/bX AM i?Bb T T2` r2 HbQ +QKT `2 /Bz2`2Mi +Q2{+B2Mib- #mi BM i?2 b2+QM/ bi2T +QKT `2 i?2 /Bz2`2M+2b #2ir22M mb2` `2+QKK2M/ iBQM # b2/ QM `2bQm`+2b QM i?2 QM2 ? M/ M/ # b2/ QM i ;b QM i?2 Qi?2`X

Methods AM i?Bb T T2` r2 mb2 i?2 .B+2- *QbBMmb M/ C ++ `/@aM2 i? +Q27@ }+B2Mi iQ K2 bm`2 i?2 bBKBH `Biv #2ir22M mb2`b Q7 i?2 a"a "B#@ bQMQKv- *Bi2lGBF2 M/ *QMMQi2 M/ M Hvx2 i?2 /Bz2`2Mi ` MFBM; `2bmHib +QM+2`MBM; i?2 mb2`bǶ BM7Q`K iBQM M22/bX ++Q`/BM; iQ (o M 1+Ffq HiK M y3) bBKBH `Biv K2 bm`2 Ui?2v mb2/ Bi 7Q` +Q+Bi iBQMbV b?QmH/ 7mH}HH irQ +QM/BiBQMb, R h?2 bBKBH `Biv #2ir22M irQ mb2`b b?QmH/ #2 K tBK H B7 i?2 dzT`Q}H2b /Bz2` #v i KQbi KmHiBTHB+ iBp2 +QMbi MiǴ UTXRe89VX k h?2`2 b?QmH/ #2 MQ bBKBH `Biv B7 i?2 mi?Q`b ? p2 MQi?BM; BM +QKKQM- BX2X Mv +Q+Bi iBQMb M/ BM Qm` + b2 Mv #QQFK `Fb Q` i ;bX HH i?`22 +Q2{+B2Mib b iBb7v i?2b2 +QM/BiBQMbX AMbi2 / S2 `bQMǶb +Q`@ `2H iBQM +Q2{+B2Mi /Q2bMǶi b iBb7v i?2 +QM/BiBQMb M/ b?Qrb bQK2 r2 FM2bb2b Ub22 2X;X o M 1+Ffq HiK M y3V- r?B+? r b HbQ /Bb@ +mbb2/ #27Q`2 #v ( ?H;`2MfC `p2MBM;f_Qmbb2 m yj)X AM i?2B` T T2` i?2v b?Qr2/- KQM; Qi?2` i?BM;b- i? i i?2 S2 `bQM +Q``2H iBQM mb2/ 7Q` +Q@+Bi iBQM M HvbBb ? b b?Q`i+QKBM;b r?2M 2tT M/BM; i?2 / i


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rBi? H2bb i?2M irQ #QQFK `Fb- r2 ? p2 e-9jy mb2`@T B`b r?Q b? `2 i H2 bi QM2 #QQFK `FX

Results Differences between Coefficients M HvxBM; Qm` i?`22 +Q2{+B2Mib r2 7QmM/ +Q``2H iBQM #2ir22M mb2` bBKBH `Biv # b2/ QM `2bQm`+2b M/ mb2` bBKBH `Biv # b2/ QM i ;b, AM #Qi? b+2M `BQb .B+2 M/ C ++ `/@aM2 i? ; p2 bBKBH ` `2bmHib Äœ i?2 H ii2` b?QrBM; KBMQ` bBKBH `Biv p Hm2 Äœ + mb2 i?2 K2 bm`2 `2 [mBi2 bBKBH ` Ub22 (1;;?2 Ry)VX AM +QMi` bi *QbBMmb ; p2 /Bz2`2Mi ` MFBM; `2bmHib, Ai + M #2 b B/- i? i *QbBMmb /BbiBM;mBb?2b #2ir22M i?2 HHQ+ iBQM Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i ;b #2ir22M mb2`@T B` (> K2`b 2i HX 3N)X h?2 [m2biBQM Bb MQr r?B+? ` MFBM; Q7 bBKBH ` mb2`b b2`p2b #2bi 7Q` i?2 i2bi@mb2`bÇś M22/b\ A7 i?2 i2bi@mb2` Bb b2 `+?BM; 7Q` M2r `2bQm`+2b- ?2 KB;?i HBF2 bBKBH ` mb2` r?Q ? b #QQFK `F2/ K Mv `2bQm`+2bX AM i #H2 R mb2` Çł/+?2MÇ´- r?Q ? b kR9 #QQFK `Fb- rQmH/ #2 `2+QK@ K2M/2/ mb2` Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´ QM ` MF Ry rBi? .B+2 bBKBH `Biv Q7 yXyR38X lbBM; *QbBMmb i?2 bBKBH `Biv Bb yXyNed- rBi? r?B+? Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´ rQmH/ #2 QM ` MF i?`22 U.B+2V Q` ` MF 7Qm` U*QbBMmbVX "mi 7Q` Çł/+?2MÇ´ i?2 irQ #QQFK `Fb Q7 Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´ TQbbB#Hv rQmH/MÇśi Km+? ?2HT ?BK 7Q` 7m`i?2` `2b2 `+?- +QMi` `v i?2 kR9 `iB+H2b Q7 Çł/+?2MÇ´ KB;?i #2 ;QQ/ HB#` `v 7Q` Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´X A7 Çł/+?2MÇ´ rQmH/ ? p2 H2bb i? M kR9 #QQFK `Fb- ?2 rQmH/ #2 KQ`2 bBKBH ` iQ Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´X *QM+2`MBM; i?2 `2b2 `+? bT2+i 7Q` Çł+ Q`iBxÇ´ i?Bb rQmH/ #2 b?Q`i+QKBM; 7Q` ?BKX

Differences between tag- and resource-based similarities M HvxBM; i?2 mb2` bBKBH `Biv # b2/ QM i ;b- i?2 +Q2{+B2Mib T`QpB/2 bBKBH ` `2bmHibX h?2 BMi2`2biBM; kR9 ee /+?2M FFBKb yXy8dR yXyedj bT2+i Bb i?2 /Bz2`2Mi ` MFBM; #2ir22M bBKBH ` mb2`b # b2/ QM i ;b QM i?2 QM2 ? M/ M/ QM `2bQm`+2b kR9 ke /+?2M F2/KQM/ yXy8 yXy3y9 QM i?2 Qi?2` ? M/X


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(R) >2M`B- 6X URNNkVX *QKTmi2` +QM72`2M+BM; M/ +QMi2Mi M @ HvbBbX AM, E v2 U2/V *QHH #Q` iBp2 H2 `MBM; i?`Qm;? +QK@ Tmi2` +QM72`2M+BM;, h?2 L D /2M T T2`bX "2`HBM, aT`BM;2`@ o2`H ;- RRdĜjeX (k) :mMi?2`- X *X- aiQ`2v- CX .X UkyyjVX h?2 BM~m2M+2 Q7 T`2@ bmK2/ BM~m2M+2X CQm`M H Q7 *QKKmMB+ iBQM 8j- RNN@kR8X (j) EBbBH2pB+?- aX - _Q?`/ Mix- *X - E2BK- .X UkyRyVX Ǵ"2 m@ iB7mH TB+im`2 Q7 M m;Hv TH +2ǴX 1tTHQ`BM; T?QiQ +QHH2+iBQMb mbBM; QTBMBQM M/ b2MiBK2Mi M HvbBb Q7 mb2` +QKK2MibX S`Q@ +22/BM;b Q7 i?2 AMi2`M iBQM H JmHiB+QM72`2M+2 QM *QKTmi2` a+B2M+2 M/ AM7Q`K iBQM h2+?MQHQ;v- TTX 9RNĜ9k3X (9) G22- 1X CX UkyyeXV q?2M M/ ?Qr /Q2b /2T2`bQM HBx iBQM BM@ +`2 b2 +QM7Q`KBiv iQ ;`QmT MQ`Kb BM +QKTmi2`@K2/B i2/ +QK@ KmMB+ iBQM\ *QKKmMB+ iBQM _2b2 `+? jj- 9kjĜ99dX (8) G22- 1X CX UkyydVX *? ` +i2`@# b2/ ;`QmT B/2MiB}+ iBQM M/ `272`2Mi bQ+B H BM~m2M+2 BM +QKTmi2`@K2/B i2/ +QKKmMB+ @ iBQMX J2/B Sbv+?QHQ;v N- Rj8ĜR88X (e) G22- 1X CX UkyRy- CmM2VX 1z2+ib Q7 `2 /2`bǶ +QKK2Mib QM AM@ i2`M2i M2rb bBi2b QM +QMbi`m+iBQM Q7 bQ+B H `2 HBiv, h?2 KQ/@ 2` iBM; `QH2 Q7 M22/ 7Q` Q`B2Mi iBQMX S T2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 AMi2`M iBQM H *QKKmMB+ iBQM bbQ+B iBQM MMm H +QM72`2M+2aBM; TQ`2X (d) SQbiK2b- hX - aT2 `b- _X a F?2H- EX - /2 :`QQi- .X UkyyRVX aQ+B H BM~m2M+2 BM +QKTmi2`@K2/B i2/ +QKKmMB+ iBQM, h?2


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(R) 1HHBbQM- LB+QH2X- hQK - * i HBM X M/ > M+Q+F- C2z`2vX ǴS`Q@ }H2 b S`QKBb2, Sbv+?QHQ;B+ H *QMi` +i 6` K2rQ`F 7Q` lM@ /2`bi M/BM; a2H7@ȞɢS`2b2Mi iBQM BM PMHBM2 . iBM; S`Q}H2bǴ S @ T2` T`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 MMm H K22iBM; Q7 i?2 L* N8i? MMm H *QMp2MiBQM- *?B+ ;Q >BHiQM hQr2`b- *?B+ ;Q- AG- LQp RRkyyNX kyRR@Ȟɢ yj@ȞɢRy (k) Ƙ 6BQ`2- XhXc h vHQ`- GXaXc sB QK2M; w?QM;c J2M/2HbQ?M:X Xc *?2b?B`2- *X kyRyX q?QǶb _B;?i M/ q?Q q`Bi2b, S2QTH2- S`Q}H2b- *QMi +ib- M/ _2THB2b BM PMHBM2 . iBM;X > r BB AMi2`M iBQM H *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b- C Mm@ `v 8@Ȟɢ3- kyRy- >QMQHmHm- >AX (j) > M+Q+F- CX- M/ hQK - *X- SmiiBM; uQm` "2bi 6 +2 6Q`r `/, h?2 ++m` +v Q7 PMHBM2 . iBM; S?QiQ;` T?bX CQm`M H Q7 *QK@ KmMB+ iBQMX 8NUkV, jed@Ȟɢj3eX (9) >Bib+?- :m2Mi2` CX- >Q`i +bm- HB M/ `B2Hv- . Mq? i J F2b uQm *HB+F\ J i2 S`272`2M+2b M/ J i+?@ BM; Pmi+QK2b BM PMHBM2 . iBM; U62#`m `v kyyeVX JAh aHQ M _2b2 `+? S T2` LQX 9eyj@ȞɢyeX p BH #H2 i aa_L, ?iiT,ffbb`MX+QKf #bi` +i43N899k (8) a mii2`- CX- hBTT2ii- _X- JQ`; M S?BHBT- aX- kyRyX h?2 aQ@ +B H .2KQ;` T?v Q7 AMi2`M2i . iBM; BM i?2 lMBi2/ ai i2bX aQ@ +B H a+B2M+2 Zm `i2`HvX NRUkV, 889@Ȟɢ8d8X (e) ai2T?m`2- _X- "QQM- aX- J +EBMMQM- aX- .2p2 m- oX- kyyNX AMi2`M2i AMBiB i2/ _2H iBQMb?BTb, bbQ+B iBQMb "2ir22M ;2


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On this background, the outlined integrative interface comprises all affordances for how the user in the center of the model can take active part and interact across social, physical, and digital information spaces in the library Âą important in a participatory library setting. In other words, the presented approach suggests thinking affordances, design, usability, user participation, and behavioural traces across all contact surfaces between users and information resources Âą and not only such features in digital %HKDYLRXUDO 7UDFHV DQG ,QGLUHFW 8VHU WR 8VHU 0HGLDWLRQ interfaces.

F igure 1. ,QWHJUDWLYH PXOWLPRGDO LQWHUIDFH PRGHO > @ 8VHU LQ FHQWHU ZLWKLQ ÂľVRFLRcognitive-HPERGLHGÂś FRQWH[W EURNHQ OLQH FLUFOH LQWHUDFWV GRXEOH DUURZV ZLWK KXPDQ (hum.), physical (phys.) and digital (dig.) information resources. Between resources are mediation flows (single arrows). See more details and explanations in [1].

3. A F F O R D A N C ES F O R USE R-T O-USE R M E D I AT I O N+QMi2MiI N T H E M/ WHO L E 2 bv I N F OBbR Bi M A7Q` TIO N iQ }M/ b? `BM; BM7Q`K iBQM H ?Qr mb2`b E H AV I O U+QMi2Mi R L I F E BM C Y HHC LT `ib E M/ H2 `M B7`QK bm+? Q7 i?2 HB#` `vÇśb BMi2;` iBp2 BMi2`7 +2 b KQ/2HH2/ BM 6B;X R\ In the participatory library outlined above, different affordances for user-toAM GB#` `v M/ AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 UGAaV- ?mK M BM7Q`K iBQM user mediation are essential: How well do library interfaces allow users to #2? pBQm` ? b #22M b Çłi?2 iQi HBiv Q7 ?mK M #2? pBQ` BM leave behavioural traces/2}M2/ by creating, storing and sharing informational `2H iBQM +? MM2Hb Q7 BM7Q`K iBQMBM+Hm/BM; content, iQ andbQm`+2b how easy M/ is it for users to find and learn from such content in#Qi? all +i@ parts RI WKH OLEUDU\ÂśV LQWHJUDWLYH LQWHUIDFH DV PRGHOOHG LQ )LJ " Bp2 M/ T bbBp2 BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM;- M/ BM7Q`K iBQM mb2Ç´ (jy)X h?2 7` K2rQ`F QmiHBM2/ BM i?Bb T T2` mM7QH/b i?2 pB2r QM ?mK M BM7Q`K@ iBQM #2? pBQm` #v /BpB/BM; Bi BMiQ }p2 K BM 7 +2ib Äœ F2v 7 +2ib BM GAa `2b2 `+? Äœ /2 HBM; rBi? ?Qr ?mK Mb +`2 i2- biQ`2- b? `2- }M/ M/ H2 `M r?2M ? M/HBM; /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM H +QMi2Mi+7X 6B;X kX h?2 MQiBQM Q7 ÇśBM7Q`K iBQM mb2Çś BM qBHbQMÇśb /2}MBiBQM #Qp2 Bb i?mb 2tT M/2/ BMiQ KQ`2 7 +2ib BM Q`/2` iQ +QKT`Bb2 m;K2Mi2/ 7@ 7Q`/ M+2b 7Q` mb2`bÇś BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQm` BM T `iB+BT iQ`v HB#` `v b2iiBM;X h?2 `2bmHiBM; ÇśbiB+F K MÇś BM 6B;X k `2T`2b2Mib i?2 mb2` BM 6B;X Rc mb2` r?Q + M ? M/H2 BM7Q`K iBQM BM /Bz2`2Mi r vb BM /Bz2`2Mi bBim iBQMbX h?2 Q`/2` Q7 i?2 }p2 7 +2ib b?QmH/ MQi #2 mM/2`biQQ/ bi`B+iHv HBM2 `Hv- b /Bz2`2Mi ivT2b Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQm` + M Q++m` BM /Bz2`2Mi Q`/2` BM /Bz2`2Mi BM7Q`K iBQM H T`Q+2bb2bX


expanded into more facets in order to comprise augmented affordances for XVHUVÂś LQIRUPDWLRQ EHKDYiour in a participatory library setting. 7KH UHVXOWLQJ ÂľVWLFN PDQÂś LQ )LJ UHSUHVHQWV WKH XVHU LQ )LJ D XVHU who can handle information in different ways in different situations. The order of the five facets should not be understood strictly linearly, as different types of information behaviour can occur in different order,6620( in different informational processes.

F igure 2. 6LPSOLILHG ÂľOLIH F\FOHÂś model of human information behaviour.

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In Fig. 3 below, more verbs related to human information behaviour have been added to the five facets. The dots indicate that even more verbs of course are possible. Some verbs may also overlap different facets in the model.

F igure 3. Extended ÂľOLIH F\FOHÂś model of human information behaviour. Participatory libraries provide affordances for users to participate actively in all five facets.

Traditionally, libraries have mainly provided affordances for users to participate actively in the two facets find and learn in the information AM 6B;X life j #2HQriQ ?mK M library, BM7Q`K iBQM behaviour cycle KQ`2 model.p2`#b In a `2H i2/ truly participatory there #2@ are ? pBQm` ? p2 #22M i?2 }p2actively 7 +2ibXinh?2 /Qib BM/B+ i2 i? i ÂľDIIRUGDQFHV Âś for //2/ users to iQ participate all five main behavioural 2p2M p2`#b Q7 +Qm`b2 TQbbB#H2X aQK2 p2`#b K vfind HbQ Qp2`H T facetsKQ`2 in the model. That is, `2 besides the traditional facets and learn, users should alsoBM bei?2 ableKQ/2HX to create, store and share informational content as /Bz2`2Mi 7 +2ib part of the integrative library e.g. in online catalogues, h` /BiBQM HHvHB#` `B2b ? p2interface, K BMHv T`QpB/2/ zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` wikis, mb2`b EORJV RU LQ WKH OLEUDU\ÂśV SK\VLFDO VHWWLQJV iQ T `iB+BT i2 +iBp2Hv BM i?2 irQ 7 +2ib }M/ M/ H2 `M BM i?2 BM7Q`K@ In #2? pBQm` other words,HB72 participatory approaches like Library 2.0 provide more iBQM +v+H2 KQ/2HX AM i`mHv T `iB+BT iQ`v HB#` `vaffordances for user-to-user mediation both with regard to leaving i?2`2 `2 Çś zQ`/ M+2b kXyÇś 7Q` mb2`b iQ T `iB+BT i2 +iBp2Hv BM HH }p2 behavioural traces (create, store, share) and to following such traces (find, learn).

4.

D I R E C T A N D I N D I R E C T USE R-T O-USE R M E D I AT I O N A N D SO C I A L N AV I G AT I O N

As already indicated in the introduction, user-to-user mediation and social navigation are closely connected; user-to-user mediation thus provides communicative cues including behavioural traces that may guide social


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Direct and indirect user-to-user mediation and social navigation b H`2 /v BM/B+ i2/ BM i?2 BMi`Q/m+iBQM- mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM `2 +HQb2Hv +QMM2+i2/c mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM i?mb T`QpB/2b +QKKmMB+ iBp2 +m2b BM+Hm/BM; #2? pBQm` H i` +2b i? i K v ;mB/2 bQ+B H M pB; iBQMX b MQi2/ BM i?2 BMi`Q/m+iBQM- bQ+B H M pB; iBQM /2 Hb rBi? ÇłKQpBM; i?`Qm;? M BM7Q`K iBQM bT +2 M/ 2tTHQBiBM; i?2 +iBpBiB2b M/ Q`B2Mi iBQMb Q7 Qi?2`b BM i? i bT +2Ç´ (dTX kdd)X AM Qi?2` rQ`/b- bQ+B H M pB; iBQM /2 Hb rBi? +iBpBiB2b Q7 mb2`b #2BM; ;mB/2/ #v Qi?2` mb2`bÇś +iBpBiB2b i? i ? p2 #22M K2/B@ i2/ BM bQK2 r v #2ir22M mb2`b BM ;Bp2M bT +2X >mK M- T?vbB+ H M/ /B;Bi H T `ib Q7 HB#` `B2b U6B;X RV 7mM+iBQM b BKTQ`i Mi K2 Mb 7Q` bm+? mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM i? i K v ;mB/2 bQ+B H M pB; iBQM b rBHH #2 2H #Q` i2/ BM KQ`2 /2i BHb BM i?Bb b2+iBQMX h #H2 R #2HQr Bb # b2/ QM /Bz2`2MiB iBQM #2ir22M /B`2+i M/ BM/B`2+i bQ+B H M pB; @ iBQM (+7X e)X b b?QrM BM h #H2 R- /B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM /2 H rBi? mb2`b BM /B`2+i- bvM+?`QMQmb- +QMi +i rBi? Qi?2` mb2`b- r?2`2 b BM/B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ@ +B H M pB; iBQM /2 H rBi? mb2`b BM BM/B`2+i- bvM+?`QMQmb- M/ Q7i2M MQMvKQmb +QMi +i- rBi? H27i@#2?BM/ #2? pBQm` H i` +2b b K2/B i@ BM; K2 Mb #2ir22M i?2 mb2`bX AM h #H2 R- irQ 2ti` /Bz2`2MiB iBM; H v2`b ? p2 #22M //2/c

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ÂľWUDFH OHDYHUÂś For example, a user may discover behavioural traces in the shape of books left behind after use on a table by other users in a physical library (cf. Fig. 4a). This indirect user-to-XVHU PHGLDWLRQ PD\ QRW EH LQWHQGHG E\ WKH ÂľWUDFH OHDYHUVÂś EXW LV SHUFHLYHG E\ WKH ÂľWUDFH ILQGHUÂś LQ KLV RU KHU LQGLUHFW VRFLDO ,6620( navigation. T able 1. Typology for direct and indirect user-to-user mediation and social navigation.

direct, synchronous, user-to-user mediation and social navigation ! in physical spaces ƒ intended; e.g. face-to-face conversation ƒ unintended; e.g. overhearing conversation ! in digital spaces ƒ intended; e.g. chat ƒ unintended; e.g. overhearing chat in virtual worlds (e.g. Second Life) indirect, asynchronous, user-to-user mediation and social navigation ! in physical spaces ƒ intended; e.g. messages on notice boards, physical tags ƒ unintended; e.g. dog-eared pages, left-behind books ! in digital spaces ƒ intended; e.g. links, tags, ratings, comments ƒ unintended; e.g. recommender systems

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6Q` 2t KTH2- mb2` K v /Bb+Qp2` #2? pBQm` H i` +2b BM i?2 b? T2 Q7 #QQFb H27i #2?BM/ 7i2` mb2 QM i #H2 #v Qi?2` mb2`b BM T?vbB+ H HB#` `v U+7X 6B;X 9 VX h?Bb BM/B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM K v MQi #2 BMi2M/2/ #v i?2 Çśi` +2 H2 p2`bÇś #mi Bb T2`+2Bp2/ #v i?2 Çśi` +2 }M/2`Çś BM ?Bb Q` ?2` BM/B`2+i bQ+B H M pB; iBQMX q?2`2 b zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` HBMFb- i ;b- ` iBM;- +QKK2Mib- 2i+X BM BM@ /B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM `2 r2HH@/2b+`B#2/ BM `2b2 `+? QM /B;Bi H GB#` `v kXy TT`Q +?2b (2X;X N- kk)- zQ`/@ M+2b 7Q` BM/B`2+i mb2`@ iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM BM i?2 T?vbB+ H GB#` `v kXy ? p2 #22M H2bb BMp2biB; i2/X AM bim/v (R) Q7 mb2`bÇś BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQm` BM irQ . MBb? Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b- Q#b2`p2/ mb2`b HQQF2/ i?`Qm;? b?2Hp2b M/ i`QH@ H2vb +QMi BMBM; M2rHv `2im`M2/ K i2`B Hb U6B;X 9#VX AM i?Bb BM/B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM- mb2`b 2tTHQ`2/ M/ 2t@ THQBi2/ Qi?2` mb2`bÇś #2? pBQm` H i` +2b- ?2`2 BM i?2 b? T2 Q7 M2rHv `2im`M2/ #QQFbX am+? +iBpBiv K v H2 / iQ b2`2M/BTBiQmb }M/BM;b


user-recommended books (Fig. 4c). The same library also provided tabs with smileys and ratings (µ*LJJOH¶, µ6RE¶, µ6KRFN¶, µ<DZQ¶, etc.) for users to attach to books they liked or disliked (Fig. 4d). This is an example of an affordance for indirect and intended user-to-user mediation and social navigation in the physical library with obvious parallels to tagging and rating in library online catalogues [e.g. 3, 9, 18] or on social web sites like %HKDYLRXUDO 7UDFHV DQG ,QGLUHFW 8VHU WR 8VHU 0HGLDWLRQ LibraryThing.com.

F igure 4a. Indirect, unintended user-to-user mediation in physical library: left-behind materials

F igure 4b. Indirect, unintended user-to-user mediation in physical library: newly returned books

Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM `2bQm`+2b MQi FMQrM Q` MQi TH MM2/ BM /p M+2 (Rk)X PM2 Q7 i?2 HB#` `B2b BM i?2 bim/v ? / b?2Hp2b rBi? mb2`@iQ@ mb2`@ `2+QKK2M/2/ #QQFb U6B;X 9+VX h?2 b K2 HB#` `v HbQ T`QpB/2/ i #b rBi? bKBH2vb M/ ` iBM;b UǶ:B;;H2Ƕ- ǶaQ#Ƕ- Ƕa?Q+FǶ- Ƕu rMǶ- 2i+XV 7Q` mb2`b iQ ii +? iQ #QQFb i?2v HBF2/ Q` /BbHBF2/ U6B;X 9/VX h?Bb Bb M 2t KTH2 Q7 M zQ`/ M+2 7Q` BM/B`2+i M/ BMi2M/2/ mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM BM i?2 T?vbB+ H HB#` `v rBi? Q#pBQmb T ` HH2Hb iQ i ;;BM; M/ ` iBM; BM HB#` `v QMHBM2 + i HQ;m2b (2X;X jN- R3) Q` QM bQ+B H r2# bBi2b HBF2 GB#` `vh?BM;X+QKX

Augmented affordances for user-to- user mediation in the participatory library JQ#BH2- T2`p bBp2- K#B2Mi- M/ HQ+ iBQM@# b2/ i2+?MQHQ;B2b +QM@ M2+i T?vbB+ H M/ /B;Bi H BM7Q`K iBQM bT +2bX 6Q` 2t KTH2- #v KQ@ #BH2 T?QM2b #H2 Q7 /BbTH vBM; BM7Q`K iBQM 7`QK T?vbB+ H Q#D2+ib 2M`B+?2/ rBi? _6A. +?BTb- k. # `+Q/2b- 2i+X (2X;X 9- R8- k8- kN)X h?2b2 i2+?MQHQ;B2b T`QpB/2 M2r zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` BM/B`2+i mb2`@iQ@mb2`


Behavioural Traces and Indirect User-to-User Mediation in the Participatory Library

F igure 4c. Indirect, intended user-to-user mediation in physical library: reader-to-readerrecommended books

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F igure 4d. Indirect, intended user-to-user PHGLDWLRQ LQ SK\VLFDO OLEUDU\ ÂľRSLQLRQÂś WDEV attached by users to books

5. A U GbQ+B H M E NM pB; iBQM T E D A F F#v O RH2 pBM; D A N C M/ ES }M/BM; F O R USE R-T#2@ OK2/B iBQM M/ /B;Bi H USE R M E D I AT I O N I N T H E PA R T I C IPAT O R Y ? pBQm` H i` +2b BM T?vbB+ H bT +2bX LIBRAR Y 7Q+mb2/ QM i` Mb72``BM; r2# b2`pB+2b HBF2 aQ 7 `- HB#` `B2b ? p2 b2 `+?BM;- `2b2`p iBQM- `272`2M+2 b2`pB+2- 2i+X- iQ KQ#BH2 TH i7Q`Kb Mobile, ambient, and location-based connect (2X;X 8- 3)Xpervasive, h?2b2 TT`Q +?2b ? p2 i?mb K BMHvtechnologies #22M +QM+2`M2/ physical and digital information spaces. For example, by mobile phones rBi? i?2 irQ 7 +2ib }M/ M/ H2 `M BM i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQm` HB72able of displaying physical objectskXy enriched RFID #2 chips, +v+H2 KQ/2H BM information 6B;X kX AM from T?vbB+ H GB#` `v b2iiBM;with Bi rQmH/ 2D barcodes, etc. [e.g. 4, 15, 25, 29]. These technologies provide BMi2`2biBM; b r2HH iQ H2i mb2`b +`2 i2- biQ`2- M/ b? `2 BM7Q`K iBQMnew affordances for indirect user-to-user#vmediation and social rBi? KQ#BH2 T?QM2b7Q` 2t KTH2mbBM; KQ#BH2 T?QM2bnavigation iQ i` +F by leaving finding digital`2pB2rbbehavioural physical spaces. M/ b?Qrand i ;b` iBM;b M/traces Qi?2`in#2? pBQm` H i` +2b- /B@ So far, libraries have focused on transferring web services like searching, ;Bi HHv ii +?2/ #v Qi?2` mb2`b iQ T?vbB+ H BM7Q`K iBQM `2bQm`+2b BM reservation, reference service, etc., to mobile platforms [e.g. 5, 8]. These i?2 T?vbB+ H HB#` `vX aBKBH ` zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` m;K2MiBM; T?vbB+ H approaches have thus mainly been concerned with the two facets find and bT +2b /B;Bi H- BM7Q`K iBQM H ÇśH v2`bÇś `2 H`2 /v T`QpB/2/ b learn rBi? in the information behaviour life cycle model in Fig. 2. In a physical TTHB+ iBQMb bK `iT?QM2b +QKT MB2b HBF2toG v `X+QKX Library 2.0 7Q` setting it would be #v interesting as well let users create, store, m;K2MiBM; T?vbB+ H 2MpB`QMK2Mib rBi? +QKKmMB+ iBp2 /2pB+2b and share information with mobile phones, for example, by using mobile + M HbQ #2 BM i?2 b? T2 Q7 bQ@+ HH2/ K#B2Mi BMi2`7 +2b (2X;X RR- R9phones to track and show tags, ratings, reviews, and other behavioural traces, k8-digitally kN)X lbBM; pBbm H Qi?2` information b2MbQ`v KQ/2b 7Q` `2T@ attached by +m2bother bQmM/users to M/ physical resources in the `2b2MiBM; #2? pBQm` H T ii2`Mb #v mb2`b iQ Qi?2` spaces mb2`b BMwith physical ;;`2; i2/ library. Similar affordances for augmenting physical HB#` `v #2 K2 Mb iQ biBKmH i2 mb2`@iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ IRU digLWDO +QmH/ LQIRUPDWLRQDO ÂľOD\HUVÂś DUH DOUHDG\ SURYLGHG DV DSSOLFDWLRQV smartphones by companies like Layar.com.


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Concluding remarks h?Bb T T2` ? b T`2b2Mi2/ 7` K2rQ`F 7Q` /Bb+mbbBM; zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` mb2`@iQ@ mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM- 7Q` H2 pBM; M/ 7QHHQrBM; #2? pBQm` H i` +2b Q7 mb2` +iBpBiB2b BM T `iB+BT iQ`v HB#@ ` `v b2iiBM;X aT2+B H 7Q+mb ? b #22M QM zQ`/ M+2b 7Q` BM/B`2+i mb2`@ iQ@mb2` K2/B iBQM M/ bQ+B H M pB; iBQM BM i?2 T?vbB+ H GB#` `v kXy r?2`2 mb2`bǶ +iBpBiB2b K v #2 ;mB/2/ #v i` +2b H27i Q7 Qi?2` mb2`bǶ +iBpBiB2bX AM i?Bb +QMi2ti- i?2 T T2` ? b TQBMi2/ iQ HQr@ i2+? b r2HH b ?B@i2+? 2t KTH2b +`Qbb ?mK M- T?vbB+ H- M/ /B;Bi H KQ/@ HBiB2b rBi? `B+? TQi2MiB Hb 7Q` 7m`i?2` /2p2HQTK2Mi M/ BMi2;` iBQM i? i K v 7 +BHBi i2 #Qi? Ƕi` +2 H2 p2`bǶ M/ Ƕi` +2 }M/2`bǶX AM +QMiBMm iBQM Q7 i?2 BMi`Q/m+iQ`v [mQi2- i?2 QmiHBM2/ BMi2;@ ` iBp2 HB#` `v BMi2`7 +2 BM 6B;X R K v #2 b22M b T `iB+BT iQ`v K2/BmK M/ M 2M #HBM; M/ 2M; ;BM; KmHiB@Tm`TQb2 bT +2 Ĝ M ǶQT2M@KBM/2/ bT +2Ƕ (kd) Ĝ 7Q` >QKQ Gm/2Mb- i?2 SH vBM; J M (RN)X


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Theoretical background *QKTmi2`@K2/B i2/ 2MpB`QMK2Mib U*J1V BM ;2M2` H M/ i?2 AM@ i2`M2i BM T `iB+mH ` HHQr mb2`b iQ +`2 i2 M/ /2p2HQT pB`im H B/2M@ iBiB2b M/ bT +2b i? i Q++mTv M2Bi?2` bT +2 MQ` iBK2 US T +? `BbbBkyykVX J+E2MM M/ " `;? UkyyyV T`QTQb2/ 7Qm` /QK BMb BM r?B+? bQ+B H BMi2` +iBQM pB *J1 /Bz2`b 7`QK Qi?2` +QMp2MiBQM H K2/B , `2H iBp2 MQMvKBiv- ii2Mm iBQM Q7 T?vbB+ H /Bbi M+2- `2/m+2/ BK@ TQ`i M+2 Q7 T?vbB+ H TT2 ` M+2 M/ ;`2 i2` +QMi`QH Qp2` i?2 iBK2 M/ T +2 Q7 BMi2` +iBQMbX P7 T `iB+mH ` `2H2p M+2 iQ i?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v `2 i?2 MQiBQM Q7 MQMvKBiv M/ i?2 +QMi`QH i? i *J1b bm+? b #HQ;b HHQr BM/BpB/m Hb Qp2` i?2B` BMi2` +iBQMb rBi? Qi?2`bX +@ +Q`/BM; iQ amH2` Ukyy9V- MQMvKBiv Bb i?2 +QM+2 HK2Mi Q7 B/2MiBiv i? i #2+QK2b TQbbB#H2 r?2M T2QTH2 ? p2 i?2 QTTQ`imMBiv iQ b2T@ ` i2 i?2B` +iBQMb QMHBM2 7`QK i?2B` BM@T2`bQM HB72 bivH2 M/ B/2M@ iBivc i?2v 722H H2bb pmHM2` #H2 #Qmi b2H7@/Bb+HQbBM; #2+ mb2 r? i2p2` i?2v b v Q` /Q + MMQi #2 /B`2+iHv HBMF2/ iQ i?2 `2bi Q7 i?2B` HBp2bX a2H7 /Bb+HQbm`2 Bb i?2 dz +i Q7 `2p2HBM; T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQM iQ Qi?@ 2`b U `+?2`- RN3y- TXR3jVX h?Bb T`QT2MbBiv M BM/BpB/m H ? b 7Q` `2p2 HBM; T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQM `2H i2b iQ i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 b2H7@ T`2b2Mi iBQM i?2v +?QQb2 iQ /BbTH v UC2Mb2M *? m :BHHv- kyyjVX h?Bb bim/v BMp2biB; i2b b2H7@T`2b2Mi iBQM M/ b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2 BM T2`@ bQM H #HQ;b 7mM+iBQMBM; b pB`im H T2`bQM H bT +2bX


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"HQ;b `2 QM2 Q7 i?2 M2r2bi 7Q`Kb Q7 QMHBM2 b2H7@T`2b2Mi iBQM M/ b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2 i? i ? b #22M 7 +BHBi i2/ #v i?2 AMi2`M2iX "HQ;;BM; b2`pB+2b Qz2` mb2`b /Bz2`2Mi QTiBQMb BM i2`Kb Q7 MQMvKBivX "HQ;;2`b + M +?QQb2 iQ #2 iQi HHv MQMvKQmb- Tb2m/QMvKQmb Q` B/2MiB} #H2 UZB M a+Qii- kyydVX h?2v + M HbQ +?QQb2 i?2 r v i?2v T`2b2Mi i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2B` #HQ;b M/ i?2 M im`2 Q7 i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM i?2v /Bb+HQb2X "2BM; #H2 iQ +QMi`QH i?2 +QMi2Mi TQbi2/ BM i?2B` #HQ;b b r2HH b i?2 HBKBi2/ BMi2` +iBpBiv Q7 #HQ;b r?B+? T2`KBib #HQ;;2`b iQ +QMi`QH +QKK2Mib 7`QK i?2B` `2 /2`b HHQrb i?2K iQ +`2 i2 pB`im H bT +2 r?2`2 i?2v 722H b2+m`2 M/ +QK7Q`i #H2 iQ r`Bi2X h?Bb Bb r? i :mK#`2+?i Ukyy9V + HH2/ Ç´T`Qi2+i2/ bT +2XÇ´ >2 bb2`ib i? i #HQ;b ? p2 #2+QK2 BM+`2 bBM;Hv TQTmH ` #2+ mb2 mMHBF2 Qi?2` +QKKmMB+ iBQM i2+?MQHQ;B2b bm+? b BMbi Mi K2bb ;BM;- #HQ;b HHQr #HQ;;2`b iQ HBKBi i?2 H2p2H Q7 BMi2` +iBpBiv rBi? i?2B` `2 /2`bX b `2bmHi- #HQ;b i2M/ iQ #2 H2bb /p2`b `B H M/ KQ`2 `2~2+iBp2 BM M im`2 M/ `2 T2`+2Bp2/ #v #HQ;;2`b b T`Qi2+i2/ bT +2bX

Methods h?Bb bim/v 2t KBM2b i?2 7QHHQrBM; [m2biBQMb `2; `/BM; i?2 +`2@ iBQM Q7 pB`im H T`2b2M+2 BM #HQ;b, R >Qr /Q #HQ;;2`b b2H7@T`2b2Mi BM i?2B` #HQ;b M/ r? i `QH2 /Q2b i?Bb T2`bQM H bT +2 ? p2 BM i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś HB72\ k hQ r? i 2ti2Mi i?2 T2`+2TiBQM Q7 #HQ; b Ç´T2`bQM H bT +2Ç´ HHQrb #HQ;;2`b iQ /Bb+HQb2 T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQM\ j q? i FBM/ Q7 T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQM Bb BM+Hm/2/ BM i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2\ 9 hQ r? i 2ti2Mi #HQ;;2`b FMQr i?2B` `2 /2`b M/ ?Qr i?2 `2 /@ 2`bÇś +QKK2Mib BM~m2M+2 i?2 #HQ;;2`bÇś b2H7@T`2b2Mi iBQM M/ b2H7@/Bb+HQbm`2\ h?2 bim/v r b +QM/m+i2/ 7Q` QM2 KQMi? U.2+2K#2` R8 iQ C Mm@ `v R8- kyRRV mbBM; M QMHBM2 bm`p2vX h?2 #HQ;b BM i?2 b KTH2 r2`2 b2H2+i2/ 7`QK i?2 ÇśT2`bQM H #HQ;bÇś + i2;Q`v BM irQ Ab` 2HB #HQ; /B`2+i@ Q`B2b M/ Bi +QMbBbi2/ Q7 `2;mH `Hv K BMi BM2/ T2`bQM H #HQ;b r`Bii2M BM >2#`2rX h?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 2 +? #HQ; r b 2t KBM2/ iQ p2`B7v i? i Bi


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Findings h?2 r v #HQ;;2`b T`2b2Mi i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2B` #HQ;b M/ i?2 M im`2 Q7 i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM i?2v +?QQb2 iQ /Bb+HQb2 `2 +2Mi` H Bbbm2b BM mM/2`@ bi M/BM; i?2 +`2 iBQM Q7 pB`im H T`2b2M+2 QM +v#2`bT +2X 6BM/BM;b b?Qr i? i i?2 K DQ`Biv Q7 #HQ;;2`b i? i T `iB+BT i2/ BM i?Bb bim/v +`2 i2/ M MQMvKQmb pB`im H T`2b2M+2c i?2v K BMi BM2/ bQK2 FBM/ Q7 MQMvKBiv #v B/2MiB7vBM; i?2Kb2Hp2b mbBM; p `B Mi Q7 i?2B` `2 H M K2 UR3XjW M 4R8V Q` Tb2m/QMvK UeRW M 4 8yVc QMHv kyXdW Q7 i?2 #HQ;;2`b /BbTH v2/ T2`bQM H T?QiQX h?Bb i2M/2M+v 7Q` b2H7@ T`2b2Mi iBQM /Q2b MQi +QM+m`b rBi? }M/BM;b 7`QK Qi?2` bim/B2b BM r?B+? i?2 K DQ`Biv Q7 #HQ;;2`b B/2MiB}2/ i?2Kb2Hp2b #v i?2B` `2 H


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M K2b M/ TQbi2/ T2`bQM H T?QiQ;` T? Q7 i?2Kb2Hp2b BM i?2B` #HQ; U"`QMbi2BM- BM T`2bbc :m / ;MQ 2i H- kyy3c oB2; b- kyy8VX h?2 T2`+2TiBQM #HQ;;2`b ? p2 Q7 i?2B` #HQ; b M 2M+HQb2/ M/ T`Qi2+i2/ bT +2 +QmH/ T `iHv 2tTH BM r?v i?2 K DQ`Biv Q7 `2bTQM/@ 2Mib /Bb+HQb2/ T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQMX 6BM/BM;b b?Qr i? i 39XRW Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib 7`2[m2MiHv /Bb+HQb2 T2`bQM H BM7Q`K iBQM BM i?2B` #HQ;bX :m / ;MQ 2i H Ukyy3V 2tTH BM i? i r?2M BM/BpB/m Hb T2`+2Bp2 i?2K@ b2Hp2b iQ #2 MQMvKQmb- Bi K v +? M;2 i?2 r v BM r?B+? BM/BpB/m@ Hb +QKKmMB+ i2 QM i?2 r2# #2+ mb2 i?2v 2tT2`B2M+2 b2Mb2 Q7 /2T2`bQM HBx iBQMX h?mb- r?BH2 #HQ;;BM;- BM/BpB/m Hb K v /Bb+HQb2 BM7Q`K iBQM i? i Bb KQ`2 `2p2 HBM; i? M i?2v `2 HBx2X h?Bb bb2`iBQM Bb bmTTQ`i2/ #v }M/BM;b BM i?Bb bim/v #2+ mb2 r?2M bF2/ #Qmi i?2 FBM/ Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM i?2v /Bb+HQb2 BM i?2B` #HQ;b- d8W Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib `2TQ`i2/ i? i i?2v i2M/2/ iQ 2tTQb2 i?2B` Ǵb2MbBiBp2 bB/2Ǵ- 88W b B/ i?2v 7`2[m2MiHv `2p2 H 2K# `` bbBM; BM7Q`K iBQM #Qmi i?2Kb2Hp2b M/ 8NXdW ii2bi2/ i? i i?2v i F2 /QrM i?2B` /272Mb2b r?2M #HQ;@ ;BM;X h?2 i2tim H /2b+`BTiBQM `2bTQM/2Mib ; p2 Q7 i?2 `QH2 i?2B` #HQ;b ? p2 BM i?2B` T2`bQM H HB72 +QM}`Kb i?2 MQiBQM i? i i?2v T2`@ +2Bp2 Bi b T2`bQM H bT +2X 6BM/BM;b 7`QK i?2 +QMi2Mi M HvbBb `2p2 H2/ i? i `2bTQM/2Mib /2b+`B#2 i?2B` #HQ;b b, URV TH +2 iQ 2t@ T`2bb i?2Kb2Hp2b 7`22Hv M/ M QmiH2i 7Q` 722HBM;b M/ 2KQiBQMbc UkV iQQH i? i ?2HTb i?2K b? `2 BM7Q`K iBQM M/ +QMM2+i rBi? T2QTH2 rBi? r?QK i?2v ? p2 bQK2i?BM; BM +QKKQMc UjV TH +2 iQ F22T `2+Q`/ Q7 i?2B` HBp2bX a+?B MQ 2i H Ukyy9V +H BK i? i i?2 #HQ;;2`Ƕb T`BK `v m/B2M+2 Bb i?2 #HQ;;2` ?BKb2H7 #2+ mb2 #HQ;;BM; Bb Q7i2M mb2/ b M QmiH2i 7Q` i?Qm;?i M/ 722HBM;bX 6BM/BM;b Q7 i?Bb bim/v bmTTQ`i i?Bb bi i2K2MiedXRW Q7 `2bTQM/2Mib b B/ i? i Bi r b MQi BKTQ`i Mi 7Q` i?2K iQ ;2i iQ FMQr i?2B` `2 /2`b M/ 8kX9W `2TQ`i2/ i? i i?2v /Q MQi i?BMF #Qmi i?2B` `2 /2`b r?2M #HQ;;BM;X :m / ;MQ 2i H Ukyy3V bb2`ib i? i #HQ;;2`b ? p2 ?2B;?i2M2/ T`Bp i2 b2H7@ r `2M2bb r? i #`BM;b i?2K iQ #2 7Q+mb2/ QM i?2B` BMi2`M H bi i2b i?mb HBKBiBM; i?2 `2bQm`+2b i? i + M #2 /2pQi2/ iQ Qi?2`bX h?Bb bm;;2bib i? i #HQ;;2`b KB;?i /Bb+HQb2 BM7Q`K iBQM rBi? H2bb `2; `/ iQ ?Qr Qi?2`b T2`+2Bp2 BiX Pi?2` bim/B2b UL `/B 2i HX- kyy9c S T +?B`BbbB _m#BMkyyyc q HF2`- kyyyV T`QpB/2 /Bz2`2Mi 2tTH M iBQM #v bi iBM; i? i bQ+B H MQ`Kb T`2p BHBM; QM i?2 AMi2`M2i HHQr #HQ;;2`b iQ 2tT`2bb


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Bibliography

(R) `+?2`- CXGX URN3yVX a2H7@.Bb+HQbm`2X AM .X q2;M2` d _X o H@ H M+?2` U2/bVX h?2 a2H7 BM aQ+B H Sbv+?QHQ;vX GQM/QM, Pt7Q`/ lMBp2`bBiv X (k) " `;?- CX X- J+E2MM - EXuX 6BibBKQMb :XJX UkyykVX * M vQm b22 i?2 `2 H K2\ +iBp iBQM M/ 2tT`2bbBQM Q7 i?2 Ǵh`m2 a2H7Ǵ QM i?2 AMi2`M2iX CQm`M H Q7 aQ+B H Bbbm2b- 83URV- jj@93X (j) "`QMbi2BM- CX JQiBp iBQM 7Q` #HQ;;BM; BM i?2 G iBM K2`B+ M #HQ;QbT?2`2, mb2b M/ ;` iB}+ iBQMb TT`Q +?X AM hX .m@ KQp U2/XV- "HQ;;BM; BM i?2 :HQ# H aQ+B2ivX >2`b?2v- S , AM@ 7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 _272`2M+2X UAM T`2bbV (9) :mK#`2+?iJX Ukyy9J vVX "HQ;b b dzT`Q@ i2+i2/ bT +2XǴ S`2b2Mi2/ i i?2 qQ`Fb?QT QM i?2 q2#HQ;;BM; 1+Qbvbi2K, ;;`2; iBQM M @ HvbBb M/ .vM KB+bL2r uQ`FX _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ffrrrX#HQ;TmHb2X+QKfT T2`bfrrrkyy9;mK#`2+?iXT/7 (8) >2``BM;- aX *X- a+?2B/i- GX X- "QMmb- aX- q`B;?i- 1X Ukyy9VX "`B/;BM; i?2 ; T, :2M`2 M HvbBb Q7 r2#HQ;bX S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 jdi? MMm H > r BB AMi2`M iBQM H *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b U>A*aaǶy9VX _2i`B2p2/ 7`QK ?iiT,ff/QBXB222+QKTmi2`bQ+B2ivXQ`;fRyXRRyNf>A*aaXkyy9XRke8kdR (e) C2Mb2M a+? m- >X :BHHv- JX *X UkyyjV q2 `2 r? i q2 SQbi\ a2H7@S`2b2Mi iBQM BM S2`bQM H q2# aT +2X CQm`M H Q7 *QMbmK2` _2b2 `+?- jy- j38@9y9X


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Introduction h?2 }M H T T2` `2TQ`ib T `i Q7 i?2 `2bmHib Q7 M QM@;QBM; bim/vr?B+? iQTB+ Bb HBM;mBbiB+ M/ +mHim` H /Bz2`2M+2b BM KmHiBHBM;m H M/ KmHiB+mHim` H #HQ;QbT?2`2X h?2 T`2HBKBM `v `2bmHib rBi? i?2 6BMMBb? H M;m ;2 K i2`B H +H2 `Hv b?Qr ?Qr i?2 B/2 Q7 BM/2tBM; /Bp2`;2b T `iHv 7mM/ K2Mi HHv #2ir22M BM7Q`K iBQM T`Q72bbBQM Hb M/ #HQ;@ r`Bi2`bX AM i?2 #bi` +i i?2 i?2Q`2iB+ H # +F;`QmM/ b r2HH b KQiBp iBQMb 7Q` i?2 bim/v M/ bQK2 ;2M2` H pB2rTQBMib `2 /Bb+mbb2/X

Background and significance hQ +QMp2v K2 MBM; r2 M22/ iQ +QKKmMB+ i2- mb2 H M;m ;2- M/ i?Bb Bb MQi Hr vb M 2 bv i bF BM ;HQ# HHv mMBi2/ v2i HBM;mBbiB+ HHv M/ +mHim` HHv b2T ` i2/ rQ`H/X GB#` `B2b M/ iQQHb 7Q` BM7Q`K iBQM /Q+mK2Mi iBQM M/ `2i`B2p H `2 MQi QMHv HBpBM; M2r `2M Bbb M+2#mi HbQ 2M+QmMi2`BM; M2r T`Q#H2KbX >Qr iQ T`QpB/2 `2H2p Mi BM@ 7Q`K iBQM BM iQ/ vǶb ;HQ# H HB72\ q? i `2 i?2 Q#bi +H2b\ >Qr /Q r2 7 +2 i?2K\ AM i?2 qQ`H/ qB/2 q2# UqqqV BM7Q`K iBQM Bb +QKKQMHv Tm#@ HBb?2/ #v Qi?2` i? M T`Q72bbBQM Hb QM FMQrH2/;2 K M ;2K2Mi- M/


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i?2 +QMi2Mi Bb BM Bib +? ` +i2` KQbiHv bQ + HH2/ bQ+B H K2/B M/ /Bbb2KBM i2/ #v Qi?2`b i? M i` /BiBQM H Tm#HBb?BM; +? MM2HbX i i?2 b K2 iBK2 i?2 #Q`/2` #2ir22M r`Bi2`b M/ MQM@r`Bi2`b- M/ }+@ iBQM M/ MQM@}+iBQM ? b #2+QK2 #Hm``2/X AM i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 GB#` `v kXy 2` Bb /Bb+mbb2/ UqB/ûM@qmHz HX kyy3- 39kVX h?2 bi `iBM; TQBMi 7Q` i?2 /2}MBiBQM Q7 ǵ#HQ;bǶ U HbQ FMQrM b r2#HQ;bV Bb Q7i2M 7Q`K BMbi2 / Q7 +QMi2Mi Ub22 2X;X "HQQ/ kyyyc :BHHKQ` kyy9c PD H kyy8VX AM i?Bb bim/v i?2 2KT? bBb Bb bT2+B}+ HHv QM bm#D2+iBp2 M/ i2ti@7Q`K /B `v@ivT2 #HQ;b- r?B+? `2 7m`i?2` ?2`2 `272``2/ iQ b #HQ;bX b i2ti ivT2 i?2 K i2`B H `2T`2b2Mib r2# T`Qb2- r?B+? Bb +`2 iBp2- /B HQ;B+ H M/ Q` H HBF2 #mi bivHBx2/ r`BiBM; BM r2#HQ;b- +? ib M/ /Bb+mbbBQM 7Q`mKb Ub22 i?2 i2`KǶb Q`B;BM BM LB2KB@SvMii `B kyydVX 1M;HBb?- 6BMMBb? M/ _mbbB M #2HQM; iQ /Bz2`2Mi H M;m ;2 ;`QmTb#mi KQ`2 BKTQ`i Mi /Bz2`2M+2 Bb i? i 6BMMBb? Bb +mHim` HHv p2`v 6BMMBb? M/ _mbbB M p2`v _mbbB M- r?2`2 b 1M;HBb? Bb ;HQ# HHv p2`v +QKKQM HBM;m 7` M+ - BX2X mb2/ BM +QKKmMB+ iBQM #2ir22M T2`bQMb MQi b? `BM; KQi?2` iQM;m2X h` /BiBQM HHv H M;m ;2 U+7X "Ƀ?H2` RNe8V M/ i2tib U+7X _2Bbb RNddV `2 +QMbB/2`2/ iQ b2`p2 i?`22 # bB+ 7mM+iBQMb Ĝ iQ `2T`2b2Mi2tT`2bb M/ TT2 HX h?2 7mM+iBQMb `2 #QmM/ iQ +QKKmMB+ iBQMX AM BM7Q`K iBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ `2T`2b2MiV H M;m ;2 Bb mb2/ iQ `272` iQ i?2 `2 HBiv- M/ i?2 iQTB+ Bb BM i?2 7Q`2;`QmM/ Q7 i?2 +QKKmMB+ iBp2 BMi2MiBQMX AM T` +iB+2 Bi Bb BMpQHp2/ BM 2p2`v K2bb ;2X 6Q` 2t KTH2 2M+v+HQT2/B b M/ H2+im`2b `2T`2b2Mi BM7Q`K iBp2 i2ti ivT2X AM 2t@ T`2bbBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ 2tT`2bbV i?2 2KT? bBb Bb QM i?2 b2M/2` Q7 i?2 K2bb ;2- b Bb + b2 BM 2tT`2bbBp2 i2ti ivT2b HBF2 BM TQ2Kb M/ BM /` K TH vbX AM pQ+ iBp2 7mM+iBQM UiQ TT2 HV i?2 2KT? bBb Bb QM i?2 `2+2Bp2`X 6Q` 2t KTH2 +QKK2`+B Hb M/ 2H2+iBQM bT22+?2b `2T`2b@ 2Mi pQ+ iBp2 i2ti ivT2X L2p2`i?2H2bb- BM T` +iB+2 i2tib Q7i2M BM+Hm/2 +? ` +i2`BbiB+b Q7 b2p2` H i2ti ivT2b- M/ 7Q` BMbi M+2- K2KQB`b `2 +HQb2 iQ 2tT`2bbBp2 i2ti ivT2- #mi BM i?2B` M im`2 HbQ BM7Q`K iBp2X Uo2?K b@G2?iQ RNNN- dR@djV C FQ#bQM URN3RV /BbiBM;mBb?2b bBt 7mM+@ iBQMb Q7 H M;m ;2- r?B+? `2 `272`2MiB H- 2KQiBp2- +QM iBp2- T? iB+TQ2iB+ M/ K2i HBM;m HX AM ?Bb QTBMBQM i?2 7mM+iBQMb BKT +i BM T `@ HH2H `2bmHiBM; QM i?2 bBKmHi M2Qmb 2tBbi2M+2 Q7 /Bz2`2Mi 7mM+iBQMb BM /Bz2`2Mi bBim iBQMb M/ H M;m ;2 mb2 K MM2`bX UA#B/- kk@kdV


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h?2 C FQ#bQMǶb KQ/2H ? b #22M 2bT2+B HHv TQTmH ` BM i?2 bim/v Q7 `2+2TiBQM Q7 +mHim` H T`Q/m+ib- M/ Bi ? b #22M mb2/ b 7` K2rQ`F b r2HH b iQQH 7Q` M HvbBbX Ai i F2b BMiQ +QMbB/2` iBQM /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 +QMi2tib- Bb KmHiB7mM+iBQM H UBi Bb MQi M2+2bb `v iQ `2/m+2 /Bb+Qm`b2 BMiQ QM2 7mM+iBQM i iBK2V M/ rBi? i?2 ?2HT Q7 Bi i?2 +QKKmMB+ iBp2 +iBQM Q` `2bmHi Q7 M +iBQM + M #2 M Hvx2/ BM /2i BHX UEQp H kyy8V q2 + M bbmK2 r2# T`Qb2 iQ BM+Hm/2 K BMHv ii`B#mi2b Q7 2tT`2bbBp2 M/ BM7Q`K iBp2 i2ti ivT2b- #mi Bib BM/2tBM; K v #2 HbQ +HQb2bi pQ+ iBp2 Q` 2KQiBp2- M/ i?mb MQi T`BK `BHv iQ T bb QM BM7Q`K iBp2 +QMi2Mi K2i HBM;m HHvX AM i?Bb bim/v i?2 7Q+mb Bb QM 2KT? bBb Q7 /Bz2`2Mi U/QKBM Mi M/ b2+QM/ `vV 7mM+iBQMb M/ QM i?2B` i2MbBQM U+7X EQp H kyy8VX AM i?2 bim/v BM/2tBM; U/Q+mK2Mi iBQMV Bb mM/2`biQQ/ BM +Q?2`@ 2M+2 rBi? i?2 bi M/ `/b Q7 i?2 }2H/ UAaP 8Nej@RN38- kV b i?2 dz +i Q7 /2b+`B#BM; Q` B/2MiB7vBM; /Q+mK2Mi BM i2`Kb Q7 Bib bm#D2+i +QM@ i2MiǴX AM i?Bb bim/v /Bz2`2Mi /Bb+Qm`b2b Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM biQ` ;2 `2 2t@ THQ`2/X i ;2M2` H H2p2H /Bb+Qm`b2 + M #2 /2}M2/ iQ `272` iQ H M@ ;m ;2 mb2 BM bQ+B H +QMi2ti US HHB kyyj- kkVX Ai Bb HbQ MQi2rQ`i?v iQ `2 HBx2- i? i Hi?Qm;? /Bb+Qm`b2 Bb bm#bi MiBp2- Bi K2 Mb HbQ /QBM; bQK2i?BM; M/ +iBp2 T`Q+2bb2bX AM i?2 +2Mi2` Q7 i?2 M HvbBb Bb i?mb ?mK M +iBQMX UG2?iQM2M RNN9c SQii2` q2i?2`2HH RNNyc S HHB kyyjVX b `2b2 `+? K2i?Q/ Bb mb2/ /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBb- r?B+? Bb +QMi2ti@ #QmM/ bim/v Q7 ?mK M +iBpBiv U6 B`+HQm;? RNNkc PHbbQM kyy9- kVX Ai Bb MQi `2 bQM #H2 iQ +? ` +i2`Bx2 /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBb b /BbiBM+i `2@ b2 `+? K2i?Q/- #mi KQ`2 b HQQb2 i?2Q`2iB+ H 7` K2rQ`F USQii2` q2i?2`2HH RNNyc amQMBM2M RNNk- Rk8V- BM r?B+? /Bz2`2Mi 2KT? bBx2b BM 7Q+mb M/ K2i?Q/QHQ;B+ H TTHB+ iBQMb `2 HHQr2/ UCQFBM2M HX RNNj- Rd@R3VX .Bb+Qm`b2 M HviB+ H K2i?Q/b ? p2 #22M b+ `+2 BM i?2 }2H/ Q7 HB#` `B Mb?BT M/ BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 `2b2 `+?- Hi?Qm;? i?2 BMi2`2bi ? b #22M ;`QrBM; U>2/2K `F- >2/K M amM/BM kyy8RdVX h?2 bi `iBM; TQBMib Q7 /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBb ? p2 #22M /Bb+mbb2/ BM b2p2` H `iB+H2b- #mi Bi ? b b2H/QK #22M mb2/ b K2i?Q/ 7Q` 2KTB`B+ H bim/B2b Uh HD RNN3- R3VX >Qr2p2`- /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBb Bb M im` H +?QB+2- r?2M r2 i?BMF Q7 i?2 F2v 2H2K2Mi BM Qm` }2H/ Ĝ BM7Q`K iBQMX h HD URNNd- dyc RNNN- 9eyV /2b+`B#2b BM7Q`K iBQM


written in Russia and Finland even samples written in mother tongue and English are selected. The total sample is in all fifty blogs, from which ten most recent updates are collected. The ,6620( analyzed material covers thus 500 text samples. Country

1. language

2. language

Finland Russia United states

Finnish – 10 samples Russian – 10 samples English – 10 samples

English – 10 samples English – 10 samples

in all (50) 20 20 10

Table 1: The research material (blogs) by country and language

The material collection bases on theoretical sampling (see Seale 1998, 329; Strauss and Corbin 1990, 176-179) and its criteria are diary-like content, provision of indexing terms1 for b #2BM; +QM+2`M2/ rBi?ofr? i T2QTH2 /Qand rBi? H M;m ;2 of M/ r? i the readers, similar search features the used platform, the background the author, and H M;m ;2 the publication country and language. /Q2b iQ T2QTH2X

AM i?Bb bim/v #HQ;b `2 M Hvx2/ b +mHim` H T`Q/m+ib- bBM+2 H M@

This study focuses on examination of the linguistic methods, which are used to describe ;m ;2bof M/ i?2 and i?BMFBM; i?2v of `2~2+i K BMHv 7`QK the content the blogs, the functions the indexing. Thebi2K method used+mHim` H is discourse M22/b 7Q` 2tT`2bbBQM amQD M2M aH i2` G M;m ;2 analysis. Indexing is reflected toUb22 the functions and RNNjc text-types found RNN3VX in the actual blog texts. When cultural the comparison are Finland, Russia and United Bb analyzing MQi bi iB+ Ub22differences 2X;X o ` MiQH RNNycpairs Bi+?BbQM RNNRc qB2`x#B+F States, and in their linguistic aspects Finnish, Russian and English (as American RNNdc G2?iQM2M kyyyc E i M kyy9V M/ i?2`27Q`2 HbQ i?2B`English /Q+m@and lingua franca) are explored.

K2Mi iBQM UBM/2tBM;V Bb iB2/ rBi? iBK2 M/ i?2 bm``QmM/BM; +mHim`2 kyRyVX are: The ULvFv`B research questions

•Aims, What kinds of functions and the indexing and titles of blog texts reflect? What kinds of material methods motives are found in the documentation of subjective blog writings? bim/v M Hvb2b r vb ?Qr #HQ;;2`b T`QpB/2 i2t@ • h?Bb Are there differences in style/Bz2`2Mi and function of blog indexing and titling? •im H AreiQQHb there 7Q` clearBM7Q`K iBQM documentation`2i`B2p H discourses M/ between specific countries versus languages 2M #H2b }M/BM; BM7Q`K iBQM versus certain background of the authors? – What kind of customs exists in the `2 Finnish 7`QK i?2B` #HQ;bX h?2 7Qm` H M;m ;2 M/ +mHim`2 T B`b M Hvx2/ versus American versus Russian versus international material?

K2`B+ M 1M;HBb?- 1M;HBb? b HBM;m 7` M+ - _mbbB M M/ 6BMMBb?X PM #HQ;b r`Bii2M BM _mbbB 6BMH M/ 2p2M b KTH2b r`Bii2M BM Indexing is reflected to the content of the M/ blog texts, titles and search possibilities. The focus KQi?2` iQM;m2 M/ 1M;HBb? `2 b2H2+i2/X h?2 iQi H b KTH2 Bb BM HH is on functions and styles. For example the geographical place of writing or reference is interesting also from the perspective of KQbi information seeking, and it `2 can be expressed in many }7iv #HQ;b7`QK r?B+? i2M `2+2Mi mT/ i2b +QHH2+i2/X h?2 different ways (cf. Lindgren 2005). M Hvx2/ K i2`B H +Qp2`b i?mb 8yy i2ti b KTH2bX h?2 K i2`B H +QHH2+iBQM # b2b QM i?2Q`2iB+ H b KTHBM; Ub22 a2 H2 3 Results RNN3- jkNc ai` mbb M/ *Q`#BM RNNy- Rde@RdNV M/ Bib +`Bi2`B `2 Despite of their universality and growingQ7 popularity blogs as a Rform social media are still /B `v@HBF2 +QMi2Mi- T`QpBbBQM BM/2tBM; i2`Kb 7Q` of i?2 `2 /2`bbBK@ littleBH ` studied (see Kjellberg 2010). The linguistic and cultural of social mediaQ7 i?2 b2 `+? 72 im`2b Q7 i?2 mb2/ TH i7Q`K- M/ aspect i?2 # +F;`QmM/ information seeking, described in the research plan, represents a unique approach. The topic mi?Q`- M/ i?2 Tm#HB+ iBQM +QmMi`v M/ H M;m ;2X of the research concerns directly the most challenging tasks within information science today, which is to achieve a better understanding of the fundamentals of human information behaviour, and the ways in which it changes over time (see Bawden & Robinson 2008, 9). R .Bz2`2Mi

#HQ;@TH i7Q`K T`QpB/2`b mb2 /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 i2`KbX 6Q` 2t KTH2- BM qQ`/@ T`2bb i?2 i2`K Ǵi ;bǴ Bb mb2/ 7Q` i?2 F2vrQ`/b r?B+? /2b+`B#2 i?2 +QMi2Mi- r?2`2 b BM "HQ;;2` i?2v `2 `272``2/ iQ rBi? i?2 i2`K ǴimMMBbi22iǴX 1 Different blog-platform providers use different kinds of terms. For example, in Wordpress the term �tags� is used for the keywords which describe the content, whereas in Blogger they are referred to with the term �tunnisteet�.

3


/LQJXLVWLF DQG &XOWXUDO'LIIHUHQFHV LQ &RQWHQW0DQDJHPHQW

h?Bb bim/v 7Q+mb2b QM 2t KBM iBQM Q7 i?2 HBM;mBbiB+ K2i?Q/br?B+? `2 mb2/ iQ /2b+`B#2 i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 #HQ;b- M/ i?2 7mM+@ iBQMb Q7 i?2 BM/2tBM;X h?2 K2i?Q/ mb2/ Bb /Bb+Qm`b2 M HvbBbX AM/2t@ BM; Bb `2~2+i2/ iQ i?2 7mM+iBQMb M/ i2ti@ivT2b 7QmM/ BM i?2 +im H #HQ; i2tibX q?2M M HvxBM; +mHim` H /Bz2`2M+2b i?2 +QKT `BbQM T B`b `2 6BMH M/- _mbbB M/ lMBi2/ ai i2b- M/ BM i?2B` HBM;mBbiB+ bT2+ib 6BMMBb?- _mbbB M M/ 1M;HBb? U b K2`B+ M 1M;HBb? M/ HBM;m 7` M+ V `2 2tTHQ`2/X h?2 `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb `2, q? i FBM/b Q7 7mM+iBQMb i?2 BM/2tBM; M/ iBiH2b Q7 #HQ; i2tib `2~2+i\ q? i FBM/b Q7 KQiBp2b `2 7QmM/ BM i?2 /Q+mK2Mi @ iBQM Q7 bm#D2+iBp2 #HQ; r`BiBM;b\ `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2b BM bivH2 M/ 7mM+iBQM Q7 #HQ; BM/2tBM; M/ iBiHBM;\ `2 i?2`2 +H2 ` /Q+mK2Mi iBQM /Bb+Qm`b2b #2ir22M bT2+B}+ +QmMi`B2b p2`bmb H M;m ;2b p2`bmb +2`i BM # +F;`QmM/ Q7 i?2 mi?Q`b\ Ĝ q? i FBM/ Q7 +mbiQKb 2tBbib BM i?2 6BMMBb? p2`bmb K2`B+ M p2`bmb _mbbB M p2`bmb BMi2`M iBQM H K i2`B H\ AM/2tBM; Bb `2~2+i2/ iQ i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 #HQ; i2tib- iBiH2b M/ b2 `+? TQbbB#BHBiB2bX h?2 7Q+mb Bb QM 7mM+iBQMb M/ bivH2bX 6Q` 2t@ KTH2 i?2 ;2Q;` T?B+ H TH +2 Q7 r`BiBM; Q` `272`2M+2 Bb BMi2`2biBM; HbQ 7`QK i?2 T2`bT2+iBp2 Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM;- M/ Bi + M #2 2t@ T`2bb2/ BM K Mv /Bz2`2Mi r vb U+7X GBM/;`2M kyy8VX

Results .2bTBi2 Q7 i?2B` mMBp2`b HBiv M/ ;`QrBM; TQTmH `Biv #HQ;b b 7Q`K Q7 bQ+B H K2/B `2 biBHH HBiiH2 bim/B2/ Ub22 ED2HH#2`; kyRyVX h?2 HBM;mBbiB+ M/ +mHim` H bT2+i Q7 bQ+B H K2/B BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM;/2b+`B#2/ BM i?2 `2b2 `+? TH M- `2T`2b2Mib mMB[m2 TT`Q +?X h?2 iQTB+ Q7 i?2 `2b2 `+? +QM+2`Mb /B`2+iHv i?2 KQbi +? HH2M;BM; i bFb rBi?BM BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 iQ/ v- r?B+? Bb iQ +?B2p2 #2ii2` mM@ /2`bi M/BM; Q7 i?2 7mM/ K2Mi Hb Q7 ?mK M BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQm` M/ i?2 r vb BM r?B+? Bi +? M;2b Qp2` iBK2 Ub22 " r/2M _Q#BMbQM kyy3- NVX


,6620(

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(j) "HQQ/- _2#2++ kyyj, dzq2#HQ;b M/ CQm`M HBbK, .Q h?2v *QMM2+iXǴ LB2K M _2TQ`ib jfkyyjbX eR@ekX (1H2+i`QMB+ `2bQm`+2- `2 / eXRyXkyyN- l_G, ?iiT,ffrrrXMB2K MX? `p `/X2/mf bb2ibfT/7fLB2K MWky_2TQ`ibf# +FBbbm2bfy ) (9) "Ƀ?H2`- E `H RNe8 URNj9V, .B2 aT` +?i?2Q`B2X kM/ 2/X aimi@ i; `i, 6Bb+?2`X 9j9 TX (8) 6 B`+HQm;?- LQ`K M RNNk, .Bb+Qm`b2 M/ aQ+B H *? M;2X * K#`B/;2- 1M;H M/, SQHBiv S`2bbX k8N TX (e) :BHHKQ`- . M kyy9, q2 i?2 J2/B X :` bb`QQib CQm`M@ HBbK #v i?2 S2QTH2- 7Q` i?2 S2QTH2X PǶ_2BHHv J2@ /B X a2# biQTQHX (1H2+i`QMB+ p2`bBQM- `2 / 8XRyXkyyN- l_G, ?iiT,ffQ`2BHHvX+QKf+ i HQ;fr2K2/B f#QQFfBM/2tX+bT ) (d) >2/2K `F- ³X- >2/K M- CX amM/BM- PX kyy8, ǴaT2 F@ BM; Q7 mb2`b, QM mb2` /Bb+Qm`b2b BM i?2 }2H/ Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#@ ` `B2bǴX AM7Q`K iBQM _2b2 `+?- RyUkV T T2` kR3- RN TTX _2@ i`B2p2/ BM P+iQ#2` jRbi kyy8 7`QK i?2 qQ`H/ qB/2 q2# l_G, ?iiT,ffAM7Q`K iBQM_XM2ifB`fRy@kfT T2`kR3X?iKH


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TEACHING SOCIAL MEDIA IN LIS $ EULGJLQJ DSSURDFK 0RQLFD /DVVL DQG +DQQD 0DXULQ 6|GHUKROP 8QLYHUVLW\ RI %RUnV 6ZHGHQ

Introduction S2QTH2 mb2 bQ+B H K2/B BM K Mv bBim iBQMb M/ +QMi2tib Q7 i?2B` 2p2`v/ v HB72X h?2b2 BMi2` +iBQMb M/ `2M b 2Mi BH 2MQ`KQmb KQmMib Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM M/ ? p2 HbQ +? M;2/ i?2 r vb K Mv T2QTH2 BMi2` +i M/ +QKKmMB+ i2X a+B H/QM2- _QiQHQ M/ aMv/2` UkyRRV B/2MiB}2/ i?2K2b 7Q` r?B+? bQ+B H K2/B ? b ? / H `;2 BKT +i M/ ?Qr i?2b2 `2 `2H2p Mi 7Q` +m``B+mH b M/ ;Q Hb Q7 Ba+?QQHb M/ BM7Q`K iBQM b+B@ 2M+2 /2T `iK2Mib, dzbQ+B H K2/B +QKKmMBiB2b- QrM2`b?BT- T`Bp +v M/ ;Qp2`M M+2 Q7 mb2`@;2M2` i2/ +QMi2Mi QM bQ+B H M2irQ`Fb- M/ ?Qr bQ+B H K2/B K v BKT +i 2/m+ iBQM M/ H2 `MBM; i HH ;2bǴ Ua+B H/QM2- _QiQHQ aMv/2`- kyRR- TX 8R9VX h?2 +QM+2Ti bQ+B H K2/B Bb 2HmbBp2- M/ /2}MBiBQMb /2T2M/ QM i?2 +QMi2ti r?2`2 Bi Bb TTHB2/- +QKKQMHv rBi? 7Q+mb QM i2+?MQHQ;v Q` K `F2iBM;X aQ+B H K2/B +Qm`b2b `2 Q7i2M Qz2`2/ #v +QKK2`+B H 2/m+ iBQM +QKT MB2bX h?2 K DQ`Biv Q7 i?2b2 `2 T` +iB+ HHv Q`B2Mi2/ M/ 7Q+mb QM i?2 mb2 Q7 bQ+B H K2/B 7`QK +QKK2`+B H T2`bT2+iBp2 b BM #mbBM2bb /p Mi ;2b- M/ K `F2iBM;- Q` QM bT2+B}+ i2+?MQHQ@ ;B+ H iQQHb M/ `2M bX *Qm`b2b i m;?i BM + /2KB+ /Bb+BTHBM2b ? p2 T`2pBQmbHv ? / bBKBH ` M ``Qr 7Q+BX ar2/Bb? mMBp2`bBiB2b +m``2MiHv Qz2` bQ+B H K2/B +Qm`b2b BM /Bb+BTHBM2b bm+? b K2/B bim/B2bc 2/m@ + iBQMc M/ BM7Q`K iB+bX b /2KQMbi` i2/ #v a+B H/QM2- _QiQHQ M/ aMv/2` UkyRRV- K Mv bT2+ib Q7 bQ+B H K2/B `2 +HQb2Hv +QMM2+i2/ iQ `2 b H`2 /v bim/@ B2/ rBi?BM K Mv GAa +m``B+mH bX 6m`i?2`KQ`2- GAa Bb r2HH 2[mBTT2/


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iQ mM/2`bi M/ M/ ? M/H2 +QKTH2t BM7Q`K iBQM T`Q#H2Kb /m2 iQ Bib BMi2`/Bb+BTHBM `BivX >Qr2p2`- i2 +?BM; bQ+B H K2/B BM K2 MBM;7mH r v 7Q` GAa T`2b2Mib MmK#2` Q7 +? HH2M;2bX q2 bm;;2bi i? i BM Q`/2` iQ K F2 i?2 +QM+2Ti mb27mH BM GAa +QMi2tib- Bi Bb BKTQ`i Mi iQ mM/2`bi M/ bQK2 # bB+ K2+? MBbKb M/ /BK2MbiBQMb Q7 +BipBiB2b M/ #2? pBQm`b BM bQ+B H K2/B `2M b i? i ;Q2b #2vQM/ i2+?MB+ H bQHmiBQMb M/ K `F2iBM; bi` i2;B2bX

Course example: Social media and social interaction hQ BHHmbi` i2 Qm` TT`Q +?- r2 T`2b2Mi M 2t KTH2 7`QK +Qm`b2 Qz2`2/ #v i?2 ar2/Bb? a+?QQH Q7 GB#` `v M/ AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2, aQ+B H K2/B M/ bQ+B H BMi2` +iBQM- dX8 1*ha- iQ bim/2Mib QM i?2 mM/2`;` /m i2 M/ K bi2`Ƕb H2p2Hb BM i?2 GAa T`Q;` KK2b M/ i?2 r2# +QMi2Mi K M ;2` T`Q;` KK2X Ai r b /2p2HQT2/ rBi? i?2 BM@ i2MiBQM iQ T`QpB/2 ;2M2` H - Qp2` HH T2`bT2+iBp2 QM bQ+B H K2/B X Pi?2` +Qm`b2b ;Bp2M i i?2 /2T `iK2Mi 7Q+mb QM bT2+B}+ bQ+B H K2@ /B iQQHb M/ `2M b- BM+Hm/BM; h?2 i?2Q`v M/ T` +iB+2 Q7 #HQ;bc 6BH2b? `BM; M/ AMi2`M2i TQHBiB+bc M/ S`Q;` KKBM; 7Q` /vM KB+bBMi2` +iBpBiv M/ BMi2;` iBQMX h?2 H2 `MBM; Qmi+QK2b Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2 mb2/ BM Qm` 2t KTH2 `2, i? i i?2 bim/2Mib rBHH ? p2 i?2 +QKT2i2M+2 iQ /2b+`B#2 M/ /Bb+mbb mb2 Q7 bQ+B H K2/B - bQ+B H BMi2` +iBQM M/ `2M b r?2`2 bQ+B H BMi2`@ +iBQM + M Q++m`c M/ iQ bvMi?2bBx2 +2Mi` H i?2Q`B2b M/ +QM+2Tib +QM+2`MBM; bQ+B H BMi2` +iBQM M/ pB`im H +QKKmMBiB2bX q2 #2HB2p2 i? i Bi Bb M2+2bb `v iQ ;Q #2vQM/ i2+?MB+ H TTHB+ iBQMb M/ bQHm@ iBQMb M/ i?2 +QKK2`+B H K `F2iBM; T2`bT2+iBp2 iQ mM/2`bi M/- M/ i?mb #2 #H2 iQ mb2- bQ+B H K2/B BM K2 MBM;7mH r v BM GAa `2H i2/ T`Q72bbBQMbX h?Bb +QMM2+ib iQ MQi?2` +? HH2M;2 BM i2 +?BM; bQ+B H K2/B r?B+? Bb `2H i2/ iQ # H M+BM; 2H2K2Mib BM i?2 +Qm`b2 `2H i2/ iQ 2Bi?2` i?2Q`v Q` T` +iB+2X h?Bb +? HH2M;2 Bb M2Bi?2` M2r iQ GAaMQ` mMB[m2 7Q` bQ+B H K2/B , Qi?2` +m``2Mi GAa 2t KTH2b BM+Hm/2 b@ T2+ib Q7 FMQrH2/;2 Q`; MBx iBQMc /B;Bi H HB#` `v /2p2HQTK2Mic M/ +QMi2Mi K M ;2K2MiX 6BM/BM; M TT`QT`B i2 # H M+2 /2T2M/b QM 7 +iQ`b bm+? b HQ+ H T` +iB+2b BM i?2 +m``B+mH M/ i?2 H2p2H Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2X


7HDFKLQJ VRFLDO PHGLD LQ /,6

Theoretical grounding - three themes h?2 HBi2` im`2 mb2/ BM i?2 +Qm`b2 2t KTH2 ? p2 #22M Q`; MBx2/ BMiQ i?`22 i?2K2b, i?2Q`2iB+ H TQBMib Q7 /2T `im`2c KQiBp iBQMb 7Q` T `iB+BT iBQMc M/ +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+ iBQMbX h?2 HBi2` im`2 #2HQM;b iQ p `B2iv Q7 BMi2`/Bb+BTHBM `v `2b2 `+? }2H/b- bm+? b +QKTmi2`@ bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2` iBp2 rQ`F- +QKTmi2` K2/B i2/ +QKKmMB+ iBQMBM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2- M/ Tbv+?QHQ;vX ;mB/2 iQ TT`Q +?BM; i?2 HBi2` im`2 Bb T`QpB/2/ iQ i?2 bim/2Mib- b i?2 #mHF Q7 i?2 HBi2` i@ m`2 Bb `2b2 `+? T T2`b- r?BHbi i?2 +Qm`b2 Bb ;Bp2M iQ mM/2`;` /m i2 bim/2MibX M //BiBQM H 2z2+i Q7 i?Bb Bb i? i i?2 bim/2Mib `2 BMi`Q/m+2/ iQ b+B2MiB}+ r`BiBM; M/ K2i?Q/QHQ;v 2 `Hv BM i?2B` 2/m@ + iBQMX

Theoretical points of departure h?2Q`2iB+ H T2`bT2+iBp2b QM bQ+B H K2/B M/ `2H i2/ iQTB+b K F2 i?2 TQBMi Q7 /2T `im`2 7Q` i?2 +Qm`b2X AM i?2 BMBiB H T `i Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2- /2}MBiBQMb Q7 bQ+B H K2/B bm+? b bQ+B H M2irQ`F bBi2b UaLaV `2 BMi`Q/m+2/ M/ /Bb+mbb2/ Uai2BM2H/- 1HHBbQM G KT2- kyy3VX h?Bb T `i Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2 HbQ +Qp2`b +QM+2Tib M/ TTHB+ iBQMb Q7 BM@ 7Q`K iBQM b? `BM; M/ +iBp2 T `iB+BT iBQM BM b2p2` H +QMi2tib bm+? b b+B2MiB}+ +QHH #Q` iBQM M/ QT2M bQm`+2 bQ7ir `2 /2p2HQTK2MiX U1HHBb- PH/`B/;2 o b+QM+2HQb- kyy9c G bbB aQMM2Mr H/- kyRyc L2 H2- * ``QHH _QbbQM- kyy9VX

Motivations for participation A/2MiB7vBM; M/ BKTH2K2MiBM; i?2 `B;?i KQiBp iBQMb 7Q` T `iB+BT@ iBQM Bb +`m+B H 7Q` i?2 bm++2bb M/ HQM;2pBiv Q7 p2Mim`2 Q7 BM+`2 b@ BM; BMi2` +iBQM mbBM; bQ+B H K2/B X h?2 #Q/v Q7 HBi2` im`2 BM i?Bb i?2K2 `2T`2b2Mib #`Q / i F2 QM BM7Q`K iBQM b? `BM; M/ +iBp2 T `iB+BT iBQMX L `/B M/ +QHH2 ;m2b Ukyy9V T`2b2Mi i?2 `2bmHib Q7 M BMi2`pB2r bim/v #Qmi i?2 KQiBp iBQMb Q7 #HQ;;2`bX LQMM2+F2S`22+2 M/ M/`2rb Ukyy9V ? p2 bim/B2/ r? i TQbi2`b M/ Hm`F2`b i?BMF Q7 2 +? Qi?2`bÇś `QH2b BM pB`im H +QKKmMBivX G bbB M/ aQMM@ 2Mr H/Çśb UkyRyV ? p2 bvMi?2bBx2/ T`2pBQmb `2b2 `+?- `2bmHiBM; BM


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Contexts and applications h?2 K DQ`Biv Q7 +Qm`b2 HBi2` im`2 7 HHb BMiQ i?Bb i?2K2 M/ BM@ +Hm/2b T T2`b BM r?B+? b2p2` H +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+ iBQMb +QK2 BMiQ TH v U#Qv/ 1HHBbQM- kyydV- b r2HH b T T2`b 7Q+mbBM; QM bT2+B}+ +QMi2tib M/ TTHB+ iBQMbX 1t KTH2b Q7 i?2b2 `2, M QMHBM2 T`2;@ M M+v M/ KQi?2`BM; ;`QmT UG2v- kyydVc qQ`H/ Q7 q `+` 7i UL `/B > ``Bb- kyyeVc }M M+B H /Bb+mbbBQM #Q `/ U>2``K MM- kyydVc 6 +2#QQF U1HHBbQM- G KT2 ai2BM2H/- kyyNVc M/ bQ+B H i ;;BM; M2irQ`Fb U.BM; 2i HX- kyyNVX

Practical applications - course assignments h?2 +Qm`b2 bbB;MK2Mib ? p2 #22M /2bB;M2/ iQ #`B/;2 i?2 i?2@ Q`2iB+ H 7Q+mb Q7 i?2 HBi2` im`2 M/ bQ+B H K2/B iQQHbX AM i?2 }`bi bbB;MK2Mi r2 bF2/ i?2 bim/2Mib iQ +QMi`B#mi2 iQ M2r +QHH #Q` i@ Bp2 BMBiB iBp2 #Qmi bQ+B H K2/B - M K2Hv i?2 rBFB aQ+B K2/B T2/B X 1 +? bim/2Mi +QMi`B#mi2/ irQ rBFB TQbib #Qmi +2Mi` H i?2Q`B2b+QM+2Tib- T?2MQK2M Q` iQQHb `2H i2/ iQ i?2 +Qm`b2X am#b2[m2MiHv i?2v r2`2 bF2/ iQ // iQ- KQ/B7v- M/ K F2 +QMM2+iBQMb #2ir22M i?2 Qi?2` bim/2MibǶ +QMi`B#miBQMbX h?2 b2+QM/ bbB;MK2Mi r b iQ M Hvx2 +iBpBiB2b M/ BMi2` +iBQM BM AMi2`M2i 7Q`mKb Q7 i?2 bim@ /2MibǶ QrM +?QQbBM;- M/ iQ +QMM2+i i?2B` Q#b2`p iBQMb iQ i?2Q`B2b M/ +QM+2Tib rBi?BM i?2 i?2K2b #Qp2- bm+? b T `iB+BT iBQM- `QH2bbi imb- M/ T`Bp +vX h?2 }M H bbB;MK2Mi r b iQ /2p2HQT bQ+B H K2/B bi` i2;v 7Q` r2# bBi2 mbBM; i?2B` FMQrH2/;2 Q7 KQiBp iBQMb 7Q` +iBp2 T `iB+BT iBQM M/ BM7Q`K iBQM b? `BM;X

Principal contributions qBi? Qm` 2t KTH2 r2 ? p2 /2KQMbi` i2/ M TT`Q +? iQ i2 +?@ BM; bQ+B H K2/B BM GAa i? i #`B/;2b i?2 ; Tb #2ir22M i?2Q`v M/ T` +iB+2- M/- 7m`i?2`KQ`2 BMi`Q/m+2b T2`bT2+iBp2 +QM+2`MBM; bQ@ +B H BMi2` +iBQM iQ i?2 +m``2Mi i2+?MQHQ;v M/ K `F2iBM; 7Q+mb2/ i2 +?BM; TT`Q +?2bX q2 ? p2 HbQ B/2MiB}2/ #Q/v Q7 `2b2 `+?


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Bibliography

(R) #Qv/- /X KX- 1HHBbQM- LX "X UkyydVX aQ+B H M2irQ`F bBi2b, .2}MBiBQM- ?BbiQ`v- M/ b+?QH `b?BTX CQm`M H Q7 *QKTmi2`@ J2/B i2/ *QKKmMB+ iBQM- RjURVX (k) .BM;- uX- 1X EX C +Q#- 2i HX UkyyNVX S2`bT2+iBp2b QM bQ+B H i ;;BM;X CQm`M H Q7 i?2 K2`B+ M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`K iBQM a+B@ 2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- eyURkV- TTX kj33@k9yRX (j) 1HHBb- .X- PH/`B/;2- _X- o b+QM+2HQb- X Ukyy9VX *QKKmMBiv M/ pB`im H +QKKmMBivX AM "X *`QMBM U1/XV- MMm H `2pB2r Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2 M/ i2+?MQHQ;v- j3- TTX R98@R3eX AM7Q`K@ iBQMhQ/ vX (9) 1HHBbQM- LX- G KT2- *X- ai2BM2H/- *X UkyyNVX aQ+B H L2irQ`F aBi2b M/ aQ+B2iv, *m``2Mi h`2M/b M/ 6mim`2 SQbbB#BHBiB2bX AMi2` +iBQMb J ; xBM2 ReURVX (8) >2``K MM- X UkyydVX S2QTH2 ;2i 2KQiBQM H #Qmi i?2B` KQM2v, S2`7Q`KBM; K b+mHBMBiv BM }M M+B H /Bb+mb@ bBQM #Q `/X CQm`M H Q7 *QKTmi2`@J2/B i2/ *QKKmMB+ iBQMRkUkVX (e) G bbB- JX aQMM2Mr H/- .X UkyRyVX A/2MiB7vBM; 7 +iQ`b i? i K v BKT +i i?2 /QTiBQM M/ mb2 Q7 bQ+B H b+B2M+2 +QHH #Q`@ iQ`v, bvMi?2bBb Q7 T`2pBQmb `2b2 `+?X AM7Q`K iBQM _2b2 `+?R8UjVX (d) G2v- "X UkyydVX oBp2 H2b `Qb2b5, h?2 `+?Bi2+im`2 Q7 +QKKBi@ K2Mi BM M QMHBM2 T`2;M M+v M/ KQi?2`BM; ;`QmTX CQm`M H Q7 *QKTmi2`@J2/B i2/ *QKKmMB+ iBQM- RkU9VX


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(3) L `/B- "X- > ``Bb- CX UkyyeVX amTTQ`iBM; bQ+B H TH v, ai` M;2`b M/ 7`B2M/b, *QHH #Q` iBp2 TH v BM qQ`H/ Q7 q `@ +` 7iX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyye kyi? MMBp2`b `v +QM72`2M+2 QM +QKTmi2` bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2` iBp2 rQ`F- *a*qǶyeX " M H#2`i - * M / , *J S`2bb- TTX R9N@R83 (N) L `/B- "QMMB2 X- a+?B MQ- .B M2 CX- :mK#`2+?i- JB+?2HH2 ar `ix- GmF2 Ukyy9VX q?v r2 #HQ;X *QKKmMB+ iBQMb Q7 i?2 *J- 9dURkV- TTX 9R@9eX (Ry) L2 H2- .X *X- * ``QHH- CX JX- _QbbQM- JX "X Ukyy9VX 1p H@ m iBM; +QKTmi2`@bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2` iBp2 rQ`F, JQ/2Hb M/ 7` K2rQ`FbX AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyy9 *J +QM72`2M+2 QM *QKTmi2` bmTTQ`i2/ +QQT2` iBp2 rQ`F- *a*qǶy9X *?B+ ;QAHHBMQBb- la , *J S`2bb- TTX RRk@RkRX (RR) LQMM2+F2- "X- S`22+2- CX- M/`2rb- .X Ukyy9V q? i Hm`F@ 2`b M/ TQbi2`b i?BMF Q7 2 +? Qi?2`- AMi2`M2i M/ i?2 .B;Bi H 1+QMQKvX h` +F Q7 i?2 h?B`iv@a2p2Mi? > r BB AMi2`M iBQM H *QM72`2M+2 QM avbi2K a+B2M+2b U>A*aa@jdVX (Rk) a+B H/QM2- JX CX- _QiQHQ- X CX aMv/2`- CX UkyRRVX aQ+B H K2/B 7mim`2b, r?v Ba+?QQHb b?QmH/ + `2X AM S`Q+22/BM;b Q7 i?2 kyRR B*QM72`2M+2 UB*QM72`2M+2 ǶRRVX *J- L2r uQ`F- Lula - TTX 8R9@8kRX (Rj) ai2BM2H/- *X- 1HHBbQM- LX G KT2- *X Ukyy3VX aQ+B H + TBi Hb2H7@2bi22K- M/ mb2 Q7 QMHBM2 bQ+B H M2irQ`F bBi2b, HQM;Bim/@ BM H M HvbBbX CQm`M H Q7 TTHB2/ .2p2HQTK2Mi H Sbv+?QHQ;vkNUeV- TTX 9j9@998X


II

DOCTORAL FORUM



INFORMATION-RELATED ACTIVITIES IN A SOCIAL MEDIA AND PUBLIC LIBRARY CONTEXT 0DULD .URQTYLVW %HUJ cER $NDGHPL 8QLYHUVLW\ )LQODQG

Introduction h?2 BK Q7 i?Bb T T2` Bb iQ T`2b2Mi M QM;QBM; `2b2 `+? T`QD2+i +QM+2`MBM; bQ+B H K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX h?2b2 irQ +QMbiBimi2 M BMi2`2biBM; BM7Q`K iBQM@`B+? +QMi2tiX h?2 `2H iBQMb?BT #2ir22M bQ+B H K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b U HbQ + HH2/ GB#` `v kXyV + M #2 b22M b +QK#BM iBQM Q7 i?2 7QHHQrBM; #mBH/BM; #HQ+Fb, i2+?MQHQ;v M/ iQQHb- q2# kXy- bQ+B H bT2+ib- mb2`b- T `iB+BT iBQM- HB#` `B2b M/ HB#` `v b2`pB+2b- M/ BMi2` +iBpBiv U>QHK#2`; 2i HX- kyyNVX aQ+B H K2/B Bb Q7i2M + i2;Q`Bx2/ b iQQH 7Q` +QKKmMB+ iBQM M/ 2Mi2`@ i BMK2Mi- #mi /Bz2`2Mi BM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b `2 HbQ M BM?2`2Mi T `i Q7 bQ+B H K2/B X aQ+B H K2/B iQQHb ? p2 z2+i2/ i?2 2tT MbBQM Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM- i?2 ` i2 Q7 2tT MbBQM M/ i?2 ; i?2`BM; Q7 ?mK M BM7Q`K iBQM U HH `/- kyyNVX h?2`27Q`2- `2b2 `+? BMi2`2bi BMiQ i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` M/ T` +iB+2b Bb 2bb2MiB HX 6Bb?2` CmHB2M UkyyN- TX j9kV bT2+B}+ HHv K2MiBQMb q2# kXy b bQm`+2 Q7 p bi K i2`B H 7Q` BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` `2b2 `+?X a pQH BM2M UkyRRV HbQ BM/B+ i2b i? i i?2`2 Bb M22/ 7Q` KQ`2 `2b2 `+? BM bQ+B H K2/B M/ Bib BKTHB+ iBQMb BM 2p2`v/ v HB72 BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; M/ b? `BM;X AM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b HbQ +QMbiBimi2 M BKTQ`i Mi T `i Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b- M/ QM2 Q7 i?2 K BM Tm`TQb2b Q7 HB#` `B2b Bb iQ /Bbb2KBM i2 BM7Q`K iBQM M/ +mHim`2X qBHbQM Ukyy3V /Q2b- ?Qr2p2`- TQBMi Qmi i?2 H +F Q7 `2b2 `+? BMiQ BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#` `v b2iiBM;X


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h?2 7Q+mb QM BM7Q`K iBQM@`2H i2/ +iBpBiB2b BM bQ+B H K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#` `v +QMi2ti K F2b i?2 i?2Q`2iB+ H 7` K2rQ`F Q7 BM7Q`K @ iBQM T` +iB+2b bmBi #H2 bi `iBM; TQBMiX a pQH BM2M Ukyy3- TTX k@jV /2}M2b BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2 b Çł b2i Q7 bQ+B HHv M/ +mHim` HHv 2b@ i #HBb?2/ r vb iQ B/2MiB7v- b22F- mb2- M/ b? `2 i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM p BH #H2 BM p `BQmb bQm`+2b bm+? b i2H2pBbBQM- M2rbT T2`b- M/ i?2 AMi2`M2iXÇ´X AM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2 bi `ib Qmi 7`QK bQ+B H T2`bT2+i@ Bp2- r?2`2 BM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b BMBiB i2 7`QK BMi2` +iBQMb #2ir22M K2K#2`b BM +QKKmMBiB2b BMbi2 / Q7 i?2 KQiBp iBQMb Q7 M BM/BpB/m H mb2` UJ+E2MxB2- kyyjc a pQH BM2M- kyydVX h?2 7QHHQrBM; +iBpBiB2b `2 2Mi BH2/ BM BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2b, b22FBM;- ++2bbBM;- +`2 iBM;mbBM; M/ b? `BM; BM7Q`K iBQM Ua pQH BM2M- kyydc hmQKBM2M- h HD a pQH BM2M- kyy8VX

Research questions and aim h?2 BK Bb iQ BMp2biB; i2 i?2 BMi2`7 +2 #2ir22M mb2`b- HB#` `v T`Q@ 72bbBQM Hb M/ bQ+B H K2/B X h?2 7Q+mb HB2b T `iHv QM i?2 mb2`bÇś BM@ i2`2bi BM BMi2` +iBM; rBi? i?2 HB#` `v i?`Qm;? bQ+B H K2/B M/ r? i FBM/ Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b M/ T` +iB+2b +QK2 BMiQ [m2biBQMX h?2 7Q+mb Bb HbQ QM i?2 +? HH2M;2b M/ QTTQ`imMBiB2b HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM@ Hb 7 +2 +QMbB/2`BM; bQ+B H K2/B BM i?2B` 2p2`v/ v rQ`F, i?2 r v i?2v BMi2` +i rBi? mb2`b i?`Qm;? bQ+B H K2/B M/ iQ r? i 2ti2Mi i?2v i?BMF HB#` `B2b b?QmH/ #2 BMpQHp2/ BM bQ+B H K2/B X aT2+B}+ `2@ b2 `+? [m2biBQMb `2, RV q? i `2 i?2 2tT2+i iBQMb- BMi2MiBQMb M/ KQiBp iBQMb Q7 mb2`b +QM+2`MBM; HB#` `v +iBpBiB2b M/ bQ+B H T `iB@ +BT iBQM QM i?2 q2#\ kV q? i FBM/ Q7 TQbbB#BHBiB2b- `2bQm`+2b M/ KQiBp iBQMb /Q HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb ? p2 BM /QTiBM;- /2p2HQTBM;K BMi BMBM; M/ bmTTQ`iBM; bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b\ M/ jV q? i `2 i?2 BM?2`2Mi BM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b BM bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b T`QpB/2/ #v Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b\

Methods and data gathering h?2 2KTB`B+ H rQ`F Q7 i?Bb T`QD2+i Bb /BpB/2/ BMiQ irQ T? b2bX h?2 }`bi T? b2 Bb bm`p2v bim/v KQM; HB#` `v T`Q722bBQM Hb M/ mb2`b M/ r b + ``B2/ Qmi BM mimKM kyRyX h?2 ;Q H rBi? i?Bb bim/v


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r b iQ ;2i #`Q / Qp2`pB2r Q7 i?2 mb2 Q7 bQ+B H K2/B M/ HB#` `B2b M/ QTBMBQMb #Qmi bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b BM Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX h?Bb bim/v +QMbBbib Q7 irQ [m2biBQMM B`2b- QM2 BK2/ iQr `/b mb2`b M/ i?2 Qi?2` iQr `/b HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM HbX h?2 mb2` [m2b@ iBQMM B`2 r b /Bbi`B#mi2/ i?`Qm;? MQMT`Q# #BHBiv [mQi b KTHBM; i i?2 hm`Fm AMi2`M iBQM H "QQF 6 B` M/ i i?2 hm`Fm *Biv J BM GB#` `vX iQi H Q7 d9R `2bTQMb2b r2`2 +QHH2+i2/X h?2 HB#` `v T`Q@ 72bbBQM Hb BM Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b BM i?2 `2 Q7 6BMH M/ S`QT2` `2+2Bp2/ BMpBi iBQMb iQ T `iB+BT i2 BM r2# [m2biBQMM B`2X h?2 Mbr2`BM; ` i2 r b jyX9W r?B+? b?QmH/ #2 +QMbB/2`2/ `2 /BM; i?2 `2bmHibX h?2 b2+QM/ T? b2 Bb +QMi2Mi M HvbBb Q7 6 +2#QQF T ;2b Q7 Tm#@ HB+ HB#` `B2b BM 6BMH M/ S`QT2`X h?2 ;Q H Bb iQ bim/v i?2 BM?2`2Mi BM7Q`K iBQM +iBpBiB2b Q#b2`p #H2 BM i?Bb b2iiBM;X h?Bb bim/v Bb biBHH BM T`Q;`2bb M/ Bib `2bmHib rBHH MQi #2 /Bb+mbb2/ BM i?Bb T T2`X

Preliminary results _2bmHib 7`QK i?2 mb2` bm`p2v b?Qr i? i r?2M Bi +QK2b iQ BM7Q`K@ iBQM +iBpBiB2b QM i?2 q2#- mb2`b ;2M2` HHv 2M; ;2 BM i?2 7QHHQrBM;, b22FBM;- `2 /BM;fpB2rBM;- +QKKmMB+ iBM;- +`2 iBM; M/ +QMi`B#mi@ BM;X h?2 KQbi +QKKQM Q7 i?2b2 }p2 +iBpBiB2b `2 i?2 i` /BiBQM H b22FBM;- `2 /BM; M/ +QKKmMB+ iBM;X h?2 +`2 iBM; M/ +QMi`B#@ miBM; +iBpBiB2b i? i `2 Q7i2M bi`QM;Hv +QMM2+i2/ iQ i?2 MQiBQM Q7 bQ+B H K2/B `2 MQi b rB/2bT`2 / b i?2 i` /BiBQM H +iBpBiB2bX a22FBM; 2M; ;2b mT iQ NjW Q7 i?2 mb2`b QM 7`2[m2Mi # bBb- r?BH2 +`2 iBM; 2M; ;2b jdW M/ +QMi`B#miBM; jyW Q7 i?2 mb2`bX Pp2` ? H7 Q7 i?2 mb2`b bmTTQ`i i?2 BKTH2K2Mi iBQM Q7 bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b BM Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX h?2 `2bmHib /Q- ?Qr2p2`- BM/B+ i2 i? i i?2 mb2`b /Q MQi M2+2bb `BHv b22 bQ+B H K2/B M/ Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b b T `ib Q7 i?2 b K2 +QMi2tiX lb2`b i2M/ iQ # b2 i?2B` QTBMBQMb QM i?2B` T`2pBQmb 2tT2`B2M+2b Q7 HB#` `B2b M/ MQi M2+2bb `BHv QM i?2B` 2tT2`B2M+2 Q7 bQ+B H K2/B X h?2v /Q- 7Q` 2t KTH2- T`272` +QMi +iBM; i?2 bi z 7 +2@iQ@7 +2 M/ b?Qr `2H iBp2Hv HQr BMi2`2bi BM pB`im H `272`2M+2- Hi?Qm;? i?2v ;2M2` HHv 2MDQv i?2 +QKKmMB+ iBQM TQbbB#@ BHBiB2b Q7 i?2 q2#X lb2`b HbQ 2tT2+i M/ }M/ i` /BiBQM H 72 im`2b Q7 i?2 HB#` `v + i HQ; bm+? b T`QKTiM2bb- `2HB #BHBiv M/ mb #BHBiv b KQ`2 BKTQ`i Mi i? M TQbbB#BHBiB2b iQ BM~m2M+2 i?2 +QMi2Mi Q` i? i


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i?2 + i HQ; ? b K Mv mb2`bX h?2 bQ+B H K2/B +iBpBiv i? i BMi2`2bib i?2 mb2`b i?2 KQbi ? b iQ /Q rBi? `2 /BM; `2pB2rb r`Bii2M #v Qi?2` mb2`b M/ HB#` `v bi z- r?BH2 i?2 BMi2`2bi 7Q` +QMi`B#miBM; M/ 2bT2@ +B HHv +`2 iBM; +iBpBiB2b Bb Km+? HQr2`X qQ`i?v Q7 MQi2 Bb i? i i?2 mb2`b BM i?2 bm`p2v biBHH Tmi i?2 KQbi r2B;?i QM MQMvKBiv M/ `2;@ mH iBQMbX HKQbi dyW Q7 i?2 mb2`b r Mi iQ `2K BM MQMvKQmb r?2M r`BiBM; +QKK2Mib QM i?2 HB#` `v r2# bBi2 M/ Qp2` 3yW +QMbB/2` Bi BKTQ`i Mi i? i i?2 HB#` `v ? p2 `mH2b 7Q` r? i i?2 mb2`b r`Bi2 QM i?2 HB#` `v r2# bBi2X h?2 T`BK2 KQiBp iQ` 7Q` mb2`b iQ 2M; ;2 BM HB#` `v +iBpBiB2b QM i?2 q2# b22Kb iQ #2 b2Mb2 Q7 +QKKmMBiv rBi? i?2 HB#` `vX h?2v `2 MQi +QM+2`M2/ rBi? ;2iiBM; Mv `2+Q;MBiBQM Q` `2r `/b 7Q` T `@ iB+BT iBM;X h?2 mb2`b i? i b?Qr i?2 KQbi BMi2MiBQMb M/ BMi2`2bi 7Q` i FBM; T `i BM bQ+B H K2/B +iBpBiB2b BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b `2 Ry@ Re v2 ` QH/b- 7`2[m2Mi HB#` `v mb2`b M/ i?Qb2 r?Q ;2M2` HHv 2MDQv +`2 iBM; +QMi2Mi QM i?2 q2#X _2bmHib 7`QK i?2 bm`p2v KQM; HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb b?Qr i?2v `2 T`BK `BHv KQiBp i2/ #v i?2 TQbbB#BHBiv Q7 /2p2HQTBM; i?2 HB#` `v M/ Bib b2`pB+2bX h?2 p BH #H2 `2bQm`+2b 7Q` bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b BM i?2 Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b `2 bm{+B2Mi +QMbB/2`BM; bFBHHb M/ }M M+B H K2 Mb- i?2 #B; 2t+2TiBQM Bb iBK2X Ai Bb 2pB/2Mi i? i i?2 H +F Q7 iBK2 M/ bi z `2 i?2 #B;;2bi T`Q#H2Kb +QM+2`MBM; i?2 BKTH2K2Mi iBQM Q7 bQ+B H K2/B BM Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2bX h?2 HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb biBHH b?Qr BMi2`2bi BM rQ`FBM; rBi? bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2bX h?2v- ?Qr2p2`- b?Qr KQ`2 BMi2`2bi BM r`BiBM; #HQ; TQbib i? M BM +iBpBiB2b i? i `2 KQ`2 2tTHB+Bi #Qmi BMi2` +iBQM rBi? mb2`b- bm+? b H2 /BM; #QQF /Bb+mb@ bBQMb- ;BpBM; pB`im H `272`2M+2 Q` Qz2`BM; mb2`b i?2 #BHBiv iQ +QMM2+i rBi? i?2 HB#` `v QM bQ+B H M2irQ`FBM; bBi2b bm+? b 6 +2#QQFX

Conclusions h?2 bm`p2v `2bmHib BM/B+ i2 i? i i?2`2 `2 K Mv BM?2`2Mi TQb@ bB#BHBiB2b BM BKTH2K2MiBM; bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b BM HB#` `B2bX "Qi? mb2`b M/ HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb `2 7 KBHB ` rBi? bQ+B H K2/B b2`@ pB+2b Qp2` HHX h?2 HB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb HbQ #2HB2p2 i? i bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b +QmH/ QT2M i?2 /QQ` 7Q` M2r mb2`b M/ BKT`Qp2 i?2 HB#` `v r2# b2`pB+2bX


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AMi2` +iBpBiv b22Kb iQ #2 QM2 Q7 i?2 +Q`2 Bbbm2b BM i?2 +QMi2ti Q7 Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b M/ bQ+B H K2/B X GB#` `v bi z M/ mb2`b `2- BM QM2 r v Q` i?2 Qi?2`- T`2T `2/ iQ T `iB+BT i2 BM GB#` `v kXy +iBpBiB2bX h?2 BMi2` +iBQM #2ir22M i?2b2 ;`QmTb Bb biBHH MQi ;Bp2MX GB#` `v T`Q72bbBQM Hb b22K iQ #2 KQbi BMi2`2bi2/ BM BM7Q`KBM; +iBpBiB2b M/ KQbi Q7 i?2 mb2`b `2 BMi2`2bi2/ BM F22TBM; mT i?2B` `QH2b b `2 /2`b M/ b22F2`bX h?2 +? HH2M;2 7Q` HB#` `B2b Bb iQ }M/ bQ+B H K2/B b2`@ pB+2b i? i `2 Q7 mb2 iQ HB#` `v mb2`b M/ iQ +iBp i2 i?2 ;`QmT Q7 mb2`b r?Q `2 rBHHBM; iQ T `iB+BT i2X



Bibliography

(R) HH `/- aX UkyyNVX GB#` `v K M ;2`b M/ BM7Q`K iBQM BM qQ`H/ kXyX GB#` `v J M ;2K2Mi- jyURfkV- 8d@e3X (k) 6Bb?2`- EX 1X- CmHB2M- >X UkyyNVX AM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ`X M@ Mm H _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- 9j- jRd@ j83X (j) >QHK#2`;- EX- >mpBH - AX- E`QM[pBbi@"2`;- JX- qB/รปM@ qmHz- :X UkyyNVX q? i Bb GB#` `v kXy\ CQm`M H Q7 .Q+m@ K2Mi iBQM- e8U9V- ee3@e3RX (9) J+E2MxB2- SX CX UkyyjVX KQ/2H Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2b BM ++QmMib Q7 2p2`v/ v@HB72 BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM;X CQm`M H Q7 .Q+@ mK2Mi iBQM- 8NURV- RN@9yX (8) a pQH BM2M- _X UkyydVX AM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` M/ BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2, `2pB2rBM; i?2 วณmK#`2HH +QM+2Tibวด Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM@ b22FBM; bim/B2bX h?2 GB#` `v Zm `i2`Hv- ddUkV- RyN@RjkX (e) a pQH BM2M- _X Ukyy3VX 1p2`v/ v BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2bX bQ@ +B H T?2MQK2MQHQ;B+ H T2`bT2+iBp2X G M? K UJ/XV, a+ `2+`Qr S`2bbX (d) a pQH BM2M- _X UkyRRVX bFBM; M/ b? `BM; BM7Q`K iBQM BM i?2 #HQ;QbT?2`2, h?2 + b2 Q7 bHBKKBM; #HQ;bX GB#` `v AM7Q`K@ iBQM a+B2M+2 _2b2 `+?- jj- dj@dNX (3) hmQKBM2M- EX- h HD - aX- a pQH BM2M- _X Ukyy8VX h?2 bQ+B H +QMbi`m+iBQMBbi pB2rTQBMi QM BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2bX h?2Q`B2b


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Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ` Ujk3@jjjVX J2/7Q`/ ULCV, AM7Q`K iBQM hQ/ v- AM+X (N) qBHbQM- hX .X Ukyy3VX h?2 BM7Q`K iBQM mb2`, T bi- T`2b2Mi M/ 7mim`2X CQm`M H Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2- j9U9V- 98d@9e9X


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AǶK S?.@bim/2Mi BM /B;Bi H +mHim`2 i i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 hm`FmX Jv /Q+iQ` H i?2bBb Bb 7Q+mbBM; QM i?2 BM/BpB/m H `QH2b M/ +mHim` H B/2MiBiv- BM i?2 a2+QM/ GB72 pB`im H rQ`H/ b M QT2` iBM; 2MpB`@ QMK2Mi b r2HH b PT2M ++2bb +iBpBiv BM i?2 pB`im H rQ`H/X Jv iBiH2 Bb dzlb2`Ƕb `QH2b M/ +mHim` H B/2MiBiB2b BM i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 _Q+F+HBz2 BM a2+QM/ GB72XǴ

Background Jv `2b2 `+? 7Q+mb2b QM mb2`bǶ +mHim` H B/2MiBiB2b- `QH2b M/ i?2 BKT +i PT2M ++2bb +iBpBiB2b BM a2+QM/ GB72 UaGVX lb2`b BM i?`22 /Bz2`2Mi i?2K2b `2 bim/B2/, 2/m+ iBQM- 2Mi2`T`Bb2b M/ 2Mi2`i BM@ K2Mi Ui?2 i?`22 ǵ1bǶVX h?2b2 i?`22 ǵ1bǶ 7Q`K p bi MmK#2`b Q7 /B7@ 72`2Mi `2 b M/ 2MpB`QMK2Mib BM pB`im H rQ`H/bX AM Kv `2b2 `+?- 1/m+ iBQM GB72 i?2 }`bi ǵ1Ƕ `2T`2b2Mi iBp2b Q`B@ ;BM i2 7`QK _Q+F+HBz2 lMBp2`bBivX h?2 mMBp2`bBivǶb bT2+B H 72 im`2 Bb i? i Bi Bb QT2M iQ HH M/ rQ`Fb QM i?2 AMi2`M2iX 6m`i?2`- Bi Bb MQM@T`Q}i- MQM@ ++`2/Bi2/- BM7Q`K H bbQ+B iBQM Q7 BMbi`m+iQ`b 7`QK p `BQmb mMBp2`bBiB2b M/ +QHH2;2b `QmM/ i?2 rQ`H/X A +?Qb2 _Q+F+HBz2 lMBp2`bBiv b Kv `2b2 `+? bm#D2+i bBM+2 Bi Bb QT2M iQ 2p2`vQM2 M/ ? b M 2t+2HH2Mi `2b2 `+? HB#` `v i? i QT2` i2b QM M QT2M ++2bb T`BM+BTH2X h?2 HB#` `v Bb i?2 ?2 `i Q7 mMBp2`bBiv r?2`2 QM2 + M }M/ `2b2 `+? K i2`B Hb- iQQHb- /pB+2 M/ +QMi +ib iQ bim/v M/ + ``v Qmi `2b2 `+? Q` Dmbi T bb i?2 iBK2X


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A ? / i?2 B/2 iQ `2pB2r 2Mi2`T`Bb2 M/ #mbBM2bb HB72 Ub2+QM/ Çľ1ÇśV BM aG i LQFB Çśb BbH M/c ?Qr2p2`- i?Bb ? b #22M Tmi QM ?QH/ 7Q` i?2 T`2b2MiX Jv i?B`/ Çľ1Çś- 2Mi2`i BMK2Mi- +QK2b 7`QK i?2 "2`HBMRNkyÇśb T`Q@ D2+iX Ai Bb TQTmH ` `QH2@TH vBM; ; K2 +`2 i2/ #v i?2 .mi+? ?Bb@ iQ`B M CQ u `/H2v r?Q r Mi2/ iQ `2+`2 i2 i?2 iKQbT?2`2 Q7 "2`HBM BM i? i 2` X h?2`2 `2 bQK2 8yÄœ dy `2bB/2Mib M/ Ryy pBbBiQ`b BM "2`HBMX oB`im H rQ`H/b `2 T `i Q7 bQ+B H K2/B - T`Q+2bb BM r?B+? BM/BpB/m Hb M/ ;`QmTb +QMbi`m+i b? `2/ K2 MBM;b BM +QMi2Mi- +QK@ KmMBiB2b M/ M2irQ`FBM;X h?2 T`QD2+i BMp2biB; i2b ?Qr pB`im H +QK@ KmMBiB2b z2+i2/ #v i?2 BM/BpB/m H mb2` `QH2b- +mHim` H B/2MiBiv M/ i?2 PT2M ++2bb T`BM+BTH2 `2 /QTi2/ BM i?2 +mbiQK2`- i2 +?2` Q` bim/2Mi TQbBiBQMbX

Methods A 2t KBM2 ?Qr i?2 mb2` +QMbBbib Q7 bBM;H2 +mHim` H B/2MiBiv BM /Bz2`2Mi +QMi2tibc ?Qr i?2 QT2M ++2bb +iBpBiB2b z2+i i?2 +mHim` H B/2MiBiv 7Q`K iBQMc M/ ?Qr i?2 QT2M ++2bb +iBpBiv TT2 `b BM /Bz2`2Mi `QH2bX Jv K i2`B H Bb +QHH2+i2/ 7`QK BMi2`pB2rb- pB/2Qb M/ BK ;2b 7`QK Kv `2b2 `+? `2 b BM a2+QM/ GB72X Hi?Qm;? a2+QM/ GB72 Bb HKQbi +QTv Q7 Qm` `2 H rQ`H/- Bi b?QmH/ #2 2t KBM2/ QM Bib QrM T`2KBb2bX *mHim`2b BM pB`im H rQ`H/b +QKT`Bb2 T2QTH2 @ M/ T2QTH2 `2 `2[mB`2K2Mi 7Q` i?2 +mHim`2 iQ 2tBbiX q?BH2 A mb2 i2ti +QMi2Mi M HvbBb b bmTTQ`i K2i?Q/ BM Kv `2b2 `+?- A BK iQ mb2 b2KBQiB+ [m HBi iBp2 pBbm H +QMi2Mi M HvbBb b Kv K BM `2b2 `+? K2i?Q/X a2KBQiB+ pBbm H +QMi2Mi M HvbBb Bb b2H/QK mb2/ BM +mHim` H `2b2 `+?- i H2 bi BM 6BMH M/ M/ 1m`QT2c ?Qr2p2`- A BK iQ 2tTHQBi i?Bb K2i?Q/ BM Kv `2b2 `+? #2+ mb2 Q7 i?2 +H2 ` pBbm H BKTmHb2 BM pB`im H rQ`H/bX A K 2bT2+B HHv BMi2`2bi2/ BM BK ;2b M/ KQpBM; TB+im`2bX AK ;2 K i2`B H M/ KmHiBTH2 B/2MiBiB2b ? p2 #2+QK2 KQ`2 BKTQ`i Mi 7Q` AMi2`M2i `2b2 `+?2`b bBM+2 T2QTH2 `2 i FBM; M/ Tm#HBb?BM; TB+im`2b QM AMi2`M2i KQ`2 i? M 2p2`X oBbm H K i2`B H QM i?2 AMi2`M2i ? b #22M T`2pBQmbHv 2t KBM2/ HKQbi 2t+HmbBp2Hv b i2+?MB+ H 2tT`2b@ bBQMX


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a2KBQiB+ pBbm H M HvbBb Bb MQi M2r K2i?Q/X S?BHBT "2HH- h?2Q p M G22mr2M M/ _mKBFQ Pv K ? p2 T`2b2Mi2/ Bib mb2 BM i?2 > M/#QQF Q7 oBbm H M HvbBb UkyyRVX "2HH /2b+`B#2b T`2+Bb2 ?vTQ@ i?2b2bc +H2 `Hv /2}M2/ +QM+2Tib Q7 p `B #H2b M/ p Hm2b `2 i?2 bBM2 [m MQM Q7 pBbm H M HvbBb U"2HH kyyRVX ++Q`/BM; iQ p M G22mr2M" `i?2bǶ b2KBQiB+b M/ B+QMQ;` T?v /2 Hb rBi? i?2 b K2 # bB+ [m2b@ iBQMb #Qmi r? i M/ ?Qr iQ bm#KBi BK ;2b- M/ r? i B/2 b M/ p Hm2b i?2 BK ;2b +QMi BMX h?2 /Bz2`2M+2 #2ir22M # `i?2bB M b2@ KBQiB+b M/ B+QMQ;` T?v Bb i? i # `i?2bB M b2KBQiB+b QMHv 2t KBM2b i?2 BK ;2 Bib2H7 M/ i?2 +mHim` H K2 MBM;b Q7 i?2 + TBi H- r?2`2 b B+QMQ;` T?v HbQ T vb ii2MiBQM iQ i?2 BK ;2 T`Q/m+iBQM- HB72 +QM@ i2ti M/ ?BbiQ`v Up M G22mr2M kyyRVX S`Q72bbQ` M/`2B EQȒB` 7`QK i?2 lMBp2`bBiv Q7 GDm#HD M bi i2b i? i r2 + M HQQF M/ M Hvb2 BK ;2b BM K Mv r vbX >2 HbQ K BM@ i BMb i? i r2 b?QmH/ M Hvb2 i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 /B;Bi H BK ;2b bQ i? i r2 mb2 b2KB@ miQK iB+ T`Q+2/m`2b 7Q` mM/2`bi M/BM; i?2 bB;MB}+@ M+2 Q7 BK ;2 +QMi2Mi UEQȒB` kyy9V AK ;2b `2 bT iB H Q` `2;BQM H M/ +QMbBbi Q7 BM/BpB/m H Q#D2+ibX lbBM; [m HBi iBp2 +QMi2Mi M HvbBb 7Q` BK ;2b Kmbi i F2 BMiQ ++QmMi i?2 BK ;2 Q#D2+ib- i?2 BKTQ`i@ M+2 Q7 `2H iBQMb?BTb iQ 2 +? Qi?2`- b r2HH b i?2 iBK2 /BK2MbBQMX Jv `2b2 `+? BKb iQ /2i2`KBM2 B7 Bi TQbbB#H2 iQ +`2 i2 TB+im`2 #Qmi BM/BpB/m HbǶ KmHiB@B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2b BM pB`im H rQ`H/b #v mbBM; b2KBQiB+ [m HBi iBp2 pBbm H M HvbBbX a2KBQiB+ pBbm H M HvbBb Bb M BMi2`2biBM; r v iQ i` +2 ?Qr KmH@ iB7Q`K pB`im H rQ`H/ b2`pB+2b- b bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b- z2+i mb2`bǶ B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2bX Hi?Qm;? pB`im H +? ` +i2`b `2 +m``2MiHv M@ QMvKQmb- MQMvKBiv Bb #2;BMMBM; iQ /Bb TT2 ` b r2 HBMF i?2K iQ Qi?2` bQ+B H K2/B b2`pB+2b HBF2 6 +2#QQF- hrBii2` Q` .2HB+BQmbX AM i?Bb + b2- `2 H T2QTH2 M/ i?2B` 7`B2M/b 7Q`K i?2 pB`im H +? ` +@ i2` M/ i?2B` pB`im H 7`B2M/bX q? i ? TT2Mb r?2M i?2 `2 H B/2MiBiv M/ pB`im H B/2MiBiv Bb +QMM2+i2/\ Jv bim/v BKb iQ /Bb+Qp2` ?Qr mb2`b + M K M ;2 KmHiBTH2 B/2MiBiB2b M/ `QH2b BM pB`im H +mHim`2b mbBM; BK ;2 M HvbBb b i?2 K2i?Q/X A TTHv i?2 +QMi2Mi M HvbBb /2b+`B#2/ #v S?BHBT "2HH M/ J `+mb " MFb iQ i?2 i2tim H M/ pBbm H K i2`B H U6m`i?2` `2b2 `+? "2HH RNNdc JQ`T?v RNNdV p i `b b pBbm H 2K#Q/BK2Mib `2 KQbi BMi2`2biBM; M/ BKTQ`i@ Mi r?2M bim/vBM; B/2MiBiB2b- pBbm H H M/b- TH +2b M/ b+2M2bX AM


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(R) /H2`S2i2` kyykX "2vQM/ *mHim` H A/2M@ iBiv, _2~2+iBQMb QM JmHiB+mHim` HBbK?iiT,ffrrrXK2/B i2X+QKf `iB+H2bf /H2`jX+7K (k) " MFb- J `+mb kyydX lbBM; oBbm H . i BM Zm HBi iBp2 _2@ b2 `+?X GQM/QMX h?Qmb M/ P Fb * HB7Q`MB X aBM; TQ`2X AM/B X Aa"L Nd3@y@deRN@9NdN@9X a :1X (j) " MFb J `+mb M/ JQ`T?v >Qr `/ RNNdX _2i?BMFBM; oBbm H Mi?`QTQHQ;vX GQM/QMX L2r > p2MX Aa"L y jyy@yeeNR@yX u H2 mMBp2`bBiv T`2bbX (9) "2HH- S?BHBT kyyRX *QMi2Mi M HvbBb Q7 oBbm H AK ;2bX > M/@ #QQF Q7 oBbm H M HvbBbX _2T`BMi2/ kyyjX Aa"L y deRN e9de k U?#FVX Aa"L y deRN e9de y UT#FVX a ;2X GQM/QM kyyRX (8) "Q2HHbiQ`z- hQK kyy3X *QKBM; QM ;2 BM a2+QM/ GB72, M Mi?`QTQHQ;Bbi 2tTHQ`2b i?2 pB`im HHv ?mK MX S`BM+2iQM lMB@ p2`bBiv S`2bbX (e) C2MFBMb- _B+? `/ kyy3X aQ+B H A/2MiBivX j`/ 2/BiBQMX Aa"L y@9R8@99393@9 UbB/XV Aa"L y@9R8@ 9939N@k UMB/XV Aa"L Nd3@ y@9R8@99393@k UbB/XV Aa"L Nd3@y@9R8@9939N@N UMB/XV JBHiQM S `F- #BM;/QM- PtQMX _QmiH2/;2 kyy3X (d) > HH- aim `i kyyjX h?2Q`BxBM; .B bTQ` , `2 /2` kyyjX *mH@ im` H A/2MiBiv M/ .B bTQ` X

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The Danish digitalized cultural heritage and its users

Figure 1. User interaction with cultural heritage information embedded on the web.

4.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS

Whether, and how, the user finds the cultural heritage information depends on factors both on the system side (e.g. findability) and the user herself (e.g. information need, motivation, level of information literacy). mb2` ? b iQ }M/ ?2` r v QM deals i?2 r2# `2bQm`+2 +QMi BMBM; The Hr vb project research questions (RQ) withi?2 different aspects of the i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM Q#D2+ib U b BHHmbi` i2/ BM 6B;m`2 R #2HQrVX research problem. RQ 1-4 are mainly descriptive in nature and leads to h?2 BM7Q`K iBQM `2bQm`+2b correlation questions in RQ5. ? p2 irQ H2p2Hb, Q#D2+i M/ `2bQm`+2X P#D2+ib `2 i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM- i?2 bBM;H2 TB+im`2b- pB/2Qb M/ i2tib +QMi BMBM; i?2 +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2X PMdo i?2 H2p2H i?2`2 `2 4.1 RQ1: What do the users in `2bQm`+2 the cultural M pB; iBQM H 7mM+iBQMb HBF2 BMi2`M H b2 `+? M/ + i2;Q`B2b iQ;2i?2` heritage resource? rBi? ;2M2` H BM7Q`K iBQMX h?2 `2bQm`+2 H2p2H Bb 7QH/2/ `QmM/ i?2 +QHH2+iBQM Q7 Q#D2+ib M/itBbis possible H v2` i? i ? b iQout #2specific T2M2i` i2/ From system log files to single searchiQ `2 +? i?2 Q#D2+ibX h?Bb /BpBbBQM Bb BKTQ`i Mi r?2M HQQFBM; QM b2 `+? sessions and to follow a user through a session. It is often not possible to bi` i2;B2b M/ M pB; iBQM H r vb QM i?2 r2#X AM 6B;m`2 R i?2 BM@ track a user across different sessions – this depends on the availability of 7Q`K iBQM UQ#D2+iV M/ BM7Q`K iBQM bvbi2K U`2bQm`+2V `2 logs. b?QrM sufficient IP-number and session-ID information in the specific The b +B`+H2b rBi?BM i?2 Qmi2` r2# +B`+H2X log file data will, however, be sufficient to explore the moves and tactics, the two most basic levels of the four levels of interaction (Bates, 1990; Jansen, 2009). In addition, it is important to study both the navigation and the queries of the user (Mat-Hassan & Levene, 2005), as the two behaviors are two sides of the same coin. Several quantitative usage measures are relevant and interesting, e.g. bouncing rate, depth and length of visits and the number of object looked at (Nicholas et al., 2006).

3


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Research questions q?2i?2`- M/ ?Qr- i?2 mb2` }M/b i?2 +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2 BM7Q`K @ iBQM /2T2M/b QM 7 +iQ`b #Qi? QM i?2 bvbi2K bB/2 U2X;X }M/ #BHBivV M/ i?2 mb2` ?2`b2H7 U2X;X BM7Q`K iBQM M22/- KQiBp iBQM- H2p2H Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM HBi2` +vVX h?2 T`QD2+i `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb U_ZV /2 Hb rBi? /Bz2`2Mi bT2+ib Q7 i?2 `2b2 `+? T`Q#H2KX _Z R@9 `2 K BMHv /2b+`BTiBp2 BM M im`2 M/ H2 /b iQ +Q``2H iBQM [m2biBQMb BM _Z8X

RQ1: What do the users do in the cultural heritage resource? 6`QK bvbi2K HQ; }H2b Bi Bb TQbbB#H2 iQ bBM;H2 Qmi bT2+B}+ b2 `+? b2bbBQMb M/ iQ 7QHHQr mb2` i?`Qm;? b2bbBQMX Ai Bb Q7i2M MQi TQbbB#H2 iQ i` +F mb2` +`Qbb /Bz2`2Mi b2bbBQMb Ĝ i?Bb /2T2M/b QM i?2 p BH #BHBiv Q7 bm{+B2Mi AS@MmK#2` M/ b2bbBQM@A. BM7Q`K iBQM BM i?2 bT2+B}+ HQ;bX h?2 HQ; }H2 / i rBHH- ?Qr2p2`- #2 bm{+B2Mi iQ 2tTHQ`2 i?2 KQp2b M/ i +iB+b- i?2 irQ KQbi # bB+ H2p2Hb Q7 i?2 7Qm` H2p2Hb Q7 BMi2` +iBQM U" i2b- RNNyc C Mb2M- kyyNVX AM //BiBQM- Bi Bb BKTQ`i Mi iQ bim/v #Qi? i?2 M pB; iBQM M/ i?2 [m2`B2b Q7 i?2 mb2` UJ i@> bb M G2p2M2- kyy8V- b i?2 irQ #2? pBQ`b `2 irQ bB/2b Q7 i?2 b K2 +QBMX a2p2` H [m MiBi iBp2 mb ;2 K2 bm`2b `2 `2H2p Mi M/ BMi2`2biBM;- 2X;X #QmM+BM; ` i2- /2Ti? M/ H2M;i? Q7 pBbBib M/ i?2 MmK#2` Q7 Q#D2+i HQQF2/ i ULB+?QH b 2i HX- kyyeVX

RQ2: How do users find the cultural heritage resource? lb2`b K v `2 +? i?2 +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2 `2bQm`+2b BM MmK#2` Q7 /Bz2`2Mi r vbX PM i?2 r2# i?2`2 `2 i?`22 # bB+ 7Q`Kb Q7 M pB; iBQM UG2p2M2- kyRyV, R .B`2+i M pB; iBQMX k L pB; iBQM i?`Qm;? HBMFbX j L pB; iBQM mbBM; a2 `+? 1M;BM2X h?2 HQ; }H2b +QMi BM `272``BM; l_GÇśb BM+Hm/BM; b2 `+? i2`Kb 7`QK i?2 `272``BM; b2 `+? 2M;BM2X q? i FBM/ Q7 M22/ /Q i?2 b2 `+? i2`Kb


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BM/B+ i2 i?2 mb2`b ? p2- BM7Q`K iBQM H- M pB; iBQM H Q` i` Mb +iBQM H U"`Q/2`- kyykV\ M/ `2 i?2v HQQFBM; 7Q` FMQrM Bi2Kb Q` FMQrM +QHH2+iBQMb\ P` /Q i?2v ? p2 ;2M2` H BM7Q`K iBQM M22/b M/ ``Bp2b iQ i?2 ?2`Bi ;2 +QHH2+iBQMb BM i`vBM; iQ bQHp2 i?2K- MQi HQQFBM; 7Q` +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2 BM T `iB+mH `\ 6BM HHv- ?Qr M pB; i2b i?2 mb2`b iQ i?2 `2bQm`+2b\

RQ3: How findable is the heritage resource and its objects? JQ`pBHH2 /2}M2b }M/ #BHBiv BM K#B2Mi }M/ #BHBiv b 7QHHQrb UJQ`@ pBHH2- kyy8V, X

h?2 [m HBiv Q7 #2BM; HQ+ i #H2 M/ M pB; #H2X

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h?2 /2;`22 iQ r?B+? bvbi2K Q` 2MpB`QMK2Mi bmTTQ`ib M pB; iBQM M/ `2i`B2p HX

b JQ`pBHH2Ƕb /2}MBiBQM b?Qrb }M/ #BHBiv QT2` i2b QM /Bz2`2Mi H2p2Hb#Qi? QM Q#D2+i H2p2H U#V M/ QM bvbi2K H2p2H U+VX >2 HbQ /Bb+mbb2b i?2 [m HBiv Q7 M/ i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/ #BHBiv- r?B+? BKTHB2b i? i }M/@ #BHBiv + M #2 [m MiB}2/ i bQK2 b+ H2X AM7Q`K iBQM QM i?2 r2# Bb Tm#HBb?2/ BM bQK2 BM7Q`K iBQM bvbi2K U2X;X +QMi2Mi K M ;2@ K2Mi bvbi2K- #HQ; Q` / i # b2V M/ i?2 BM7Q`K iBQM bvbi2K Bb i?2M p BH #H2 QM i?2 r2#X "2+ mb2 Q7 i?2 +QKTH2tBiv Q7 r2# Tm#HB+ @ iBQM }M/ #BHBiv Bb +QMbi MiHv +? M;BM; M/ ? `/ iQ + H+mH i2- #mi Bi KB;?i #2 i?2 KQbi BKTQ`i Mi bT2+i QM BM7Q`K iBQM QM i?2 r2# BM i?Bb 2` Q7 b2 `+? 2M;BM2 mb2X h?2 TH M Bb iQ mb2 M M HvbBb T`QiQ+QH M/ K2 bm`2 ii`B#mi2b i #Qi? `2bQm`+2 M/ Q#D2+i H2p2HX h?2 bT2+ib M/ ii`B#mi2b K2 b@ m`2/ rBHH #2 /2`Bp2/ 7`QK `2b2 `+? BM `2H2p Mi `2 b- 2X;X r2# BM@ 7Q`K iBQM `2i`B2p H- b2 `+? #2? pBQ` M/ BM7Q`K iBQM `+?Bi2+im`2#mi HbQ 7`QK #2bi T` +iB+2 BM i?2 }2H/b b2 `+? 2M;BM2 QTiBKBx iBQM M/ r2# mb #BHBiv U2X;X 1M;2 kyyNVX ii`B#mi2b M/ 7 +iQ`b HBF2 i?2 7QHHQrBM; rBHH #2 bim/B2/,


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Ab i?2 `2bQm`+2fQ#D2+i + i HQ;m2/- 2X;X BM "B#HBQi2FX/FR \ Ab i?2 `2bQm`+2fQ#D2+i BM/2t2/ #v i?2 r2# b2 `+? 2M;BM2b\ Ab i?2 Q#D2+i /QrMHQ / #H2\ .Q2b i?2 Q#D2+i ? p2 mMB[m2 l_G\ q? i K2/B ivT2 Bb i?2 Q#D2+i\ `2 i?2`2 Mv r2# kXy@7mM+iBQMb U2X;X b? `2@#miiQMbV BM `2H @ iBQM iQ i?2 Q#D2+i\ hQ r? i 2ti2Mi ? b i?2 Q#D2+i K2i / i \ >Qr ?B;? Bb i?2 :QQ;H2 S ;2_ MF@p Hm2 Q7 i?2 Q#D2+i\ Ai rBHH #2 ii2KTi2/ iQ + H+mH i2 }M/ #BHBiv b+Q`2 Qmi Q7 i?2 M@ br2`b BM i?2 T`QiQ+QHX A7 i?Bb Bb MQi 72 bB#H2 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ Q#D2+ib rBHH #2 +H bbB}2/ BMiQ /Bz2`2Mi ;`QmTb /2T2M/BM; QM i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/ #BHBivX AM //BiBQM- }M/ #BHBiv KB;?i #2 b22M b T `i Q7 i?2 }2H/ Q7 r2#QK2i`B+b U"Dƺ`M2#Q`M AM;r2`b2M- kyy9c h?2Hr HH- kyyNVX "mi }M/ #BHBiv Bb KQ`2 i? M HBMF M HvbBbX _2 +? #BHBiv i?`Qm;? HBMFb Bb QM2 BKTQ`i Mi T `i Q7 }M/ #BHBiv- #mi i?2`2 `2 Qi?2` 2[m H BKTQ`i@ Mi T `ib M/ i?2b2 KB;?i MQi #2 +H bbB}2/ b r2#QK2i`B+bX

RQ4: Who are the users and what are their thoughts on the cultural heritage resources? _2b2 `+? [m2biBQM 9 Bb Mbr2`2/ T`BK `v rBi? q2# bm`p2vb- QM2 BM 2 +? Q7 i?2 bim/B2/ `2bQm`+2bX h?2 BK Bb iQ ; i?2` / i iQ ;Q ;2i #2ii2` TB+im`2 Q7 i?2 mb2`bX h?2 HQ; }H2b +QMi BM Dmbi #2? pBQ` H i` +2b Q7 i?2 mb2`b +iBQMb- MQi Mv / i #Qmi i?2 mb2`b Q` i?2B` M22/bX h?2 q2# bm`p2vb +QmH/ #2 +QMM2+i2/ iQ QM2 Q` b2p2` H TT`Q+?2b2X;X AM7Q`K iBQM ?Q`BxQM UaQMM2Mr H/- qBH/2Kmi?- "- > `KQM R ?iiT,ff#B#HBQi2FX/F

"B#HBQi2FX/F Bb HB#` `v + i HQ; +QMi BMBM; HH Tm#HB+Hv 7mM/2/ +QHH2+iBQMb BM .2MK `FX


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kyyRV- a2`BQmb H2Bbm`2 Uai2##BMb- kyydV Q` a pQH BM2MǶb 1GAa Ua @ pQH BM2M- kyydVX "mi BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; M/ i bFb BM T`Q72bbBQM H +QMi2ti +QmH/ HbQ #2 Q7 BMi2`2bi U2X;X "vbi`ƺK C `p2HBM- RNN8VX PM KQ`2 i?2Q`2iB+ H H2p2H K v i?2 2p2`v/ v T` +iB+2 Q7 /2 *2`@ i2 m Ubi` i2;v- i +iB+b M/ `2bBbi M+2V #2 bmBi #H2 7Q` _Z9 M/ b K2 M iQ +QMM2+i HH i?2 `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb BM KQ`2 i?2Q`2iB+ H r v U*2`i2 m- RN39VX

RQ5: Correlations between the results from RQ14 h?2 K BMHv /2b+`BTiBp2 _ZR@9 `2 Tmi BM `2H iBQM iQ QM2 MQi?2` BM _Z8X h?2 bim/B2/ +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2 `2bQm`+2b `2 Q7 /Bz2`2Mi ivT2b M/ 7`QK /Bz2`2Mi BMbiBimiBQMb- M/ +QMi BM /Bz2`2Mi FBM/b Q7 Q#D2+ib- 2X;X i2ti M/ pB/2QX h? i Bb #Qi? bi`2M;i? M/ r2 F@ M2bb- #mi ?QT27mHHv bQK2 T ii2`Mb rBHH 2K2`;2X SQbbB#H2 +Q``2H iBQMb KB;?i #2, Ab i?2`2 +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M ?Qr mb2`b }M/ i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 mb ;2 Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ Ab i?2`2 +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M i?2 mb ;2 Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/ #BHBiv Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ Ab i?2`2 +QMM2+iBQM #2ir22M ?Qr mb2`b }M/ i?2 `2bQm`+2b M/ i?2 /2;`22 Q7 }M/ #BHBiv Q7 i?2 `2bQm`+2b\ `2 i?2`2 /Bz2`2M+2bfbBKBH `BiB2b BM i?2 b2 `+? #2? pBQ` BM i?2 /Bz2`2Mi `2bQm`+2b\

Research design h?2 bim/v Bb [m MiBi iBp2 M/ BM i?2 Qp2`H TTBM; `2 #2ir22M b2p2` H `2b2 `+? }2H/b, r2#QK2i`B+b- BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; M/ `2@ i`B2p H M/ r2# b2 `+?X _2b2 `+? [m2biBQM R M/ k rBHH #2 Mbr2`2/ rBi? M HvbBb Q7 HQ; }H2b 7`QK i?2 bim/B2/ ?2`Bi ;2 `2bQm`+2bX h?2 HQ; M HvbBb rBHH #2 +QKTH2K2Mi2/ rBi? r2# bm`p2vb ii +?2/ iQ i?2 `2bQm`+2b b r v iQ ;2i #2ii2` TB+im`2 Q7 i?2 mb2`b U_Z9VX hQ Mbr2` `2b2 `+? [m2biBQM j i?2 bim/B2/ `2bQm`+2b `2 2p Hm i2/ rBi? }M/ #BHBiv b+?2K2 iQ ``Bp2 i +QKT ` #H2 }M/ #BHBiv b+Q`2bX


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The Danish digitalized cultural heritage and its users

Figure 2. Illustration of the interconnections between the project research questions. 4.5.2

Progress and status

h?2 b2imT 7Q`Kb K2i?Q/QHQ;B+ H i`B M;mH iBQMX h?2 HQ; M @ HvbBb-The i?2following r2# bm`p2vb M/heritage i?2 }M/ #BHBiv M HvbBb `2 Tmi BM `2H iBQM cultural resources will be studied: iQ i?2 }p2 `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb b BHHmbi` i2/ BM 6B;m`2 k #2HQrX _Z8 x Art Index Denmark2 (Kunstindex Danmark)[m2biBQMb is a database a `2 i?2 HBM2b +QMM2+iBM; i?2 Qi?2` `2b2 `+? BM covering i?2 +B`+H2bX large part of the holdings in the Danish Art Museums from The Heritage Agency of Denmark. The website also includes a dictionary of Danish artists and pictures of some works. 3 Progress x Bonazaand is a status Youtube-like service from Denmark’s Radio (DR) which contains popular videos from the archive of DR. h?2 7QHHQrBM; +mHim` H ?2`Bi ;2 4`2bQm`+2b rBHH #2 bim/B2/, x Guaman Poma Inca Chronicle at the Royal Library is a widely used digitized book; maybe the most read online ebook in Denmark.

2

https://www.kulturarv.dk/kid/ http://www.dr.dk/Bonanza/index.htm 4 http://www.kb.dk/permalink/2006/poma/info/en/frontpage.htm 3

7


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(R) " i2b- JX CX URNNyVX q?2`2 a?QmH/ i?2 S2`bQM aiQT M/ i?2 AM7Q`K iBQM a2 `+? AMi2`7 +2 ai `i\X AM7Q`K iBQM S`Q+2bbBM; J M ;2K2Mi- ke- 8d8@8NRX (k) "Dƺ`M2#Q`M- GX- AM;r2`b2M- SX Ukyy9VX hQr `/ # bB+ 7` K2rQ`F 7Q` r2#QK2i`B+bX CQm`M H Q7 i?2 K2`B+ M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v- 88UR9V- RkRe@RkkdX (j) "`Q/2`- X UkyykVX i tQMQKv Q7 r2# b2 `+?X aA:A_ 6Q`mKjeUkV- j@RyX (9) "vbi`ƺK- EX- C `p2HBM- EX URNN8VX h bF +QKTH2tBiv z2+ib BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; M/ mb2X AM7Q`K iBQM S`Q+2bbBM; J M@ ;2K2Mi- jRUkV- RNR@kRjX (8) *2`i2 m- JX /X URN39VX h?2 T` +iB+2 Q7 2p2`v/ v HB72X "2`F2H2v* , lMBp2`bBiv Q7 * HB7Q`MB S`2bbX (e) 1M;2- 1X UkyyNVX h?2 `i Q7 a1PX a2# biQTQH- * , PǶ_2BHHv J2/B X (d) C Mb2M- "X CX UkyyNVX h?2 K2i?Q/QHQ;v Q7 b2 `+? HQ; M HvbBbX AM "X CX C Mb2M- AX h Fb B X aTBMF U1/bXV- > M/#QQF Q7 `2b2 `+? QM r2# HQ; M HvbBbX >2`b?2v- LuX A:A :HQ# HX (3) G2p2M2- JX UkyRyVX M BMi`Q/m+iBQM iQ b2 `+? 2M;BM2b M/ r2# M pB; iBQMX >Q#QF2M- LXCX, CQ?M qBH2vX (N) J i@> bb M- JX- G2p2M2- JX Ukyy8VX bbQ+B iBM; b2 `+? M/ M pB; iBQM #2? pBQ` i?`Qm;? HQ; M HvbBbX CQm`M H Q7 i?2


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K2`B+ M aQ+B2iv 7Q` AM7Q`K iBQM a+B2M+2 M/ h2+?MQHQ;v8eUNV- NRj@Nj9X (Ry) JQ`pBHH2- SX Ukyy8VX K#B2Mi }M/ #BHBivX a2# biQTQH- * , PǶ_2BHHvX (RR) LB+?QH b- .X- >mMiBM;iQM- SX- qBHHB Kb- SX- .Q#`QrQHbFB- hX UkyyeVX h?2 /B;Bi H BM7Q`K iBQM +QMbmK2`X AM X aTBMF- *X *QH2 U1/bXV- L2r /B`2+iBQMb BM ?mK M BM7Q`K iBQM #2? pBQ`X .Q`/`2+?i- aT`BM;2`X (Rk) a pQH BM2M- _X Ukyy3VX 1p2`v/ v BM7Q`K iBQM T` +iB+2b , bQ@ +B H T?2MQK2MQHQ;B+ H T2`bT2+iBp2X G M? K- J/X, a+ `2+`Qr S`2bbX (Rj) aQMM2Mr H/- .X >X- qBH/2Kmi?- "X aX- > `KQM- :X GX UkyyRVX `2b2 `+? K2i?Q/ iQ BMp2biB; i2 BM7Q`K iBQM b22F@ BM; mbBM; i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM ?Q`BxQMb, M 2t KTH2 7`QK bim/v Q7 HQr2` bQ+BQ@2+QMQKB+ bim/2MibǶ BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; #2? pBQ`X h?2 L2r _2pB2r Q7 AM7Q`K iBQM "2? pBQ` _2b2 `+?- k- e8@3eX (R9) ai2##BMb- _X X UkyydVX a2`BQmb H2Bbm`2 , T2`bT2+iBp2 7Q` Qm` iBK2X L2r "`mMbrB+F- LXCX, h` Mb +iBQM Sm#HBb?2`bX (R8) h?2Hr HH- JX UkyyNVX AMi`Q/m+iBQM iQ r2#QK2i`B+b , Zm Mi@ Bi iBp2 r2# `2b2 `+? 7Q` i?2 bQ+B H b+B2M+2bX a M _ 7 2H- * , JQ`; M *H vTQQHX


SOCIAL MEDIA RESEARCH AT SWEDISH SCHOOL OF LIBRARY AND INFORMATION SCIENCE 0DULD /LQGK (PPD )RUVJUHQ DQG 'DYLG *XQQDUVVRQ 8QLYHUVLW\ RI %RUnV 6ZHGHQ

Introduction aQ+B H K2/B Bb QM2 Q7 b2p2` H ?B;?Hv T`BQ`BiBb2/ `2b2 `+? i?2K2b i i?2 ar2/Bb? a+?QQH Q7 HB#` `v M/ BM7Q`K iBQM b+B2M+2X Ai r b BMBiB i2/ BM .2+2K#2` kyyN M/ r b v2 ` H i2` r `/2/ 8 KBH@ HBQM a1E `2b2 `+? ;` Mi 7Q` i?2 T2`BQ/ kyRR@kyRj- 7mM/2/ #v "Q`´b lMBp2`bBivX aQ+B H K2/B Bb #`Q / M/ +? HH2M;BM; `2b2 `+? `2 rBi? +iBpBiB2b QM;QBM; Q` #2BM; BMBiB i2/ BM KQbi /Bb+BTHBM2b rBi?BM i?2 bQ+B H b+B2M+2b M/ ?mK MBiB2bX h?2 bi`2M;i? Q7 GAa- M/ Qm` `2b2 `+? i?2K2- Bb i?2 i` /BiBQM Q7 mM/2`bi M/BM; BM7Q`K iBQM M/ BM7Q`K iBQM i2+?MQHQ;B2b #`Q /Hv M/ 7`QK KmHiBim/2 Q7 T2`bT2+i@ Bp2bX Pm` `2b2 `+? BKb i BMp2biB; iBM; i?2 +Q@T`Q/m+iBQM Q7 bQ+B H K2/B M/ bQ+B H `2H iBQMbX q?2`2 `2 bQ+B2iv- BMbiBimiBQMb- T`Q72b@ bBQMb M/ Q`; MBx iBQMb i FBM; bQ+B H K2/B - M/ r?2`2 /Q2b bQ+B H K2/B i F2 mb\ AM i?Bb #bi` +i vQm rBHH }M/ b?Q`i T`2b2Mi iBQM Q7 i?`22 2K2`@ ;BM; /Q+iQ` H T`QD2+ib +QMM2+i2/ iQ i?2 bQ+B H K2/B `2b2 `+? i i?2 /2T `iK2MiX

Emma Forsgren: Information related activities and social media in business organizations h?2 7Q+mb Q7 i?Bb /Bbb2`i iBQM `2b2 `+? Bb QM T`Bp i2 b2+iQ` #mbB@ M2bb Q`; MBx iBQMb M/ i?2B` BMi2` +iBQM rBi? M2r bQ+B H K2/B bBi2b M/ b2`pB+2b b #Qi? BM7Q`K iBQM `2bQm`+2b M/ pB`im H rQ`FbT +2bX


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David Gunnarsson: Webometrics and visualization of Social Media data h?Bb T`QD2+i BKb iQ /2p2HQT K2i?Q/b 7Q` ;;`2; iBM;- M HvxBM; M/ pBbm HBxBM; bQ+B H K2/B / i X h?2 Qp2` HH Tm`TQb2 Bb iQ /2p2HQT M2r K2i?Q/b M/ iQ `2/2p2HQT 2tBbiBM; K2i?Q/b 7Q` M HvxBM; `2 H rQ`H/ bQ+B H K2/B / i X h?2 K BM `2 Q7 BMi2`2bi 7Q` i?Bb T`QD2+i Bb ?Qr +QKKmMBiB2b- QTBMBQMb M/ b2MiBK2Mib /2p2HQT Q` +? M;2 Qp2` iBK2X h?2 T`Q#H2K HB2b BM }M/BM; bmBi #H2 M/ b+ H #H2 K2i?Q/b 7Q` 2t@ i` +iBM; `2H2p Mi / i 7`QK bQ+B H K2/B b r2HH b }M/BM; K2i?Q/b 7Q` pBbm HBxBM; i?2 / i BM M TT`QT`B i2 r vX h?2 ;` T?b M/


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Maria Lindh: Cloud computing services in organisations ethical dimensions, implications for information management, information professionals h?2`2 ? p2 #22M bm;;2biBQMb i? i BKTH2K2Mi iBQM Q7 +HQm/ +QK@ TmiBM; BM Q`; MBb iBQMb rBHH 7m`i?2` ;`2 i +? M;2- #Qi? 7Q` i?2 i` @ /BiBQM H bQ7ir `2 +QKT MB2b b r2HH b 7Q` i?Qb2 rQ`FBM; i i` /B@ iBQM H Ah /2T `iK2Mib U" `M ii- #`B27 ;mB/2 iQ +HQm/ +QKTmiBM;kyRyVX aQK2 HbQ BM/B+ i2 i? i i?2`2 rBHH #2 b?B7i BM i?2 M22/ Q7 Ah +QKT2i2M+2 UC +FbQM- a?B7i iQ +HQm/ `2[mB`2b 7`2b? Ah bFBHHb*QKTmi2`rQ`H/ kyRR@y8@y8V- +? M;BM; 7`QK KQ`2 T` +iB+ H Ah bFBHHb iQ bi` i2;B+ M/ /2p2HQTK2Mi bFBHHb +QM+2`MBM; Qp2` HH BM7Q`K iBQM K M ;2K2Mi bi` i2;B2b BM Q`; MBb iBQMbX _2+2MiHv QM2 ar2/Bb? KmMB+BT HBiv /2+B/2/ iQ BKTH2K2Mi :QQ;H2 TTb- bBM+2 Bi r b 7`22 Q7 +? `;2 M/ Çłi?2 #2biÇ´X h?2v r2`2 T`Qm/ Q7 #2BM; i?2 }`bi KmMB+BT HBiv BM ar2/2M mbBM; i?Bb b2`pB+2 M/ ? / b2`BQmbHv `2~2+i2/ QM 2p2`v T`Q#H2K BM mbBM; BiX h?Bb + b2 ` Bb2/ +QM+2`Mb QM i?2 2i?B+b BM i?2B` 2zQ`ibX aim/B2b b?Qr i? i Tm#HB+ Q`; MBb iBQMb H`2 /v mb2 +HQm/ +QKTmiBM; iQ ;`2 i 2ti2MiX PM2 v2 ` ;Q h?2 G2; H- 6BM M+B H M/ /KBMBbi` iBp2 a2`pB+2b ;2M+v BM ar2/2M K /2 bm`p2v- r?2`2 9yW UQmi Q7 jyy Mbr2`bV Q7 i?2 T `iB+BT iBM; Tm#HB+ Q`; MBb iBQMb b B/ i?2v H`2 /v ? / /QTi2/ +HQm/ +QKTmiBM;X Jv `2b2 `+? BKb `2 iQ 2t KBM2 i?2 +? M;BM; `QH2 Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM T`Q72bbBQM Hb r?2M BM7Q`K iBQM K M ;2K2Mi +? M;2 /m2 iQ BKTH2@


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Research task h?2 `2b2 `+? [m2biBQM Bb, Ǵ>Qr `2 i?2 6BMMBb? Tm#HB+ HB#` `B2b /2p2HQTBM; i?2B` b2`pB+2b #v K2 Mb Q7 T`QD2+ib\Ǵ h?2 Mbr2` Bb bQm;?i #v 2t KBMBM; /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBiB2b BM M iBQMrB/2 T`QD2+i ǵGB#` `v aT +2b M/ *QM+2Tib BM i?2 AM7Q`K @ iBQM aQ+B2ivǶ Ukyy3@kyRRV- r?B+? Bb T `i Q7 1m`QT2 M aQ+B H 6mM/ T`Q;` KK2X h?2`2 `2 i?`22 `2;BQM H HB#` `B2b T `iB+BT iBM; BM i?2 T`QD2+i rBi? i?2B` QrM bm#T`QD2+ibX 1 +? bm#T`QD2+i ? b b2p2` H bBKmHi M2Qmb /2p2HQTK2Mi i `;2ibX h?2 bim/v Bb 7Q+mbBM; QM 2 +? T`QD2+i ;`QmT iQ 7QHHQr mT i?2 7Q`K iBQM Q7 bBM;H2 /2p2HQTK2Mi i `;2i M/ Bib /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q+2bb2b b i2KTQ` H M `` iBp2X h?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q+2bb Bb 2t KBM2/ 7`QK i?2 T2`bT2+iBp2 Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i ;`QmTX h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v BKb i /2b+`B#BM; i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBi@ B2b- BX2X r? i Bb `2 HHv Q++m``BM; QM i?2 T`QD2+ibX h?2 bim/v HbQ 2t KBM2b r? i FBM/ Q7 +QHH #Q` iBQM i?2 T`QD2+i i2 Kb `2 /QBM;


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Theoretical framework h?2 i?2Q`2iB+ H 7` K2rQ`F Bb +QMbi`m+i2/ 7`QK b2T ` i2 2H2K2Mib bBM+2 i?2`2 Bb MQ `2 /v@K /2 KQ/2H iQ TTHvX ++Q`/BM; iQ "HQK@ [mBbi 2i HX UkyRyV- BMbm{+B2Mi ii2MiBQM ? b #22M T B/ iQ i?2 +iBp@ BiB2b Q7 i?2 /2p2HQT2`b rQ`FBM; BM T`QD2+ibc i?Bb ; T Bb KQbi 2pB/2Mi BM i?2 bim/v Q7 KmHiB@ T`Q72bbBQM H T`QD2+i ;`QmTbX JQ`2Qp2`- i?2 +QM+2Ti Q7 ǵ/2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`FǶ ? b #22M TQQ`Hv /2}M2/X *QKKQM iQ bm+? /2}MBiBQMb Bb i? i i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`F Bb b22M b M i@ i2KTi iQ +? M;2 i?2 Q`; MBx iBQMǶb +iBpBiB2b Q` iQ BKT`Qp2 Bib rQ`F K2i?Q/bX h?2 /2}MBiBQM /B{+mHiB2b K v #2 /m2 iQ i?2 7 +i i? i i?2 i `;2i- b+QT2- Q`; MBx iBQM 7Q`K M/ i?2 # bBb 7Q` /2p2HQTK2Mi +iBpBiv K v p `v bB;MB}+ MiHv 7`QK QM2 Q`; MBx iBQM iQ MQi?2`X UhQBFFQ M/ _ Mi M2M- kyyNV .2p2HQTK2Mi rQ`F BM T`Bp i2 #mbBM2bb M/ Tm#HB+ /KBMBbi` @ iBQM Bb Q7i2M Q`; MBx2/ b T`QD2+ibX ǵS`QD2+iǶ Bb HbQ M K#B;mQmb +QM+2TiX AM i?2 i` /BiBQM H T`QD2+i K M ;2K2Mi HBi2` im`2 T`QD2+ib `2 pB2r2/ b BM/2T2M/2Mi iQQHb 7Q` +?B2pBM; +? M;2- MQi b bT2@ +B}+ Q`; MBx iBQM H 7Q`KX h?2 `2b2 `+? Q7 i?2 T`QD2+i K M ;2K2Mi i` /BiBQM ? b #22M /BpB/2/ BMiQ i` /BiBQM H bvbi2K@KQ/2H@# b2/ M/ bQ+B H b+B2M+2@# b2/ T`Q+2bb@Q`B2Mi2/ TT`Q +?X U"HQK[mBbi 2i HX kyRyV h?2 T`2b2Mi bim/v #mBH/b mTQM i?2 i?2Q`v Q7 i?2 i2KTQ` `v Q`@ ; MBx iBQM i?2Q`vX GmM/BM M/ aƺ/2`?QHK URNN8V bm;;2bi 7Qm` +QM@ +2Tib i? i `2 `2H i2/ iQ /Bz2`2Mi T? b2b Q7 i?2 HB72 +v+H2 Q7 i?2 i2KTQ` `v Q`; MBx iBQM, +iBQM@ # b2/ 2Mi`2T`2M2m`B HBbK- 7` ;@ K2Mi iBQM Q7 +QKKBiK2Mi #mBH/BM;- TH MM2/ BbQH iBQM M/ BMbiBim@ iBQM HBx2/ i2`KBM iBQMX h?2 T`QD2+i i2 K Bb b22M b i2KTQ` `v Q`; MBx iBQM- r?B+? ? b /Bz2`2Mi 72 im`2b 7`QK i?Qb2 Q7 T2`K M@ 2Mi Q`; MBx iBQMX +iBQM Bb T`BK `v +QM+2Ti BM i?2 i?2Q`v Q7 i2KTQ` `v Q`; MBx iBQMbX h?Bb i?2Q`v /Q2b MQi T v Mv bT2+B H i@ i2MiBQM iQ BMi2` +iBQM rBi? Qi?2` Q`; MBx iBQMb /m`BM; i?2 T`QD2+iǶb HB72 +v+H2c ?2M+2 CQ? MbbQM- Gƺ7bi`ƺK M/ P?HbbQMǶb KQ/2H UkyydV 7Q` M HvbBM; i?2 `2H iBQMb?BT #2ir22M /2p2HQTK2Mi T`QD2+ib M/


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Research methods: data collection h?Bb bim/v Bb + ``B2/ Qmi b + b2 bim/v rBi? +iBQM `2b2 `+? T@ T`Q +? BM r?B+? i?2 M `` iBp2 +? M;2 ++QmMiBM; UL* V M/ 2TBb@ Q/B+ BMi2`pB2rb `2 mb2/ b F2v `2b2 `+? K2i?Q/bX L* Bb K2i?Q/ 7Q` T`Q/m+BM; Q`; MBx iBQM H +? M;2 M `` i@ Bp2bX h?2 BK Bb MQi QMHv iQ /2b+`B#2 i?2 T`Q;`2bb Q7 /2p2HQTK2Mi 2p2Mib #mi HbQ iQ ;Bp2 M ++QmMi Q7 ?Qr i?2 BM7Q`K Mib 2tTH BM i?2B` QrM #2? pBQm` M/ K F2 Bi mM/2`bi M/ #H2X h?2 i?2Q`2iB+ H # +F;`QmM/ Q7 L* Bb # b2/ QM bQ+B H Tbv+?QHQ;v M/ i?2Q`v Q7 bQ+B H +iBQM- + HH2/ 2i?Q;2Mv- /2p2HQT2/ #v > ``û M/ a2+Q`/ M/ H i2` 2bT2+B HHv #v > ``ûX Ai BM+Hm/2b HbQ TT`Q +?2b 7`QK ?BbiQ`@ B+ H `2b2 `+?- KQpB2 b+`BTi M/ 2i?MQ;` T?vX UG BiBM2M- RNN3V AM 6BMH M/- L* ? b K BMHv #22M mb2/ BM /mHi 2/m+ iBQM `2b2 `+?X h?2 +2Mi` H +QM+2Tib Q7 L* `2 2TBbQ/2- ++QmMi M/ M2;QiB@ iBQMX q`BiBM; Q7 i?2 2TBbQ/B+ T`Q;`2bb M `` iBp2 Bb i?2 }`bi bi2T


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Data analysis h?2 2TBbQ/B+ T`Q;`2bb M `` iBp2b `2 bi`m+im`2/ b 7QHHQrb, RV / i2 kV TH +2 jV r? i- r?Q 9V Bbbm2b- B/2 b U2p2Mib M/ +iBQMb[mQi2b 7`QK i?2 / i V 8V ivT2 Q7 / i eV 2TBbQ/2 UT2`+2TiBQMb M/ i?Qm;?ib Q7 `2b2 `+?2`Çśb 7`QK 2TBbQ/2V dV i?2K2b M/ ;mB/BM; [m2b@ iBQMb Q7 i?2 bim/vX A/2MiB}2/ /2p2HQTK2Mi T? b2b M/ i bFb `2 HbQ +QMM2+i2/ iQ i?2 2TBbQ/B+ T`Q;`2bb M `` iBp2bX q`BiBM; i?2 2TBbQ/B+ T`Q;`2bb M `@ ` iBp2b + M #2 b22M b i?2 }`bi `QmM/ Q7 / i M HvbBbX q`BiBM; Q7 +? M;2 M `` iBp2b UBM i?Bb bim/v, /2p2HQTK2Mi M `` i@ Bp2V Bb BM T`Q;`2bbc M2;QiB iBM; #Qmi i?2 +QMi2Mi Q7 i?2 M `` iBp2b


Table 1). The data consist of nine interviews as follows: • Project group A (‘promoting media literature’): project manager and project worker • Project group B (‘virtual culture path’): project manager and two project workers • Project group C (‘media lounge’): project manager and three project 'HYHORSLQJ SXEOLF OLEUDU\ VHUYLFHV E\ PHDQV RI SURMHFWV workers Table 1. An overview of the empirical data Phase Writing the episodic progress narrative Throughout the data collection process (spring 2009 – winter 2010)

Collecting of the accounts At the end of the data collection process (winter 2010) Negotiating about the change narrative with the interviewees

Type of data Official project meetings - field notes of researcher Project planning meetings - part of them recorded Follow-up meetings - recorded (a total of 8.5 h) Blogs of project groups Other materials – project plans, baseline surveys, memos of official project meetings, e-mail correspondence with the informants Nine individual episodic interviews with informants (a total of 34 h) - recorded and transcribed.

Development narratives of project groups to be read and commented for informants

(summer 2011)

5. DATA ANALYSIS rBi? i?2 BMi2`pB2r22b rBHH i F2 TH +2 BM bmKK2` kyRRX .2i BH2/ `2@ b2 `+?The [m2biBQMb rBHH #2narratives /2`Bp2/ are 7`QK b2H2+i2/ i?2K2b 7i2` r`BiBM; episodic progress structured as follows: i?2 /2p2HQTK2Mi M `` iBp2b Q7 4) 2 +? T`QD2+i ;`QmTXand actions, quotes 1) date 2) place 3) what, who issues, ideas (events from the data) 5) type of data 6) episode (perceptions and thoughts of 7) themes and guiding questions of the study.

researcher’s from episode) For discussion

h?2 +QHH2+i2/ / i Q7 i?2 `2b2 `+? Bb 7Q+mbBM; QM i?2 T? b2b Q7 +iBQM@ # b2/ 2Mi`2T`2M2m`B HBbK- 7` ;K2Mi iBQM Q7 +QKKBiK2Mi #mBH/BM; M/ TH MM2/ BbQH iBQM- r?BH2 i?2 H bi T? b2- i? i Bb- BMbiB@ imiBQM HBx2/ i2`KBM iBQM rBHH MQi #2 2t KBM2/X Ab i?Bb T`Q#H2K\



Bibliography

(R) "HQK[mBbi- hX 2i HX kyRyX S`QD2+i@ b@T` +iB+2, AM b2 `+? Q7 T`QD2+i K M ;2K2Mi `2b2 `+? i? i K ii2`bX S`QD2+i J M ;2@ K2Mi CQm`M H 9RURV- TTX 8@ReX (k) 6HB+F- lX kyyyX 1TBbQ/B+ AMi2`pB2rBM;- AM, JX " m2` M/ :X : bF2HH- 2/bX Zm HBi iBp2 _2b2 `+?BM; rBi? i2ti- BK ;2 M/ bQmM/, T` +iB+ H ? M/#QQFX GQM/QM, a :1- TTX d8@ NkX (j) CQ? MbbQM a- GĆş7bi`ĆşK- J M/ P?HbbQM- PX kyydX a2T ` iBQM Q` BMi2;` iBQM\ /BH2KK r?2M Q`; MBxBM; /2p2HQTK2Mi T`Q@ D2+ibX AMi2`M iBQM H CQm`M H Q7 S`QD2+i J M ;2K2Mi- k8 U8VTTX 98d@9e9X (9) G BiBM2M- JX RNN3X AMi2`p2MiBQ D KmmiQb FQFQQMT MQivĆşbb X aBB`ivKBM2M Bib2Q?D mimpBBM `v?KBBM i2QHHBbmmbv`BivFb2bb X >2HbBM;BM vHBQTBbiQM F bp imbiB2i22M H BiQFb2M imiFBKmFbB ReyX >2HbBMFB, >2HbBM;BM vHBQTBbiQX (8) GmM/BM- _X aĆş/2`?QHK- X RNN8X i?2Q`v Q7 i?2 i2KTQ` `v Q`; MBx iBQMX a+ M/BM pB M CQm`M H Q7 J M ;2K2Mi- RR U9VTTX 9jd@988X (e) _ b M2M- EX kyydX E2?Bii KBbQii22iX hmiFBKmb pmbi2BM2M F2@ ?Bii KBbivĆş Ç´F vi MMĆşHHBb2M iQBKBMi M Ç´X AM, 1X _ Kbi / M/ hX H bQBMB- 2/bX hvĆş2H K M imiFBKmb pmbi2BM2M F2?Bi@ i KBM2M amQK2bb X G ?2bivKBbi TQD - K2M2i2HKB - FQF2KmF@ bB - imH2p Bbmm/2M ? bi2Bi X hvF2b@` TQ`ii2D 8jX >2HbBMFB, hvĆşKBMBbi2`BĆş- TTX9yÄœeeX


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(d) hQBFFQ- hX M/ _ Mi M2M- hX kyyNX hmiFBKmFb2HHBM2M F2?Bi@ i KBbiQBKBMi X L FƺFmHKB F2?Bii KBbT`Qb2bbBBM- Qb HHBbi K@ Bb22M D iB2/QMimQi MiQQMX h KT2`2, h KT2`2 lMBp2`bBiv S`2bbX


III

ADDENDUM



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Introduction AM i?Bb T`2b2Mi iBQM- r2 `2TQ`i }M/BM;b Q7 TBHQi bim/v r?2`2 bim/2Mib Q7 M mTT2` b2+QM/ `v b+?QQH r`Qi2 qBFBT2/B `iB+H2b b ;`QmT bbB;MK2MiX Pm` BK r b iQ BMp2biB; i2 r?2i?2` M/ ?Qr r`BiBM; `iB+H2b 7Q` qBFBT2/B - # b2/ QM BM/2T2M/2MiHv 7QmM/ BM@ 7Q`K iBQM- b2`p2b i?2 ;Q Hb Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM HBi2` +v BMbi`m+iBQMX q2 HbQ r Mi2/ iQ }M/ Qmi ?Qr M mi?2MiB+ H2 `MBM; i bF- bm+? b r`BiBM; `iB+H2b iQ #2 Tm#HBb?2/ QM Tm#HB+ 7Q`mK bm+? b qBFBT2@ /B - BM~m2M+2 bim/2MibǶ +QM+2TiBQM Q7 i?2B` H2 `MBM; i bF- b r2HH b i?2B` TT`Q +? iQ BiX qBFBT2/B Bb # b2/ QM i?2 pQHmMi `v T `iB+BT iBQM Q7 H `;2 ;HQ# H +QKKmMBiv +QKKBii2/ iQ r`Bi2- `2r`Bi2 M/ mT/ i2 Bib +QM@ i2MibX AM b+?QQH bbB;MK2Mib Bi ? b- ?Qr2p2`- #22M `2; `/2/ b M mM`2HB #H2 BM7Q`K iBQM bQm`+2 U2X;X- +?i2`K M kyy8- JQ``Bbb2ii2 kyy3V r?B+? bim/2Mib `2 /pBb2/ MQi iQ mb2X M Hi2`M iBp2 pB2r@ TQBMi Bb iQ `2; `/ qBFBT2/B b Tm#HB+ rBFB r?2`2 bim/2Mib K v T `iB+BT i2 BM +QHH #Q` iBp2 FMQrH2/;2 +QMbi`m+iBQMX AM BM7Q`K @ iBQM HBi2` +v UAGV BMbi`m+iBQM i?Bb K2 Mb i? i i?2 7Q+mb Bb im`M2/ 7`QK BM7Q`K iBQM b22FBM; M/ +QMbmKTiBQM iQ r`BiBM; M/ `2bTQMb@ B#H2 mb2 Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM QM Tm#HB+ 7Q`mKX qBFBT2/B ? b 2tTHB+Bi


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Research Questions R >Qr /Q bim/2MibǶ TT`Q +? M/ 2tT2`B2M+2 b+?QQH bbB;MK2Mib rBi? i?2 ;Q H Q7 +QHH #Q` iBp2Hv T`Q/m+BM; i2tib iQ #2 Tm#@ HBb?2/ QM qBFBT2/B \ k >Qr /Q2b r`BiBM; i2tib 7Q` qBFBT2/B # b2/ QM BM/2T2M/2MiHv 7QmM/ BM7Q`K iBQM b2`p2 i?2 ;Q Hb Q7 BM7Q`K iBQM HBi2` +v BM@ bi`m+iBQM\ h?Bb bim/v r b +QM/m+i2/ b TBHQi bim/vX AM //BiBQM iQ i?2 `2@ b2 `+? [m2biBQMb- MQi?2` BKTQ`i Mi ;Q H Q7 i?2 bim/v r b iQ H2 `M #Qmi i?2 T`Q+2bb BM Q`/2` iQ #2 #H2 iQ 7Q`KmH i2 KQ`2 7Q+mb2/ `2b2 `+? [m2biBQMb 7Q` i?2 K BM bim/vX 6m`i?2`- r2 r Mi2/ iQ i2bi ?Qr bmBi #H2 Qm` / i +QHH2+iBQM K2i?Q/b r2`2 BM +H bb`QQK 2M@ pB`QMK2MiX

Data collection and analysis . i r b +QHH2+i2/ /m`BM; irQ 2B;?i@r22F +Qm`b2b BM M mTT2` b2+QM/ `v b+?QQH BM i?2 *Biv Q7 h KT2`2- 6BMH M/- /m`BM; aT`BM; i2`K kyRyX h2M bim/2Mib T `iB+BT i2/ BM i?2 }`bi +Qm`b2 BM :2Q@ ;` T?v M/ bBti22M bim/2Mib BM i?2 b2+QM/ QM2 BM "BQHQ;vX h?2 bim/2Mib r2`2 Q`; MBx2/ BMiQ 2H2p2M T`QD2+i ;`QmTbX AM i?2 }`bi +Qm`b2- r2 +QHH2+i2/ # bB+ / i Q7 bim/2Mib #v T`2@ [m2biBQMM B`2- Q#b2`p2/ i?2 r22FHv K22iBM;b BM i?2 S* +H bb- M/ BMi2`pB2r2/ i?2 ;`QmTb i i?2 2M/ Q7 i?2 +Qm`b2X AM i?2 b2+QM/ +Qm`b2- r2 `2TH +2/ Q#b2`p iBQM #v BMi2`pB2rbc 2 +? ;`QmT r b BM@


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Summary of the findings Influence of Wikipedia h?2 bim/2Mib `2TQ`i2/ i? i i?2 T`QbT2+i Q7 Tm#HBb?BM; i?2B` `i@ B+H2b QM qBFBT2/B BM~m2M+2/ i?2B` rQ`F BM b2p2` H r vbX h?2v r2`2 + `27mH iQ K `F i?2B` +Bi iBQMb BM +Q``2+i K MM2`- M/ p2`B7v i?2 7 +ib i?2v T`2b2Mi2/X PM2 ;`QmT /KBii2/ i? i B7 QMHv i?2 i2 +?2` ? / `2 / i?2 `iB+H2- i?2v rQmH/ MQi ? p2 #22M K `F2/ +Bi iBQMb bQ +QMb+B2MiBQmbHvX hQ bb2bb `2HB #BHBiv bQK2 bim/2Mib +QKT `2/ BM7Q`K iBQM 7`QK /Bz2`2Mi bQm`+2bX q`BiBM; bivH2 r b BKTQ`i Mi b i?2v T2`+2Bp2/ i? i MvQM2 +QmH/ `2 / i?2B` i2tib BM qBFBT2/B X h?2 H M;m ;2 M22/2/ iQ #2 ~m2Mi- +Q``2+i- M/ bQmM/ `2HB #H2X h?2 M HvbBb Q7 `iB+H2b b2Mi2M+2@#v@b2Mi2M+2 `2p2 H2/ i? i- Hi?Qm;? i?2 b? `2 Q7 +QTv@T bi2/ b2Mi2M+2b 2t+22/2/ Ry T2`+2Mi BM irQ ;`QmTbi?2`2 r b MQ BM/B+ iBQM Q7 +QTv@T biBM; BM i?2 i2tib #v bBt Q7 i?2 2H2p2M ;`QmTbX

Collaboration h?2 }M/BM;b `2p2 H2/ /Bp2`bBiv BM i?2 r v bim/2Mib TT`Q +?2/ M/ BKTH2K2Mi2/ +QHH #Q` iBQM, RV b? `2/ ;Q H M/ rQ`FBM; iQ@ ;2i?2`- kV b? `2/ ;Q H #mi rQ`FBM; b2T ` i2Hv- M/ jV MQ b? `2/ ;Q H M/ MQ +QHH #Q` iBQMX h?2 KQmMi M/ H2p2H Q7 ;`QmT rQ`F HbQ p `B2/ i /Bz2`2Mi bi ;2b Q7 i?2 T`Q+2bbX h?2 ;2M2` H i`2M/ r b i? i TH MMBM; i?2 i bF r b /QM2 +QHH #Q` iBp2Hv- #mi BM7Q`K iBQM


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Bibliography

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IMPLICATIONS OF THE WEB 2.0 TECHNOLOGIES FOR PUBLIC LIBRARIES INTENDING TO FACILITATE ALTERNATIVE PUBLIC DISCOURSE /HLI .DMEHUJ

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