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Leukemia Treatment in India Leukemia begins in the immature cells of the bone marrow in the central cavities of bones. The bone marrow produces all types of blood cells: red blood cells that carry oxygen and other materials to the tissues of the body, white blood cells that fight infection, and platelets that help the blood clot. Hundreds of billions of new blood cells are produced in the bone marrow each day, providing the body with a constant supply of fresh, healthy cells. In a patient with leukemia, many of the white blood cells produced in the bone marrow do not mature normally. These abnormal cells, called leukemic cells, are unable to fight infection the way healthy white cells can. As they accumulate, the leukemic cells also interfere with the production of other blood cells. Eventually, the body has too few red cells for supplying oxygen to the body’s tissues, too few platelets for proper clotting and too few healthy white cells for fighting infection. As a result, people with leukemia are at risk for bruising, bleeding and infections.. What are the Types of Leukemia? The main types of leukemia are myelogenous and lymphocytic, and each type has an acute (rapidly progressing) and a chronic (slowly progressing) form. Acute leukemia mainly affects cells that are immature, or not fully developed, preventing them from maturing and functioning normally. Chronic leukemia develops more slowly, so that the body still has some healthy cells available to fight infection. •
Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) - Acute myeloid leukemia is the most common type of leukemia in adults, although it also can occur in children. If untreated, this form of leukemia usually progresses quickly.
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) - Chronic myeloid leukemia originates from the presence of a genetic abnormality in blood cells, called the Philadelphia chromosome, and progresses through distinct phases. CML occurs mainly in adults, but a very small number of children also develop this disease.
Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) - Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is the most common type of leukemia in young children in developed countries, but it also affects adults, especially those ages 65 and older. ALL starts in the inner part of the bones, known as bone marrow, but often moves quickly into the blood.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) - Chronic lymphocytic leukemia usually gets worse slowly. CLL is the second most common form of leukemia in adults and rarely occurs in children. More than half of people diagnosed with CLL are older than 70, and cases rarely occur in individuals younger than 40.
What are the Causes of Leukemia? Most causes of leukemia are not known. However, the disease has been linked to; • • • •
Exposure to large amounts of high energy radiation Occupational exposure to the chemical benzene Viral infections Cigarette smoking
Other risk factors for leukemia include the following: • • • • •
Previous chemotherapy Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1) Myelodysplastic syndromes Down syndrome and other genetic diseases Family history
What are the Symptoms of Leukemia? Symptoms of leukemia include:• • • • • • • • • •
Fever, chills, night sweats and other flu-like symptoms Weakness and fatigue Swollen or bleeding gums Headaches Enlarged liver and spleen Swollen tonsils Bone pain Paleness Pinhead-size red spots on the skin Weight loss
To diagnose leukemia, the doctor must examine cells from the blood and, in most cases, the bone marrow. An initial blood test (complete blood count [CBC]) showing an abnormal white cell count may indicate the need for a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis and to identify the specific type of leukemia. During this procedure, the doctor removes a sample of bone marrow tissue (biopsy) from a pelvic bone and tests the sample for cancer cells. The cells also are examined for chromosomal abnormalities.
What are the various Stages of Leukemia? Stages of Leukemia and Acute Leukemia - Acute leukemia isn't classified in stages. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is classified by the subtype of AML that affects the patient, and whether or not the cancer has spread from the blood and bone marrow to other parts of the body. Adult acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is staged in three categories: • • •
In remission Recurrent Untreated.
The staging of childhood ALL uses risk groups: • • •
High risk Recurrent Standard risk (low risk)
Chronic Leukemia Stages - Chronic leukemia stages depend on the type of leukemia diagnosed. Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are staged in different ways. CML is divided into three phases: • •
Chronic phase Accelerated phase
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia stages are usually classified using Rai stages in the United States. The Rai stages are: • • •
Stage 0: Low risk Stages 1 and 2: Intermediate stages Stages 4 and 5: High risk.
Leukemia Final Stages - Because of the different types of leukemia and accompanying staging methods, it’s difficult to generalize about leukemia final stages. Generally, the final stages of leukemia include: • • •
Involvement of other organs Resistance to treatment Significant levels of abnormal blood cells.
Each type of leukemia responds to treatment differently and progresses at different rates. Individual response to treatment and disease progression are more useful prognostic indicators than classification systems.
How is Leukemia Treated? Treatment depends on the type of leukemia, certain features of the leukemic cells, the extent of the disease, and whether the leukemia has been treated before. Following are the types; Biological Therapy - Biological therapy is treatment with substances that affect the immune system's response to cancer. Interferon, a drug used against some types of leukemia, is a form of biological therapy. Biological therapy or immunotherapy uses the body’s immune system to fight cancer, using antibodies to target and destroy leukemia cells Chemotherapy - Chemotherapy is given in cycles, a treatment period followed by a recovery period, and then another treatment period and so on. Chemotherapy destroys cancer cells by stopping them from growing or multiplying. Some healthy cells are destroyed as well, which is what causes the side effects, but normal cells are often able to repair themselves after treatment. Different types of drugs are used for the different types of leukemia. Radiation Therapy - Sometimes Radiation therapy is used for leukemia in the central nervous system or testicles as well as for pain caused by bone destruction. However, radiation is not the primary treatment for leukemia. In high doses radiation therapy kills cells and/or keeps them from growing and dividing. Radiation therapy is helpful in treating cancer because cancer cells reproduce faster than most normal cells. Bone Marrow Transplants - Bone Marrow Transplants are probably the best bet for a cure in many cases of leukemia. Doctors perform this procedure when leukemia is in remission or when the patient relapses during or after treatment. Patients are given a bone marrow transplant so that their body can be given higher doses of chemotherapy drugs that would not be tolerated otherwise. Chemotherapy also destroys normal cells in the bone marrow, making the bone marrow transplant necessary in order to make up for the destruction of normal cells.
Leukemia Treatment in India A host of medical options are available to patients traveling to India for medical treatment, especially cancer treatment like Leukemia. All the specialist knowledge, medical talents, advanced diagnostic equipment and surgical tools in the world count for nothing if the commitment to deliver them in the best possible way to the patient is not there. India hospitals are known for its effective and efficient services. What many people do is get diagnosed in the their home country and have a treatment recommended for them before beginning research to find a suitable hospital in India where they can have that treatment for a fraction of the cost of what it would be in the US or UK. Physicians in India are also developing alternative approaches to treating certain types of leukemia that may actually eliminate the need for transplant. Cities in India that where best hospitals provide various leukemia treatment are as follows;
Cost of Leukemia Treatment in India Substantial savings can be made by travelling to India for Leukemia. Medical Tourism is becoming more popular with prices for treatment in India becoming highly reasonable for patients from all parts of the globe. The price comparisons for complicated procedures like leukemia take into account flights and hotel bills for the expected length of stay. This will include almost everything related to Leukemia like operating room fees, Anesthesia, hospital accommodation in a private and well equipped room with complete sanitation, medications, doctorâ€™s fees and nursing care.
Some of the common countries from which patients travel to India for surgery are:
ABOUT INDIA Located in South Asia, bordered by Pakistan, Nepal, China and Bangladesh, India is South Asia's largest, sovereign, democratic republic. India has an edge over other countries when it comes to offering comprehensive, cost-effective and timely medical care: it also offers an exotic, adventure-filled or cultural -if you wish array of destinations to discover and revel in for the travelers. Indian cities like Mumbai, Hyderabad, Goa, Bangalore, Nagpur, Kerala, Delhi, Pune, Jaipur, Chennai, Gurgaon, and Chandigarh offers best medical tourism service. Mumbai - Formerly known as Bombay, is the commercial & financial capital city of India. Mumbai is famous for many things, including its thriving Bollywood film industry, teeming bazaars, colonial-style buildings, Art Deco structures and a superb choice of restaurants, often being rated as the dining capital of India. The tourist district of Colaba in Mumbai is a great place to start exploring this great city. Hyderabad – Hyderabad city is a great place to visit in the state of Andhra Pradesh. The place has witnessed a continuous growth for last many years. Hyderabad has become a tourist hotspot following ever increasing number of tourists during past few years. Hyderabad has a well-founded reputation as one of the safest cities in the world. Goa - The country's smallest state and famed for its colonial Portuguese and Catholic past, most tourists visit Goa for its endless selection of sandy beaches and coastal attractions. Standing proudly next to the Arabian Sea, Goa is a particularly compact state and often feels like a large town, being easy to travel. Around Goa, tourists will soon realize that the state has much more to offer than simply stunning beaches, fishing, water scooters, windsurfing and scuba diving. Bangalore - Beauty lies in the eyes of beholder and if you want to see one of the most beautiful places in India then Bangalore is the word for it. Bangalore has earned sobriquets like 'Silicon Valley of India', 'Pub Capital of India', and 'City of Gardens'. Pleasant climate with colorful gardens with lakes and glittering nightlife, Bangalore has made its own attraction for travelers as one of the most charming cities in India, Nagpur - Nagpur is the largest city in central India, but with its friendly atmosphere and dependable transportation, you’ll instantly feel at home. The city of Nagpur has a well-built infrastructure, is a clean and affluent city which makes a good jumping-off point for a series of trips into the far eastern corner of Maharashtra. Kerala - Natural beauty, clean air and primordial greenery amidst the vast expanse of water and sky, typifies the state of Kerala – better known as God's own country. Kerala is famous for its alternative medical therapies such as Ayurveda, which help to rejuvenate and revitalize the body. The region is also home to India’s only virgin tropical rain forest – the Silent Valley National Park, supporting an overwhelming range of life forms, many of which are highly endangered, and endemic to this part of the planet. Delhi - "Welcome to The Capital City of India - New Delhi" Delhi is famous as Capital city of India is located in North India. Delhi is truly a symbol of the old and the new; a blend of ancient well preserved monuments and temples along with jampacked burger joints and up market shopping malls. Delhi has state of the art Hospitals and the best qualified doctors. Pune - Once referred to as the Oxford of the east, Pune continues to be a stronghold for academics and culture. An array of factors like availability of efficient and experienced doctors, comparatively low treatment costs, hospital facilities of international standards and many more have made Pune one of the top destinations for medical tourism. Jaipur - Jaipur is one of the most popular destinations on a tourist's itinerary. The magnificent forts, beautiful havelis and colourful bazaars make Jaipur a popular tourist destination among tourists. Jaipur has pioneered health and medical tourism in India. Chennai - Chennai is one of the most developed urban centers in the Indian subcontinent. The city forms the capital of Tamil Nadu state and is the fourth largest metropolitan city in India. They have some of the very best hospitals and treatment centers in the world. Each hospital is equipped with state of the art facilities. The technology brought into practice is the very latest, including robotic surgery.
Knee Replacement Surgery in India Knee replacement surgery also known as knee arthroplasty is procedure to replace the weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint to relieve the pain and disability of osteoarthritis. It may be performed for other knee diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis. The procedure has been proven to help individuals return back to moderately challenging activities such as golf, bicycling, and swimming. Total knees are not designed for jogging, or sports like tennis and skiing (although there certainly are people with total knee replacements that participate in such sports). Knee replacement is a routine surgery performed on over 600,000 people worldwide each year. Over 90% of people who have had Total Knee Replacement experience an improvement in knee pain and function.
Knee Replacement Surgery Candidates A person would be considered a candidate for knee replacement if there is: • • • • • •
Daily pain The pain is severe enough to restrict work, recreation and ordinary activities of daily living Significant stiffness in the knee Significant instability (constant giving way) of the knee Significant deformity (knock-knees or bow-legs) that hinders normal function of the knee Damage from arthritic conditions, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis or post-traumatic arthritis
Success Rate of Knee Replacement Surgery: Knee replacement surgery is recognized as a miracle of modern surgery. Most orthopedic experts consider replacement to be the best method of handling arthritis in the knee. Knee replacements have literally put hundreds of thousands of Americans back on their feet and allowed them to enjoy their golden years.
Knee Replacement Surgery Preparations: • • • •
• • •
If you smoke, cut down or quit. Smoking changes blood flow patterns, delays healing and slows recovery. If you drink, don't have any alcohol for at least 48 hours before surgery. Ask your doctor for pre-surgical exercises. If you are having hip or knee replacement surgery, doing exercises to strengthen your upper body will help you cope with crutches or a walker after surgery. Your primary care physician or an internist will conduct a general medical evaluation several weeks before surgery. This examination will assess your health and your risk for anesthesia. The results of this examination should be forwarded to your orthopaedic surgeon, along with a surgical clearance. Shortly before your scheduled surgery, you will probably have an orthopedic examination to review the procedure and answer any last-minute questions. You may need to take several types of tests, including blood tests, a cardiogram, a urine sample and a chest X-ray. Advice your surgeon of any medical conditions you have and of all the medications you are taking. You may need to stop taking certain medications or your surgeon may recommend substitute medications until your surgery. Medications such as corticosteroids, insulin or anti-coagulants will need to be managed before and after surgery.