SUMMER / FALL 2016
The Challenge of Life Long Learning The American Education System On The World Stage Education Systems Around the World - Brazil Arts In Education 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 1
Inside this issue THIRD EDITION | SEPTEMBER 2016
INTRODUCTION 03 Letter From the Editor: DeAndre Nixon 04 Zealousness Team!
EDUCATION AROUND US
21 Let’s Try Something New 26 Mathematics Has Always Been My Favorite Subject 28 New Direction: The Medial Humanities 34 Education Around the World - Argentina
Why Is Our Blood Red?
43 Fun activities for our youngest
Let’s Try Something New
07 Arts in Education 10 Education Around the World - Brazil 14 Education Apps
38 Why Do Our Legs Fall Asleep? 41 Why Is Our Blood Red?
featured articles 44 Food For Thought 48 The Challenge of Lifelong Learning 50 Importance of Critical Thinking 54 The American System on the World Stage
Youth section 60 Positivity of Play 64 Fun Activities
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LETTER FROM THE EDITOR DEANDRE NIXON I
Founder and President of iN Education, Inc. and Editor in Chief of Zealousness Magazine.
Whether we build physical things by ourselves or inherit them from someone else, education will always be the top key role that has been played. In order to appreciate and better understand education we must first identity the amazing things that humans have done in the past to educate themselves. This level of education was enough to lead us toward utilizing natural resources and building the material things around us. As I sit at this coffee shop right now, writing this letter, I notice the layout of this room. I observe the walls, all of the chairs, and even the menu with its set prices. I realize that all of this is the result of education. I wonder how this place all came together. Who built this building and how did they know how to construct it safely? How do they keep it from leaking when the rain pours down? How did I come to order my meal and know how much money I will need to pay for my order? I know these things because I was educated to learn them. Wherever you look you can see the reminiscent hue of the math, science, English, and other lessons that we were taught and learned while in school. All of this is just one example of many to illustrate how education is all around us. I can be at the forest, the beach, commuting to work, or sitting in this coffee shop, and I can still always see the benefits Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve reaped from my education. These are benefits that I will continue to nurture for a lifetime. With the articles in this magazine we hope to open your minds to the realization that education is truly all around us- and always will be!
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ZEALOUSNESS TEAM EDITOR IN CHIEF DEANDRE NIXON ADMINISTRATION SONA NIXON EDITORS Aaron leizerovici Catherine niehaus evelyn hall hamida khire lauren seagren PRYANKA VERMA EDITORIAL DESIGN jordan helwig WRITERS ameera khawAja anna dement earline marshall ERICA MURPHEY kanika gakhar kathleen loughlin matheus arede maria molin shweta roy swathi thiruppathi marena martinez veronica felipe victoria hill SPECIAL THANKS DANIELA FERNANDES - SMITH PATRICIA ZAVALA
talk to us! firstname.lastname@example.org 3867 West Market Street, Suite 166 Akron, Ohio 44333 a project by in education, inc.
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education around us Arts in Education 07 Education Around the World - Brazil 10
Education Apps 14
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AR T S IN
EDUCATION By Shweta Roy
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hroughout human history, science and mathematics have increased our objective understanding of the physical world, leading to technological and medical advancements that continue to emerge around us every day. However, the aim of education is not solely to learn math, physics, and chemistry; artistic skills are equally necessary to understanding and participating in the world we live in. Students should be skillful with the calculations of arithmetic and creative with literature and arts at the same time. Just as the study of math and science is crucial to the training of engineers, doctors and teachers, arts cultivate applicable skills for various professions. Ponder over this query and we will see poets, singers, and artists are nowadays in career options too. Good songs are always refreshing to the mind; and who doesn’t appreciate a beautiful piece of artwork? Poetry is succinct and has infinite ways to interpret its meaning. Analyzing poetry therefore expands one’s vocabulary level and also soothes one’s soul at the same time. Creativity welcomes progress in every human endeavor. It is that wheel of the vehicle which helps in expressing yourself and making yourself heard. There are a lot of ways to express one’s self —drawing and design, acting and comedy, and poetry. Drawing is interrelated with mathematics and architecture. Monuments and different architectural works not only have mathematical calculations but also contain the design work, which ultimately includes sketches and drawings. Geometrical figures are nothing but drawing in math. Drawing also helps to illustrate the thought of the learner. For instance, a kid drawing sketches of four people holding hands together signifies he has a happy family and his bond with them, whereas scary sketches or horror pictures signify that a kid has an unstable state of mind. Thus, drawing is one creative way of storytelling, and is equally as important as any other subject. Apart from drawing, there’s poetry, comedy and acting too, which cultivate applicable skills. Poetry classes should be mandatory in high school. It not only promotes emotional resilience but also helps in expanding vocabulary. Poetry has its own cadence and rhymes. Reading poetry in class will help students to fertilize their powers of imagination. It allows kids to sketch their own feelings and perspectives in their own ingenious ways, using metaphors and symbolic ideas. Comedy, acting, and dancing are equally important for a learner. The ‘sense of humor’ factor can spice up a tense learning atmosphere. It helps release the negative energy and makes studying a positive experience. One-act plays and dramas help to communicate properly with others and can create a sense of teamwork among the students. Most of the dramas and one-act plays have important messages to teach. They also invoke imagination in children, and help them to solve problems in a creative way. Dancing is one art that I really enjoy doing. It helps me relieve stress, and I have created my own world around it. However, I have a friend who never enjoyed dance because she felt it’s her weirdness coming out. But, she is a great writer and is about to publish her first book very soon. Thus, science and arts go hand in hand and emphasizing only on STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) is like educating a child without letting him taste of flavor of creativity. Thus, everyone must have their own way of expressing their creative world.
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Education Systems Around the World
BRAZIL By Matt Cardoso 10 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
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razil was colonized in 1500 AD Brazil was colonized in 1500 AD by Portuguese settlers and gained its independence in 1822. Today, Brazil is the largest territorial country in South America with the 7th richest economy in the world. Brazil has an ethnically diverse population with communities that tie their heritage to Africa, Europe, Asia, and Japan. Brazil is the fifth most populous country in the world and accounts for a third of Latin America’s population. The official language is Portuguese. With a population of approximately 200 million people, the government estimates that one-sixth of the the Brazilian population is illiterate. In 2015, the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) published a report that ranked Brazil’s education system 60th out of 75 countries. The report was based primarily on scores in math and science for 15-year-old students. The challenges in Brazil edu-
cation system are therefore recognized and well documented.
“If a Brazilian wants to learn beyond basic education, a private tutor is the best solution, or one can self-study, just like I did.”
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In Brazil, the education system is regulated by the government with each state responsible for enforcing educational regulations and standards. Elementary school starts at 6 years of age and high school at 15 years of age. High school subjects include math, geography, history, Spanish and biology. Challenges within the education system also affect universities. Most universities in Brazil are privatized; their tuition fees are very high which make them unaffordable for the majority of the population. Most Brazilians see education as a luxury. There are some universities that are publicly funded; however, inadequate funding is an issue. Personally, I attended a public school and now attend a private university of law where the government pays 50% of
my tuition costs. If a Brazilian wants to learn beyond basic education, a private tutor is the best solution, or one can self-study, just like I did. I studied English for 9 years at school; however, I acquired most of my knowledge during the past two years after I started to learn English online. Despite the problems stated above, Brazil is a rich, large, and diverse country, and in my opinion, the education system still has many strengths. It is hard to identify the exact cause of my country’s education problems. I believe the biggest educational barrier for Brazilians is their lack of learning strategies. Many students simply don’t understand the importance of good studying habits and how these habits shape success in adulthood. This is partly due to education being seen as a luxury as opposed to a means to success. Brazilian students study to take tests, but the tests were created for the teachers to determine their scores and nothing more. They don’t read books because they don’t see their value. Despite the value of learning another language within a globalized world, many Brazilians still don’t recognize the importance of bilingualism. In conclusion, it is difficult to determine a solution. The problem may stem from how Brazilian society values education. It’s an important issue that I hold dearly; education has affected my life greatly. A change in Brazil’s education system will require that many factors be addressed. As a concerned citizen of Brazil, I hope that in the future the education system will change for the better. Brazilians need to value education and prioritise it over entertainment and sports. Until that happens, the standard of education will remain low Resources Faulkner, Ruth. "OECD Ranks Brazil Schools 60th Out of 75 Countries." The Rio Times Online. N.p., 14 May 2015. Web. 21 July 2016. <http://riotimesonline.com/brazil-news/rio-business/oecdranks-brazil-schools-60th-out-of-75-countries/>. "Brazil". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2016. Web. 21 Jul. 2016 https://www.britannica.com/place/Brazil/Political-parties. "Brazil's Education." Brazil. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 July 2016. http://www.brazil.org.za/index.html.
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Education Apps By Anna Dement
lectronic educational tools for toddlers and K-12 school-aged children have been around for decades. But with significant advances in technology over the last few years, there has been an explosion in the development of intuitive, informative, and highly-rated educational applications that can be downloaded and accessed on computers, tablets, and smartphones. What’s even better is that most of them are free. These learning resources are also very versatile and can be used in the classroom, while at home, or on the go — for students, educators, and busy professionals alike. The wide array of options made available in just a few 14 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
short years is overwhelming and can make the decision process nearly impossible. On top of that, knowing where to start can be a whole other issue. With technological progress we have also become a society that craves instant gratification and easy answers. These days no one wants to spend the time reading through a plethora of reviews or bother with signing up, downloading, and testing the app before they decide it is suitable to their needs….The problem is, they might just have to do all that. New apps are churning out every day, as are new start-ups producing these apps, thereby making it
more difficult to stay informed about current releases or learn about their potential. This not so much a problem if you are waiting for the latest installment of your favorite video game, but it can be when the subject matter is education and you’re trying to determine if the app is truly an educational app or one that just claims to be educational.
How large is the market today? According to researchandmarkets.com, today there are more than 3.17 million applications available, out of which approximately 15%-16% are categorized under education. The report forecasts that the global education apps market will grow at rate of 34.72% over the period 2014-2019, resulting in the smart learning and educational market to be worth $446 million by 2020. Rosetta Stone, Edmodo, and Lumos Labs have been noted as the leading vendors greatly attributing to the uptick in sales and revenues over the next few years.
History of the App Platform Mobile apps were first introduced in the 1970s when portable phone owners could download games like Snake and Tetris. Often referred to as timewasters, these apps did not offer much utility, yet the new feature was seen as a novelty and people were drawn to the phones now having an additional use. But it wasn’t for another 30 years until the early 2000s when mobile platforms like the Palm OS and Blackberry emerged, incentivizing mobile phone users with additional functionality including access to calendars, notes and the internet. But 2007 and 2008 changed everything when Apple’s iphone and Google’s Android, respectively, were launched. These smart phones transformed mobile phones into transportable mini computers and a one-stop-shop for all your technological needs. Since then we have not only witnessed an ongoing battle between the two businesses which continue to this day but also an inability of competitors to enter and stay in the market. This competition has created a huge market for mobile application start-up companies and for the continual development of new apps and continual upgrades to existing apps. We have benefited from this technology not only by staying connected with others, but also be entertained, educated, and be on time.
Evolution of the smartphone and the introduction of the tablet Educators have long had a love-hate relationship with educational apps and the portable devices they can be accessed on. Years ago a student would have been sent to the principal’s office, received detention, or may have been suspended for using a smartphone in the classroom. Today more and more schools have embraced this technology which has become a replacement for textbooks, handouts, and report cards and the 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 15
sole resource for learning both in and outside of the classroom. And oh how times have changed. Today it is easy to come across kids as young as 9 and 10 working on their ipads doing their homework, not just playing games or texting their friends. But having this access to such a device does open them to be curious about just what else is out there.
Who Are the Most Likely to Use Apps?
assess the benefits of educational apps but longterm affects of using these resources for educational purposes are still in their infancy. Dr. Kathy Hirsh-Pasek, an early-development psychologist at Temple University, and her team of researchers are no strangers to assessing the validity of educational apps. For the last few years they have been studying the requirements needed for an educational app to be regarded as truly educational.
With the market so fragmented, unregulated, and uncategorized, it’s hard to tell which age group or gender is most likely to access which app. But one thing is for sure — gaming apps are the most popular across all demographics. According to Statista, the most popular Apple Store app categories in December 2015 were as follows: Games 22.49%; Business 10.38%; Education 9.44%; Lifestyle 8.66%; Entertainment 6.43%. Productivity apps fall into the second more accessed and purchased category, business. This class of apps is focused on simplifying the busy lifestyle of professionals from every stage, from millennials through baby boomers, through offerings of tools for better time management or with flexibility to learn a new skill. K-12 and college students are so much more engaged with online content and don’t remember a time when they didn’t have access to such tools. This group is more likely to download apps, test and comment on them and sometime even be able to rethink them and develop better ones.
Studies on Educational Apps and their Impact Educational apps are reshaping education and the fundamental principles which are behind the four pillars of learning, as outlined by UNESCO: learning for the purpose to know, to do, to be, and to live together. In a market that is not regulated for content, it is easy for anyone to claim their app is educational. And while we are fortunate to be living in a time when we can take advantage of such great innovations, just how helpful are these tools? There have been a number of studies conducted to 16 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
For their most recent research published in the journal Association for Psychological Science, they developed an evidence-based guide for evaluating and selecting the most effective existing children’s apps. Their finding revealed that to best support learning, an educational app must meet the following set of criteria to which they refer to as their “four pillars”: • •
Active in a way that requires mental effort and not just swiping Engaging, not distracting
Educational Apps Subject Astronomy Design Drawing Geography History History History Foreign Language Foreign Language Foreign Language Math Math Memory Music Physiology Programming Puzzles Reading Enhancers Reading Enhancers Reading Enhancers Reference Reference Reference Space Spelling Study Tool Study Tool Study Tool Study Tool Unit & Currency Converter Wide Curriculum Wide Curriculum Wide Curriculum Wide Curriculum Wide Curriculum Wildlife
App Name Star Walk Tinkerpad Pixel Press Floors Amazing Wordl Atlas Ripped Apart: A Civil War Mystery Smithsosian Channel Think Like Churchhill Babbel Duolingo Rosetta Stone Incredible Numbers Motion Math: Match Luminosity Little Composers My Incredible Body Scratch TinyHands Digital Public Library of America iBooks Learnist Dictionary.com RefME Wikipedia NASA Spelling City Quizlet SAT Vocab by MindSnacks SparkNotes StudyBlue Convertit ABCmouse Bitsboard Endless Learning Academy PBS Kids YouTube Kids WWF Together
Audience All Middle and High School Elementary and Middle School Elementary Elementary and Middle School High School Middle and High School All All All Middle and High School Elementary All Early Education Elementary and Middle School Middle School Early Education All All All All All All All Elementary and Middle School Middle, High School and College High School Middle, High School and College Middle, High School and College All Early Education Elementary and Middle School Early Education Elementary and Middle School Elementary and Middle School Elementary and Middle School
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Meaningful in the context of a child’s life Socially interactive because children learn bes with others
Dr. Hirsh-Pasek, asserts in her research paper that there is little evidence that educational apps from the Apple Store actually improve learning. Furthermore, she points out that the educational claims of the vast majority of these tools are untested. She and her fellow researchers hope the results from their study will become the new standard and applied when new education apps are developed.
Trends for 2016 According to a recent study conducted by Forrester Research, consumers on smartphones spend over 85% of their time using apps on their phones, but they are only utilizing 5 apps. This makes it incredibly difficult for an app business to establish itself as a must-download. Companies will need to continue to rely on word of mouth advertising to get their apps downloaded by the a greater count. In terms of what’s next for educational apps? There’s been a further branching out and sophistication in what apps can do. Simulation apps for 18 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
learning a trade or fine-tuning your surgical abilities is one of the latest to come to market. It will be interesting to see with greater advocacy from parents, educators, and researcher whether the market will become regulated. If app categorization is adopted, will we be seeing litigation in the headlines as companies place more value on their products and become more protective of their intellectual property? Will lawsuits also follow if research studies reveal the zero or negative impacts of “educational” app. And what will happen to overall profit share in this market if one or both of these occur? We’ll need to stayed tuned and watch whether education will win over money.
So Which Apps Are Really Educational? Education is all around us, and we learn something new everyday just by waking up, talking to others, reading a news article, or working on a project at work or school. We can all agree that we could probably benefit from changing up our routine and seeking an alternate method when attempting to learn something new. Apps can embody that change and provide that somewhat unconventional setting. With so many apps out there, educational or otherwise, it is hard to know what is right for you. Luckily, I con-
ducted a thorough review of a number of reputable sites to come up with a short list of apps for every category. This is by no means a comprehensive list, and remember new apps are introduced daily, but it will get you on the right track to getting you familiar with what is out there and possibly help you discover a new interest. To stay true to the subject matter, I also wanted to highlight an additional resource I came across for pre K – 12 in selecting education apps. Common Sense Media, an advocate for children, parents and educators, provides top app picks, reviews, parental concerns and much more on educational and gaming apps and websites for children ages two through 18. The site covers topics taught as part of the regular school curriculum and allows the user to easily search by age, subject and skill. I conducted a search for what a 14-year old would come across if they were looking to sharpen their math skills and was greeted with educational apps Quizlet and Flipcards. Both are known for supporting studying needs by allowing users access to millions of flashcards already produced. Quizlet also allows you to create your own flashcards and share them with study groups or all users. Quizlet also has the added benefit of gauging which areas you’re weakest in and isolate the quizzing to those areas until you have mastered the topic
Educational apps are reshaping education and the fundamental principles which are behind the four pillars of learning, as outlined by UNESCO: learning for the purpose to know, to do, to be, and to live together. “
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education around us Letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Try Something New Mathematics Has Always Been My Favorite Subject New Direction: The Medical Humanities Education Around the World Argentina
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LET’S TRY SOMETHING
By Victoria Hill
hat’s something you’ve never done before? Visited another country? Made your own clay mug? Got to go to a cool attraction? All of those are fun and exciting adventures, especially when they’re new. Trying new things is essential when it comes to growing not only our knowledge, but our personal lives as well. How about we try something together that’s not only fun to do, but will also enrich our lives and knowledge capabilities! What if we were to try and learn a new language together? Now before you’re tempted to run in the other direction, relax! Learning a new language is actually very cool! Let me tell you how and simple actions you can take to decide which new language is best for you.
for you. Sometimes our lives can get a little boring with the same old repetitive setting every day. But for most of us, the concept of traveling to a different country every week is not realistic. However, that doesn’t mean you can’t immerse yourself in different countries cultures and languages, and possibly prepare yourself for the future if you ever do find yourself in such countries. First off, you should look for a country that interests you! There are nearly 200 countries to pick from. Some of the most popular and traveled to countries include France, China, Spain, Italy, and Turkey. There are still plenty of countries and languages to choose from, but to make it simpler, take a pick out of the countries I just listed; the 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 23
ish, Italian, and Turkish. I’m going to pick Italian as an example, which about 93% of the population speaks natively! Let’s now begin and dive into the introductory steps of learning a new language and culture! Now is the right time to do some exploring into the country’s culture to see if you’re really interested in learning its primary language. Remember, I picked Italy, so I’m going to do some exploring into Italy’s culture and language. Because being introduced to a different culture than your own can seem daunting, it’s important to take some free time to learn about the country’s values, foods, traditions, and anything else that will help spark your curiosity and get you excited about the task of tackling another language and becoming fluent. For example, I found out that one of Italy’s primary values is family. The family is often the center of the social structure and usually helps to provide a stable environment. Italian families believe in providing both emotional and financial support to their kin. Families in Italy can also vary in size compared to families in the United States. Families in northern Italy tend to match well with the U.S., while southern families tend to be bigger and usually includes extended family members as well all under one roof. The main cuisine in Italy is of course Italian. Today, Italian food has influenced the culture of food in many places around the world. Wine, cheese, and pasta are important and often basic parts of Italian meals. Their pasta comes in a wide range of varieties including penne, spaghetti, linguine, fusilli, and 24 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
Italy is a peninsula, meaning it is encompassed by the sea on all of its sides apart from one side of the country (its north side). fish, potatoes, sausages, pork, and a variation of chesses are typical common ingredients added to pasta dishes. Tomatoes are popular ads, as well as stuffed pasta with polenta and ricotta cheese. In southern Italy, dishes are also big on incorporating tomatoes, along with peppers, olives, olive oil, garlic, eggplant, and ricotta cheese. It’s safe to say the Italian’s certainly know how to make their food delicious! To true Italians, food isn’t just nourishment, it’s their life. Appearances also matter in Italy. First impressions are very important and the way you dress can be a way of expressing your social status, your family’s background, and your level of education. Italians are big on fashion! Of course, every country is going to be pretty different when it comes to these categories! However, once you take a look at how rich and exciting each culture really is the thought will inspire you to achieve your goal of learning the language to completion! All it takes is spending time each day, even as little as 5 minutes of practice, to bring you closer and closer to being able to master the language of
Among different interesting facts about pizza, the most shocking one is that it was first made by Greeks.
your choice, such as Italian. Once you begin this great journey there are certainly rewards at the end of the rainbow. Whether you’re a student or an adult there is one golden reward and that’s becoming bilingual, which means being able to speak two languages. The benefits will not only benefit you personally, but help you in your future to grow your knowledge and experiences. Knowing other languages helps you stand out among the thousands of other applicants when you’re a high school senior attempting to get into your dream college. And when you do get into the college of your choice and have the incredible opportunity to study abroad, you can study abroad in the country whose language you truly know by heart, making your experience all the more rewarding and special. Knowing more than two languages helps your future employers see how dedicated
and possibly how additionally qualified you are also. Learning a new language can introduce you to the chance of being able to communicate with people of that culture better and allows you the chance to make more friends with others who don’t know English. Communication is a key skill to have and becoming bilingual is a genuine positive step for a brighter future. Learning a new language doesn’t have to be expensive either. Keep in mind there are various and FREE resources such as Doulingo and Babbel. It’s important to take initiative not only to learn, but to have fun with learning another language. It’s supposed to be fun, so don’t get overwhelmed! Just relax, know you’re doing the right thing, and study towards new opportunities
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Knowing other languages helps you stand out among the thousands of other applicants when youâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;re a high school senior attempting to get into your dream college.
Resources "Italy - Language, Culture, Customs and Etiquette." Kwintessential. 2016. Accessed February 26, 2016. http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/resources/global-etiquette/italy-country-profile.html. Zimmermann, Kim Ann. "Italian Culture: Facts, Customs & Traditions." Live Science. January 29, 2015. Accessed February 26, 2016. http://www.livescience.com/44376-italian-culture.html.
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MATHEMATICS has always been my favorite subject! By Shweta Roy ince childhood, Mathematics has always been my favorite subject. The reason I like it is because itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s all about reasoning and not about memorizing dates and years and long narratives. Math is all about numbers and formulas, which, if one understands clearly how to apply the formulas, will yield the same result every time.
Now, curious learners may ask if math really is important in our daily lives. Of course it is! Mathematics has been around us since the ancient times. Architects in Greece and Rome depended on geometry to construct such great buildings that we visit their remnants today, as did architects of the Islamic and the Renaissance periods. When it comes to using Math in our daily lives, we use it without even realizing it. When comparing what is a better buy at the grocery store, measuring ingredients in the kitchen, calculating interest, and managing budgets, its all a numberâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s game. Whether planning to be a mechanic, a doctor, a scientist, a teacher, or a magician, we need to know math. It is the cornerstone for many of the inventions and technologies around us. Mathematics is used in in almost all fields, including, business, economy and even the arts. So, we can imagine how difficult life would be without Mathematics: a life without iPhones, banking, or my favorite muffin. Its existence is not just limited to blackboards and pop quizzes; it is an integral part of our lives. Playing games and puzzles require math, too. Take for example the game chess. Every element in this game proceeds with logic and Mathematics. Playing math games at home like chess and dominoes might help build the skills needed to solve math problems. Fun math activities can help school children become more interested in learning about the subject. 28 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
A solid foundation in Mathematics is essential for a kidâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s academic career. Students tend to struggle more with math in high school because their base and fundamentals are not clear and fully developed. It takes tremendous practice to gain accuracy. Practicing not only makes the concepts clear, but also enhances mental abilities. If math isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t taught correctly starting with pre-school, children can learn to fear it. Most students feel revulsion towards the subject mostly due to lack of encouragement in class. I think encouragement is the only way students will find the subject more interesting and the only way they will go on to challenge themselves to solve more difficult math problems
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New Directions: The Medical Humanities By Catherine Niehaus
What Are “The Humanities”?
nglish and Comparative Literature; Philosophy; Theology & Religious Studies; Foreign and Classical Languages; Art History & Critical Visual Theory; Film Studies; African, Chicano, Celtic, Oceanic Studies; Classics; Music, Movement, or Theatre Theory; Human Gender & Sexuality Studies; History… “The humanities” is an umbrella term that encompasses a myriad of intertwining fields. Areas involved in the actual production of art (Fine Art, Music, Performance Studies, Creative Writing, etc.) are usually considered affiliated disciplines at larger universities (“the Arts & Humanities”); and occasionally, universities treat fields as though they function as hybrids of the humanities and social sciences, such as Anthropology & Archaeology and Sociology. Even for post-secondary students who aren’t immediately intrigued by 30 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
one of the above listed subject areas, most liberal arts Bachelors of Arts and Bachelor of Science programs require “core” classes in humanities subjects outside of students’ majors in order to graduate. But why? The general objective of the humanities is to document and better understand the nuances of the human condition. As creatures keenly cognizant of our own mortality, many inherently cling to facets of ourselves that psychologically or spiritually transcend our immediate experience of the physical world. We want to identify and cultivate what makes us more than mammals with aggrandized prefrontal cortices. We want to know what makes us human. The Latin term humanitas originally related to human sensation, or feeling. Over the course of the centuries, the ideal has come to coalesce feeling with knowledge, ethics, and action, particularly in American educator Lionel Trilling’s model of hu-
manist pedagogy. The queries made in the humanities are wide-ranging, spanning from, “What ethical limitations should governments place on cloning?” to “Why is racial representation in the media important?” to “How can we determine what is and isn’t ‘art,’ and why does that matter?”
Are the Humanities Really in Crisis? Declaring a college major in the humanities increasingly seems like a high-risk venture in the academic and professional communities of the United States. A frequently-cited statistic is that only 7% of college graduates majored in the humanities in 2010, as opposed to 14% in 1966. Especially after the 2008 stock market crash, the funding and ideological prioritization of American colleges has shifted from the humanities to STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) and pre-professional pathways— those that seemingly lead to more stable and financially lucrative careers. In response, throngs of educators, students, and professionals have campaigned for the critical thinking, transferable skill building, and social justice advocacy that stem from the humanities. In Times Higher Education, humanities proponent Sarah Churchwell contends, “If we agree that the humanities do not matter, or fail to challenge this assessment, we are colluding in the very practices that reduce our humanity, that impinge upon all the other ways in which we can enrich our lives, our abilities to express our creative individuality.” Yet, the case for the humanities (the terminology of which avoids the negatively aggressive connotation of the previously used, “defense of the humanities”) does not strike everyone as cogent. Even with employment statistics aside, people need a solid reason why to study the
humanities beyond “art for art’s sake.” And for many, the purpose provided by the humanities community falls short. In February 2015, for instance, physicist Chad Orzel penned an informal opinion piece entitled “This Is Not What I Want as A Defense of ‘The Humanities.’” Herein, he provides a counterargument to remarks made by Laura Skandera Thrombley, President of Pitzer College at Union University. Orzel charged Thrombley,
and pundits like her, with perpetuating a sense of elitism around the humanities. However, while one may encounter the occasional humanities professor who rewards essays that champion his or her perspectives expressed in lecture (the more esoteric, the better), written with flowery prose that conceal poorly-considered or vague theses rather than simply-articulated essays with more original, substantiated arguments, I don’t feel one can fall into the “elitist” generalization so quickly. A more relevant and fair way to discuss the humanities’ utility is to consider how the humanities function. Numerous students of critical theory analyze the same sources—Ovid’s The Metamorphoses (8 A.D.), Locke’s The Two Treatises of Government (1689), Tennyson’s Ulysses (1843), and so on—which has recently sparked intense controversy at Yale University, where English students called for the diversification of curriculum. For the purposes of this article, though, the focus is on how these sources are studied the same way as decades ago.
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This is not to belittle the importance of such works by any means; I believe they are immeasurably valuable when appropriately incorporated into curricula, and that the take-away from these works can evolve with the times in fascinating ways. However, not all humanities programs’ systems of study have modernized equally. Rather than solely acting as an interlocutor between the past and present, the humanities should strive to actively participate in relevant contemporary issues. For more on debates surrounding this issue, see writings by Slate Magazine education columnist Rebecca Schuman, or Allen Bloom’s 2008 book, The Closing of the American Mind. One could also refer to the V21 Collective, a group of scholars interested in creating a dynamic rather than positivist approach to Victorian studies. We should be using the “critical thinking skills” so commonly championed by the humanities to engage in a spectrum of interdisciplinary issues. While I personally believe in the inherent value of studying the humanities, if these fields aspire to objectively demonstrate their worth to broader audiences, one way to do so is through interdisciplinary integration. Fortunately, numerous colleges and universities are already doing so through an array of initiatives.
ary study is the emergence of the Medical Humanities. It became a distinctive field in the 1970s, when Joanne Trautmann Banks published Bibliography of Literature and Medicine (1975) with Carol Pollard, which led to the founding of the journal, Literature and Medicine (first published in 1982). Rita Charon, Professor of Clinical Medicine and Director of the Program in Narrative Medicine at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York, claimed Banks was “a root cause of what’s become an international, mainstream, undeniable intellectual and clinical field.” As Banks asserted in the first issue of Literature and Medicine, “Let us investigate in the pages of this journal all those concepts that literature has to offer medicine and vice versa. Keeping humbly to what our talents and training allow us to see, let us refuse to accept so thorough a fragmentation that we endanger the mental and physical health of our community.” In 1988, following Banks’ lead, the University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston’s Medical Humanities Graduate Program of the Institute for the Medical Humanities became the first authorized university in the United States to offer a PhD in the discipline. Baylor University then became the nation’s first university to offer a Medical Humanities bachelor’s degree in 2007. As studies increasingly point to the benefit of holistic approaches to training healthcare professionals, the Enter: The Medical Humanities Medical Humanities have begun to flourish. One of the most compelling trends in interdisciplin- Harvard Medical School’s Arts and Humanities Initia-
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tive, launched in October 2015, states, “The arts and humanities are powerful tools in medical education that have the potential to improve professionalism, enhance perspective, sharpen physicians’ analytic and diagnostic skills, and improve teamwork and communication.” Stanford University’s Medicine & the Muse Program promotes programs that integrate the arts and humanities into medical education, scholarly endeavors, and the practice of medicine. Yale’s Medical Humanities & the Arts Council aims to promote a holistic, humanistic, fluid approach to healing. For more on the future of the medical humanities, I recommend checking out articles such as “Rethinking the Medical in the Medical Humanities,” (2016) authored by affiliates of Dublin’s Trinity Centre for Health Sciences. The beneficiaries of such academic programs are not only future physicians, physical therapists, nurses, and medical administrators; students of other Arts & Sciences disciplines stand to benefit tremendously from the Medical Humanities as well. In regards to the earlier diagnosis of inflated ego in humanities depart-
ments, Banks has a treatment plan lined up—She wrote in 1998, “If we can show that literature works in the context of such a basic, life-enhancing as well as life-threatening endeavor as medicine, then we can ameliorate our otherwise self-centered desire to bask in the philosophical and aesthetic pleasures of superb texts.” While I personally am far from arguing that the individual pleasure of intellectual nourishment is fundamentally “self-centered,” one cannot deny that the pith of the Medical Humanities is strongly altruistic. A former professor of mine served as Director of the Medical Humanities minor program at my undergraduate university. Her research focuses on Victorian literature, examined through the lens of neuropsychology and the history of medicine. In her courses, we delineated the effects of Darwinist evolutionary theory and the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak by examining 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 33
Victorian medical textbooks and pathological maps. In addition to discussing the effect of syntax or the contrast between symbolic interior and exterior spaces in Emily Brontë’s Wuthering Heights (1847) or Willkie Collins’s The Woman in White (1859), we discussed how characters were portrayed in relation to nineteenth-century psychological advancements and social attitudes toward mental illness. By studying literature in this framework, I gained a clearer sense of the Victorian culture in its entirety, and began to identify connections between this era and our current system of mental healthcare. In an interview for Inside Higher Ed, Helen Small, author of The Value of the Humanities (2013), contended “the value one attributes to the humanities is to a large degree circumstantial and contextual: it depends upon the field in which one looks for value to be expressed.” It seems clear that in the wake of rapid medical and technological advancements, society needs to address humanities-based questions. For example, “Based on trends in social history, what effects might X technology/treatment have on Y demographic of people?” or, “Why do we consider X treatment of patients unethical, when it is deemed acceptable in Y society?” or, “Under what circumstances might Y be right? How should we change our policy?” The successful and ethical implementation of medical advancements requires an informed, interdisciplinary, and humanistic approach, granted in part through the study of humanities fields such as Literature, Philosophy, Cultural Studies, and History.
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Final Thoughts So, why study the humanities? As Small said, the answer depends on the context of how the humanities can be utilized. A couple of reasons based on what has been discussed here: Study the humanities to address urgent ethical and political issues. Study the humanities to train more empathetic, creative, holistically-healing healthcare professionals; and more empirical, informed, innovative scholars. Study the humanities to tailor your education to your specific needs and interests. If we help the humanities evolve to address germane cultural questions and continue to find innovative ways to incorporate them into interdisciplinary study, we can strengthen all affected academic fields—the humanities, the “hard” sciences, pre-professional tracks, and beyond. Though far from comprehensive, this introduction to interdisciplinary humanities study serves as a means to get students and educators thinking outside the confines of “traditional” routes of education. With what select advocacy organizations now call STEAM (Science, Technology, Engineering, Arts, and Mathematics), students can be powered forward to carve new lines of interdisciplinary inquiry, and find modern ways to engage in the human experience
Resources Bloom, Allen, The Closing of the American Mind: How Higher Education Has Failed Democracy and Impoverished the Souls of Today's Students (New York: Simon and Schuster, 2008). Churchwell, Sarah, “Why The Humanities Matter,” Times Higher Education, 13 November 2014, accessed 5 March 2016, < https://www.timeshighereducation.com/comment/opinion/sarah-churchwell-why-the-humanities-matter/2016909.article>. Golden, Serena, “The Value of the Humanities,” Inside Higher Ed, April 28, 2014, accessed 6 March 2016, <https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2014/04/28/new-book-explores-various-arguments-value-humanities>. Harvard University, “About the Initiative for the Arts and Humanities at Harvard Medical School,” The President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2016, accessed 6 March 2016, <http://artsandhumanities.hms.harvard.edu/what-we-do>. Hu, Nian, “The Case in Defense of the Humanities,” Hard Politics, 14 February 2015, accessed 5 March 2016, <http://harvardpolitics.com/harvard/case-defense-humanities/>. O’Neill, Desmond, Elinor Jenkins, Rebecca Mawhinney, et al., “Rethinking the medical in the medical humanities,” Medical Humanities, British Medical Journal, 4 March 2016, accessed 6 March 2016, <http://mh.bmj.com/content/early/2016/03/04/ medhum-2015-010831.short?rss=1#aff-2>. Oransky, Ivan, “Joanne Trautmann Banks,” The Lancet, vol. 370, July 28, 2007, accessed 8 March 2016, <http://www.thelancet. com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673607611489.pdf>. Orzel, Chad, “This Is Not What I Want as A Defense of ‘The Humanities,’” Uncertain Principles, ScienceBlogs LLC, 27 February 2015, accessed 5 March 2016, <http://scienceblogs.com/principles/2015/02/27/this-is-not-what-i-want-as-a-defense-of-thehumanities/>. Small, Helen, The Value of the Humanities (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013). Stanford Humanities Center, “What Are The Humanities?” Stanford University, 2016, accessed 5 March 2016, <http://shc.stanford.edu/what-are-the-humanities>.
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Education Systems Around the World -
ARGENTINA By Matt Cardoso
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Buenos Aires is the capital and largest city of Argentina “Buenos aires” can be translated as “fair winds” or “good airs.”
According to International Monetary Fund (IMF), Argentina is the 8th largest, 32nd most populous, and 25th richest country in the world. The South American nation has many natural resources that permit it to export food, drink, and biodiesel. The currency is the “peso argentino” and the minimum fair is 8000 pesos. The agriculture and automobile industries are important to economy too. As a common vacation destination of Brazilian citizens, Argentina’s tourism industry is also booming. The country is a republic, and has been governed by President Cristina Kirchner since 2007, who had previously served as the first lady from 2003 to 2007. The place that today is Argentina was discovered by Américo Vespúcio in 1502, and until the star of the War of Independence in 1820, Argentina was a colônia of Spain. In 1826, Argentina had its first president, Bernardino Rivadavia, and, unlike other heads of state, he invested a lot of money in education. Rivadavia founded the University of Buenos Aires, one of the most important universities in the country today. In 1962, the Argentinians suffered a military blow, until 1983. In regards to religion, 92% of the population is Christian, which I believe is a consequence of the missionaries, jesuítas, who came to Argentina to convert its inhabitants to Christianity soon after the nation’s discovery. Argentina has the 37th best education system in the world according to a study conducted in 2014 with 40 countries (you can check the entire list here: (http:// www.edudemic.com/learning-curve-report-education/). Only 3% of the population is illiterate. Like United States of America, Argentinian states are free
to apply their own laws, so the education system used to be decentralized. To create a fairer, more unified system, the government created a law (no. 26.206/2006) for the regulation for education with 145 articles that specified regulations regarding teacher qualification, time in school, and more. Due to this new statute, the education system has 4 levels: 1st For children with 45 days until 5 years old, but just the last year is mandatory; 2nd is the basic level, that takes 7 years to complete; 3rd the second basic level, that takes 6 years; and the 4th is the highest level that takes 3 years to complete. In the public elementary school, mandatory subjects include foreign languages (such as English), social studies, biology, mathematics, Spanish grammar, and others. Students attend school 5 days per week for 5 hours per day, and the public school provides lunch for them. In regards to high school, private schools tend to provide a better education, because students have more options for which extra-subjects to take, have more available class time, and have more time to study. However, a typical private school’s tuition is 700 pesos argentinos per 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 37
month, and of course, many people cannot afford to pay it. But the most interesting aspect of the education system in Argentina is that it has many more public universities than private. In total, the country has 53 national universities, 49 private universities, 7 state university institutes, 14 private universities institutes, 4 province universities, one foreign university, and one international university. My Argentinian friends tell me that private universities are better, but public ones are not too bad. Also, many Latin people move to Argentina to study. If the colleges are free and provide a good education, then why not? In Brazil, it is common for people to move to Argentina to study medicine, it is cheaper then here, and the university are better than here. But not all is good. The government of Argentina has been on the receiving end of its citizens’ disapproval. All the people I have had conversations with on the subject disapprove of the Argentinian government and its economy. Similar to Brazil, Argentina is producing students who finish school without knowing English or other skills necessary to their future university studies. One person I had a conversation with said to me that he has even has problems reading words in Spanish, his native language!!! This is the bad side of Argentinian education. The collective problems of the education system result in this. I am very sad to learn of this issue, because if some students cannot read in Spanish, how they will can read in another language? How can they study? The biggest question at hand is: When is the government going to see the problem? Despite Argentinian university’s 38 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
favourable reputation in Latin America, they have a long way to go in terms of providing adequate education. Like the nation’s first president, government leaders need to invest more money into the education system. I want to express my gratitude to Natali Zacarías, Damian Gonzales, Facundo Leonel, Lucas Tam, Francisco Cando, Pepo Gimenez, and Emilliano Arias. Without you, I could not have written this article. Gracias
Argentina has the 37th best education system in the world according to a study conducted in 2014 with 40 countries
The Argentine National Council of Education sets a standard curriculum that is followed by schools throughout the country, because it is believed that a national education system promotes unity.
why? - series WHY DO OUR LEGS FALL ASLEEP? 38 WHY IS OUR BLOOD RED? 41
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Why Do Our Legs Fall Asleep? By Jessica Sinha
his happens when a part of your body feels so much pressure that the signals from that part of the body to your brain are actually cut off for some time. For example, when you fall asleep on your arm or are sitting on your feet, you’ll notice your arm or feet “falling asleep.” Your nerves have the job of signaling to your brain about your physical sensations, and also send instructions from your brain to the rest of the body. For example, if you accidentally touched a hot pot, your nerves send superfast signals to your brain, which signals your muscles to move your hand away so that you don’t burn yourself.
So what’s going on?
The pressure on your arm or feet squeezes the nerves
that send signals to the brain. In some cases, the pressure completely blocks out and in other cases, it can send strange signals giving you a tingly feeling. If the pressure is left on too long, it can be dangerous and cause nerve damage. But in most cases, you usually recognize it in time and shake your arms and feet. It takes a little bit of time for the signals to start back up successfully, but moving around and stretching out helps to get it back to normal. Even with your eyes closed, the nerves in your hands and fingers can help you learn lots of things! In this case, your partner will be able to tell you so many things by simply feeling the items you give them 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 41
TRY THIS AT HOME: T E S T Y O U R NERVES! 1) Find a partner: a friend, sibling, or parent. 2) Gather some safe, fun items, but don’t show your partner what they are. 3) Ask your partner to close their eyes and hold out one hand. 4) Now put one of your items in their hand and ask them to describe it. What’s the shape? How does it feel? Hot or cold? Little or big? Light or heavy? 5) Now, can your partner guess the items you are putting in their hands?
Fun items to try: • Coin • Book • Ice cube • Pencil • Paper
Resources: Today I Found Out, Health.HowStuffWorks.com
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Why Is Our Blood Red?
ur blood is composed, among other things, of red blood cells (RBC). To get an idea of the amount of red blood cells that are present in the amount of blood a typical person has, the number is between 4 to 6 million RBCs. Leukocytes, or white bloods cells (WBC), are also present in blood. However, they exist in a much lower quantity, between 4,500 to 10,000 WBCs per microliter (mcL). RBCs are composed of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin, the protein molecule in RBCs helps transport oxygen from the air (captured by our lungs) for all
of the cells in our body. It helps oxygenate our cells and organs and gets our oxygen to where it needs to go. It’s also vital in transporting carbon dioxide (CO2) in our blood. The iron contained in hemoglobin however, is the key element responsible for the red color of our blood. But if the blood is red, why do our veins appear bluegreen? There is a common confusion that our blood turns bluish green when it runs out of oxygen. Our 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 43
blood does in fact change color, but specifically turns from bright red to dark red. The main reasons blood appears bluish green in the veins has to do with whether or not our blood is oxygenated, the nature of our blood vessels, and the way light reflects off our skin and our skin pigmentation. When our cells are oxygenated, our blood is always bright red; when most of the oxygen has been released into the body, or when the iron is deoxygenated, our blood turns a darker red. Because all of the veins, except for the pulmonary vein, are the blood vessels that carry blood rich in CO2 (deoxygenated), the color of our blood is deeper and makes veins ap-
vein that carries oxygen-rich (and bright red) blood. Blood appears bluish-green because of projecting colors and the optical phenomenon that results from the mixture of the color of our dark blood and our skin. Our skin changes the way light is reflected from the blood and we perceive that as being a different color. When light hits our skin, it reflects off the pigments on the surface, but it can’t adequately reflect off the structures underneath
“When our cells are oxygenated, our blood is always bright red; when most of the oxygen has been released into the body, or when the iron is deoxygenated, our blood turns a darker red.”
Works Cited / Resources: Davis, Charles Patrick, MD, and William C. Shiel Jr., MD. "What Is Hemoglobin?" MedicineNet.com. November 4, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.medicinenet.com/hemoglobin/article.htm. Helmenstein, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Why Veins Look Blue." About Education. April 18, 2015. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://chemistry.about.com/od/lecturenoteslab1/a/Why-Veins-Look-Blue.htm. Michelle, Julia. "Why Does Blood Look Blue in Your Veins?" EHow. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://www.ehow.com/howdoes_5607648_blood-look-blue-veins_.html. "What Color Is Our Blood inside of Our Bodies?" UCSB Science Line. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=3964. "Why Is Blood Red?" UCSB Science Line. Accessed February 3, 2016. http://scienceline.ucsb.edu/getkey.php?key=2419.
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FOOD FOR THOUGHT 44 THE CHALLENGE OF LIFELONG 48 LEARNING IMPORTANCE OF CRITICAL 50 THINKING THE AMERICAN SYSTEM ON 54 THE WORLD STAGE
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Food For Thought - Part Two By Ameera Khawaja
he Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) state that as of 2012, 17% of children and adolescents in the United States are either overweight or obese. According to the CDC, being overweight or obese is defined as having a “weight that is higher than what is considered as a healthy weight for a given height.” Another way doctors determine body fatness is through checking Body Mass Index (BMI). Though BMI does not measure body fat directly, it is another way to sum up weight category, — underweight, overweight, normal or healthy weight and obesity. Through evaluations of diet, physical activity, family history, and other appropriate health screenings, doctors are able to determine what spectrum the patient falls under through inexpensive and easy tests. Being over the required weight can cause the body a lot of harm, internally, psychologically and to one’s physical appearance as well. Obesity also brings on a number of illnesses. To name a few, it causes heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, increases the chances of stroke, and can cause as many as 11 types of cancer. More often than not, psychological issues like depression also torment individuals suffering from obesity. As Clinical Health Psychologist doctor David Engstrom affirms, “Extra pounds often cause chronic joint and extremity pain, making individuals less able to get around, enjoy life or exercise.” To suffer from obesity as a child Dr. Engstrom agrees the effects are just as worse, as the child frequently goes through “ridicule and exclusion from peer activities”, often leading to problems with body image, self-esteem and social isolation All of these problems can be prevented if the steps are taken in the right direction, and at the right time. With proper nutrition education, 5-17-year-olds would not have to be afflicted with cardiovascular complications due to a poor diet, and would be able to lead healthy normal lives. To successfully eradicate obesity, its causes must carefully be examined. One of obesity’s main roots grow from what schools serve for breakfast and lunch to their students. Sweetgreen, a fast growing chain providing salads to schools around the U.S. recently stated, “school cafeterias are one of the biggest areas of opportunity 46 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
that exist in the battle against childhood obesity.” A study done by the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition found that children would rather hydrate with sweetened beverages during lunchtime than plain water, with only 60% drinking the recommended daily amount. In a typical day, 32 million children eat lunch at schools in the U.S., where the average meal consists of chicken fingers and French fries.
anxiety, stress, frustration, and loneliness. Whenever we feel distressed we may find ourselves reaching for food, which can provide temporary relief. This behavior can lead to weight gain, which causes mood imbalances due to the inability to control life stressors in the first place. This becomes a vicious cycle, one that leaves us in a constant state of toxicity, physically and emotionally.
Representing schools nationwide, the School Nutrition Association (SNA) claims “healthier meals are more expensive to produce,” which often puts a burden on school budgets and takes the money out of classrooms. The expenditure per student in 2012 was $12,401 in the United States, with only $443 spent on food services. Millions of children are eating lunch every day — sometimes including breakfast — that’s an average of $2.74 per child. “When was the last time you could get a lunch for that price?” Dana Woldow asks, co-chair of the student nutrition and physical activity committee for the San Francisco Public School District, and a mother of three. Woldow suggests at least $5 should be spent per child in order to provide them with healthy food. TWhen it comes to children who do not necessarily understand the health consequences of bad eating habits, parents and schools should not be choosing between meeting their children’s academic success or nutritional needs. At least 2.6 million people die each year as a result of being overweight or obese in the U.S alone. Countries like Mexico are working to quash obesity completely by imposing taxes on sugary beverages, high-caloric packaged snacks, and limiting the airtime of junk food advertisements aimed at children. The taxes are meant to discourage the consumption of dangerous foods — and to lower the chances of contracting obesity related illnesses. If this intervention by the government were to fail, The Alliance for Healthy Food warns that one in three Mexican children would develop Type II diabetes during their lifetime.
Being overweight as a child can be quite detrimental to one’s social life in school as well. There is a social stigma attached to being overweight. The American Academy of Pediatrics state that studies show children as young as 6 years old associate negative stereotypes with being overweight, such as believing a child is less sociable because they are not “thin.” Yes, an overweight child can be confident and popular amongst their classmates, but in general that is not the case. Studies conducted by the American Academy of Pediatrics confirm the fact that “children as young as 6 may associate negative stereotypes with excess weight and believe that a heavy child is simply less likeable.” Negative feelings and living within a harmful environment can lead children to do inadequately in academics and with their overall performance in school.
Guidelines in countries like Mexico and the U.S. are discouraging processed products and sugary drinks, and are also requiring schools to serve fresh food and plain drinking water. If school administrators were to ignore these guidelines, they could face heavy fines or even the closure of their schools. iWhen used as a coping mechanism by those with weight problems, food can leave people dealing with
By instilling healthy eating habits in schools, children learn how important it is to eat a healthy and balanced meal. In the U.S, the National School Lunch Program spent $11.6 billion in the fiscal year of 2012, and the Obama administration proposed a $10 billion increase to improve the program over the next 10 years. Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack stated, “People are beginning to realize that schools play a critical role in improving the dietary and physical needs of children and adolescents.” This is exactly what healthy-eating advocate and First Lady Michelle Obama is bringing to light with several high profile initiatives to improve school meals. On America’s role in the fight against childhood obesity the First Lady said, “We can’t just leave it up to the parents.” BToday’s children have a very different lifestyle compared to 30 years ago. Walking to school and back home has been replaced by bus and car rides, and processed food plays a bigger role in meals and school lunches. Smaller budgets have cut classes like gym and after-school sports, leaving children to spend more time playing videogames, using the In2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 47
ternet, and watching TV. Initiatives like ‘Let’s Move!’ launched by Michelle Obama are working towards solving these challenges. Through extensive research, strategies and common sense, the initiative plans to move children towards a healthier lifestyle, fostering environments that support nutrition and healthy living. The First Lady has made progress since the launch of the initiative five years ago by incorporating her goals through instating laws and other programs. An effort by ‘Let’s Move!’ has caused many schools to remove junk food from their vending machines, and is responsible for getting new nutrition information on menus and labels. Commending the initiative, Nestle — a partner of the program —stated they had made “huge accomplishments by any standard.” In another effort to improve the situation of childhood obesity, legislation in 2010 allowed the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) to make amendments to school lunch and breakfast programs. The “Healthy Hunger-Free Kids Act” with the USDA will improve the critical nutrition and hunger concerns, making it “an historic victory for our nation’s youngsters,” Mr. Vilsack remarked. Some of the steps being taken would include providing the USDA with the authority to set nutritional standards for all of the food available in schools, and increasing the federal reimbursement rate for school lunches and overall quality of the food served, including vending machines, and the “a la carte” lunch line. Laws against junk food in schools are not only to improve the wellbeing of students, but to also help citizens control their health care costs, which can cause unfavorable damage to the value of life that is detrimental to the country’s economy. Health care in the U.S in 2010 totaled $2.6 trillion, or $8,402 per person the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services said. The persistent unemployment and continued loss of private health insurance coverage and led people to forgo care or seek medical help. The eating of unhealthy food, little to no exercise and then taking medicine because the unhealthy food is making them 48 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
Costs are high because no one wishes to take responsibility for their health, and the few guidelines set by the government are often not exercised in schools. In theory the laws set by the Obama administration in the past eight years leaves little room for companies to sell packaged food and soda on school campuses, however, “public officials and private sector watchdog groups” have stated that the monitoring and enforcement has so far been lax.
Wanjek, Christopher. “Are Healthy School Lunch Programs a Waste?” LiveScience. October 07, 2015. Accessed February 05, 2016. http://www.livescience. com/52408-healthy-school-lunch-food-waste.html.
Sweetgreen, “Real People, Real Food” Sweetgreen. com Accessed February 06, 2016 http://sweetgreen. tumblr.com/post/103458679563/school-lunchesaround-the-world
“The Emotional Toll of Obesity.” HealthyChildren.org. November 21, 2015. Accessed April 11, 2016. https:// www.healthychildren.org/English/health-issues/conditions/obesity/Pages/The-Emotional-Toll-of-Obesity.aspx.
“The Condition of Education - Elementary and Secondary Education - Finance - Public School Expenditures - Indicator May (2015).” The Condition of Education - Elementary and Secondary Education - Finance - Public School Expenditures - Indicator May (2015). Ignoring the legal order set by the government leads May 2015. Accessed February 06, 2016. http://nces. to heavy fines and closure of schools in some cities ed.gov/programs/coe/indicator_cmb.asp. around the world — we should follow these steps and move towards a healthier lifestyle. Not only will Lewis, Rachel. “The Immediate Effect Fast Food Has this help in us living our lives to the fullest, but we on Children | The National.” The Immediate Effect Fast could find ourselves being more productive, spend- Food Has on Children | The National. May 13, 2013. ing money the right way, and over all being much Accessed February 06, 2016. http://www.thenational. happier. To help address this problem, the change ae/lifestyle/family/the-immediate-effect-fast-foodshould come from within our homes, and minds. has-on-children. More money should be given to our schools, and un- Wade, Lizzie. “Mexico’s Soda Tax Is Working. The US healthy food should not be as easily accessible as it is. Should Learn From It.” Wired.com. July 13, 2015. Having healthy meal times from a young age should Accessed February 07, 2016. http://www.wired. be given importance, as that sets the stage for the com/2015/07/mexicos-soda-tax-working-us-learn/. rest of their lives Guthrie, Amy. “Mexico Cracks Down on Junk Food in Schools.” WSJ. May 14, 2015. Accessed February 07, Citation and Resources 2016. http://www.wsj.com/articles/mexico-cracksReinberg, Steven. “U.S. Kids Drink Too Little Water.” US down-on-junk-food-in-schools-1431595804. News. September 24, 2010. Accessed February 07, 2016. http://health.usnews.com/health-news/family- “About Adult BMI.” Centers for Disease Control and health/childrens-health/articles/2010/09/24/us-kids- Prevention. Accessed April 09, 2016. http://www.cdc. gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/adult_bmi/. drink-too-little-water-study.
Rabin, Roni Caryn. “Childhood: Obesity and School Lunches.” The New York Times. February 04, 2011. Accessed February 08, 2016. http://www.nytimes. com/2011/02/08/health/research/08childhood. html?ref=health.
Radnofsky, L. (2012, January 10). Weak Economy Keeps Health Spending Sluggish. Retrieved June 18, 2016, from http://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424 052970203436904577151033764613376
Christensen, Jen. “Schools Struggle to Feed Kids Harvard School of Public Health http://www.hsph. Healthy Food.” CNN. September 29, 2010. Accessed harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-conFebruary 05, 2016. http://www.cnn.com/2010/ sequences/ HEALTH/09/29/school.food.investigation/.
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THE CHALLENGE OF LIFE LONG LEARNING
By Kathleen Loughlin
nne, an eighth grader, was asked how she liked school. “It’s okay, I’ll be glad when it’s over!” The thought of at least 8 more years of school which meant learning discouraged her—she wanted to get on with her life. The secret that Anne had yet to discover was that learning did not begin with school and end with graduation. For Anne and everyone else, learning is a lifelong challenge from cradle to grave. An excellent example of this secret is the learning of empathy—one of the most important social aptitudes that we use to negotiate life’s demands. To grow into empathy, learning to read the emotions of another is of prime importance. This is a lifelong process. We never fully learn how to read other’s emotions, rather we are constantly expanding our knowledge of what it means to be empathetic. Empathy is feeling the general plight of another. Dur50 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
ing infancy, a baby comes to recognize the distress of another. He learns this by observing his mother’s reaction to him when he is distressed. As the child grows, so does—hopefully—his mastery of empathy. What does empathy look like for those of school age? It is not only sensing other’s distress, but reaching out to comfort the other. So, a child who is experiencing frustration during a learning task might find himself being supported in his efforts by several learners in the classroom. Once again the observation of the classroom dynamics is the prime learning tool for the growing child. Experiencing the empathy of others deepens our own mastery of empathy. It is significant to realize that learning empathy is not overtly taught in the school curricula. Rather this learning seems to happen without the child’s awareness. This changes in the middle years of school since a teenager is often introduced to the subject of empa-
thy in the discussion of values. An example of a moral question that might emerge: Should one keep a date with a sick friend when a last minute dinner invitation happens? Through empathy and feeling the distress of one’s friend, the person is led to a choice between an altruistic reaching out to a friend or a more selfcentered decision to go to the dinner. As the learner matures, these moral questions become more complex. Empathy is experienced when the young adult is able to feel not only the distress of another, but also recognize that a group might be involved. An example is seeing that a child who is ignored and taunted in school belongs to the group of bullied students. At this time, the teen is confronted with the realization that groups exist demanding the same attention and sensitivity that an individual might demand. To conclude, as the teen enters into adulthood, this process of observing, experiencing the feelings of another, internalizing them, and choosing to act on behalf of the other is repeated over and over again. Thus, successfully negotiating the demands of empathy is the hallmark of adulthood and of lifelong learning
“Commnit yourself to lifelong learning. The most valuable asset you’ll ever have is your mind and what you put into it.” ` Brian Tracy
“It is significant to realize that learning empathy is not overtly taught in the school curricula. Rather this learning seems to happen without the child’s awareness.” 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 51
“Critical thinking is thinking about your thinking while you’re thinking in order to make your thinking better.” Richard W. Paul
Importance Of Critical Thinking By Shweta Roy Lets start with two basic questions before the article. • Alex has four sisters -- January, March and May. What’s the name of the fourth sister? •
How many birthdays do you have in average for your entire life? A) 30 B) 1 C) 75 D)59
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he criticalthinking.org states ‘Critical thinking is that mode of thinking — about any subject, content, or problem — in which the thinker improves the quality of his or her thinking by skillfully analyzing, assessing, and reconstructing it’. It helps you with a discerning judgment, with appropriate evaluative standards to determine the true worth or value of something. Similarly, it seeks ways to minimize the narrowness and prejudices in our thinking, likely gravitating our mind to less errors and distortions. Nowadays, in the world of superficial appearances, it is necessary to incorporate critical thinking in kids’ minds. This not only helps them take charge of their own minds but also encourages them to take responsibilities of their lives. It provides one with a self-guided way of thinking and an attempt to live rationally and logically. A few positive reasons can
be explained as follows:
Right Career paths Employers search for innovative and collaborative characteristics in an employee and critical thinking is one such way to excel in the above-mentioned qualities and impress our supervisor in the long run. We will be able to provide good solution to the problems we face with genuine analysis and lead our team towards betterment. Teamwork is always appreciated in a company. If we can collaborate with our teammates, encourage them with higher level of innovative ideas then no wonder our contributions will add value to the organization. This takes on a much higher level of critical thinking. 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 53
Spend no time wasted We all have come across frustrating situations in our lives and instead of turning mistakes into opportunities we fill ourselves with negative definitions of life. Critical thinking gives us a plausible way to do something concrete and improve our thinking standards. In lieu of lying on our bed staring blankly and worrying unproductively, we can relate to our goals, needs and purposes and figure out our options for actions.
Reshape character Critical thinking helps us to channel our thoughts accurately and clearly. It makes it justifiable thus helping us reach better interpretations and conclusions. It not only shapes our character but also helps us to choose our friends wisely so that we may not end up getting hurt later on. Similarly, it deals with our ego and redefines the way we see things. Apart from the above points, a few other examples could be teachers, businessmen, writers, doctors and scientists who need critical thinking as well. So whichever career a student chooses, he must understand the importance of it. Whether itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s guiding a student to new perception, handling problems in business to increase profits and sales, or analyzing data and developing new technologies critical thinking is very important in our daily lives
References: 1) https://www.dol.gov/odep/topics/youth/softskills/problem.pdf 2) http://www.insightassessment.com/Resources/Ten-Positive-Examples-of-Critical-Thinking 3) http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/defining-critical-thinking/766 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Critical_thinking Answers: 1. Alex 2. 1 birthday.
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DEFINITION OF CRITICAL THINKING “The process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to reach an answer or conclusion”
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By Daisy Morales
The American Education System on the World Stage
he importance of education is a widespread accepted philosophy. However the degree, to which education is valued, fluctuates between countries, and different cultures, sometimes this difference affects students negatively. An assessment has been arranged by experts called the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) to evaluate and compare student performances across sixty countries. It assesses the studies of reading, science, and mathematics. The 2012 data shows, that among 34 more developed countries pertaining to the Organization for Economic Co-operation, and development (OCDE), the United States scored 17th in reading, 20th in science, and 27th in mathematics. Worse however, is that data shows that the United States has not made any significant improvement, when compared to scores of previous years. This has been a cycle, which has continued since the founding of the PISA, in 2000. Other countries, like China, South Korea, and Finland have had breakthroughs in their education systems. Although the American education systems have many qualities, improvement is clearly needed; using ideas which have been effective in other countries, improvement can be achieved. Example of countries which have been successful in rebuilding their educations systems, are China, and South Korea. Their method of education differs with 56 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
that of the United States. Both countries have shorter break periods, and longer schooling days. China for instance, has 230 school days a year, 50 more days than the United States. China also has a nine hour school day, and children begin school at the age of two. According to an educator named Keith Ballard which traveled to several countries to compare their education methods, China being one of them; the Chinese student upon graduation will be six years ahead in schooling, than the American High School Graduate. Longer schooling has not only been advised by Educator Ballard, other educators have advised it when they have taken into account the vast education loss during summer. According to a survey conducted by the National Summer Learning Associations, only 34% percent of students did not need a teacher to review content from the previous year, after returning from the break. A shorter break period, will decrease the amount of learning lost, and will extend the opportunity to instructors to create a more relaxed paced schedule. Another approach to education is provided by South Korea, it has a philosophy of hard and strict work ethic, in regard to schooling. Students endeavor, to have high grades, and disciplinary actions on students is rarely needed. Although there are many good students in the American education system, according to an article written by Penn State University, the United States education system has become very permissible. One key issue, which is affecting work ethic in students, according to the article, is that all blame for student performance is often
placed solely on the educator. This liberates the student from responsibilities, and can drastically diminish motivation of improvement. Another lesson which can be learned from the education systems in both countries is their respect and praise for educators. China even has a national holiday dedicated to instructors. Another country which has shown remarkable advancement is Finland. Finland greatly contrasts the Asian Education System, however has succeeded because it has focused on the psychological and social needs of students. The education system in Finland, children begin to attend school at the age of 7 years old. Prior to that age children are motivated to socialize and learn from the world from family and friends. Even then, once education has begun at the age of seven, learning continues to be focused on creativity, and further socialization. Standardized testing has been eliminated, to lower pressure on students. Many questioned the system for its emphasis on socialization; however there is psychological truth to its philosophy. Psychology dictates that the cognitive skilled is tied to emotional influence. Meaning, when a
student is mentally happy and healthy, school performance will increase. During the early ages of childhood, children are beginning to understand emotions in others and themselves and are slowly learning to control those emotions. Often class disruption arises, or poor behavior of a child arises because the child does not fully understand emotions. Children need to socialize to learn from others, and need their educators as role models in this process. The need for socialization continues, and even increases during adolescence. A study done by Doctors Margaret M. Benningfield, Mona P. Potter, Jeff Q. Bostic, show that during adolescence development of cognition becomes behind the development of emotions, meaning emotions are more highly concentrated, than reasoning. This leads adolescents to engage in â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;risky or daringâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; behavior. Having this in mind, just as Finland concentrated in creating a social and stress free environment American schools should aim to do so as well. School performance is important, but the mental health of students should be the first priority. 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 57
If students are satisfied with their environment, and successfully pass each developing level, then schools will not only gain higher performing students, it will also gain excellent citizens. Children and adolescents signify promise; school systems of other countries like China, South Korea and Finland have understood and consequently improved their educational systems. In order to secure an excellent future in the United States, and maintain competitiveness on the world stage, the first step must be taken in education. Options like more school days, greater student responsibility and effort, higher value on educators, and most of all maintenance of the mental health of students and the school environment are just the beginning ---beginning of our countryâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s future
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In fall 2016, about 50.4 million students will attend public elementary and secondary schools.
Resources http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/education-july-dec13-pisaresults_12-02/ http://www.greatschools.org/gk/articles/u-s-students-compare/ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/06/21/summer-learning-loss-study_n_3391594.html http://www.rif.org/us/literacy-resources/articles/primer-on-summer-reading-loss.htm http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.summerlearning.org/resource/collection/CB94AEC5-9C97-496F-B230-1BECDFC2DF8B/Research_Brief_04_-_Cooper.pdf http://www.ncee.org/programs-affiliates/center-on-international-education-benchmarking/top-performing-countries/ http://sitemaker.umich.edu/vanschaack.356/strenghts_and_weaknesses_of_both_systems http://ideas.ted.com/what-the-best-education-systems-are-doing-right/ http://www.theatlantic.com/education/archive/2013/12/american-schools-vs-the-world-expensive-unequal-bad-atmath/281983/ http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2012/01/12/16overview.h31.html http://www.investopedia.com/articles/professionaleducation/12/top-educational-systems.asp http://www.aasa.org/SchoolAdministratorArticle.aspx?id=17494 http://c.ymcdn.com/sites/www.summerlearning.org/resource/collection/CB94AEC5-9C97-496F-B230-1BECDFC2DF8B/Research_Brief_02_-_Alexander.pdf http://www.nccppr.org/drupal/content/blog/2014/09/26/4417/comparing-education-systems-around-the-world http://sitemaker.umich.edu/vanschaack.356/strenghts_and_weaknesses_of_both_systems http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=372
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YOUTH SECTION POSITIVITY OF PLAY 60
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POSITIVY OF PLAY By Marena Martinez
y friends and I sit around watching our children having a play date. We can’t help but smile and laugh at their vibrant imaginations. “I’ll be the doctor and you be the patient.” “Let’s pretend we are monsters.” The younger ones make funny faces and laugh hysterically at each other. Playtime seems like just a time for play, but it is so much more than that. Playtime promotes socialization, learning, and a sense of security. When a child is born, the parent’s desire to protect the newborn is innate. As the child gets older and starts talking, he reaches social, emotional, physical, and communication milestones. With their parent’s love and guidance to support them, children are able to make friends, maybe looking for mom or dad’s approval before introducing themselves.
The socialization that goes along with play and friendships can help children reach milestones with developing language, sharing, and being a team player. Socialization helps children stay on track with learning and promotes good grades in school because of the community support the child engages in. A child who has socialized with other children has an easier transition into pre-school and Kindergarten. Play dates can be training for how to cooperate with other children. Play helps children learn their first words. Think about seeing a mother with her child, playing peek-a-boo, singing songs and saying “Say Ma-Ma,” “Say Yelllloww.” The mom says those words with such delight 2016 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 63
and with a sparkle in her eyes, that the child is in- and with a sparkle in her eyes, that the child is intwork trigued, mimicking her because she sees how happy well with other students. it makes her. Children who grow up without social interactions Play helps children problem-solve. We build puzzles and play can suffer from social deficits. These children with our children, have them put blocks together, and don’t get the social interactions to learn how to deteach them to match items to each other. In problem- velop their language, or how to communicate effecsolving games and tasks, because their minds are tively. challenged, children will be inspired to work them through and complete more difficult tasks. By intro- We can break the cycle for children who don’t get ducing these skills during the pre-school years, a par- to play. Educate your community. Reach out to local ent is preparing a child with great critical thinking communities around you and promote play. Promote potential. library programs that are free of charge, promote playgrounds, and promote children-focused events. Play helps build team building. We play board games, Take children’s play seriously and watch our commuhide and seek, and even sports. Think of the joy it nities benefit brings to watch your children at their sporting events. The excitement of winning a game can’t compare to the enthusiasm of a child who is cooperative, motivated, and listens well. Team sports prepare children for academic excellence and help foster the ability to
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Play helps children problem-solve. We build puzzles with our children, have them put blocks together, and teach them to match items to each other.
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FUN ACTIVITIES ENJOY SOME FUN PRINTABLE ACTITIES, INTERESTING FACTS, COLORING PAGES AND MORE.
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MEET YOUR NEW FRIEND BLOSSOM BUBBLES!
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WHAT IS FALL FOLIAGE?
Autumn leaf color is a phenomenon that affects the normally green leaves of many deciduous trees and shrubs by which they take on, during a few weeks in the autumn season, various shades of red, yellow, purple, black, orange, pink, magenta, blue and brown. The phenomenon is commonly called autumn colours or autumn foliage in British English and fall colors,fall foliage, or simply foliage in American English. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autumn_leaf_color Resource: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autumn_leaf_color 68 | ZEALOUSNESS MAGAZINE | 2016
There are about 750 types of trees in North America.
There are about 100,000 types of trees in the world.
The time it takes for trees to grow to their full size depends on many things. In some tropical areas, trees may reach their full size in 30 years.
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WORKOUT YOUR MEMORY
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1. Print out the cards. 2. Cut them out in individual squares. 3. Place them face-down and scramble them 4. Match the pairs!
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JOIN THE 2017 BATTLE
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a project by in education, inc.
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