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MODULE 2

design


M2/

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Span

Material system: Skin and Bone Analysis of physical properties of the Kite The front is reinforced by a central bamboo stick which runs across the height of the kite – almost like a spine.

Spline

Skin and bone structures allow minimal use of materials for a well-regarded level of strength and rigidity. This idea is advantageous for objects which perform best when light-weight is preferred, such as kites. The skin resists lateral forces. This is ideal for the kite’s movement by trapping wind on its surface – similar to the sails of a boat. A smaller wing is connected perpendicular to the plane of the body. This idea, similar to those of aircraft, increase the stability in the horizontal direction. The side bamboo sticks are pushed inwards from the force of the air flow. The central bamboo stick locks the sides in place, preventing the kite from collapsing into itself.

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Perpendicular framework (in this case, both act under compression) prevents the skin from collapsing inwards.


M2 / wk 4

NOTION OF PERSONAL SPACE

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

200.00 mm

200.00 mm

STANDING

250.00 mm

300.00 mm

350.00 mm

SITTING

550.00 mm

200.00 mm

Notion of ‘Personal Space’ Measurements based on spaces between faces seemed to be the most easily determined in comparison to other areas of the body. Personal space existing around arms and legs, for example, were much less obvious to approximate. As a result, the data recorded was based off measurements surrounding the head (based around the context of a general conversation between two friends).

250.00 mm

STANDING

It was interesting to note that the personal space measurements around the head were only symmetrical on the sides. Furthermore, the personal space at the front of the head increased in a sitting posture compared to a standing posture. IT is clear that one’s personal space is unique to them and often changed based on context and posture. 350.00 mm

250.00 mm


M2 / WK 4

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Interpretation of Personal Space From Sommer’s studies using spatial invasion techniques described in his article “Personal Space: Spatial Invasion”, we were able to conceptualise typical defensive behaviours that characterise the conept of ‘personal space’. In his experiments with psychiatric patients, Sommer was able to identify a typical sequence of reaction to a deliberate but progressive invasion of personal space; the patient would first face away, then pull in their shoulders, place elbows at his side whilst hunching or slouching. By identifying these reactions, we formulated a concept that aimed at preventing these defensive gestures and maintain a neutral body position that is neither defensive or offensive. The resulting design is a brace-like structure that prevents movement and holds the upper body in an upright position. The result is similar to the diagram on the right where the spine is secured in a neutral position and the arms flank the body. The aim of the design is to restrict defensive behaviour patterns and in doing so, acknowledges the subconscious patterns of reclusiveness that are often associated with personal space invasions. Therefore our design is based on the idea of maintaining our position regardless of the context or situation and are forced to cope with potentially uncomfortable situations we may be placed in. After all, personal space is not just a realm of the individual, but developed from “interpersonal transactions”. Areas of the body that are most commonly used in defensive behaviours


M2 / WK 4

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Preliminary Group Ideas Initially we selected India’s design concept that created a curved cage like brace around the body and explored this in terms of meaning and relatedness to the brief. In our development stages, we transferred to a geometrical design and thus were able to include the structural essence of Derek’s concept. By exploring the inspiration for the two models, we were able to forge our two concepts into one which created a more meaningful, complex and symbolic design to carry forward into development.

India’s Initial Design Concept from Module One

Derek’s Initial Design Concept from Module One


M2 / WK 4

After our experiements with materials last week we began to reimagine the structure of our design. Whilst the smoothed organic curves of the bone structure were aesthetically pleasing, they lack practicality and precision. When approaching the prototype, the create the exact curves with raw materials proved to be exceedingly difficult. Thus we moved towards developing a geometric rule for defining the shape of the bone structure. We were able to justify this by incorporating aspects of Derek’s initial design sketches from Module 1 and integrating them onto the chosen design. Drawing inspiration from geometric architecture primarily, the design moved away from the free-flowing curves towards the more rigid and cage-like form we see below.

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Original Design Concept

This supported our concept of our interpretation of a second skin as the structure acts like a brace, forcing the wearer to confront their notion of personal space and avoid typical reactions to intrusions into that space. In order to mould around the body with geometric shapes, we created an angled arrangement that hugged the body just as a second-skin would. The transition into geometries also affords us great variability with the angles, joining types, materials and also the integration and of bone and skin structures. Revised Design Concept


M2 / wk 4

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Arm bracing design

Arm enabling design

Our intention is to experiment with the placement of the rib structures both underneath and over the arms. Not only in terms of functionality but also in meaning. The original structure suggested that the ribs would hug around the chest thus allowing for free movement of the arms. However, if we take the concepts of personal space discussed in Sommer to the extreme, we proposed that we would secure the arms and surround the entire upper body in a cage-like brace. When one feels like their personal space is being impinged upon, there is often a change in body language as seen in contexts of different densities such as public transport. Common behaviour are slumping, covering parts of ones face with their hands and averting their gaze. The idea of the bone structure is that one is discouraged from such behaviours and forced to maintain a constant posture regardless of the context. The incorporation of braced arms would complement this idea and thus we will explore this further throughout Module Two.


M2/2.5

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie


M2 / 2.6

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Precdeent Example 1: Federation Square Our design has been inspired by the Federation Square. Its network-like cladding displays a complex and unique geometric artwork. From analysing the design ideas, it is evident that there is a line of symmetry through the pattern but the overall design looks unsymmetrical. This idea could be implemented in our exoskeleton design as humans are physically symmetrically but their sense of personal space is not. Using Federation Square as an analogy can portray these two characteristics in a creative and precise approach. The strong emphasis of geometry which exists over the entire building’s cladding system is a result of precise tessellation analysis. The network of lines is constructed by triangular panels – these panels then segment further into five, smaller triangles. In doing this, the designers have achieved a basic, tessellated pattern which still displays complexity and uniqueness. The window openings are based off the shape of these larger triangles.


M2 / 2.6

Federation Square: Geometries In analysing this pattern further, central points can be found throughout the designing – these areas connect eight larger triangles. These points are linked perpendicular to one another, oriented with the line of symmetry. The designer has accomplished an asymmetric effect through the unbalanced patches of colours throughout the cladding.

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie


M2 / 2.6

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Precdeent Example 2: Buckminster Fuller A loss of roundness and increased rigidity is one of the main flaws in solely adopting the ideas from the Federation Square walls. Incorporating the ideas of mixed geometry into the design – as R. B. Fullerene had achieved in his time – would allow a larger range of possible forms. This would allow our design to have more flexibility and roundness. This can be seen in the diagram where the pentagons create the sphere to curver aroud the hexagons.


M2 / 2.6

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Precedent Example 3: World Wide Web Visualising Information Taking the idea further, we can draw inspiration from visualising information as a web. The current geometric ideas lack the aspect of portraying information. The pattern of shapes used in the second skin can reflect many networks of knowledge – it can show the psychology of links of the mind, extremities of personal space, emotion and so on. So far we have analysed precedent examples which are based on the surface of the second skin. Incorporating ideas which play with depth and angles can significantly alter the perception of the object. For example, Paul Loh’s table has experimented with the idea of allowing users of a table to see each other’s body languages. Using this as an analogy for our second skin design, we could present the idea of hindering one’s view of specific sections of the body while opening up other, less sensitive areas.


M2 / 2.6

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Precedent Example 4: The Human Spine The function of the spinal column is to protect and spinal cord which permits communication between the brain the bodies limbs and thus permits movement. We decided to abstract this reliance on the spine into becoming the focal point of our symetrical design. As both the literal supporting member and the figurative ‘back-bone’ for providing strength and confidence in uncomfortable situations, the formation of the rigid spine was crucial to our development. Whilst our initial concept followed the curves of the spine in an offset fashion, our transition into geometries meant we had to create angles from the curve. This can be seen in the angles of the revised design concept sketch.

Original Design Concept

Revised Design Concept


M2 / 2.6

Precedent Example 5: Rib Cage Sommer’s article provided us with an academic background for understanding the differing dimensions of personal space according to context and highlighted the areas of vulnerability. Following on from this notion, we identified the heart as the center of being. This also related to our anatomical concept of the spine as the protector just in the same way the the ribs protect the vital organs. We modelled our designs off a 5-point clip belt as seen in the diagram. This concept offers plenty of variety in terms of structure and materials and thus will be a focal point of our further design developments in the remainder of Module Two.

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie


M2 / wk 4

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Precedent Example 7: Exo + Skeletos “Outside Skeleton� Drawing on nature, we modelled our concept of the ex0-skeleton formation that is typical in thea insect and crustacean families. Compared to the endoskeleton of human beings, were the bone structure is interal, these animals have an external skeleton that acts a defensive mechanism against predators. Humans have adapted this function into armour that serves the same purpose as an exo-skelton to protect the soft flesh and organs. The increased strength and rigidity of the exo-skeleton means that it can restrict growth and thus some animals are forced to shed their exoskeleton once it it is outgrown. In a similar fashion to the human adaption of articial exo-skeletons, hermit crabs use natural-occuring shells to transfer from one exoskeleton to another as growth occurs. Exo-skeleton of an insect

This naturall existing phenomenon relates to our concept of our skeleton being visible on the outside of the skin so as to reinforce the importance of rigidity and maintaining structure


M2 /

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Model 1: Component

Model 2: Movement

Model 3: Volume

This task prompted our discussion of potential materials for our protype. Whilst sticky tape is not typically rigid, the adhesive properties allow for layering which enhances the strength of the tape, predominantly in smaller segments. We appreciated the idea of this as the elements gained strength from working together to create something grander than simply the sum of its parts. We also experimented with a stretch of bubble wrap that created an interesting aesthetic that was textural and dynamic yet also transpartent which means that the skeleton would be visible as per the exoskeleton concept.

The fixture of this moulded around the bone structure that permitted the rib members to move. We discussed whether this would be appropriate in our design as a way to tailor the structure to the body of the model so as to emphasis the second-skin element. Whilst the technique and function was possible, we concluded that the movement of the members contradicted the concept of the rigid brace that prohibited the movement of the body and thus was not developed any further with any other materials.

Whilst this model task didn’t describe volume in the same way that we plan to use, using one material to describe the form of the structure allowed us to focus solely on form wihtout the complications of two different elements and the interactions between the materials. Materiality began to complicate things and this task allowed us to avoid the complexity of it all, and focus on what looked ‘right’ and aesthetically pleasaing.


M2 /

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Further Development We experimented with different patterns within the triangular segments. Rather than attempting to create an overall sphericaloriented shape (through experimenting with geometry as Buckminster Fuller did), we decided to keep it rigid and pointy. As a result, we decided to keep the geometric planes straight but create a volumetric structure through the bending of the joints between the triangular segments.


M2 /

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

RHINO SKETCHE REVISION


M2 /

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Further Development Rhino Sketch Model


M2 /2.10 /2.11

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

PROTO + TYPE "first impression" We brainstormed a range of potential materials we could use for our prototype and discussed the required properties of the materials to perform the skin and bone functions. Both of these two components function in a different way and we conceptualised the aesthetic we wished to achieve with the relationship between them. We concluded that our bone structure would need to be comprised of sections of straight lenghts with fixed, rigid joints to maintain the form of the skeleton. For the skin, we required a malleable, free-flowing and potentially transparent material that would mould to the shape of the skeleton to contrast the sharp geometry of the skeleton. The two materials needed to work in synergy to be both functionally and aesthetically successful. Our key issue is the joinery of each segment. Given the complex geometric structure, the joints need to be secure and rigid and create the framework for the skin. We also had to consider the construction process and the degree of difficulty in connecting each segment. We were forced to simplify our design into regular and consistent angle joints so that we could reduce the number of different joint types. The images to the right show some of explorations of joining systems in electrical, plumbing and irrigation systems.

DWV Bend MF PL 50 x 88D

Elbow PVC Joint 90 Degrees x 40mm

DWV 10F FF Bend 40mm

Hardwicks Copper Straight Pipe 19.05x1.02mm x 1.5m

Copper Coupling 20mm

Brewers 15mm Copper Cap Tee

Home Irrigation Barbed Elbow 13mm

Barbed Tee 25mm

Barb Joiner 25mm


M2 /2.10/2.11

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

Materiality Bone - timber - balsa wood - PVC pipe - foil (compressed) - wire - garden hose - plastic tubing - aliminium

Skin - mesh - bubble wrap - canvas - tulle - calico - foil - glad wrap -

For our Module Two phototype we selected a lightweight gutter mesh as our bone structure. Whilst the wire was relatively malleable and flexible, we managed to achieve a higher degree of rigidity by layering multiple lengths of the wire together which strengthened the form. This also allowed us to create longer lengths to run the full length of the spine, and forge our own angles to mirror the shape of the spine. This assisted in developing our measurements and tailoring it to the body.


M2 /2.10 /2.11

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie

View of the inside of the headpiece. Note the skin on the inside of the bone structure.

View of the outside of the headpiece. Note the wire connecting all the segments together.

Our choice of material for our skin was a lightweight, semi-opaque tulle fabric in a bold colour so as to create a strong contrast between the bone structure. We attached the skin with wire to the inside of the bone structure to mimic the exo-skeleton we used as as a natural precedent. The effect is quite striking if not perhaps over-powering and thus we are likely to change our colour choice for the fabric to a more subdued colour, perhaps white or a light grey.

View of the right side of the headpiece

View of the right of the headpiece. Note the skin on the inside of the bone structure.

The flexibile properties of the material means that we may need to include another sub bone structure. This could be implemented using single wire strips in the triangle geometry as developed from the Federation Square precedent.


M2 /2.10/2.11

Derek Huynh & India McKenzie


M2 huynh and mckenzie