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GRANT AGREEMENT NO. : PROJECT ACRONYM: PROJECT TITLE: FUNDING SCHEME: THEMATIC PRIORITY: PROJECT START DATE: DURATION:

608775 INDICATE Indicator-based Interactive Decision Support and Information Exchange Platform for Smart Cities STREP EeB.ICT.2013.6.4 1st October 2013 36 Months

DELIVERABLE 8.4

Standardisation Strategy

Date 20/09/2016

PU PP RE CO

Submitted By DAPP

Review History Reviewed By IES

Dissemination Level

Version V0

Public Restricted to other programme participants (including the Commission Services) Restricted to a group specified by the consortium (including the Commission Services) Confidential, only for members of the consortium (including the Commission Services)

X

This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement no. 608775


Table of Contents

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ..........................................................................................................................................3 1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................4 2 SUSTAINABLE URBAN INDICATOR (SUI) AND INDICATE COMMON CITY INDEX (ICCI) ....................5 2.1 INDICATE SUSTAINABLE URBAN INDICATORS .....................................................................................5 2.2 INDICATE COMMON CITY INDEX ..............................................................................................................7 3 EU TARGETS ...........................................................................................................................................................8 3.1 Directives ............................................................................................................................................................8 4 TECHNICAL BODIES AND ASSOCIATIONS ......................................................................................................9 4.1 ISO ......................................................................................................................................................................9 4.2 CEN/CENELEC ...............................................................................................................................................11 4.3 ETSI ..................................................................................................................................................................11 5 STANDARDS FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE .............................13 5.1 EU Level ...........................................................................................................................................................13 5.1.1 CEN ...........................................................................................................................................................13 5.1.2 ISO .............................................................................................................................................................14 5.2 National Level ..................................................................................................................................................16 5.2.1 Italy ............................................................................................................................................................16 5.2.2 Ireland ........................................................................................................................................................17 5.2.3 United Kingdom ........................................................................................................................................18 6 CERTIFICATIONS .................................................................................................................................................19 6.1 Italy ...............................................................................................................................................................20 6.2 Ireland ...........................................................................................................................................................21 6.3 United Kingdom ...........................................................................................................................................21 6.4 Extra EU .......................................................................................................................................................22 6.5 Comparison between principal certifications ...............................................................................................23 7 SUIs and principal Certifications.............................................................................................................................28 8 STANDARDISATION STRATEGY ......................................................................................................................31 9 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................................................33

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INDICATE “Indicator-based Interactive Decision Support and Information Exchange Platform for Smart Cities” is a collaborative project funded under the FP7 SMARTCITY-2013 programme (Grant Agreement No. 608775). The project involves participants from across Europe including Ireland, Italy, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. INDICATE proposes a novel city-wide decision support system which accounts for all major systems and activities relevant to develop energy-efficient cities. The creation of such energy-efficient cities is a critical part of global sustainability and will require integrated smart urban planning tools for both master-planning and detailed energy optimisation. INDICATE project is centred on the creation of new interactive cloud-based tool to enable dynamic energy assessment of multiple entities within the urban environment. The tool will support key stakeholders in the transformation towards smart & sustainable cities. This document constitutes Deliverable 8.4 “Standardisation Strategy”. It has been developed within WP8, in the framework of Task 8.2 “Standardisation”. The document presents the exam of the principal existing standards for both building and communities, with a particular attention to BREEAM and LEED, two of the most advanced standards for comparison of communities and neighbourhoods. As a result, a pro-active strategy for both monitoring and integrating existing standards and for standardizing the results from the INDICATE project has been developed. How to read this document: • • • • • • •

Chapter 1- presents the aim of this document, which is to investigate how the project results as Sustainable Indicators and Common City Index could be used for a wider European application and how the available standards could be benefit from them. Chapter 2 describes INDICATE Sustainable Urban Indicators and INDICATE Common City Index. Chapters 3-5 contains a detailed description of existing standards for energy management and sustainable performance. Chapter 6 presents an analysis and a comparison of the most widespread and advanced certification standards. Chapter 7 reports a cross-analysis of the Criteria assumed by BREEAM (most used in Europe), LEED (most used in extra-EU Countries) and ITACA (most used in Italy) with the 30 SUIs. Chapter 8 describes the strategy to build a new standard starting from SUI and ICCI. Chapter 9 reports the conclusion of this document.

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1 INTRODUCTION The need to establish environmental standards at an urban level is evident and worldwide acknowledged. The definition of parameters for evaluating the sustainability and the energy efficiency for neighbourhoods and cities, such as accessibility to services and public transport, energy efficiency, use of water resources or security, requires the adoption of shared rules and a common measuring system. Cities need indicators to measure their performance. Existing indicators are often not standardized, consistent, or comparable over time or across cities. The 30 SUIs developed in INDICATE could help cities everywhere to use the same measures, making it easier to compare results and to assess where they stand. The study of the Technical Bodies that develop Standards and Certifications and the analysis of Regulations and Standards designed to monitor and compare cities provides an overview of the current situation, of the tools in force and in use to evaluate sustainability and energy efficiency of urban centres. The comparison between adopted Criteria allows to highlight differences and limits between the most important and widespread Certifications (LEED, BREEAM, GREEN GLOBE, GREEN STAR, CASBEE), while the cross-analysis of the Certification Criteria and the 30 SUIs shows which Indicators are not taken into account by the Certifications; therefore, such Indicators can provide a tool to fill the gap and to overcome the limits, a common tool to assess, monitor and compare neighbourhoods and cities.

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2 SUSTAINABLE URBAN INDICATOR (SUI) AND INDICATE COMMON CITY INDEX (ICCI) Cities need a way to assess their performance, aim for where they need to be and measure their progress along their process of innovation. Standards fill that need. Although technology is an important aspect, "smart" solutions also need to be sustainable and integrated into good governance, security, financial efficiency, effective management of energy and resources, environmental preservation and climate change mitigation and resilience. The indicators are a tool to support the cities to assess where they stand and prioritize solutions. Standardized indicators mean that cities everywhere use the same measures, making it easier to collaborate and learn from one another.

2.1 INDICATE SUSTAINABLE URBAN INDICATORS

Here below, the list of the 30 SUIs delivered for integration into the INDICATE cloud based decision support tool, as stated in D.4. They could help urban centres everywhere to use the same measures and to devise easier the comparison results. #

Indicator

Scale

Definition

Domain: Emissions Reduction 1

Consumption of renewables

City Level

Renewable energy consumption as a % of total energy consumption in the urban area.

2

GHG emissions per sector (residential, industry, use type)

City Level

The per capita emissions (Tons of Emissions eq. per individual).

3

Renewable plants (managed by public/private authority) kWh produced

City Level

Renewable electricity produced by LA/PA (kWh). (managed by public/private authority)

4

Energy consumption of public buildings I Total waste generated per year per capita Brownfield versus greenfield development

City Level

The energy consumption of municipal buildings per sq. m measure.

City/Sub City Level

Roof Space available for PV Roof Space Available for Solar Thermal

Proportion on new development on brownfield sites. Ratio of new developments on brownfield to new developments on Greenfields.

Building Level Building Level

Area of roof space suitable for PV. Area of roof space suitable for Solar Thermal

5 6

7 8

9

Final energy consumption, by sector

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City Level

Municipal waste per capita

Domain: Energy Efficiency City Level

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The total electricity consumption per capita (kWh/individual) Trends in electricity consumption. 5


10

Energy dependency

City Level

11

Energy consumption of public buildings II Building stock energy efficiency

City Level

13

Residential Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

14

Commercial Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

15

Industrial Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

16

Leisure Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

17

City Level

19

Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Health) I Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Education) II Special Heritage Status

20

Electricity Exported to Grid

Building Level

21

Residential population density

City Level

22

Percentage of buildings assessed under a Building Energy Rating Scheme.

City Level

12

18

City Level

City Level City/Sub City Level

The percentage of total electricity consumption per capita generated elsewhere and imported. % of public buildings that have been audited in terms of their energy usage

New buildings and renovations assessed in terms of environmental sustainability. % of sustainably classified buildings (both new and renovated). Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Housing Stock based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Commercial Stock based on unit type and year of construction.

Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Stock based on unit type and year of construction.

Assessment of Leisure Stock Energy Efficiency based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Public (or private) healtcare facility energy efficiency

Assessment of public (or private) educational facility energy efficiency Building with heritage designation attached. Amount of surplus energy exported to the national grid.

Total resident population per km 2 of built up area. This indicator defines the percentage of buildings classified among A+ and D.

Domain: Cost Reduction 23

Heat Demand Density

Sub City Level

24

Occupancy

25

Smart Metering

City/Sub City Level

26

Total employment rate

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Heat density demand informs viability of District Heating.

Percentage of buildings occupied/vacant. Number of Buildings with Smart Meters installed.

% of working aged population employed in the locality. 6


27

Retrofitted Elements (Generation)

Building Level

Presence of specific interventions designed to generate energy (micro) at building level.

28

Building Level

29

Retrofitted Elements (Insulation) Retrofitted Elements (Glazing)

Presence of specific interventions designed to reduce heating loss.

30

Retrofitted Elements (Heating)

Building Level

Building Level

Presence of specific interventions designed to reduce heating loss. Presence of specific interventions designed to efficiently generate heat.

2.2 INDICATE COMMON CITY INDEX

The INDICATE Common City Index (ICCI) allows to measure how similar two cities are across the 30 SUI grouped into three domains: Emission Reduction, Energy Efficiency and Cost Reduction. Eight indicators provided a rating for ENERGY REDUCTIN INDEX; 14 indicators provides a rating for ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDEX; eight indicators provides a rating for COST REDUCTION INDEX. The combination of the 3 indexes provides the final result of the COMMON CITY INDEX.

EMISSIONS REDUCTION

1. Consumption of renewables 2. GHG emissions per sector (residential, industry, use type) 3. Renewable plants (managed by public/private authority) kWh produced 4. Energy consumption of public buildings I 5. Total waste generated per year per capita 6. Brownfield versus greenfield development 7. Roof Space available for PV 8. Roof Space Available for Solar Thermal

EMISSION REDUCTION INDEX

ENERGY EFFICIENCY

9. Energy dependency 10. Energy consumption of public buildings II 11. Building stock energy efficiency 12. Residential Stock Energy Efficiency 13. Commercial Stock Energy Efficiency 14. Industrial Stock Energy Efficiency 15. Leisure Stock Energy Efficiency 16. Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Health) I 17. Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Education) II 18. Special Heritage Status 19. Electricity Exported to Grid 20. Residential population density 21. Percentage of buildings assessed under a Building Energy Rating Scheme ENERGY EFFICIENCY INDEX

COST REDUCTION

22. Final energy consumption, by sector 23. Heat Demand Density 24. Occupancy 25. Smart Metering 26. Total employment rate 27. Retrofitted Elements (Generation) 28. Retrofitted Elements (Insulation) 29. Retrofitted Elements (Glazing) 30. Retrofitted Elements (Heating)

COST REDUCTION INDEX

COMMON CITY INDEX

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3 EU TARGETS One of the key targets of the European Union1 is the improvement of the energy efficiency of buildings, considering that the residential and tertiary sector accounts for more than 40 % of final energy consumption in the Community. For this reason, the EU has issued specific Directives aimed to reduce the energy consumptions and CO2 emissions of buildings and promote the development of the necessary policies and measures to comply with the Kyoto Protocol.

3.1 Directives

The first Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (Directive 2002/91/EC, EPBD), was issued in 2002. All the EU countries were required to improve their energy regulations and to introduce energy certification schemes for buildings. The transposition of the Directive has been a challenge for most countries that still continues. In 2012 the Directive on the Energy Performance of Building was re-casted (Directive 2010/31/EU). The main challenge for the Member States is to move towards new and retrofitted nearly-zero energy buildings by 2020 (2018 in the case of Public buildings) and also the application of a cost-optimal methodology for setting minimum requirements for both the envelope and the technical systems. This challenge can be only addressed with a system action involving all the stakeholders of the construction sector.

1

http://ec.europa.eu/europe2020/europe-2020-in-a-nutshell/targets/index_en.htm

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4 TECHNICAL BODIES AND ASSOCIATIONS Standards are developed by a panel of experts, within a technical committee. Here is an analysis of the Technical Bodies that develop Standards and Certifications in Europe, with a list of published standard for each committee, that provides an overview of the current situation, of the tools in force and in use to evaluate sustainability and energy efficiency of urban centres.

4.1 ISO

ISO standards are developed by groups of experts, within technical committees (TCs). TCs are made up of representatives of industry, NGOs, governments and other stakeholders, who are put forward by ISO’s members. Each TC deals with a different subject, for example, there are TCs focusing on screw threads, shipping technology, food products and many, many more. ISO has over 250 technical committees. ISO/TC 242 Energy Management2 Scope: Standardization in the field of energy management, including for example: energy efficiency, energy performance, energy supply, procurement practices for energy using equipment and systems, and energy use as well as measurement of current energy usage, implementation of a measurement system to document, report, and validate continual improvement in the area of energy management. Total number of published ISO standards related to the TC and its SCs (number includes updates):

Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 242 (number includes updates): Participating countries: Observing countries:

6 6 54 28

Published ISO standards: • • • • • •

2

ISO 50001:2011 - Energy management systems -- Requirements with guidance for use ISO 50002:2014 - Energy audits -- Requirements with guidance for use ISO 50003:2014 - Energy management systems -- Requirements for bodies providing audit and certification of energy management systems ISO 50004:2014 - Energy management systems -- Guidance for the implementation, maintenance and improvement of an energy management system ISO 50006:2014 - Energy management systems -- Measuring energy performance using energy baselines (EnB) and energy performance indicators (EnPI) -- General principles and guidance ISO 50015:2014 - Energy management systems -- Measurement and verification of energy performance of organizations -- General principles and guidance

http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_technical_committee?commid=558632

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ISO/TC 257 Evaluation of energy savings3 Scope: Standardization in the field of energy savings through general technical rules and specific methodologies for the calculation of energy savings in projects, organizations and regions, and guidance on measurement, verification and assessment of data quality as it relates to these calculations. Total number of published ISO standards related to the TC and its SCs (number includes updates):

Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 242 (number includes updates): Participating countries: Observing countries:

3 3 22 19

Published ISO standards: • • •

ISO 17741:2016 - General technical rules for measurement, calculation and verification of energy savings of projects ISO 17742:2015 - Energy efficiency and savings calculation for countries, regions and cities ISO 17743:2016 - Energy savings - Definition of a methodological framework applicable to calculation and reporting on energy savings

ISO/TC 268 Sustainable development in communities4 Scope: Standardization in the field of Sustainable Cities and Communities will include the development of requirements, frameworks, guidance and supporting techniques and tools related to the achievement of sustainable development considering smartness and resilience, to help all Cities and Communities and their interested parties in both rural and urban areas become more sustainable. TC 268 will contribute to the UN Sustainable Development Goals through its standardization work. The proposed series of International Standards will encourage the development and implementation of holistic and integrated approaches to sustainable development and sustainability. Total number of published ISO standards related to the TC and its SCs (number includes updates):

Number of published ISO standards under the direct responsibility of ISO/TC 242 (number includes updates): Participating countries: Observing countries:

5 2 27 22

Published ISO standards: • • 3 4

ISO 37101:2016 - Sustainable development in communities -- Management system for sustainable development - Requirements with guidance for use ISO 37120:2014 - Sustainable development of communities -- Indicators for city services and quality of life

http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_technical_committee?commid=622828 http://www.iso.org/iso/iso_technical_committee?commid=656906

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• • •

ISO/TR 37150:2014 - Smart community infrastructures -- Review of existing activities relevant to metrics ISO/TS 37151:2015 - Smart community infrastructures -- Principles and requirements for performance metrics ISO/TR 37152:2016 - Smart community infrastructures -- Common framework for development and operation

4.2 CEN/CENELEC

CEN5, the European Committee for Standardization, is an association that brings together the National Standardization Bodies of 33 European countries. CEN is one of three European Standardization Organizations (together with CENELEC and ETSI) that have been officially recognized by the European Union and by the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) as being responsible for developing and defining voluntary standards at European level. The CEN-CENELEC Management Centre (CCMC) supports the standards-making process and facilitate a better awareness and understanding of the standardization system among stakeholders and other audiences. Technical Body designates the CENELEC Technical Committees, Subcommittees, and Task Forces of the Technical Board, all consisting of national delegations. These technical bodies work on the elaboration of normative documents: European Standards (ENs), Technical Specifications, etc. They report directly to the CENELEC Technical Board. The experts in these technical bodies come from all over Europe: from CENELEC national members. Experts from Affiliates countries or other stakeholders such as CENELEC cooperating partners, can be granted a status of observership. CENELEC counts more than 300 technical bodies. The horizontal coordination has been allocated to CEN/TC 3716 - Project Committee - Energy Performance of Building project group Five CEN technical committees have been assigned the task of developing the required standards: • • • • •

CEN/TC 89 - Thermal performance of buildings and building components CEN/TC 156 - Ventilation for buildings CEN/TC 169 - Light and lighting CEN/TC 228 - Heating systems in buildings CEN/TC 247 - Building automation, controls and building management

4.3 ETSI

ETSI7, the European Telecommunications Standards Institute, produces globally-applicable standards for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT). ETSI recognizes three different types of Technical Body (TB): • •

Technical Committee (TC) ETSI Project (EP)

https://www.cen.eu/Pages/default.aspx https://standards.cen.eu/dyn/www/f?p=204:7:0::::FSP_ORG_ID:628909&cs=105FE4519F5CDA3A837C98168C3F0904B 7 http://www.etsi.org/ 5 6

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ETSI Partnership Project (EPP)

ETSI may also establish Special Committees (SC) and Specification Groups (ISGs). ETSI produces a variety of standards, specifications and reports to suit different purposes, in response to market demand. • • • • • • •

European Standard (EN) ETSI Standard (ES) ETSI Guide (EG) ETSI Technical Specification (TS) ETSI Technical Report (TR) ETSI Special Report (SR) ETSI Group Specification (GS)

ETSI publishes between 2,000 and 2,500 standards every year. Since 1988, they have produced over 30,000. These include the standards that enable key global technologies such as GSM™, 3G, 4G, DECT™, smart cards and many more standards success stories.

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5 STANDARDS FOR ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND SUSTAINABLE PERFORMANCE "Standards are the first step towards the holy grail of an interoperable, plug-and-play world where cities can mix and match solutions from different vendors without fear of lock-in or obsolescence or dead-end initiatives." Jesse Berst (Chairman, Smart Cities Council)8 An Energy Management Standard specifies the requirements for an energy-management system. Since 2009, the European standard EN 16001 represented the best practice in energy management. In June 2011, the ISO 50001 standard for energy management systems was released by the International Standards Organization (ISO). The ISO 50001 standard is widely recognized as an excellent systematic management framework for all energy and CSR activities.

5.1 EU Level

European EN standard is valid for all European Member States. BS EN 15603:2008 Energy performance of buildings. Overall energy use and definition of energy ratings. The purpose of the standard is to: • • • • •

• • • •

collate results from other standards that calculate energy use for specific services within a building; account for energy generated in the building, some of which may be exported for use elsewhere; present a summary of the overall energy use of the building in tabular form; provide energy ratings based on primary energy, carbon dioxide emission or other parameters defined by national energy policy; establish general principles for the calculation of primary energy factors and carbon emission coefficients. This standard defines the energy services to be taken into account for setting energy performance ratings for planned and existing buildings, and provides for this: method to compute the standard calculated energy rating, a standard energy use that does not depend on occupant behaviour, actual weather and other actual (environment or indoor) conditions; method to assess the measured energy rating, based on the delivered and exported energy; methodology to improve confidence in the building calculation model by comparison with actual energy use; method to assess the energy effectiveness of possible improvements.

This European standard is applicable to a part of a building (e.g. flat), a whole building, or several buildings. It is up to national bodies to define under which conditions, for which purposes and for which types of buildings the various ratings apply. This standard handles the energy performance of a building as a whole. The assessment of the energy performance of specific technical building systems is handled in the appropriate part of EN 15241, EN 15243 and EN 15316 series.

5.1.1 CEN

CEN provides a platform for the development of European Standards and other technical documents in relation to various kinds of products, materials, services and processes. CEN supports standardization activities in relation to a wide range of fields and sectors including: air and space, chemicals, construction, consumer products, defence and security, energy, the environment, food and feed, health 8

http://www.iso.org/sites/mysmartcity/index.html

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and safety, healthcare, ICT, machinery, materials, pressure equipment, services, smart living, transport and packaging. The basis for the standardization work to be carried out by CEN, CENELEC and ETSI is found in the current set of Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD) related CEN standards, as well as other existing national, CEN/CENELEC and ISO standards. CEN/TS 16628:2014 - Basic Principles for the set of EPB standards - Energy Performance of Buildings - Basic Principles for the set of EPBD standards: this technical specification provides mandatory basic principles to be followed in the preparation of each individual EPBD standard CEN/TS 16629:2014 - Detailed Technical Rules - Energy Performance of Buildings - Detailed Technical Rules for the set of EPB-standards: this technical specification intends to provide detailed technical rules, based on a set of basic principles, to provide guidance for the revision of the overarching standard on energy performance and for all other standards of the set of EPBD standards, aiming at a coherent, systematic and comprehensive, software proof package of EPBD standards

5.1.2 ISO

ISO International Standards provide practical tools for tackling many of today’s global challenges, from managing global water resources to improving the safety of the food we eat. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Rio de Janeiro’s 1992 conference put sustainable development clearly on the political agenda. More than twenty years on, the issue is more relevant than ever. From carbon footprint to community infrastructures, sustainable events and the many environmental challenges that businesses face, ISO has a comprehensive range of standards that can help businesses and organizations all over the world make progress in the three pillars of sustainable development – the environment, economy and society. Sustainable development is also an essential ingredient of cities and communities of the future ENERGY MANAGEMENT Using energy efficiently helps organizations save money as well as helping to conserve resources and tackle climate change. ISO 50001 supports organizations in all sectors to use energy more efficiently, through the development of an energy management system. ISO 50001 is based on the management system model of continual improvement also used for other well-known standards such as ISO 9001 or ISO 14001. This makes it easier for organizations to integrate energy management into their overall efforts to improve quality and environmental management. ISO 50001:2011 provides a framework of requirements for organizations to: • • • • • •

Develop a policy for more efficient use of energy Fix targets and objectives to meet the policy Use data to better understand and make decisions about energy use Measure the results Review how well the policy works, and Continually improve energy management.

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Over 150 on about 21000 CEN standards are related to energy efficiency and renewable. These range from the energy management system standard ISO 50001 that can be used by any organization in any sector, to standards specific to certain sectors, such as building or transportation. Building – Standards such as ISO 23045 for the energy efficiency assessment of buildings, and ISO 13153 for the design of energy saving family homes, can help reduce energy use in the sector. Transport – ISO standards for ships, aircraft and cars can help reduce emissions and fuel consumption. Renewables - ISO standards on emerging technologies such as solar power can help organizations share best practice and drive uptake. We are also active in solid biofuels and standards in this field will be published soon. There are also standards related to greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. ISO 37120 Indicators for city services and quality of life: this International Standard defines and establishes methodologies for a set of indicators to steer and measure the performance of city services and quality of life. It follows the principles set out and can be used in conjunction with ISO 37101:—, Sustainable development in communities — Management systems — General principles and requirements, when published, and other strategic frameworks. This International Standard is applicable to any city, municipality or local government that undertakes to measure its performance in a comparable and verifiable manner, irrespective of size and location. Normative references: ISO 37101: Sustainable development and resilience of communities — Management systems — General principles and requirements. ISO 1996-2: Acoustics Description, measurement and assessment of environmental noise — Part 2: Determination of environmental noise levels. ISO/TR 37150:2014 Review of existing activities relevant to metrics provides a review of existing activities relevant to metrics for smart community infrastructures. In ISO/TR 37150:2014, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities, as defined in ISO/TC 268. ISO/TR 37150:2014 addresses community infrastructures such as energy, water, transportation, waste and information and communications technology (ICT). It focuses on the technical aspects of existing activities which have been published, implemented or discussed. Economic, political or societal aspects are not analysed. ISO/TS 37151:2015 Principles and requirements for performance metrics gives principles and specifies requirements for the definition, identification, optimization, and harmonization of community infrastructure performance metrics, and gives recommendations for analysis, including smartness, interoperability, synergy, resilience, safety, and security of community infrastructures. Community infrastructures include, but are not limited to, energy, water, transportation, waste, and ICT. The principles and requirements of ISO/TS 37151:2015 are applicable to communities of any size sharing geographic areas that are planning, commissioning, managing, and assessing all or any element of its community infrastructures. However, the selection and the importance of metrics or (key) performance indicators of community infrastructures is a result of the application of ISO/TS 37151:2015 and depends on the characteristics of each community.

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In ISO/TS 37151:2015, the concept of smartness is addressed in terms of performance relevant to technologically implementable solutions, in accordance with sustainable development and resilience of communities as defined in ISO/TC 268.

5.2 National Level

National standardization bodies are obliged to implement nationally the European standards.

5.2.1 Italy

The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive recast has been recently transposed at national level (June 2013). New challenges are emerging to face the fulfilment of the mandatory Net Zero Energy Buildings requirements. Since 2005 an energy certification system at both national and regional level has been implemented, fixing specific targets for the Energy Performance of buildings. New regulations on sustainable building, mainly at regional scale, have been issued in the last period to promote an approach to high performance buildings beyond the energy aspects, taking in account other environmental, social and economic issues. The voluntary schemes for sustainable building certification are spreading among stakeholders, due mainly to their use in incentive based public policies. These systems are also entering in the building codes. At urban level, many cities are adopting energy plans to improve the performance at urban scale. Sustainability issues are taking more and more importance in urban plans and in urban renovation processes. New financial instruments to drive the change of the construction sector toward Net Zero Energy Buildings and sustainable building are proposed by public authorities and some financial private institutions are beginning to move also in this field. In Italy, the Ministry for the Economic Development is the responsible of the implementations of the EU EPBDs (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive). The first regulation, issued in 2005, to set the general framework for the transposition of the first EPBD (2002/91/EC) at national level is the Legislative Decree 192. In 2009, with the Presidential Decree n. 59, minimum requirements were defined for the Energy Performance in summer (cooling and lighting systems). This new decree updated also the minimum Energy Performance requirements of buildings and heating systems. In 2011, the Legislative Decree n.28 transposed the EU RES (Renewable Energy Services) Directive. The requirements regarding the use of renewable energy for new buildings and major renovations where increased with the objective to enlarge the renewable quota for DHW (Domestic Hot Water), heating and cooling energy demand. By January 2017, a 50% renewable quota for all building permits will be mandatory. The management of quality assessment systems for EPC falls into the competence of regions. According to the Italian Constitution, energy – related topics are a shared competence between the State, the 21 Regions and the Autonomous Provinces. The consequence is that a regional authority has the possibility to implement autonomous transpositions of the EPBDs as long as they don’t are in conflict with the general principles and requirements provided at national and European level. Now 11 Regions and Autonomous Provinces have acted a local transposition of the EPBD. At the end of 2012, 6 Regions have also transposed the re-casted EPBD. Consequently, on local base, different (more strict) EP requirements have been set as specific rules concerning the energy certification. Since June 6th the Legislative Decree 63/2013, concerning the adoption of the EU EPBD 2012/31 (Energy Performance of Buildings Directive re-cast) is in force. This Legislative Decree has modified the former Legislative Decree 192. The nZEB (nearly Zero Energy Buildings) are introduced. Starting from December 2018 all the new public buildings have to be nZEB and starting from January 2021 all the new buildings will have to be nZEB. New 30/09/2016

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calculation methods for the EP have been introduced and the EP requirements will be updated every 5 years. By December 2014, through a Legislative Decree issued by the Ministry for the Economic Development, an Action Plan will be established to support the nZEB diffusion. Beside the traditional Urban Plan, Cities are adopting a new kind of tool: the City Energy Plan (PEC - Piano Energetico Comunale). The objective of this tool is to identify and measure at urban level the energy consumptions per sector (buildings, transports, etc.), to analyse the information and to define the necessary actions to improve the energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies at city level. The adoption of this kind of Plan is mandatory for all the cities with more than 50.000 inhabitants on the base of the national law 10/1991. The PEC intends to integrate the energy issues in the plans at territorial level. Following the direction given by the Covenant of Majors launched by the EC, the PEC produces an Action Plan for Sustainable Energy that identifies the actions (shared with the citizens) to be implemented to reach the performance objectives defined at urban scale. These actions could be: • • • • • • • •

Energy certification of all public buildings Creation of an information system on energy consumptions Purchase of green energy Elimination of fossil fuels in public buildings Mandatory installation of PV and solar panels on public buildings Use of LED for public illumination Improvement of thermal insulation in public buildings Development of district heating

The PEC is defined at local level, following the principles defined by the national laws. It means that action plans defined by Cities can be different. No mandatory requirement are defined by the laws and regulation at national level.

5.2.2 Ireland

Ireland's Energy Management Standard IS 393 (2005) formed the basis for the EN 16001 standard. However, since its introduction in 2011, Irish companies are now transitioning to the new international standard, ISO 50001. Ireland is at the forefront internationally in the development of energy management standards and as a result, has one of the highest uptakes of energy management standards worldwide, with 50% of large Irish based companies participating in their application. Strong commitment from the Irish Government including the establishment of Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland (SEAI) has been a major driving force in the development and implementation of energy management standards in Ireland. In 1995, SEAI established LIEN (Large Industry Energy Network), a voluntary network involving 160 companies representing 60% of Ireland’s industrial energy use. These companies achieve energy performance improvements of 2% annually. Long-term members have improved energy performance by 33% between 1995 and 2010. The SEAI/industry partnership has turned Ireland into an international leader in energy management. The country has accumulated highly skilled personnel with expertise, experience and know-how on the efficient implementation of Energy Management Standard.

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5.2.3 United Kingdom

BSI Group, also known as the British Standards Institution (or BSI), is the national standards body of the United Kingdom. BSI produces technical standards on a wide range of products and services, and also supplies certification and standards-related services to businesses. BSI Group was founded as the Engineering Standards Committee in London in 1901. It subsequently extended its standardization work and became the British Engineering Standards Association in 1918, adopting the name British Standards Institution in 1931 after receiving its Royal Charter in 1929. In 1998, a revision of the Charter enabled the organization to diversify and acquire other businesses, and the trading name was changed to BSI Group. The Group now operates internationally in 182 countries. The core business remains standards and standards related services, although the majority of the Group's revenue comes from management systems assessment and certification work.

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6 CERTIFICATIONS Qualitative assessment methods are based on the relative environmental performance of a building when compared with other buildings or design alternatives9. The building will be scored on several environmental aspects, such as energy efficiency and land use. The scores are then weighted and expressed in a single final score. These methods also use LCA to score their quantitative indicators, like the energy performance or use of materials. The advantages of a qualitative method are the little amount of time and expertise needed to perform an assessment and the possibility to take into account factors that are hard to quantify, such as land use or social aspects. On the other hand, there are also some disadvantages, like the impossibility of ranking all technological possibilities for scoring purposes (thus, scoring has to be based on similar technologies or best available data) and the difficulty of defining a reference building or a benchmark, since there are so many building categories and design variables10. At international level, the most relevant qualitative building’s sustainability assessment methods are: LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design - USA) and its versions on Canada, India and Arabian Emirates, ENERGY STAR (USA), Green Globes (USA), ATHENA (Canada), CASBEE (Comprehensive Assessment System for Building Environmental Efficiency - Japan), Green Builder Advisor (USA), SBAT (the South African Sustainable Building Assessment Tool), CEPAS (Hong Kong Comprehensive Environmental Performance Assessment Scheme), HKBEAM (Hong Kong), Ecotech (Australia), Green Star (Green Building Council of Australia), NABERS (National Australian Built Environment Rating System), GOBAS (China) and TERI-Griha (India). At European level: LEnSE (European Project), CEPHEUS (European Project). At National level, a lot of qualitative assessment tools have been developed, the main relevant ones are: DGNB (German Sustainable Certificate for Sustainable Buildings), IBO OKOPASS (Austria), HQE (High Environmental Quality - France), ESCALE (France), Protocollo Itaca (Italy, related to GBTool), KlimaHaus (CasaClima - Italy), VERDE (Spain, related to GBTool), Minergie (Switzerland), Rating e-top (Switzerland), EcoEffect (Sweden), ECOprofile (Norway), GRE Certificate (Germany), Passive House Certificate (Germany). Ecotech (Australia), SBAM (SKAT-Swiss Resource Centre Generally the assessment methods could be divided in two groups: •

Assessment methods of the first generation (green building): the first generation of building assessment methods, appeared in the earliest 90s, evaluated green performance and were initially conceived, and still largely function, as voluntary and environmental (not social or economic) tools, mainly focus on energy aspects. These assessment tools, like LEED or BREEAM, have focused on incremental environmental improvements designed to produce ‘green buildings’. They certify buildings for their sustainability based on just one of the three recognized aspects of sustainability (environment). Assessment of social sustainability for building construction is always left out of the tools mainly due to the absence of an established consensus that identifies the relevant social sustainability indicators and also the relative weighting between each of the indicators11, while the economic aspect is left out for the lack of comprehensive life cycle cost analysis (LCCA) in these methodologies.

Cole, 1998 Kohler, 1999; Udo de Haes, 2000; Cole et al., 2005 11 Amato, Frewer, Humphrey, 2003 9

10

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Assessment methods of the second generation (sustainable building): The second generation of such assessment methodologies like LENSE, SBTool or DGNB has gone further and include in their assessments economic, environmental and social aspects

The evaluation of the Criteria implemented by the most important and widespread Certifications (LEED, BREEAM, GREEN GLOBE, GREEN STAR, CASBEE) allows to stress the differences between various methods and to identify the gaps to be filled to define a common system for cities comparison and estimation.

6.1 Italy

Four of the most significant environmental labels in Italy: Protocollo ITACA, LEED Italia, BRaVe and Casaclima Nature. ITACA Protocollo ITACA is promoted by the Italian Regions and it has a public origin. The assessment system is managed by ITACA (Federal Association of the Italian Regions) with the scientific support of iiSBE Italia and ITC-CNR. Protocollo ITACA is based on the international assessment methodology SBMethod of iiSBE and it has been contextualized at local level by several regions: Piemonte, Liguria, Valle d’Aosta, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lazio, Marche, Toscana, Umbria, Puglia and Basilicata. At regional level the Protocollo ITACA is mostly used to support specific policies to promote sustainable building. In particular in the framework of the social housing programs, where economic incentives are given on the base of the environmental performance achieved. Beside the regional versions, in 2011 a national version of Protocollo ITACA has been delivered and a national certification process was implemented also. This national certification is intended to create a point of reference for the market stakeholders. The certification system is voluntary, apart from the region Friuli Venezia Giulia that has made it mandatory for some interventions and destinations of use of buildings. Protocollo ITACA is based on a multi-criteria analysis for the assessment of the environmental sustainability of buildings and for their classification by assigning a score of performance according to ecological, economical, functional, technological, processes and site criteria. Object of evaluation is a single building and its outdoor area of relevance. LEED Italia LEED Italia, launched in 2010, is managed and promoted by GBC Italia (Green Building Council) and it is the Italian adaptation of the U.S. LEED. The origin of the system is mainly from the private/industrial sector. LEED Italia is supported and recognized by the Province of Trento. The certification LEED Italia is voluntary. The system is articulated in different versions for new buildings, existing buildings, small houses and neighbourhoods. The Province of Trento adopted LEED in incentive based polices for green building. LEED Italia is the unique European adaptation of the US LEED. GBC Italia is a no profit association open to all the stakeholders of the building sector and it is part of the World Green Building Council. The rating concept of LEED Italia is similar to the U.S. LEED. Casaclima Nature Casaclima Nature is an „expansion” of the Casaclima energy standard. The certification is managed by the Agenzia Casaclima, a public organization located in Bolzano. The Casaclima certification has been the first in Italy introducing the energy rating for buildings and it is mandatory in the Province of Bolzano, while outside the province it is voluntary. The Casaclima agency focuses on influences of the environment and has developed an evaluation method. The energy requirements for living are still the central issue, but in addition the energy used for building materials will 30/09/2016

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be evaluated. There is an enormous potential to reduce energy already during construction. Using the Casaclima Nature every constructor can evaluate the sustainability of the building. BRaVe BRaVe Building Rating Value) is an Evaluation and Certification System of the BUILDING GLOBAL QUALITY and EFFICIENCY developed by the Politecnico di Milano University (BEST Department). BRaVe System examines the main building performances according to functional and/or technological criteria. Buildings can have different characteristics depending on the type of core business they host but, at the same time, they have to respect some rules in order to be market attractive. The uncertainty of clients (property companies, investing institutions, investment funds, etc.) looking for a rating system is further fed by the presence of two methods that have different objectives: - the first is that of “standards”, or systems that evaluate the presence of services, the types of installations, the infrastructure, etc, and that are inspired by the best practices adopted by property market players in the choice of buildings; - the second type is that of the “labels”, more widely acknowledged by the market. They are prevalently oriented at evaluating environmental aspects, can be applied to all buildings and therefore have no specific application solely for offices. BRaVe method can be used to evaluate the performance of existing, new, or occupied buildings, or those waiting to be occupied. It can also be used to simulate project implementation and verify the consequences of interventions on the overall performance of a building. During the testing phase diverse simulations can be done to represent different scenarios following specific project interventions. The system, in fact, is able to represent graphically the actual status (AS IS) and the project status (TO BE).

6.2 Ireland

Certifications of Buildings such as BREEAM, LEED or Living Building Challenge are developed or operated by Green Building Councils throughout the world. These are multi criteria systems that look at many different impacts of construction including transport access to the building, how building integrates into community, use of land, pollution, water, biodiversity, impact of materials, energy, waste, health and well-being etc. They are designed to encourage a change in all parts of the complex supply chain of construction towards better quality practice. They align with a systems approach to the built environment that considers the full life cycle of buildings, and considers buildings as a part of an overall system of built infrastructure rather than as individual buildings. IRISH GREEN BUILDING COUNCIL (IGBC) has carried out considerable research in the use of the various systems across Europe and in Ireland. It has compared the use of the systems through workshops to provide better guidance. IGBC do not believe that certification guarantees a sustainable building but they help improve processes across the entire supply chain. IGBC does not yet recommend a single system for use in Ireland though they recognise that it would be preferable to have a single standard for measuring sustainability in construction. IGBC is working with the main system providers to ensure that their systems are more closely aligned with Irish Policy priorities, and sensibly relate to Irish standards

6.3 United Kingdom

Among the first instruments for the assessment the sustainability of buildings is the BREEAM (Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method). The UK system was developed in 1990 by the BRE (Building Research Establishment) and represented a reference point for the elaboration of the methods later. Since 1990, the debut year of BREEAM with the first version on buildings for the tertiary sector, the BRE has adapted the scheme of the method to a range of building types: offices, new construction and existing offices, supermarkets, industrial units and new homes. The application of the method is voluntary and after a certificate is issued which certifies 30/09/2016

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the performance of the building. BREEAM sets the standard for best practice in sustainable building design, construction and operation and has become one of the most comprehensive and widely recognised measures of a building's environmental performance. It encourages designers, clients and others to think about low carbon and low impact design, minimising the energy demands created by a building before considering energy efficiency and low carbon technologies. A BREEAM assessment uses recognised measures of performance, which are set against established benchmarks, to evaluate a building’s specification, design, construction and use. The measures used represent a broad range of categories and criteria from energy to ecology. They include aspects related to energy and water use, the internal environment (health and well-being), pollution, transport, materials, waste, ecology and management processes.

6.4 Extra EU LEED The certification system certainly more widespread globally is the model LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design), defined and promoted by the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) in 1993, this in more than 110 countries. LEED certification is a voluntary standard adopted from the market and is an essential tool to achieve a transformation of the market. Each rating system groups requirements that address the unique needs of building and project types on their path towards LEED certification. Once a project team chooses a rating system, they’ll use the appropriate credits to guide design and operational decisions. There are five rating systems that address multiple project types: • • • • •

LEED BD+C LEED ID+C LEED O+M LEED ND LEED HOMES

Building Design and Construction Interior Design and Construction Building Operations and Maintenance Neighbourhood Development Homes

The realization of benefits associated with LEED starts with a transformation of the design process itself. Success in LEED and green building design is best accomplished through an integrative design process that prioritizes costeffectiveness over both the short and long terms and engages all project team members in discovering beneficial interrelationships and synergies between systems and components. By integrating technical and living systems, the team can achieve high levels of building performance, human performance, and environmental benefits. GREEN GLOBES The Green Globes system is a building environmental design and management tool developed by ECD Energy and Environment Canada that is used primarily in Canada and the USA. It delivers an assessment protocol, rating system and guidance for green building design, operation and management. It provides market recognition of a building’s environmental attributes through third-party verification. It is suitable for new buildings and existing buildings. Green Globes utilizes weighted criteria in its recognized assessment protocol, comprehensively assessing building environmental impacts on a 1,000-point scale in seven categories for new buildings and six categories for existing buildings.

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GREEN STAR Green Star is an internationally recognised sustainability rating system. Launched by the Green Building Council of Australia in 2003, Green Star is Australia's only national rating system for buildings and communities. It is adopted also in New Zealand and South Africa. Green Star – Design & As Built provides a rating across nine categories: management, energy, water, indoor environment quality, transport, materials, emissions, land use and ecology, innovation. Each category contains ‘credits’ which address specific issues. Green Star - Design & As Built rewards buildings with ratings from 4 Star (Best Practice) to 6 Star (World Leadership). CASBEE Comprehensive Assessment System for Built Environment Efficiency (CASBEE) is a method for evaluating and rating the environmental performance of buildings and the built environment. CASBEE was developed by a research committee established in 2001 through the collaboration of academia, industry and national and local governments, which established the Japan Sustainable Building Consortium (JSBC) under the auspice of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (MLIT). CASBEE has been designed to both enhance the quality of people's lives and to reduce the life-cycle resource use and environmental loads associated with the built environment, from a single home to a whole city. Consequently, various CASBEE schemes are now deployed all over Japan and supported by national and local governments. This website provides overall information about CABEE, associated with presentative green buildings with CASBEE evaluation. In December 2015 was released CASBEE for Cities (for worldwide use), a tool under development to assess the environmental performance of cities around the world.

6.5 Comparison between principal certifications Methodology evaluation

BREEAM International New Construction

30/09/2016

Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: used to assess the sustainability of a range of new buildings types (commercial and residential) at the design, construction and post construction stages of projects worldwide. Development Scales: Building level (however many sections within the scheme such as Management, Energy, Transport, Land use and Ecology, or Pollution consider the building in the broadest context and assess how it impacts on the wider environment). Criteria: 1. Management. 2. Health and wellbeing. 3. Energy. 4. Transport. 5. Water 6. Materials. 7. Waste 8. Land use and ecology 9. Pollution 10. Innovation. Scoring/Weighting: The available credits and associated weightings are determined by the building type (i.e. there a specific credits available for certain criteria which may be specific to residential or commercial). They are also determined by the buildings global location and the BINC takes account of different climatic zones and the cultural, economic and work practices associated with certain. BREEAM is designed to allow choice among various criteria but there are some issues that are Grant No. 608775

Main Gaps • Lack of a user-friendly methodology. All BREEAM schemes are complex and a rating can only be achieved with the use of a BREEAM accredited professional (AP). • Lack of a concept of cost • Originally developed for the UK and therefore not automatically suitable for other countries. • BREEAM schemes are assessment rather than design tools so they do not lend themselves to the testing of different solutions in a rapid iterative manner. It does not offer advice on how energysaving measures can be achieved. • Lack of some social indicators. • BREEAM doesn’t consider seasonality and temperature variations. • Does not allow integration within and across different energy networks. • Does not consider location of the project. • Does not consider interaction with local public utilities. 23


mandatory and without gaining credits in these areas the building would automatically fail.

Methodology evaluation

BREEAM Communities Bespoke International

Methodology evaluation LEED Design and Construction

30/09/2016

Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: assessment method that covers economic, social and environmental sustainability at a master planning scale and addresses key areas such as housing provision, transport networks, community facilities, and the economic impact of a development; designed to be used from the very early stages of project. Development Scales: BREEAM Communities is suited best to large scale mixed developments at the neighborhood scale. Criteria: The criteria are evaluated in three different step: Step 1 - Establishing the principle of development; Step 2 - Determining the layout of the development; and Step 3 - Designing the details. There are six categories considered 1. Governance (Consultation and engagement; Design review; Community management of facilities; etc.). 2. Social and economic wellbeing (Demographic needs and priorities; Flood Risk Assessment; Adapting to climate change; Green infrastructure; Local parking; etc.). 3. Resources and energy (Energy strategy; Water strategy; Sustainable buildings; Low impact materials; etc.). 4. Land use and ecology (Ecology strategy; Land use; Water pollution etc.) 5. Transport and movement (Safe and appealing streets; Cycling network; Access to public transport; Public transport; facilities; etc.) 6. Innovation. Scoring/Weighting: Firstly the Categories were weighted by BRE Global according to the impact that each Category has on the three components of sustainability (Social, Environmental, and Economic) which are each given equal value in BC. These Category weightings were then used to determine the weighting of each individual Issue in terms of how it effect on the aim of each Category. Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: Its purpose is the promotion and development of a comprehensive approach to sustainability, giving recognition to a virtuous performance in key areas of human and environmental health. LEED Design and Construction covers different project types as: new construction and major renovation; core and shell Grant No. 608775

• Does not participation.

consider

communities

Main Gaps • Lack of a user-friendly methodology. • Lack of a concept of cost • Originally developed for the UK and therefore not automatically suitable for other countries. • BREEAM schemes are assessment rather than design tools so they do not lend themselves to the testing of different solutions in a rapid iterative manner.

Main Gaps • Lack of a cost effective and user-friendly methodology. • Economics aspects are not considered. • Lack of use of international /European /National /Local mandatory standards (It normally uses American ASHRAE standards and US data). As it does not include 24


construction; interior construction; existing buildings undergoing improvement work. Development Scales: Building level. Criteria: 1. Integrated design; 2. sustainable sites; 3. water efficiency; 4. energy and atmosphere; 5. material and resources; 6. environmental quality; 7. innovation and design process. Scoring/Weighting: In order to assess the performance, Many criteria are mathematical, some refer to the application of best management practices (BMPs) others from meeting ASHRAE requirements, or reference standards and rules. Criteria are weighted in order to achieve different goals, i.e. maximize potable water efficiency within buildings; increase levels of energy performance above the baseline; encourage the development and use of grid-source, renewable energy technologies etc. Methodology evaluation

LEED for Neighborhood Development

Methodology evaluation Green Star 30/09/2016

Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: for projects that have high levels of internal connection and are well connected with the community to urban and territorial scale. Encourage development within existing communities by promoting the efficiency of travel through multimodal transport. Improve public health by encouraging physical activity daily. Development Scales: Neighborhood level. An area that possesses a minimum of two buildings which constitutes with surroundings a set of relationships that will contribute to create a functional and social mix, and the characteristics of permanent settlement; reasonable minimum size of the project is at least two buildings; the maximum size of the project is such that they can govern in a single process (about 1.3 km2), otherwise it should be divided into several areas. Criteria: 1. Location and site links; 2. Organization and programming of the neighborhood; 3. Infrastructure and sustainable buildings; 4. innovation in design; 5. regional/local priorities; Scoring/Weighting: Criteria are weighted in order to achieve different goals, i.e.: encourage urban development in areas served by multiple modes of transportation; encourage development within cities and suburbs in place to reduce the negative effects on the environment and public health; rehabilitate or restore native plants, natural habitat, wetlands and surface water bodies; etc. Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: evaluates the environmental design and construction of buildings and communities. Grant No. 608775

• • •

mandatory standards, failures can be committed when meeting the minimum requirements in key issues. Lack of most social indicators. Lack of some elements in the building site indicators, e.g. climate and seasonality. The methodology doesn’t promote the use of different solutions. The methodology is not prescriptive, are judged the results achieved Does not allow integration within and across different energy networks.

Main Gaps • Lack of user-friendly methodology. • Economics aspects are not considered. • Lack of use of international /European /National /Local mandatory • standards (It normally uses American ASHRAE standards and US data). As it does not include mandatory standards, failures can be committed when meeting the minimum requirements in key issues. • Lack of some social indicators. • The methodology doesn’t promote the use of different solutions. The methodology is not prescriptive, are judged the results achieved. • The methodology is unclear in the system of prerequisites and credits. • Does not allow integration within and across different energy networks.

Main Gaps • •

Lack of some social indicators Lack of economic indicators

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Green Star was developed for the property industry in order to: establish a common language set a standard of measurement for built environment sustainability; promote integrated, holistic design; recognize environmental leadership; identify and improve life-cycle impacts; and raise awareness of the benefits of sustainable design, construction and urban planning. Development Scales: Building level; Neighborhood; City-scale. Criteria: 1. Management. 2. Indoor environment quality. 3. Energy. 4. Transport. 5. Materials. 6. Water 7. Land Use and Ecology. 8. Emission. 9. Innovation. Scoring/Weighting: The criteria used to assess performance can be depending on the type of category: meter readings, national or international standards (eg ISO) or good building practices. The criteria are different for the different states of development (design, construction and use of the property) and the criteria of the different categories can be balanced Methodology evaluation

CASBEE

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Description/Development Scales/Criteria Scoring and Weighting. Description: method of assessing and rating the environmental performance of a built environment. CASBEE for Cities is a system for comprehensively evaluating the environmental performance of cities, using a triple bottom line approach of “environmental”, “society” and “economy”. It can objectively assess the effectiveness of the city’s policies and environmental measures. Development Scales: Neighborhood and city-scale levels. Criteria: 1. Environmental aspects (Nature conservation; Local environmental quality- air and water; Resources recycling; CO2 absorption; etc.). 2. Social aspects (Living environment; Social services; Social vitality; etc.). 3. Economic aspect (Industrial vitality; Financial viability; Emission trading etc.). Scoring/Weighting: Both the overall categories (major assessment items i.e., environment, society and economy) are weighted equally. Individual criteria (minor items) are weighted equally.

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• •

Green Star Does not consider seasonality and temperature variations Does not allow integration within and across different energy networks.

Main Gaps • Lack of a user-friendly methodology. The tool requires a multi-disciplinary team (i.e. architect, planners, engineers and construction professionals) • CASBEE does not consider different uses of building and does not allow assessment of different building material. • Lack of weighting system of criteria and categories. • The methodology doesn’t promote the use of different solutions.

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Methodology evaluation BREEAM (BINC) BREEAM (BC) LEED (D&C) LEED (Neigh.) CASBEE GREEN STAR

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Environmental Aspect YES YES YES YES YES YES

Social Aspect

Economic Aspect

Development scale

Partially YES Partially YES YES Partially

NO YES NO NO YES NO

Building Neighborhood Building Neighborhood Neighborhood and city-scale Building; Neighborhood; City-scale.

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7 SUIs and principal Certifications The cross-analysis of the Criteria assumed by BREEAM (most used in Europe), LEED (most used in exra-EU Countries) and ITACA (most used in Italy) with the 30 SUIs displays which Indicators are not taken into account by the Certifications and suggests a process to overcome the limits and to build a common instrument to evaluate, monitor and relate neighbourhoods and urban centres. Here is a table that shows which of the 30 SUIs are taken into account by the main international certifications. Some parameters, such as for example Consumption of renewables, are considered only at building level and not as a percentage of a district or city total consumption. In these cases, it’s specified in the table with BL (building level). The number of indicators that is not covered in the check list of the certifications is high. Indicators excluded are a fundamental base of study and provide a key database to widen the scope of certifications from the building level to the district and city. N.

Indicator

Scale

Definition

1

Consumption of renewables

City Level

2

GHG emissions per sector (residential, industry, use type)

City Level

3

Renewable plants (managed by public/private authority) kWh produced

City Level

4

Energy consumption of public buildings I

City Level

5

Total waste generated per year per capita Brownfield versus greenfield development

City Level

Renewable energy consumption as a % of total energy consumption in the urban area. The per capita emissions (Tons of Emissions eq. per individual). Renewable electricity produced by LA/PA (kWh). (managed by public/private authority) The energy consumption of municipal buildings per sq. m measure. Municipal waste per capita

6

7 8

Roof Space available for PV Roof Space Available for Solar Thermal

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City/Sub City Level

Building Level Building Level

BREEAM (BINC) N

BREEAM (BC) Y

LEED (D&C) Y

LEED (Neigh.) N

ITACA

Y BL

Y

Y BL

Y

Y BL

N

N

Y BL

Y

Y

N

Y

N

N

Y BL

Y BL

N

Y BL

Y

Y BL

Y

Y

Y

Y

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

Proportion on new development on brownfield sites. Ratio of new developments on brownfield to new developments on Greenfields. Area of roof space suitable for PV. Area of roof space suitable for Solar Thermal

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Y BL

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9

Final energy consumption, by sector

City Level

10

Energy dependency

City Level

11

Energy consumption of public buildings II

City Level

12

Building stock energy efficiency

City Level

13

Residential Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

14

Commercial Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

15

Industrial Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

16

Leisure Stock Energy Efficiency

City Level

17

Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Health) I

City Level

18

Public Stock Energy Efficiency (Education) II

City Level

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The total electricity consumption per capita (kWh/individual) Trends in electricity consumption. The percentage of total electricity consumption per capita generated elsewhere and imported. % of public buildings that have been audited in terms of their energy usage New buildings and renovations assessed in terms of environmental sustainability. % of sustainably classified buildings (both new and renovated). Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Housing Stock based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Commercial Stock based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Energy Efficiency of Industrial Stock based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Leisure Stock Energy Efficiency based on unit type and year of construction. Assessment of Public (or private) healtcare facility energy efficiency Assessment of public (or private) educational facility energy efficiency

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N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

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19

Special Heritage Status

City/Sub City Level

Building with heritage designation attached.

N

N

N

N

N

20

Electricity Exported to Grid

Building Level

N

N

N

N

N

21

Residential population density

City Level

N

N

N

N

N

22

Percentage of buildings assessed under a Building Energy Rating Scheme. Heat Demand Density

City Level

Amount of surplus energy exported to the national grid. Total resident population per km 2 of built up area. This indicator defines the percentage of buildings classified among A+ and D.

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

N

24

Occupancy

City/Sub City Level

N

Y

N

N

N

25

Smart Metering

City/Sub City Level

N

N

Y

N

Y BL

26

Total employment rate

City Level

N

N

N

N

N

27

Retrofitted Elements (Generation)

Building Level

Y

N

Y

N

N

28

Retrofitted Elements (Insulation)

Building Level

Y

N

Y

N

N

29

Retrofitted Elements (Glazing)

Building Level

Y

N

Y

N

N

30

Retrofitted Elements (Heating)

Building Level

Heat density demand informs viability of District Heating. Percentage of buildings occupied/vacant. Number of Buildings with Smart Meters installed. % of working aged population employed in the locality. Presence of specific interventions designed to generate energy (micro) at building level. Presence of specific interventions designed to reduce heating loss. Presence of specific interventions designed to reduce heating loss. Presence of specific interventions designed to efficiently generate heat.

Y

N

Y

N

N

23

30/09/2016

Sub City Level

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8 STANDARDISATION STRATEGY A European Standard is: • • • • •

A document for a common and repeated use; Produced by all interested parties through a transparent, open and consensus based process; A tool to support legislation; Voluntary in use; Automatically transposed into national standard.

In the framework of Sustainable Place (Savona IT, 16th – 18th September 2015), INDICATE participation to the standardization workshop offered an easy and direct way to learn about standardization processes and to support the identification of some project findings that might be suitable for future standardization items. This workshop was expected to increase the understanding of research community on European standards making processes and possibly to enrich the INDICATE outcomes. The workshop aimed to discuss in open and interactive way the issue related to the: • • •

Standardization aspects Standardization in Energy Efficiency Standardization in SMART Grids

Standardization is a very long process: from proposition to publication, it can take as long as 36 months, implying the acceptance and consensus from a differentiated range of stakeholders. The roadmap presented by Mrs. M. Ibido, Programme Manager at CEN-CENELEC Management Centre, during the workshop “Standardization aspects: how to link research and standardization”, forms the basis for the definition of the strategy to create the INDICATE New Urban Standard:

Figure 1: The roadmap presented by Mrs. Ibido during the Sustainable Place event. 30/09/2016

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INDICATE ROADMAP TO DEFINE A NEW STANDARD 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Proposal - evaluation and decision Drafting and consensus building Public enquiry Consideration of comments Definition of the New Standard

The first step, Proposal evaluation and decision, matches with the definition of the 30 SUIs. The second step, Drafting and consensus building, was achieved by the ICCI methodology itself which used expert and stakeholders opinion to develop the indicators and their associated weightings (Deliverable 3.3). The approach was to consult with consortium experts and stakeholders and use a Budget Allocation Process to assign weightings to each of the indicators which gives a measure of the relative importance of the indicator within its domain and of each domain within the index. The third step, Public enquiry, was achieved thanks to the user test used to evaluate the software tools produced in the INDICATE project. The users have been carefully chosen to be as representative of the intended end users as possible. Satisfaction metrics evaluating how users felt about the system has been measured using a number of questionnaires, which produced both qualitative and quantitative data. The INDICATE project is now ready to pass at the fourth step of the roadmap, Consideration of comments, through which it will be possible to define the new Standard. At the end of the New Standard definition process, for the Definition of the New Standard, the results could be presented to the European Standards Organisations for the approval and the publication.

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9 CONCLUSION Numerous sustainability standards have been developed in recent years to address issues of environmental quality. Despite similarities in major goals and certification procedures, there are some significant differences in terms of their historical development, target groups of adopters, geographical diffusion, and emphasis on environmental, social or economic issues. The analysis and comparison of the most widespread and advanced certification standards, done with particular attention to BREEAM and LEED, has highlighted some limits and differences. Furthermore, if the certifications at building level are by now so accurate and precise that it’s possible to consider their methods and criteria almost final, the urban level still misses the suitable tools to carry out an effective analysis and to guarantee a clear direction to the future developments. The formulation of a common European tool for the comparison of communities and neighborhoods that guarantees an effective energy use and sustainable cities performance must start from the adoption of a common standard, from the use of a Measuring system universally accepted. The choice of the 30 SUIs as common indicators and the adoption of the ICCI to compare cities could contribute to a standardization of cities energy use and sustainability and could be a great help to the evolution of the existing standard towards an urban dimension. Finally the INDICATE roadmap to define a new standard has been drafted following the at CEN-CENELEC Standard development processes.

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Standardisation Strategy  

This document constitutes Deliverable 8.4 “Standardisation Strategy”. It has been developed within WP8, in the framework of Task 8.2 “Standa...

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