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INDIA WATER WEEK – 2013 Session on

WATER AUDITING FOR IRRIGATION PROJECTS (10th April 2013)

VIRTUAL WATER – A TOOL FOR ADDRESSING COMPETING WATER DEMANDS

VIVEK KUMAR BHATT Associate Professor MP Water And Land Management Institute, Bhopal, MP 10/04/2013

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DR. J.S. CHOUHAN Professor and Head, Samrat Ashok Technological Institute Vidisha, MP 1


Background •

Increase in Population

Increase in living standards

Increase in trade and commerce

More industrialisation

Increase in GDP

Increase in water requirement

Water a finite resource

Poses Competing demands

Problem likely to aggravate in future

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Projected Water Demand (BCM) i) Domestic ii) Irrigation iii) Industry iv) Energy v) Others Total

2000

42 541 8 2 41 634

2025

73 910 23 15 72 1093

2050

102 1072 63 130 80 1447

Sector-Wise Projected Water Demand For India

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Comparison Of Past Trends And Projections Of Population And GDP Growth of India

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Projected Increased Water Demand Shares

Total Demand in 2000 : 634 BCM Projected Total Increase : 459 BCM

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Need for Better Water Management • Water is a finite resource • Competing Demands of Water • Agriculture is the largest consumer, accounting for almost 85 per cent of the total water consumption • Irrigation has a low water use efficiency of about 30%-35% • Urgent need for efficient use of irrigation water for increased food production to keep pace with the increasing population

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Virtual Water • Virtual water (also known as embedded water, embodied water, or hidden water) is the amount of water that is embedded in food or other products needed for its production. • Virtual water is the water used in production, rather than the water contained in the product. • Water contained in the product is a fraction of the water used in production. • It refers to the sum of the water use in the various steps of the production chain.

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Agriculture Production Chain In Irrigation Projects With Reference To Water Use

The virtual water content in first four stages may be saved by efforts for efficient use of water, both hardware and software, including technological, managerial and policy interventions related to various of agriculture production. 10/04/2013

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Virtual Water in Crop Production • More than about 99 percent of virtual water in most of the crops at harvesting stage. • May be attributed to losses in main/branch canals/ distributaries, minors & subminors, losses in field channels and water courses and losses in field application, as well as water lost by crop in its consumptive use which includes water used by in evapotranspiration and metabolic activities. 10/04/2013

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Virtual Water Concept in IWM

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• Traditionally, performance of irrigation system is judged by different efficiencies concept • VW concept - an effective tool for improving the efficiencies of water use viz. virtual water content of crop resulting from conveyance phase in tradition conveyance system is about 25 to 40 percent depending on type and extent of lining, while it is 15 to 35 percent in field application stage. • More VW content will result in lower efficiencies and vice versa • Water savings shall result in reduction of VW content • Paradigm shift to virtual water concept will enable in better identification and prioritization of interventions • The water auditing concept may facilitate in assessment of virtual water. • Estimation of virtual water content may be used for more accurate assessment and pinpointing the specific items of interventions VKB-JSC for improvement during water auditing.

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Utility of VW Concept in WR Projects and WM • • • •

Provide a more handy tool for understanding water management Will help in better prioritization of maintenance works Will help in isolating effectiveness of management interventions in different stages of water consumption in irrigation projects By vigilant examination and suitable interventions for improvement in agriculture production processes, a large amount of water embedded in agriculture produce may be unlocked which may be used for fulfilling competing demands from other sectors of economy. Thus virtual water can be used as an important tool in addressing competing water demands.

MORE VIRTUAL WATER 10/04/2013

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LESS VIRTUAL WATER

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Thanks

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VIRTUAL WATER – A TOOL FOR ADDRESSING COMPETING WATER DEMANDS